Sample records for horses ix detection

  1. Efficient fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in metastatic lymph nodes of murine colorectal cancer stained with indigo carmine. (United States)

    Matsuo, Hisataka; Harada, Yoshinori; Minamikawa, Takeo; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Takamatsu, Tetsuro; Tanaka, Hideo


    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a biochemical converted from 5-aminolevulinc acid (5-ALA) in living cells, is useful for intraoperative fluorescent detection of cancer metastasis in lymph nodes (LNs). However, unknown is whether the fluorescence of PpIX can be detected in the LNs when they coexist with indigo carmine, a blue dye commonly used for identification of sentinel LNs during surgery. To address this issue, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of PpIX fluorescence in the presence of indigo carmine in a mouse LN metastasis model of rectal cancer after administration of 5-ALA. Spectral analysis of pure chemicals revealed that the absorption spectrum of indigo carmine widely overlapped with the fluorescence spectrum of PpIX specifically at the peak of 632nm, a common emission wavelength for detecting PpIX, but not at the other peak of 700nm. Due to such spectral overlap, the PpIX fluorescence intensity was significantly attenuated by mixture with indigo carmine at 632nm, but not at 700nm. Accordingly, fluorescent measurements of the mouse metastatic LN revealed more intense presentation of PpIX at 700nm than at 632nm, indicating that the diagnostic usefulness is greater at 700nm than at 632nm for the indigo carmine-dyed LNs after administration of 5-ALA. From these observations, we propose that the fluorescence measurement is more efficient at 700nm than at 632nm for detection of PpIX in metastatic LNs stained with indigo carmine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of equine herpesvirus in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and comparison of three sampling techniques. (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Steven R; Pusterla, Nicola; Kass, Philip H; Good, Kathryn L; Brault, Stephanie A; Maggs, David J


    To determine the role of equine herpesvirus (EHV) in idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis in horses and to determine whether sample collection method affects detection of EHV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Twelve horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six horses without signs of ophthalmic disease. Conjunctival swabs, corneal scrapings, and conjunctival biopsies were collected from 18 horses: 12 clinical cases with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis and six euthanized controls. In horses with both eyes involved, the samples were taken from the eye judged to be more severely affected. Samples were tested with qPCR for EHV-1, EHV-2, EHV-4, and EHV-5 DNA. Quantity of EHV DNA and viral replicative activity were compared between the two populations and among the different sampling techniques; relative sensitivities of the sampling techniques were determined. Prevalence of EHV DNA as assessed by qPCR did not differ significantly between control horses and those with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Sampling by conjunctival swab was more likely to yield viral DNA as assessed by qPCR than was conjunctival biopsy. EHV-1 and EHV-4 DNA were not detected in either normal or IKC-affected horses; EHV-2 DNA was detected in two of 12 affected horses but not in normal horses. EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in ophthalmically normal horses and horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis. Because EHV-5 DNA was commonly found in control horses and in horses with idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis, qPCR was not useful for the etiological diagnosis of equine keratoconjunctivitis. Conjunctival swabs were significantly better at obtaining viral DNA samples than conjunctival biopsy in horses in which EHV-5 DNA was found. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Detection probability in aerial surveys of feral horses (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.


    Observation bias pervades data collected during aerial surveys of large animals, and although some sources can be mitigated with informed planning, others must be addressed using valid sampling techniques that carefully model detection probability. Nonetheless, aerial surveys are frequently employed to count large mammals without applying such methods to account for heterogeneity in visibility of animal groups on the landscape. This often leaves managers and interest groups at odds over decisions that are not adequately informed. I analyzed detection of feral horse (Equus caballus) groups by dual independent observers from 24 fixed-wing and 16 helicopter flights using mixed-effect logistic regression models to investigate potential sources of observation bias. I accounted for observer skill, population location, and aircraft type in the model structure and analyzed the effects of group size, sun effect (position related to observer), vegetation type, topography, cloud cover, percent snow cover, and observer fatigue on detection of horse groups. The most important model-averaged effects for both fixed-wing and helicopter surveys included group size (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.891, 95% CI = 0.850–0.935; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.640, 95% CI = 0.587–0.698) and sun effect (fixed-wing: odds ratio = 0.632, 95% CI = 0.350–1.141; helicopter: odds ratio = 0.194, 95% CI = 0.080–0.470). Observer fatigue was also an important effect in the best model for helicopter surveys, with detection probability declining after 3 hr of survey time (odds ratio = 0.278, 95% CI = 0.144–0.537). Biases arising from sun effect and observer fatigue can be mitigated by pre-flight survey design. Other sources of bias, such as those arising from group size, topography, and vegetation can only be addressed by employing valid sampling techniques such as double sampling, mark–resight (batch-marked animals), mark–recapture (uniquely marked and

  4. Serological Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi among Horses in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi


    Lyme disease is a tick-borne zoonotic infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The present study assessed the infection status of B. burgdorferi among horses reared in Korea using ELISA and PCR. Between 2009 and 2013, blood samples were collected from 727 horses throughout Korea. Data for each animal including age, gender, breed, and region of sample collection were used for epidemiological analysis. Overall, 38 (5.2%; true prevalence: 5.5%) of 727 horses were seropositive by ELISA. There were statistically significant differences according to breed and region (Pglobal warming is likely to increase the abundance of ticks in Korea, continuous monitoring of tick-borne diseases in Korean horses is needed.

  5. Serological detection of West Nile virus in horses and chicken from Pantanal, Brazil (United States)

    Melandri, Vanessa; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Komar, Nicholas; Nogueira, Maurício L; Mondini, Adriano; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Alencar, Jeronimo; Bosch, Irene


    In an effort to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in Brazil, we sampled serum from horses and chickens from the Pantanal region of the state of Mato Grosso and tested for flavivirus-reactive antibodies by blocking ELISA. The positive samples were further confirmed for serological evidence of WNV infection in three (8%) of the 38 horses and one (3.2%) of the 31 chickens using an 80% plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT80). These results provide evidence of the circulation of WNV in chickens and horses in Pantanal. PMID:23295763

  6. The use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to detect proteins in saliva from horses with and without systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Top Adler, Ditte Marie; Bundgaard, Louise


    The objective of the study was to assess global expression of proteins in equine saliva using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Saliva was obtained from seven horses with and six horses without evidence of systemic inflammatory disease. Tryptic peptides from saliva were...... analysed by LC-MS/MS. Of 195 unique proteins identified, 57 were detected only in saliva samples from horses with systemic inflammation (in two to six of the seven horses). Among the differentially expressed proteins were several acute phase proteins (APPs) such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, haptoglobin......, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein. The study is the first to describe detection of inflammatory proteins in horse saliva. The proteins detected were similar to those described in saliva from cattle, small ruminants and pigs. Detection of APPs in horses with systemic inflammation suggests that saliva may be used...

  7. [Development and application of real-time PCR for identification and detection of horse meat in animal-origin products]. (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jiahui; Shen, Qing; Han, Chunhui; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fengqin; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Tao


    To develop a real-time PCR method for identification and detection of domestic horse meat (Equus caballus) in animal-origin products. The primer and TaqMan-probe was designed and synthesized according to the EU reference laboratory and 87 bp fragments was amplified for horse ingredients. The specificity and sensitivity was tested by artificially spiked horse meat into other domestic meat, such as cattle, sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit. 122 samples of cattle and sheep products were random collected in Beijing market and the detection of horse meat was carried out. The real-time PCR in this study has high specificity and sensitivity for horse meat. No cross-reaction was observed between the horse and sheep, pork, chicken, duck and rabbit meat. There was little cross reaction between horse and cattle when the CT value reach 33. 81. The method can detect 0.1% of horse meat mixed with other domestic animal-origin products. No horse meat ingredients were detected in 122 samples in this survey. There was no horse meat mixed into cattle and sheep products in Beijing marked.

  8. Detection of Trichinella infection in slaughter horses by artificial digestion, ELISA and PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveros N.


    Full Text Available In this study we compared the sensitivity of molecular, serologic and parasitologic methods for diagnosis of equine trichinellosis in two abattoirs, one rural and one federal inspection type. Diaphragm muscle samples were obtained from 170 slaughter horses and examined by artificial digestion and PCR. Serum samples from these horses were also analyzed by ELISA. No Trichinella muscle larvae were detected by artificial digestion. However, specific antibodies against Trichinella were detected in 17 % and 7 % of the serum samples examined from the rural and the federal abattoirs respectively. By PCR, 15 % and 2 % of the samples from these two abattoirs were Trichinella positive.

  9. Qualitative evaluation of selective tests for detection of Neospora hughesi antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of experimentally infected horses. (United States)

    Packham, Andrea E; Conrad, Patricia A; Wilson, W David; Jeanes, Lisa V; Sverlow, Karen W; Gardner, Ian A; Daft, Barbara M; Marsh, Antoinette E; Blagburn, Byron L; Ferraro, Gregory L; Barr, Bradd C


    Neospora hughesi is a newly recognized protozoan pathogen in horses that causes a myeloencephalitis similar to Sarcocystis neurona. There are no validated serologic tests using the gold standard sera that are currently available to detect specific N. hughesi antibodies and, thus, no tests available to detect antemortem exposure or estimate seroprevalence in the horse. The objectives of the present study were to establish a bank of gold standard equine sera through experimental infections with N. hughesi and to assess several serologic tests for the detection of related protozoan antibodies. Seven horses were inoculated with N. hughesi tachyzoites, and 7 horses received uninfected cell culture material. The horses were monitored, and blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected repeatedly over a 4-mo period. With the sera, 4 different serologic techniques were evaluated. including a whole-parasite lysate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), a recombinant protein ELISA, a modified direct agglutination test, and an indirect fluorescent antibody test. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results showed that the N. hughesi indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) consistently discriminated between experimentally infected and noninfected horses, using a cutoff of 1:640. Sera from 3 naturally infected horses had titers >1:640. Cerebrospinal fluid in all but I infected horse had very low N. hughesi IFAT titers (<1:160), starting at postinoculation day 30.

  10. Validation of ELISA for the detection of African horse sickness virus antigens and antibodies. (United States)

    Rubio, C; Cubillo, M A; Hooghuis, H; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Diaz-Laviada, M; Plateau, E; Zientara, S; Crucière, C; Hamblin, C


    The mortality rate in susceptible populations of horses during an epizootic of African horse sickness (AHS) may be in excess of 90%. Rapid and reliable assays are therefore essential for the confirmation of clinical diagnoses and to enable control strategies to be implemented without undue delay. One of the major objectives of a recent European Union funded project was the validation of newly developed diagnostic assays which are rapid, sensitive, highly reproducible and inexpensive, for the detection of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) antigens and antibodies. The Laboratorio de Sanidad y Produccion Animal (LSPA) in Algete, Spain was charged with the responsibility of co-ordinating and supplying samples of viruses and antisera to the participating laboratories in Spain, France and the United Kingdom. The panels comprised 76 antigen samples for assay by indirect sandwich ELISAs and 53 serum samples for antibody detection by either indirect or competitive ELISAs. Results generated by ELISA for each laboratory were analysed in LSPA in terms of their relative sensitivities and specificities. There was a good agreement between the ELISAs used for either antigen or antibody detection. The participating groups agreed that any field sample giving a doubtful result would always be retested by ELISA and an alternative assay.

  11. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))


    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Data-Driven Anomaly Detection Performance for the Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Schwabacher, Mark A.; Matthews, Bryan L.


    In this paper, we will assess the performance of a data-driven anomaly detection algorithm, the Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), which can be used to detect simulated Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system failures. However, the ability of IMS to detect these failures in a true operational setting may be related to the realistic nature of how they are simulated. As such, we will investigate both a low fidelity and high fidelity approach to simulating such failures, with the latter based upon the underlying physics. Furthermore, the ability of IMS to detect anomalies that were previously unknown and not previously simulated will be studied in earnest, as well as apparent deficiencies or misapplications that result from using the data-driven paradigm. Our conclusions indicate that robust detection performance of simulated failures using IMS is not appreciably affected by the use of a high fidelity simulation. However, we have found that the inclusion of a data-driven algorithm such as IMS into a suite of deployable health management technologies does add significant value.

  13. An attempt to detect lameness in galloping horses by use of body-mounted inertial sensors. (United States)

    Lopes, Marco A F; Dearo, Antonio C O; Lee, Allen; Reed, Shannon K; Kramer, Joanne; Pai, P Frank; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromitchi; Morgan, Terry L; Wilson, David A; Keegan, Kevin G


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate head, pelvic, and limb movement to detect lameness in galloping horses. ANIMALS 12 Thoroughbreds. PROCEDURES Movement data were collected with inertial sensors mounted on the head, pelvis, and limbs of horses trotting and galloping in a straight line before and after induction of forelimb and hind limb lameness by use of sole pressure. Successful induction of lameness was determined by measurement of asymmetric vertical head and pelvic movement during trotting. Differences in gallop strides before and after induction of lameness were evaluated with paired-sample statistical analysis and neural network training and testing. Variables included maximum, minimum, range, and time indices of vertical head and pelvic acceleration, head rotation in the sagittal plane, pelvic rotation in the frontal plane, limb contact intervals, stride durations, and limb lead preference. Difference between median standardized gallop strides for each limb lead before and after induction of lameness was calculated as the sum of squared differences at each time index and assessed with a 2-way ANOVA. RESULTS Head and pelvic acceleration and rotation, limb timing, stride duration measurements, and limb lead preference during galloping were not significantly different before and after induction of lameness in the forelimb or hind limb. Differences between limb leads before induction of lameness were similar to or greater than differences within limb leads before and after lameness induction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Galloping horses maintained asymmetry of head, pelvic, and limb motion between limb leads that was unrelated to lameness.

  14. Detection and Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-Like Bacteria in Horses in South Korea. (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Lee, Seung-Hun; VanBik, Dorene; Ouh, In-Ohk; Yun, Sun-Hee; Choi, Eunsang; Park, Yong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Jong Wan; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi


    Coxiella burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria (CLB) are genetically and ecologically distinct despite some genetic similarities. Furthermore, CLB are exceptionally diverse and widespread in ticks, but rarely detected in domestic animals. Since Coxiella bacteria can be transmitted from infected horses by inhalation or by coming in contact with ticks during activities such as horseback riding, it is necessary to study their prevalence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale nationwide investigation of the prevalence of C. burnetii and CLB among horses reared in South Korea. Of 816 blood samples collected between 2007 and 2013, 11 (1.3%) were identified as C. burnetii by ELISA, and six (0.7%) as CLB by 16S rRNA sequencing. While a sequence from Jeju Island was similar (97.9-100%) to those within clade B, five sequences obtained from the northern region were categorized into a new clade, indicating the sequence diversity of the genus Coxiella. Studies until date had detected CLB only in ticks; here, we describe their detection in mammals. Given their zoonotic potential, strategic monitoring and appropriate control programs for Coxiella species need to be established.

  15. Egg-Citing! Isolation of Protoporphyrin IX from Brown Eggshells and Its Detection by Optical Spectroscopy and Chemiluminescence (United States)

    Dean, Michelle L.; Miller, Tyson A.; Bruckner, Christian


    A simple and cost-effective laboratory experiment is described that extracts protoporphyrin IX from brown eggshells. The porphyrin is characterized by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. A chemiluminescence reaction (peroxyoxalate ester fragmentation) is performed that emits light in the UV region. When the porphyrin extract is added as a fluor…

  16. Analysis of copy number variants by three detection algorithms and their association with body size in horses. (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Philipp, Ute; Lopes, Maria Susana; da Camara Machado, Artur; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Distl, Ottmar


    Copy number variants (CNVs) have been shown to play an important role in genetic diversity of mammals and in the development of many complex phenotypic traits. The aim of this study was to perform a standard comparative evaluation of CNVs in horses using three different CNV detection programs and to identify genomic regions associated with body size in horses. Analysis was performed using the Illumina Equine SNP50 genotyping beadchip for 854 horses. CNVs were detected by three different algorithms, CNVPartition, PennCNV and QuantiSNP. Comparative analysis revealed 50 CNVs that affected 153 different genes mainly involved in sensory perception, signal transduction and cellular components. Genome-wide association analysis for body size showed highly significant deleted regions on ECA1, ECA8 and ECA9. Homologous regions to the detected CNVs on ECA1 and ECA9 have also been shown to be correlated with human height. Comparative analysis of CNV detection algorithms was useful to increase the specificity of CNV detection but had certain limitations dependent on the detection tool. GWAS revealed genome-wide associated CNVs for body size in horses.

  17. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braganca, F.M.; Bosch, S.; Voskamp, J.P.; Marin Perianu, Mihai; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Vernooij, J.C.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.


    Background: Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors.

  18. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial-measurement-unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Braganca, Filipe; Bosch, S; Voskamp, J P; Marin-Perianu, M; Van der Zwaag, B J; Vernooij, J C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; van Weeren, P R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Back, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023707

    BACKGROUND: Inertial-measurement-unit (IMU)-sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. OBJECTIVES: To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU-sensors.


    Gold, Sarah J; Werpy, Natasha M; Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Santiago D


    Sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx are an important cause of lameness in performance horses. The purpose of this retrospective case series study was to describe standing low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of these injuries in a group of Warmblood horses. Horses with an MRI diagnosis of sagittal groove injuries involving the proximal phalanx and that had follow-up MRI and clinical outcome information were included. Findings from clinical examinations, diagnostic tests, and other imaging modalities were recorded. All MRI studies were retrieved for re-evaluation by an experienced, board-certified veterinary radiologist. A total of 19 horses met inclusion criteria. All horses had MRI lesions consistent with unilateral or bilateral sagittal groove injuries of the proximal phalanx and abnormal mineralization of the sagittal ridge of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone. Fifteen horses (79%) had concurrent osteoarthritis of the affected metacarpophalangeal/metatarsophalangeal joint. Eighteen horses received conservative therapy and all horses still had osseous abnormalities detected at the time of follow-up MRI. Thirteen horses (68.5%) were still lame at the time of follow-up, whereas the other six horses (31.5%) had become sound and returned to the previous level of exercise. Findings indicated that, for mature Warmblood horses, acute or chronic injuries of the sagittal groove of the proximal phalanx may have variable standing low-field MRI characteristics. Based on this sample of 19 horses, findings also indicated that the prognosis for performance soundness in horses diagnosed with sagittal groove injury of the proximal phalanx and concurrent osteoarthritis is poor. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  20. Title IX Resource Guide (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015


    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  1. Development of a double sandwich fluorescent ELISA to detect rattlesnake venom in biological samples from horses with a clinical diagnosis of rattlesnake bite. (United States)

    Gilliam, Lyndi L; Ownby, Charlotte L; McFarlane, Dianne; Canida, Amy; Holbrook, Todd C; Payton, Mark E; Krehbiel, Clinton R


    Rattlesnake bites in horses are not uncommon and the clinical outcomes are widely variable. Treatment of horses with anti-venom is often cost prohibitive and could have negative consequences; therefore, the development of a quantitative test to determine if anti-venom therapy is indicated would be valuable. The objective of this study was to develop an ELISA to detect rattlesnake venom in biological samples from clinically bitten horses. Nineteen horses were enrolled in the study. Urine was available from 19 horses and bite site samples were available from 9 horses. A double sandwich fluorescent ELISA was developed and venom was detected in 5 of 9 bite site samples and 12 of 19 urine samples. In order to determine if this assay is useful as a guide for treatment, a correlation between venom concentration and clinical outcome needs to be established. For this, first peak venom concentration needs to be determined. More frequent, consistent sample collection will be required to define a venom elimination pattern in horses and determine the ideal sample collection time to best estimate the maximum venom dose. This report describes development of an assay with the ability to detect rattlesnake venom in the urine and at the bite site of horses with a clinical diagnosis of rattlesnake bite. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography (United States)

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  3. [Detection of leptospira by culture of vitreous humor and detection of antibodies against leptospira in vitreous humor and serum of 225 horses with equine recurrent uveitis]. (United States)

    Dorrego-Keiter, Elisa; Tóth, József; Dikker, Lieke; Sielhorst, Jutta; Schusser, Gerald Fritz


    In the ongoing discussion regarding the aetiopathogenesis of equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) it was the aim of the present study to elucidate the relationship of leptospira infection and ERU. In a population of 225 horses leptospira were examined in vitreous humor by culture and leptospira antibody were detected in vitreous humor and serum samples. Preoperative serum samples were collected from 221/225 ERU patients of different age, gender and breed. Undiluted vitreous humor was aseptically taken from 198/225 patients that underwent pars plana vitrectomy at the beginning of surgery and from 27/225 patients' eyeball after enucleation: Serum and vitreous humor were tested for specific leptospiral antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Furthermore, vitreous humor was examined by culture. 20 patients which were euthanized due to a live-threatening disease other than ERU served as a control group. A total of 127/221 (57.5%) horses had serum antibodies (≥ 1:100). Most frequently antibodies against L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa were detected (79/127), followed by L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (34/127) and L. interrogans serovar Bratislava (29/127). Only 79/225 horses (35.1%) had leptospiral antibodies in vitreous humor, in which L. interrogans serovar Grippotyphosa (67/79) was identified most frequently followed by L. interrogans serovar Pomona (18/79) and L. interrogans serovar lcterohaemorrhagiae (8/79) which was identified as single or multiple reaction. Isolation of leptospira from vitreous humor was positive in 34/212 horses (16%). 10/20 control horses had a positive antibody titer against leptospira in serum and 2/20 horses in vitreous humor, whereas there was no leptospira detected in culture. The result of 84% negative cultures from vitreous humor of 212 ERU patients is decisive for the diagnosis and therapy of ERU.

  4. A monoclonal antibody for detection of intracellular and secreted interleukin-2 in horses. (United States)

    Freer, Heather; Hillegas, Julia M; Wimer, Christine; Baldwin, Cynthia; LaBresh, Joanna; Wagner, Bettina


    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a T cell growth factor and major modulator of T helper (Th) cell differentiation. Here, we have developed and characterized a monoclonal antibody to equine IL-2 (anti-IL-2 mAb, clone 158-1). The IL-2 mAb detected rIL-2 by ELISA, intracellular staining and flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting. The IL-2 mAb was also paired with a polyclonal IL-2 detection antibody in both ELISA and a fluorescent bead-based assay. When these two assays were compared using identical reagents there was an improved analytical sensitivity (46pg/ml) and wider linear quantification range (46-100,000pg/ml) of IL-2 quantification using the fluorescent bead assay. Equine rIL-2 standards were expressed in both yeast and mammalian cells but the mammalian cell-expressed rIL-2 standard was found to be most accurate for native IL-2 quantification. Using this system we found that stimulation of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin induced IL-2 secretion most potently. Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) consistently resulted in low amounts of IL-2 from PBMC, while concanavalin A (ConA), phytohemagglutinin-L (PHA-L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) either marginally stimulated or failed to stimulate IL-2 secretion from equine PBMC. After stimulation of equine PBMC with PMA and ionomycin, IL-2 production was detected in 13.0% (range 7.5-16.8%) of the lymphocytes by flow cytometric analysis. IL-2 expression was mainly stimulated in CD4(+) cells, in a sub-population of CD8(+) cells, and also in CD4-/CD8- cell population. In addition, both IFN-γ(+)/IL-2(+) and IL-4(+)/IL-2(+) producing cells were observed. Testing of serum and colostrum samples from 15 healthy horses showed that IL-2 was not detectable in these samples (<46pg/ml). In summary, the equine IL-2 mAb provides a new tool for the characterization of IL-2 producing equine cells and the quantification of secreted equine IL-2 in sensitive assays. Copyright © 2017

  5. Efficient detection of factor IX mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography in Taiwanese hemophilia B patients, and the identification of two novel mutations

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    Pei-Chin Lin


    Full Text Available Hemophilia B (HB is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by mutations in the clotting factor IX (FIX gene that result in FIX deficiency. Previous studies have shown a wide variation of FIX gene mutations in HB. Although the quality of life in HB has greatly improved mainly because of prophylactic replacement therapy with FIX concentrates, there exists a significant burden on affected families and the medical care system. Accurate detection of FIX gene mutations is critical for genetic counseling and disease prevention in HB. In this study, we used denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC, which has proved to be a highly informative and practical means of detecting mutations, for the molecular diagnosis of our patients with HB. Ten Taiwanese families affected by HB were enrolled. We used the DHPLC technique followed by direct sequencing of suspected segments to detect FIX gene mutations. In all, 11 FIX gene mutations (8 point mutations, 2 small deletions/insertions, and 1 large deletion, including two novel mutations (exon6 c.687–695, del 9 mer and c.460–461, ins T were found. According to the HB pedigrees, 25% and 75% of our patients were defined as familial and sporadic HB cases, respectively. We show that DHPLC is a highly sensitive and cost-effective method for FIX gene analysis and can be used as a convenient system for disease prevention.

  6. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica (United States)

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii using the SnSAG2 ELISA, the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti-S. neurona antibodies were f...

  7. Title IX Today. (United States)

    Vargyas, Ellen J.


    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 is the principal federal law which prohibits sex discrimination in education. The law's requirements with regard to physical education classes and competitive, intramural, and club athletics are discussed. (IAH)

  8. Non-invasive Detection of Breast Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis using Carbonic Anhydrases IX and XII Targeted Imaging Probes (United States)

    Tafreshi, Narges K.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Bishop, Kellsey; Lloyd, Mark C.; Enkemann, Steven A.; Lopez, Alexis S.; Abrahams, Dominique; Carter, Bradford W.; Vagner, Josef; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Gillies, Robert J.; Morse, David L.


    Purpose To develop targeted molecular imaging probes for the non-invasive detection of breast cancer lymph node metastasis. Methods Six cell surface or secreted markers were identified by expression profiling and from the literature as being highly expressed in breast cancer lymph node metastases. Two of these markers were cell surface carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CAIX and/or CAXII) and were validated for protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of patient tissue samples on a breast cancer tissue microarray containing 47 normal breast tissue samples, 42 ductal carcinoma in situ, 43 invasive ductal carcinomas without metastasis, 46 invasive ductal carcinomas with metastasis and 49 lymph node macrometastases of breast carcinoma. Targeted probes were developed by conjugation of CAIX and CAXII specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to a near-infrared fluorescent dye. Results Together, these two markers were expressed in 100% of the lymph node metastases surveyed. Selectivity of the imaging probes were confirmed by intravenous injection into nude mice bearing mammary fat pad tumors of marker expressing cells, and non-expressing cells or by pre-injection of unlabeled antibody. Imaging of LN metastases showed that peritumorally-injected probes detected nodes harboring metastatic tumor cells. As few as 1,000 cells were detected, as determined by implanting, under ultrasound guidance, a range in number of CAIX and CAXII expressing cells into the axillary LNs. Conclusion These imaging probes have potential for non-invasive staging of breast cancer in the clinic and elimination of unneeded surgery, which is costly and associated with morbidities. PMID:22016510

  9. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K


    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (Pradiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Meat authentication: a new HPLC-MS/MS based method for the fast and sensitive detection of horse and pork in highly processed food. (United States)

    von Bargen, Christoph; Brockmeyer, Jens; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich


    Fraudulent blending of food products with meat from undeclared species is a problem on a global scale, as exemplified by the European horse meat scandal in 2013. Routinely used methods such as ELISA and PCR can suffer from limited sensitivity or specificity when processed food samples are analyzed. In this study, we have developed an optimized method for the detection of horse and pork in different processed food matrices using MRM and MRM(3) detection of species-specific tryptic marker peptides. Identified marker peptides were sufficiently stable to resist thermal processing of different meat products and thus allow the sensitive and specific detection of pork or horse in processed food down to 0.24% in a beef matrix system. In addition, we were able to establish a rapid 2-min extraction protocol for the efficient protein extraction from processed food using high molar urea and thiourea buffers. Together, we present here the specific and sensitive detection of horse and pork meat in different processed food matrices using MRM-based detection of marker peptides. Notably, prefractionation of proteins using 2D-PAGE or off-gel fractionation is not necessary. The presented method is therefore easily applicable in analytical routine laboratories without dedicated proteomics background.

  11. A novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform for horse IgG detection (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhang, Di; Deng, Xinyu; Sun, Ying; Wang, Xinghua; Ma, Pinyi; Song, Daqian


    Herein we report a novel polydopamine-silver nanoparticle-polydopamine-gold (PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au) film based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor for horse IgG detection. The PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform was built on Au-film via layer-by-layer self-assembly. Ag ion was reduced in situ to AgNPs in presence of PDA. The top PDA layer can prevent AgNPs from being oxidized and connect with antibody via Schiff alkali reaction directly. The morphology and thickness of the modified gold film were characterized using scanning electron microscope and Talystep. Experimental results show that the PDA-AgNPs-PDA-Au film sensing platform is stable, regenerative and sensitive for horse IgG detection. The detection limit of horse IgG obtained with the present biosensor is 0.625 μg mL- 1, which is 2-fold and 4-fold lower than that obtained with biosensor based on PDA modified Au film and conventional biosensor based on MPA, respectively. Furthermore, when challenged to real serum samples, our sensor exhibited excellent specificity to horse IgG, suggesting its potential for industrial application.

  12. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt: synthesis, analytical detection, and pharmacokinetics in the horse. (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Tobin, T


    Toltrazuril sulfone (ponazuril) is a triazine-based antiprotozoal agent with clinical application in the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalomyelitis (EPM). In this study, we synthesized and determined the bioavailability of a sodium salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone that can be used for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM in horses. Toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was rapidly absorbed, with a mean peak plasma concentration of 2400 ± 169 (SEM) ng/mL occurring at 8 h after oral-mucosal dosing and was about 56% bioavailable compared with the i.v. administration of toltrazuril sulfone in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The relative bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water compared with toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt was 46%, indicating approximately 54% less oral bioavailability of this compound suspended in water. In this study, we also investigated whether this salt formulation of toltrazuril sulfone can be used as a feed additive formulation without significant reduction in oral bioavailability. Our results indicated that toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt is relatively well absorbed when administered with feed with a mean oral bioavailability of 52%. Based on these data, repeated oral administration of toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt with or without feed will yield effective plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of toltrazuril sulfone for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and other protozoal diseases of horses and other species. As such, toltrazuril sulfone sodium salt has the potential to be used as feed additive formulations for both the treatment and prophylaxis of EPM and various other apicomplexan diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina


    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  14. Genetic diversity detection of the domestic horse (Equus caballus by genes associated with coat color

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    Luz Correa A


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the population structure and genetic diversity in populations of domestic horse (Equus caballus in the municipality Cienaga de Oro-Córdoba (Colombia. Materials and methods. Random sampling were conducted between August and October 2013, in adult animals on farms seven districts, which was carried out phenotypic characterization of each animal, based on autosomal markers encoding morphological Extension (E , Agouti (A, Cream (C, White (W, Gray (G, Tobiano (TO, Overo (O and Roan (RN. Population genetic parameters: allele frequency, genetic diversity, gene flow, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic distance were calculated through the program POPGENE 1.31; the genetic structure was assessed using the program FSTAT v. Results. 341 individuals were analyzed in the seven populations studied, where the Extension gene Was the MOST faq frequently as the Overo and Tobiano genes showed the lowest values. Insignificant values of genetic variability and population recorded a global level, likewise, low genetic differentiation among populations, accompanied by a high gene flow was obtained; an excess of heterozygotes at population and global level was observed; to this is added the presence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations relative to the markers studied and low genetic distance values were reported. Conclusions. The populations are highly genetically related, a situation that may result from the existing geographical proximity between them, favoring genetic exchange and the establishment of a metapopulation.

  15. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran. (United States)

    Taktaz Hafshejani, Taghi; Nekoei, Shahin; Vazirian, Behnam; Doosti, Abbas; Khamesipour, Faham; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna


    This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98%) and 6 (16.21%) were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66%) and 3 (8.10%) were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18%) and 1 (16.66%) were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2%) and 1 (7.69%) were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28%) and 2 (13.33%) were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22%) and 2 (15.83%) Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04%) and 4 (26.66%) Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  16. Synthesis and detection of toltrazuril sulfone and its pharmacokinetics in horses following administration in dimethylsulfoxide. (United States)

    Dirikolu, L; Karpiesiuk, W; Lehner, A F; Hughes, C; Granstrom, D E; Tobin, T


    Triazine-based antiprotozoal agents are known for their lipophylic characteristics and may therefore be expected to be well absorbed following oral administration. However, although an increase in lipid solubility generally increases the absorption of chemicals, extremely lipid-soluble chemicals may dissolve poorly in gastrointestinal (GI) fluids, and their corresponding absorption and bioavailability would be low. Also, if the compound is administered in solid form and is relatively insoluble in GI fluids, it is likely to have limited contact with the GI mucosa, and therefore, its rate of absorption will be low. Based on the above considerations, we sought a solvent with low or no toxicity that would maintain triazine agents in solution. As the oral route is most preferred for daily drug therapy, such a solvent would allow an increased rate of absorption following oral administration. In present study, it was demonstrated that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) increased the oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone (Ponazuril) threefold, relative to oral administrations of toltrazuril sulfone suspended in water. The cross-over study of toltrazuril sulfone formulated in DMSO indicated that the absolute oral bioavailability of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO is 71%. The high bioavailability of the DMSO-preparation suggests that its daily oral administration will routinely yield effective plasma and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concentrations in all horses treated. Also, this improved formulation would allow clinicians to administer loading doses of toltrazuril sulfone in acute cases of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis. Another option would involve administration of toltrazuril sulfone in DMSO mixed with feed (1.23 kg daily dose) meeting the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for the levels of DMSO permissible in pharmaceutical preparations.

  17. Evaluation of osteochondral sample collection guided by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for early detection of osteoarthritis in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. (United States)

    Ley, Charles J; Ekman, Stina; Dahlberg, Leif E; Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Hansson, Kerstin


    To evaluate the use of CT and MRI for guidance of osteochondral sample collection for histologic detection of early osteoarthritic lesions in centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of horses. Right tarsal joints from the cadavers of 24 Icelandic horses aged 29 to 31 months. CT and MRI were used to evaluate the extent of suspected osteoarthritic changes in centrodistal joints, which were graded with a semiquantitative system. The anatomic regions with the highest grade of change were identified, and osteochondral samples were obtained from these regions. Samples were also obtained from the same centrodistal joints at predetermined sites. Histologic examination of all samples was performed, with samples classified as negative or positive for osteoarthritis, and results were compared between sample collection methods. Histologic examination revealed osteoarthritic lesions in 29% (7/24) of centrodistal joints with the predetermined method and in 63% (15/24) with the image-guided method. Significant associations were identified between histologic osteoarthritis detection and the summed image-guided sample collection site image grades, central osteophytes, articular cartilage thickness abnormalities, grade 2 articular mineralization front defects, and grade 2 marginal osteophytes. CT and MRI aided the detection of focal changes suggestive of early-stage osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of equine cadavers and may be useful for detection of similar disease in live horses. The first morphological changes of centrodistal joint osteoarthritis were suspected to be in the articular cartilage and the articular mineralization front regions.

  18. Validation of distal limb mounted inertial measurement unit sensors for stride detection in Warmblood horses at walk and trot. (United States)

    Bragança, F M; Bosch, S; Voskamp, J P; Marin-Perianu, M; Van der Zwaag, B J; Vernooij, J C M; van Weeren, P R; Back, W


    Inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor-based techniques are becoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotor assessment. To describe, evaluate and validate a method of stride detection and quantification at walk and trot using distal limb mounted IMU sensors. Prospective validation study comparing IMU sensors and motion capture with force plate data. A total of seven Warmblood horses equipped with metacarpal/metatarsal IMU sensors and reflective markers for motion capture were hand walked and trotted over a force plate. Using four custom built algorithms hoof-on/hoof-off timing over the force plate were calculated for each trial from the IMU data. Accuracy of the computed parameters was calculated as the mean difference in milliseconds between the IMU or motion capture generated data and the data from the force plate, precision as the s.d. of these differences and percentage of error with accuracy of the calculated parameter as a percentage of the force plate stance duration. Accuracy, precision and percentage of error of the best performing IMU algorithm for stance duration at walk were 28.5, 31.6 ms and 3.7% for the forelimbs and -5.5, 20.1 ms and -0.8% for the hindlimbs, respectively. At trot the best performing algorithm achieved accuracy, precision and percentage of error of -27.6/8.8 ms/-8.4% for the forelimbs and 6.3/33.5 ms/9.1% for the hindlimbs. The described algorithms have not been assessed on different surfaces. Inertial measurement unit technology can be used to determine temporal kinematic stride variables at walk and trot justifying its use in gait and performance analysis. However, precision of the method may not be sufficient to detect all possible lameness-related changes. These data seem promising enough to warrant further research to evaluate whether this approach will be useful for appraising the majority of clinically relevant gait changes encountered in practice. © 2016 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by

  19. Diversity of equine major histocompatiblity complex class II DRA locus in Posavina and Croatian Coldblood horse: a new polymorphism detected

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    Ino Curik


    Full Text Available Domestic equidae display polymorphism within ELA-DRA locus which is not characteristic for other species. We characterised sequence polymorphism present at ELADRA locus exon 2 and estimated allele frequencies in two autochthonous breeds, Posavina and Croatian Coldblood. In 88 horses, four different alleles were found, one of them not reported before in horses. The new allele shows non-synonymous mutation at position 65 (T→A causing amino acid change (Phe→Tyr in antigen binding site and synonymous mutation at position 105 (C→T. Our findings emphasize the importance of DRA polymorphism among equids and some specific DRA frequency pattern potentially specific in draught horses.

  20. High-resolution melting analysis for detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism and the genotype of the myostatin gene in warmblood horses. (United States)

    Serpa, Priscila B S; Garbade, Petra; Natalini, Cláudio C; Pires, Ananda R; Tisotti, Tainor M


    OBJECTIVE To develop a high-resolution melting (HRM) assay to detect the g.66493737C>T polymorphism in the myostatin gene (MSTN) and determine the frequency of 3 previously defined g.66493737 genotypes (T/T, T/C, and C/C) in warmblood horses. SAMPLES Blood samples from 23 horses. PROCEDURES From each blood sample, DNA was extracted and analyzed by standard PCR methods and an HRM assay to determine the MSTN genotype. Three protocols (standard protocol, protocol in which a high-salt solution was added to the reaction mixture before the first melting cycle, and protocol in which an unlabeled probe was added to the reaction mixture before analysis) for the HRM assay were designed and compared. Genotype results determined by the HRM protocol that generated the most consistent melting curves were compared with those determined by sequencing. RESULTS The HRM protocol in which an unlabeled probe was added to the reaction mixture generated the most consistent melting curves. The genotypes of the g.66493737C>T polymorphism were determined for 22 horses (16 by HRM analysis and 20 by sequencing); 14, 7, and 1 had the T/T, T/C, and C/C genotypes, respectively. The genotype determined by HRM analysis agreed with that determined by sequencing for 14 of 16 horses. The frequency of alleles T and C was 79.5% and 20.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that HRM analysis may be a faster and more economical alternative than PCR methods for genotyping. Genotyping results might be useful as predictors of athletic performance for horses.

  1. Effect of an endurance-like exercise on the disposition and detection time of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone in the horse: application to medication control. (United States)

    Authie, E C; Garcia, P; Popot, M A; Toutain, P L; Doucet, M


    Equine antidoping rules were established to prevent a horse's performance being altered after the administration of prohibited substances, including approved drugs used for legitimate treatment. Veterinarians have to advise owners or trainers on appropriate withholding times to guarantee that their horses may safely compete after drug administration. In order to propose tailored withdrawal times, several horse organisations released detection time (DT) values, for the main veterinary drugs used in horses. One of the possible limits to the information provided by published DTs in horses is the fact that they are determined from classic pharmacokinetic studies performed at rest under laboratory conditions. In field conditions, training and exercise programmes may have an influence on drug elimination. Dexamethasone (DMX) and phenylbutazone (PBZ) have been quantified in plasma and urine after solid phase extraction. The kinetic disposition of DXM (8 microg/kg) and PBZ (8 mg/kg) administered by i.v. route in 8 horses, was investigated in rest conditions and during a standardised 3 h test exercise according to a cross-over design. The aim of the present study was to compare the kinetic disposition of 2 test drugs, DMX and PBZ in rest vs. exercising conditions. It was shown in 8 horses that a sustained 3 h of mild exercise slightly decreased the plasma clearance of both drugs (about 25% for DXM and 37% for PBZ) and this is mainly explained by the significant decrease of the corresponding hepatic clearance. In addition, as the volume of distribution was correlatively decreased, the plasma terminal half-life, which is a hybrid parameter of plasma clearance and volume of distribution, remains unchanged overall. Establishing DTs or withdrawal times (WTs) are relevant as plasma and urine half-lives, but not clearance, are the main determinants of DT length. Veterinarians may realistically decide upon a WT for a legitimate drug based on the corresponding DT obtained under

  2. The evaluation of a nucleoprotein ELISA for the detection of equine influenza antibodies and the differentiation of infected from vaccinated horses (DIVA). (United States)

    Galvin, Pamela; Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann


    Antibodies against equine influenza virus (EIV) are traditionally quantified by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) or single radial haemolysis (SRH). To evaluate an ELISA for the detection of antibodies against influenza nucleoprotein in the diagnosis and surveillance of equine influenza (EI). The ELISA was compared with the SRH and HI tests. Serial serum samples from 203 naturally and 14 experimentally infected horses, from 60 weanlings following primary vaccination with five different vaccines (two whole inactivated vaccines, two ISCOM-based subunit vaccines and a recombinant canarypox virus vaccine) and from 44 adult horses following annual booster vaccination with six different vaccines were analysed. Fewer seroconversions were detected in clinical samples by ELISA than by SRH or HI but ELISA was more sensitive than SRH in naïve foals post-experimental infection. The ELISA did not detect the antibody response to vaccination with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine confirming the usefulness of the combination of this kit and vaccine to differentiate between naturally infected and vaccinated horses, that is, DIVA. No DIVA capacity was evident with the other vaccines. The results suggest that this ELISA is a useful supplementary test for the diagnosis of EI although less sensitive than HI or SRH. It is an appropriate test for EI surveillance in a naïve population and may be combined with the recombinant canarypox virus vaccine but not with other commercially available subunit vaccines, in a DIVA strategy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Major role of local immune responses in antibody formation to factor IX in AAV gene transfer. (United States)

    Wang, L; Cao, O; Swalm, B; Dobrzynski, E; Mingozzi, F; Herzog, R W


    The risk of an immune response to the coagulation factor IX (F.IX) transgene product is a concern in gene therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B. In order to investigate the mechanism of F.IX-specific lymphocyte activation in the context of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer to skeletal muscle, we injected AAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX (hF.IX) into outbred immune-competent mice. Systemic hF.IX levels were transiently detected in the circulation, but diminished concomitant with activation of CD4+ T and B cells. ELISPOT assays documented robust responses to hF.IX in the draining lymph nodes of injected muscle by day 14. Formation of inhibitory antibodies to hF.IX was observed over a wide range of vector doses, with increased doses causing stronger immune responses. A prolonged inflammatory reaction in muscle started at 1.5-2 months, but ultimately failed to eliminate transgene expression. By 1.5 months, hF.IX antigen re-emerged in circulation in approximately 70% of animals injected with high vector dose. Hepatic gene transfer elicited only infrequent and weaker immune responses, with higher vector doses causing a reduction in T-cell responses to hF.IX. In summary, the data document substantial influence of target tissue, local antigen presentation, and antigen levels on lymphocyte responses to F.IX.

  4. Detection of urine and blood clenbuterol following short-term oral administration in the horse. (United States)

    Chuang, M S; Huang, H H; Dixon, K M; Chen, K S; Mao, C L; Chen, C L


    The pharmacokinetics of clenbuterol in equine urine and blood was investigated. Urine and blood samples were collected following 3-day multiple oral administrations. The samples were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and further confirmed by solid phase extraction and capillary electrophoresis. Urinary clenbuterol was detectable until day 14 after the last dose. The urinary excretion of clenbuterol was characterized by a biphasic pattern. The half-lives of the bi-exponential elimination (t(1/2alpha) and t(1/2beta)) for urinary clenbuterol were about 12.1 and 48 hours. After a single oral administration (4 microg/kg) of clenbuterol, the half-life of serum clenbuterol was approximately 11.4 hours.

  5. Validation of Distal Limb Mounted Imu Sensors for Stride Detection and Locomotor Quantification in Warmblood Horses at Walk and Trot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra Braganca, F.M.; Vernooij, J.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; René van Weeren, P.; Back, Wim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023707

    Reasons for performing study: IMU-sensor based techniques arebecoming more popular in horses as a tool for objective locomotorassessment. Using currently proposed methods only limited informationabout stride variables can be obtained for walk and trot.Objectives: To describe, evaluate and validate a

  6. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype (United States)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan


    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  7. Detection of anabolic and androgenic steroids and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Wai Him; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M


    Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood. As a result, there is a high risk that such AASs could escape detection in their official race-day samples although they may have been used during the long period of training. Hair analysis, on the other hand, can afford significantly longer detection windows. In addition, the identification of synthetic ester derivatives of AASs in hair, particularly for the endogenous ones, can provide unequivocal proof of their exogenous origin. This paper describes the development of a sensitive method (at sub to low parts-per-billion or ppb levels) for detecting 48 AASs and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Decontaminated horse hair was pulverised and subjected to in-situ liquid-liquid extraction in a mixture of hexane - ethyl acetate (7:3, v/v) and phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.5), followed by additional clean-up using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. The final extract was analysed using UHPLC-HRMS in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with both full scan and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). This method was validated for qualitative identification purposes. Validation data, including method specificity, method sensitivity, extraction recovery, method precision and matrix effect are presented. Method applicability was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of testosterone propionate in a referee hair sample. To our knowledge, this was

  8. Detection of basic steps of a horse "step, trot, gallop" inertial sensors and using artificial neural networks


    Jaime Eduardo Andrade Ramírez; Javier Raúl Romero Roa; Jairo Rojas Ángel; Jhonson Pardo Morales


    Through this article the development of a system capable of recognizing the basic steps of a horse in a natural environment is shown. This development is focused on artificial intelligence, where using the processing of a PC, reference algorithms are implemented to treatment and recognition of signs of equine movements captured by inertial sensors. This process is used Fast Fourier transform and artificial neural networks in the software component, the electronic implementation includes the u...

  9. Trypanosomosis in The Gambia: prevalence in working horses and donkeys detected by whole genome amplification and PCR, and evidence for interactions between trypanosome species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallow Jibril


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gambia has an increasing population of equidae largely used for agriculture and transportation. A review of cases at The Gambian Horse and Donkey Trust (GHDT indicated that a common reason for presentation is a poorly defined medical condition often attributed to trypanosomosis. There are few reports describing the prevalence or the range of clinical signs associated with infection with different species of trypanosomes in horses and donkeys, but given the importance of these animals, the role of trypanosomosis requires investigation. Results In total 241 animals from the Central River Division in The Gambia (183 horses and 58 donkeys were screened using Whole Genome Amplification (WGA followed by trypanosome species identification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The results indicated overall trypanosome prevalence of 91%; with an infection rate of 31% for Trypanosoma congolense Savannah, 87% for Trypanosoma vivax and 18% for Trypanosoma brucei sp. Multiple species were present in 43% of infections. Microscopy had a good specificity (100% and positive predictive value (100% for trypanosome detection, but the sensitivity (20% and negative predictive value (10.5% were low relative to PCR-based diagnosis. Infection with T congolense showed the greatest negative effect on packed cell volume (PCV, while infection with T. brucei sp also had a significant, although lesser, negative effect on PCV. In addition, cases positive by microscopy were associated with significantly lower PCV. However, concurrent infection with T. vivax appeared to cause less effect on PCV, compared to animals infected with T. congolense alone. Conclusion The prevalence of Trypanosomosis was high in both horses and donkeys. Infection with T. congolense appeared to have the greatest clinical significance, while T. vivax infection may be of limited clinical significance in this population. Indeed, there is evidence of T. vivax co-infection ameliorating

  10. Enzymic conversion of alpha-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha by haem oxygenase. (United States)

    Yoshinaga, T; Sudo, Y; Sano, S


    Conversion of four isomers of meso-oxyprotohaem IX into the corresponding biliverdin IX was attempted with a reconstituted haem oxygenase system in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH. Only the alpha-isomer of meso-oxyprotohaem IX was converted effectively into biliverdin IX alpha, which was further reduced to bilirubin IX alpha by biliverdin reductase. Only trace amounts of biliverdins IX beta, IX gamma and IX delta were respectively formed from the incubation mixture of the corresponding oxyprotohaemin IX isomers with the complete haem oxygenase system under the same conditions. In a kinetic study, the Km for alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX was 3.6 microM, which was 2-fold higher than that for protohaem IX. The maximum velocity (Vmax.) of the conversion of alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX into biliverdin IX alpha was twice as fast as that of protohaem IX. These results demonstrate that alpha-meso-oxyprotohaem IX is an intermediate of haem degradation and it was converted stereospecifically into biliverdin IX alpha via verdohaem IX alpha. PMID:2122884

  11. Monoclonal antibodies to equine IgM improve the sensitivity of West Nile virus-specific IgM detection in horses. (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Glaser, Amy; Hillegas, Julia M; Erb, Hollis; Gold, Carvel; Freer, Heather


    West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic pathogen of global importance. In horses with neurological signs, detection of WNV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) in serum is widely used to identify clinical cases of WNV encephalitis. Here, we describe the development of two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to equine IgM which were used in a WNV IgM-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Their performance was compared to an established assay based on polyclonal anti-IgM. Check test serum samples from the National Veterinary Service Laboratory (NVSL) were used to evaluate the performance of the three anti-IgM antibodies. The anti-IgM 1-22 mAb correctly identified all NVSL samples. Both the polyclonal antibody and monoclonal anti-IgM 2B-63 identified eight out of ten samples correctly. The three assays were then compared using serum samples from clinically healthy animals (n=33) and horses with neurological signs (n=21). High Spearman rank correlations (0.76-0.86) were found among the ELISA results. Inter-test agreements (weighted kappa) for assay interpretation resulted in strong agreement (0.95) of the results obtained by the mAbs and moderate agreements when monoclonal and polyclonal anti-IgM-based assays were compared. To determine the analytical sensitivities of anti-WNV IgM detection, serial dilutions of WNV IgM-positive serum samples were analyzed. The highest sensitivity was obtained by using the anti-IgM 1-22 mAb to capture IgM from equine serum. In conclusion, the use of monoclonal anti-IgM antibodies can improve the sensitivity of IgM detection in the acute phase of WN disease.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  13. Detection of basic steps of a horse "step, trot, gallop" inertial sensors and using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Andrade Ramírez


    Full Text Available Through this article the development of a system capable of recognizing the basic steps of a horse in a natural environment is shown. This development is focused on artificial intelligence, where using the processing of a PC, reference algorithms are implemented to treatment and recognition of signs of equine movements captured by inertial sensors. This process is used Fast Fourier transform and artificial neural networks in the software component, the electronic implementation includes the use of the board Enpic14® and Zig-Bee protocol for communicating portable device located on the horses and the computer. The result is a recognition system equine basic steps for identification and characterization of livestock ready for target practice mounted at the National School of Carabineros "ESCAR". This work is developed by the research group in software and Facatativá "GISTFA" technologies University of Cundinamarca in partnership with the research group of the National School of Carabineros "Alfonso Lopez" ESCAR-DINAENro.COL0061592 under the research project "Design of a simulator for shooting lessons mounted police national school" Alfonso Lopez", national police approved in 2014

  14. Carbonic anhydrase IX in oligodendroglial brain tumors

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    Pastorekova Silvia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbonic anhydrase IX is a hypoxia-induced enzyme that has many biologically important functions, including its role in cell adhesion and invasion. Methods This study was set out to investigate the role of CA IX in a series of 86 oligodendroglial brain tumors (71 primary and 15 recurrent; 48 pure oligodendrogliomas and 40 mixed oligoastrocytomas. Results 80% of the tumors showed CA IX expression by immunohistochemistry. Tumors with moderate or strong CA IX expression had decreased level of cell proliferation compared to weak or no CA IX expression (median 2.9 vs. 5.8, p = 0.015. CA IX correlated with two antioxidative enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and regulatory gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase (GLCL-R: CA IX expression was significantly higher in MnSOD-positive tumors (p = 0.008 and decreased in GLCL-R-positive tumors (p = 0.044. In Cox multivariate analysis CA IX expression, patient age and histological component (pure oligodendroglioma vs. mixed oligoastrocytoma showed independent prognostic values (p = 0.009, p = 0.003 and p = 0.022, respectively, CA IX positivity predicting poorer outcome. Conclusion CA IX was proved to be an independent prognostic indicator in oligodendroglial brain tumors, and it also correlates reversely with cell proliferation. It may have a role in the biology of oligodendrogliomas, and most interestingly, as it is mainly expressed in tumor tissue, CA IX could serve as a target molecule for anticancer treatments.

  15. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer (United States)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  16. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands. (United States)

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah


    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  17. An update on anticancer drug development and delivery targeting carbonic anhydrase IX

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    Justina Kazokaitė


    Full Text Available The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX is up-regulated in many types of solid tumors in humans under hypoxic and acidic microenvironment. Inhibition of CA IX enzymatic activity with selective inhibitors, antibodies or labeled probes has been shown to reverse the acidic environment of solid tumors and reduce the tumor growth establishing the significant role of CA IX in tumorigenesis. Thus, the development of potent antitumor drugs targeting CA IX with minimal toxic effects is important for the target-specific tumor therapy. Recently, several promising antitumor agents against CA IX have been developed to treat certain types of cancers in combination with radiation and chemotherapy. Here we review the inhibition of CA IX by small molecule compounds and monoclonal antibodies. The methods of enzymatic assays, biophysical methods, animal models including zebrafish and Xenopus oocytes, and techniques of diagnostic imaging to detect hypoxic tumors using CA IX-targeted conjugates are discussed with the aim to overview the recent progress related to novel therapeutic agents that target CA IX in hypoxic tumors.

  18. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.


    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  19. Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe. (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Baldet, Thierry; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Bruno; Perrin, Aurélie; Grillet, Colette; Albina, Emmanuel


    Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp. Copyright 2004 INRA, EDP Sciences

  20. Effects of phenylbutazone on bone activity and formation in horses. (United States)

    Rohde, C; Anderson, D E; Bertone, A L; Weisbrode, S E


    To determine the effects of phenylbutazone (PBZ) on bone activity and bone formation in horses. 12 healthy 1- to 2-year-old horses. Biopsy was performed to obtain unicortical bone specimens from 1 tibia on day 0 and from the contralateral tibia on day 14. Fluorochromic markers were administered IV 2 days prior to and on days 0, 10, 15, and 25 after biopsy was performed. Six horses received PBZ (4.4 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 12 h) and 6 horses were used as controls. All horses were euthanatized on day 30 and tissues from biopsy sites, with adjacent cortical bone, were collected. Osteonal density and activity, mineral apposition rate (MAR), and percentage of mineralized tissue filling the biopsy-induced defects in cortical bone were assessed. Serum samples from all horses were analyzed for bone-specific alkaline phosphatase activity and concentration of PBZ. MAR was significantly decreased in horses treated with PBZ. Regional acceleratory phenomenon was observed in cortical bone in both groups but was significantly decreased in horses treated with PBZ. Osteonal activity was similar at all time points in all horses. In control horses, percentage of mineralized tissue filling the cortical defects was significantly greater in defects present for 30 days, compared with defects present for 14 days. Differences in percentage of mineralized tissue were not detected in horses treated with PBZ. PBZ decreased MAR in cortical bone and appeared to decrease healing rate of cortical defects in horses.

  1. Development of a multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in horses and its validation using Bayesian and conventional statistical methods. (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Freer, Heather; Rollins, Alicia; Erb, Hollis N; Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjo


    Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease and occurs in mammals including horses. The disease is induced by infection with spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group. Infection of mammalian hosts requires transmission of spirochetes by infected ticks during tick bites. Lyme disease diagnosis is based on clinical signs, possible exposure to infected ticks, and antibody testing which is traditionally performed by ELISA and Western blotting (WB). This report describes the development and validation of a new fluorescent bead-based multiplex assay for the detection of antibodies to B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC and OspF antigens in horse serum. Testing of 562 equine sera was performed blindly and in parallel by using WB and the new multiplex assay. Because a true gold standard is missing for Lyme antibody testing, we performed and compared different statistical approaches to validate the new Lyme multiplex assay. One approach was to use WB results as a 'relative gold standard' in ROC-curve and likelihood-ratio analyses of the new test. Cut-off values and interpretation ranges of the multiplex assay were established by the analysis. The second statistical approach used a Bayesian model for the calculation of diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the multiplex assay. The Bayesian analysis takes into consideration that no true gold standard exists for detecting antibodies to B. burgdorferi and estimated sensitivities and specificities of both tests that were compared. Therefore, the Bayesian analysis also resulted in an evaluation of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of WB. Overall, the new assay was characterized by low background values and a wide dynamic quantification range for the detection of antibodies to OspA, OspC and OspF antigens of B. burgdorferi. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for the OspA bead-based assay were calculated as 49% and 85%, respectively, and by a standard ROC curve analysis only

  2. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

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    Salonen Hanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  3. Welfare of Aged Horses

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    Catherine McGowan


    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  4. DNA Damage and Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Protoporphyrin IX in Sarcoma 180 Cells

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    Qing Li


    Full Text Available Background: Porphyrin derivatives have been widely used in photodynamic therapy as effective sensitizers. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, a well-known hematoporphyrin derivative component, shows great potential to enhance light induced tumor cell damage. However, PpIX alone could also exert anti-tumor effects. The mechanisms underlying those direct effects are incompletely understood. This study thus investigated the putative mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of PpIX on sarcoma 180 (S180 cells. Methods: S180 cells were treated with different concentrations of PpIX. Following the treatment, cell viability was evaluated by the 3-(4, 5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay; Disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by flow cytometry; The trans-location of apoptosis inducer factor (AIF from mitochondria to nucleus was visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis; Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by DNA content with flow cytometry; Cell cycle associated proteins were detected by western blotting. Results: PpIX (≥ 1 µg/ml significantly inhibited proliferation and reduced viability of S180 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PpIX rapidly and significantly triggered mitochondrial membrane depolarization, AIF (apoptosis inducer factor translocation from mitochondria to nucleus and DNA damage, effects partially relieved by the specific inhibitor of MPTP (mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Furthermore, S phase arrest and upregulation of the related proteins of P53 and P21 were observed following 12 and 24 h PpIX exposure. Conclusion: PpIX could inhibit tumor cell proliferation by induction of DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the S phase.

  5. Cellular invasion and collagen type IX in the primary corneal stroma in vitro. (United States)

    Cai, C X; Fitch, J M; Svoboda, K K; Birk, D E; Linsenmayer, T F


    During different stages in the development of the avian cornea, various collagen types have been shown to participate in matrix formation and have been implicated in morphogenesis. One of these is the fibril-associated collagen type IX. This molecule is present when the primary corneal stroma is in a compact state, but rapidly disappears just prior to stromal swelling and its invasion by mesenchymal cells. The temporospatial pattern of the disappearance of type IX collagen in the developing cornea suggests that this molecule may be involved in stabilizing the primary corneal stromal matrix by interacting either with other type IX collagen molecules or with other matrix components. To explore further whether the removal of type IX collagen is involved in stromal swelling, we have employed an in vitro culture system in which swelling of the primary stroma and mesenchymal cell invasion can be experimentally manipulated by culturing chick corneal explants on a Nuclepore filter support in the presence or absence of an associated lens. We have also examined the effect of exogenously added human recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) on the presence of type IX collagen and cellular invasion. When stage 25-26+ corneal explants were cultured with an associated lens, the primary stroma did not swell; immunohistochemically detectable type IX collagen was still present, and mesenchymal cell invasion failed to occur. Conversely, when the same stages of corneal explants were cultured without an associated lens, the primary stroma swelled; type IX collagen disappeared, and mesenchymal cell migration occurred. Under both conditions, however, the type II collagen of the stroma, which is known to be a component of the striated fibrils, remained clearly detectable and with time even seemed to increase in amount. This result is consistent with the proposition that type IX collagen is one factor involved in maintaining the primary stroma as a compact matrix

  6. Intersex (ix) mutations of Drosophila melanogaster cause ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study on the effect of different intersex mutations on genital disc development provides the following major results: (i) similar range of a characteristic array of morphological structures (from almost double sex terminalia to extreme reduction of terminal appendages) was displayed by the terminalia of XX ix1/ix1, XX ...

  7. In vivo imaging and quantification of carbonic anhydrase IX expression as an endogenous biomarker of tumor hypoxia.

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    Bagna Bao

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX is a transmembrane protein that has been shown to be greatly upregulated under conditions of hypoxia in many tumor cell lines. Tumor hypoxia is associated with impaired efficacy of cancer therapies making CA IX a valuable target for preclinical and diagnostic imaging. We have developed a quantitative in vivo optical imaging method for detection of CA IX as a marker of tumor hypoxia based on a near-infrared (NIR fluorescent derivative of the CA IX inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ. The agent (HS680 showed single digit nanomolar inhibition of CA IX as well as selectivity over other CA isoforms and demonstrated up to 25-fold upregulation of fluorescent CA IX signal in hypoxic versus normoxic cells, which could be blocked by 60%-70% with unlabeled AZ. CA IX negative cell lines (HCT-116 and MDA-MB-231, as well as a non-binding control agent on CA IX positive cells, showed low fluorescent signal under both conditions. In vivo FMT imaging showed tumor accumulation and excellent tumor definition from 6-24 hours. In vivo selectivity was confirmed by pretreatment of the mice with unlabeled AZ resulting in >65% signal inhibition. HS680 tumor signal was further upregulated >2X in tumors by maintaining tumor-bearing mice in a low oxygen (8% atmosphere. Importantly, intravenously injected HS680 signal was co-localized specifically with both CA IX antibody and pimonidazole (Pimo, and was located away from non-hypoxic regions indicated by a Hoechst stain. Thus, we have established a spatial correlation of fluorescence signal obtained by non-invasive, tomographic imaging of HS680 with regions of hypoxia and CA IX expression. These results illustrate the potential of HS680 and combined with FMT imaging to non-invasively quantify CA IX expression as a hypoxia biomarker, crucial to the study of the underlying biology of hypoxic tumors and the development and monitoring of novel anti-cancer therapies.

  8. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Coccidioides immitis in healthy horses. (United States)

    Higgins, Jill C; Leith, Gayle S; Voss, Ed D; Pappagianis, Demosthenes


    To determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coccidioides immitis in healthy horses residing in an area in which the organism is endemic. Prospective study. 197 healthy horses (in which coccidioidomycosis had not been previously diagnosed) that resided in an area of Arizona in which coccidioidomycosis is endemic. Of the horses evaluated at the Arizona Equine Medical and Surgical Center during a 6-month period, 197 with no clinical signs of coccidioidomycosis were randomly selected for inclusion in the study; sera were evaluated for IgM and IgG antibodies against C immitis via an immunodiffusion assay (IgG-positive samples were assessed quantitatively). Within 6 months, recheck titer evaluations were attempted for all seropositive horses. Serum antibodies against C immitis were detected in 8 of 197 horses (seroprevalence, 4.06%). Results of serologic assays were positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM antibodies in 7 horses and positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies in 1 horse; reciprocal serum IgG antibody titers were low (none > 8). Follow-up serologic data were obtained from 5 horses; compared with initial findings, horses had become seronegative or titers were unchanged or decreased. Duration of residence in the area was significantly shorter for seropositive horses than for seronegative horses. Serum antibodies against C immitis may rarely be detected in healthy horses residing in an area in which the disease is endemic; any horse with a detectable serum antibody titer should be reevaluated after an interval of at least 3 weeks.

  9. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders. (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza


    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

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    Mozhgan Moghtaderi


    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.

  11. Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Luciane Maria Laskoski


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses from Pantanal, in Mato Grosso state. Two hundred blood samples were collected from horses in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The samples were analyzed by IFAT for the detection of anti-Neospora caninum and anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 30 (15% of 200 horses in titers of 50 (25 horses, 100 (two horses, 200 (two horses, and 400 (one horse. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in five (2.5% of 200 horses in titers of 50 (three horses, 200 (one horse, and 400 (one horse. One animal showed antibody titers for both coccidian (titers of 200 for N. caninum e 400 for T. gondii. The pantaneiros horses were exposed to Neospora spp. and T. gondii.

  12. Periodic acid‑Schiff staining method for function detection of liver cells is affected by 2% horse serum in induction medium. (United States)

    Hui, Hui; Ma, Wenjun; Cui, Jiejie; Gong, Mengjia; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang; He, Yun


    Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the possible factors affecting the previous confusing results of PAS staining. Removal of single induction factors, including dexamethasone, hepatic growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 4 from the induction media did not restore PAS staining, whereas replacement of 2% horse serum (HS) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) significantly increased the number of PAS positive cells. Following 12 days of basal induction, replacing the induction medium with media containing 10% FBS for 12‑72 h significantly improved PAS staining, but did not influence indocyanine green uptake. Furthermore, incubation in induction medium with 10% FBS following 12 days of normal induction did not affect the expression of hepatic markers and mature function of HPCs. Therefore, the present study suggested that 2% HS in the induction medium did not affect the hepatic function of induced cells, but did affect glycogen storage, whereas replacement of medium with 10% FBS in advance of PAS staining may restore the failure of PAS staining in low serum concentrations of induced hepatocytes.

  13. Evaluation of a technique for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in horses. (United States)

    Toth, Balazs; Bertin, Francois R; Miller, Margaret A; Charney, Virginia A; Kritchevsky, Janice E


    To develop and assess the short-term feasibility, maintenance, and complications associated with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement in standing horses. 6 adult horses. Feasibility of the technique was evaluated in 2 horses. In each of 4 other horses, a PEG tube was maintained for 14 days and used to provide fluid requirements during the latter 7 days, before removal. Following air inflation of the stomach, each PEG tube was placed via a left intercostal approach; proper tube location was ascertained by percutaneous ultrasonography and gastroscopy. The horses underwent physical examinations, CBCs, and peritoneal fluid analyses before and at intervals after tube placement. Seven days after tube removal, horses were euthanized and necropsied. Placement of a PEG tube was feasible in all 6 horses. The 4 horses assessed long term tolerated water administration through the PEG tube and remained clinically stable throughout the 21-day experiment. However, during the period PEG tubes were in place, significant increases in some peritoneal and hematologic variables were detected. Postmortem evaluation revealed localized peritonitis in 1 horse and body wall inflammation along the PEG tube tracks in 3 additional horses. Placement and maintenance of a PEG tube were tolerated well by the study horses, although peritoneal and systemic inflammation were detectable. Fluid requirements were adequately met with this technique, which could provide an alternative method for managing chronically dysphagic horses. Nevertheless, further research is warranted to evaluate the feasibility of enteral feeding by use of this approach in horses.

  14. A comparison of in vitro tests and a faecal egg count reduction test in detecting anthelmintic resistance in horse strongyles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.


    This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one test...

  15. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination). (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  16. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders


    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat


    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  17. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses. (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi


    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  18. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang


    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and L-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2 × 10 - 9 to 2 × 10 - 4 M with the detection limit of 6.8 × 10 - 10 M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering.

  19. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang


    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and l-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2×10-9 to 2×10-4M with the detection limit of 6.8×10-10M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A highly selective space-folded photo-induced electron transfer fluorescent probe for carbonic anhydrase isozymes IX and its applications for biological imaging. (United States)

    Zhang, Shenyi; Yang, Chunmei; Lu, Weiqiang; Huang, Jin; Zhu, Weiping; Li, Honglin; Xu, Yufang; Qian, Xuhong


    The first highly selective and sensitive fluorescent probe Z1 for detection of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) over isoforms CA I and CA II was developed. As demonstrated, Z1 worked effectively in both enzymatic systems and living hypoxia cells.

  1. Hoof Comfort for Horses (United States)


    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  2. Carbonic anhydrase IX as a specific biomarker for clear cell renal cell carcinoma: comparative study of Western blot and immunohistochemistry and implications for diagnosis. (United States)

    Giménez-Bachs, José M; Salinas-Sánchez, Antonio S; Serrano-Oviedo, Leticia; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Rubio-Del Campo, Antonio; Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo


    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) using two different techniques to detect protein expression. An experimental, cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted to analyse proteins in renal tumour and healthy tissue specimens from 38 consecutive patients who underwent nephrectomy for renal cancer. CA-IX protein expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed with the positive and negative specific agreements and kappa coefficient. The sensitivity and specificity of both techniques were assessed. Statistical tests were conducted to analyse the association between CA-IX expression quantitation and normal prognosis factors (TNM stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade), only in CCRCC. The mean patient age was 65 years, 78.9% of patients were men and 57.9% of tumours were CCRCC. CA-IX protein expression was positive in 63.2% of tumours by immunohistochemistry and in 60.5% by Western blot. Both techniques detected CA-IX expression only in CCRCC and unclassifiable tumours. High concordance indices were observed for CCRCC diagnosis. Western blot and immunohistochemistry had a sensitivity of 95.5% and 100%, respectively; the specificity was 100% in both techniques. CA-IX expression quantitation did not correlate with tumour stage or Fuhrman nuclear grade. Immunochemistry and Western blot techniques can be used to detect abnormal CA-IX protein expression in CCRCC and to support morphology-based diagnostic techniques.

  3. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy. (United States)

    Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa


    To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses.

  4. Ares I-X Vibroacoustic Environments (United States)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Schuster, David M.; Kaufman, Daniel S.


    This paper provides a summary of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team recommendations and observations following participation with the Ares I-X Vibroacoustic (VA) Environments Panel in meetings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in March and April 2008, respectively.

  5. Title IX--A Modest Success. (United States)

    Abrams, Mary


    Title IX has helped bring change to discriminatory policies and practices including curriculum options, activities, sports, and changes in vocational education. It is argued that students need to see women and men in a broad range of positions in order to broaden their concept of potential careers for themselves. (MLW)

  6. Title IX and Intercollegiate Sports: Equal Opportunity? (United States)

    Weistart, John


    After 25 years of federal Title IX regulation, only three dozen of the top 300 college athletics programs are in compliance. Women receive less than 40% of athletic scholarships. College sports are locked into a budgetary structure that favors two dominant men's sports, football and basketball. Divisive rhetoric and resistance delay balanced…

  7. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protoporphyrin IX and its derivatives are used as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Protoporphyrin IX penetrates into human red blood cells and releases oxygen from them. This leads to a change in the morphology of the cells. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX interacts with ...

  8. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises (United States)

    Toporek, Bryan


    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  9. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland. (United States)

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Agustsdóttir, Elfa; Blomström, Anne-Lie; Oström, Inga-Lena Örde; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Wensman, Jonas Johansson


    In a stable of eight horses in Northern Iceland, six horses presented with clinical signs, such as ataxia and reduced appetite, leading to euthanasia of one severely affected horse. Serological investigations revealed no evidence of active equine herpes virus type 1 infection, a common source of central nervous system disease in horses, nor equine arteritis virus and West Nile virus. Another neurotropic virus, Borna disease virus, was therefore included in the differential diagnosis list. Serological investigations revealed antibodies against Borna disease virus in four of five horses with neurological signs in the affected stable. One horse without clinical signs was seronegative. Four clinically healthy horses in the stable that arrived and were sampled one year after the outbreak were found seronegative, whereas one of four investigated healthy horses in an unaffected stable was seropositive. This report contains the first evidence of antibodies to Borna disease virus in Iceland. Whether Borna disease virus was the cause of the neurological signs could however not be confirmed by pathology or molecular detection of the virus. As Iceland has very restricted legislation regarding animal imports, the questions of how this virus has entered the country and to what extent markers of Bornavirus infection can be found in humans and animals in Iceland remain to be answered.

  10. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  11. Optical-sectioning microscopy of protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in human gliomas: standardization and quantitative comparison with histology (United States)

    Wei, Linpeng; Chen, Ye; Yin, Chengbo; Borwege, Sabine; Sanai, Nader; Liu, Jonathan T. C.


    Systemic delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid leads to enhanced fluorescence image contrast in many tumors due to the increased accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a fluorescent porphyrin that is associated with tumor burden and proliferation. The value of PpIX-guided resection of malignant gliomas has been demonstrated in prospective randomized clinical studies in which a twofold greater extent of resection and improved progression-free survival have been observed. In low-grade gliomas and at the diffuse infiltrative margins of all gliomas, PpIX fluorescence is often too weak to be detected with current low-resolution surgical microscopes that are used in operating rooms. However, it has been demonstrated that high-resolution optical-sectioning microscopes are capable of detecting the sparse and punctate accumulations of PpIX that are undetectable via conventional low-power surgical fluorescence microscopes. To standardize the performance of high-resolution optical-sectioning devices for future clinical use, we have developed an imaging phantom and methods to ensure that the imaging of PpIX-expressing brain tissues can be performed reproducibly. Ex vivo imaging studies with a dual-axis confocal microscope demonstrate that these methods enable the acquisition of images from unsectioned human brain tissues that quantitatively and consistently correlate with images of histologically processed tissue sections.

  12. Ultrasound-guided coxofemoral arthrocentesis in horses. (United States)

    David, F; Rougier, M; Alexander, K; Morisset, S


    Coxofemoral joint pain is probably underestimated due to difficulties in identifying hip pain. The deep location of the joint and proximity of the sciatic nerve make arthrocentesis based on external landmarks a difficult and potentially risky procedure in mature horses. To describe an ultrasound-guided injection technique of the coxofemoral joint in standing horses and to evaluate its accuracy and potential difficulties/complications. Nine mature horses had both pelvic areas prepared for sterile ultrasound examination (3.5 MHz curvilinear probe). Coxofemoral joints were located and penetrated at their craniodorsolateral aspect under ultrasonographic guidance and injected with sterile contrast medium. A standing ventrodorsal radiographic view of each hemipelvis centred on the hip was obtained for each horse to assess the injection site. Horses were evaluated for 10 days following injection for possible complications. Intra-articular injection was successful in all 18 joints. The procedure was well tolerated by horses under minimal restraint. Mean +/- s.d. needle repositionings required before accurate placement was 1.5 +/- 1.3 per joint. Once the needle was in the joint, synovial fluid was obtained in 7/18 joints. Minimal periarticular contrast medium was detected in 2/18 joints. Mean +/- s.d. ultrasonographic examination time required for coxofemoral localisation, accurate needle positioning and injection was 4.3 +/- 2.1 min. No complications were observed in the 10 days following injection. The ultrasound-guided coxofemoral arthrocentesis is an accurate, reliable and safe technique that offers a real time evaluation of needle introduction into the deep and narrow coxofemoral joint space. Although this technique remains to be tested on clinical cases, it is a promising tool to facilitate diagnosis of coxofemoral pain, septic arthritis or administration of intra-articular medication.

  13. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...... for either RLCI or RDCI. RLCI and RDCI can thus be applied as speed-independent stride-to-stride variability parameters in horses during walk over-ground. This might prove useful for detection of gait deficits caused by spinal cord injury....

  14. [Ultrasmall nanoparticles for radiotherapy: AGuIX]. (United States)

    Lux, F; Detappe, A; Dufort, S; Sancey, L; Louis, C; Carme, S; Tillement, O


    Since twenty years, many nanoparticles based on high atomic number elements have been developed as radiosensitizers. The design of these nanoparticles is limited by the classical rules associated with the development of nanoparticles for oncology and by the specific ones associated to radiosensitizers, which aim to increase the effect of the dose in the tumor area and to spare the health tissues. For this application, systemic administration of nanodrugs is possible. This paper will discuss the development of AGuIX nanoparticles and will emphasize on this example the critical points for the development of a nanodrug for this application. AGuIX nanoparticles display hydrodynamic diameters of a few nanometers and are composed of polysiloxane and gadolinium chelates. This particle has been used in many preclinical studies and is evaluated for a further phase I clinical trial. Finally, in addition to its high radiosensitizing potential, AGuIX display MRI functionality and can be used as theranostic nanodrug for personalized medicine. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter


    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  16. Radiation therapy in horses. (United States)

    Fidel, Janean L


    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  17. Risk factors associated with cast complications in horses: 398 cases (1997-2006). (United States)

    Janicek, John C; McClure, Scott R; Lescun, Timothy B; Witte, Stefan; Schultz, Loren; Whittal, Carly R; Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan


    To determine the frequency of and risk factors for complications associated with casts in horses. Multicenter retrospective case series. 398 horses with a half-limb or full-limb cast treated at 1 of 4 hospitals. Data collected from medical records included age, breed, sex, injury, limb affected, time from injury to hospital admission, surgical procedure performed, type of cast (bandage cast [BC; fiberglass tape applied over a bandage] or traditional cast [TC; fiberglass tape applied over polyurethane resin-impregnated foam]), limb position in cast (flexed, neutral, or extended), and complications. Risk factors for cast complications were identified via multiple logistic regression. Cast complications were detected in 197 of 398 (49%) horses (18/53 [34%] horses with a BC and 179/345 [52%] horses with a TC). Of the 197 horses with complications, 152 (77%) had clinical signs of complications prior to cast removal; the most common clinical signs were increased lameness severity and visibly detectable soft tissue damage Cast sores were the most common complication (179/398 [45%] horses). Casts broke for 20 (5%) horses. Three (0.8%) horses developed a bone fracture attributable to casting Median time to detection of complications was 12 days and 8 days for horses with TCs and BCs, respectively. Complications developed in 71%, 48%, and 47% of horses with the casted limb in a flexed, neutral, and extended position, respectively. For horses with TCs, hospital, limb position in the cast, and sex were significant risk factors for development of cast complications. Results indicated that 49% of horses with a cast developed cast complications.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of myostatin gene in Chinese domestic horses. (United States)

    Li, Ran; Liu, Dong-Hua; Cao, Chun-Na; Wang, Shao-Qiang; Dang, Rui-Hua; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Wu-Jun; Lei, Chu-Zhao


    The myostatin gene (MSTN) is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in MSTN are of importance due to their strong associations with horse racing performances. In this study, we screened the SNPs in MSTN gene in 514 horses from 15 Chinese horse breeds. Six SNPs (g.26T>C, g.156T>C, g.587A>G, g.598C>T, g.1485C>T, g.2115A>G) in MSTN gene were detected by sequencing and genotyped using PCR-RFLP method. The g.587A>G and g.598C>T residing in the 5'UTR region were novel SNPs identified by this study. The g.2115A>G which have previously been associated with racing performances were present in Chinese horse breeds, providing valuable genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances in Chinese domestic breeds. The six SNPs together defined thirteen haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. Most of the haplotypes were shared among different breeds with no haplotype restricted to a specific region or a single horse breed. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic variance was attributable to differences among individuals without any significant contribution by the four geographical groups. This study will provide fundamental and instrumental genetic information for evaluating the potential racing performances of Chinese horse breeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert


    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  20. Performance of conventional pcr for screening for strongylus vulgaris on horse farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne K.; Wøhlk, Chamilla B.M.; Petersen, Stig L.

    . This raises doubts about the reliability of the method. Recently, molecular tools have been developed to detect S. vulgaris in fecal samples. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with the traditional larval culture and furthermore test...... the performance of pooled versus individual PCR for farm screening purposes. Fecal samples were obtained from 331 horses on 18 different farms. Farm size ranged from 6 to 56 horses, and horses aged between 2 months and 31 years. Larval cultures and individual PCRs were performed from all horses. In addition, PCR...... was performed on 66 fecal pools representing 5 horses each. PCR primers previously developed for a real-time PCR assay were used for the PCR reaction. Results showed that the PCR and larval culture detected S. vulgaris in 12.1 and 4.5 % of horses, respectively. Eight farms tested positive with the larval...

  1. Cardiac findings in Quarter Horses with heritable equine regional dermal asthenia. (United States)

    Brinkman, Erin L; Weed, Benjamin C; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn L; Centini, Ryan M; Wills, Robert W; Olivier, Bari; Sledge, Dodd G; Cooley, Jim; Liao, Jun; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M


    OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA). DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses. PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses, RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.

  2. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik


    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  3. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) and human papillomavirus (HPV) as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC): a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Study (United States)

    Liao, Shu-Yuan; Rodgers, William H.; Kauderer, James; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Walker, Joan L.; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Carter, Randy; Hatae, Masayuji; Levine, Lyuba; Spirtos, Nick M; Stanbridge, Eric J.


    High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia but its role in detecting glandular lesions is unclear. In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix. The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC). H-HPV was detected using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) in liquid based cytology and CA-IX immunoreactivity was studied on conventional Pap smears. Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. CA-IX testing alone (n=403) had a sensitivity of 75%, 95%, or 65% for SCLs, significant glandular lesions (GLs) or squamous lesions (SLs), respectively, with a specificity of 88%, and a false negative rate (FNR defined as one minus negative predictive value) of 10%. Testing for H-HPV (n=122) had a sensitivity of 97%, 100%, or 96% for SCLs, GLs or SLs, respectively, with a specificity of 87%, and a FNRof 1%. The combination of CA-IX and H-HPV testing (n=122), collectively, had the same sensitivity, specificity and FNR for SCLs, GLs or SLs as H-HPV testing alone. The conclusions of this study are that both H-HPV and CA-IX testing are useful diagnostic markers for GLs. However, H-HPV testing is a better diagnostic marker for SLs. The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone. PMID:19670419

  4. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean. (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C


    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin


    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The disposition of suxibuzone in the horse. (United States)

    Delbeke, F T; Vynckier, L; Debackere, M


    A high performance liquid chromatographic method is described to determine the anti-inflammatory drug suxibuzone (SXB) and its major metabolites phenylbutazone (PBZ) and oxyphenbutazone (OPBZ) in equine plasma and urine. When suxibuzone (6 mg/kg) was administered intravenously (i.v.) or orally (p.o.) no parent drug was detected in plasma or in urine. The disposition of the metabolite PBZ (i.v.) could be described by a 2 compartment model with a beta half-life varying from 7.40 to 8.35 h. Due to severe side effects the use of i.v. suxibuzone should not be encouraged in the horse. PBZ and OPBZ were detected in plasma and urine after p.o. SXB administration. Peak plasma PBZ concentrations (8.8 +/- 3.0 micrograms/ml) occurred 6 h after oral dosing and the terminal exponential constant was 0.11 +/- 0.01 h-1. Phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone were detectable in urine (> 1 microgram/ml) for at least 36 h, after p.o. administration. SXB was not hydrolyzed in vitro by horse plasma. Equine liver homogenates however appeared to have a very high capacity for hydrolysing SXB, indicating that first-pass effect could be responsible for the rapid disappearance of this NSAID in the horse.

  7. Lower gastric ulcerogenic effect of suxibuzone compared to phenylbutazone when administered orally to horses. (United States)

    Monreal, L; Sabaté, D; Segura, D; Mayós, I; Homedes, J


    The objective was to compare the gastrointestinal and general toxicity of suxibuzone (SBZ) to that of phenylbutazone (PBZ) when administered orally in horses. Fifteen healthy horses were allocated to three treatment groups. One group received a high dose of PBZ for two weeks; the second group was given an equimolecular dosage of SBZ; and a third group received placebo. Horses were daily monitored, and blood samples were collected before and during the study. On day 18, complete post-mortem examinations were performed. One horse treated with PBZ showed clinical signs of NSAID toxicosis. Small oral ulcers were also detected in other two horses from the PBZ group and in two horses from the SBZ group. There were no statistical differences in the blood parameters among groups. Ulcers in the stomach's glandular mucosa were observed in all horses of the PBZ group, while only two horses of the SBZ group showed ulcerations. PBZ horses had a significant higher ulcerated area, and gastric ulcers were significantly deeper than those in the SBZ and placebo groups. No other lesions were found in any other tissue. In conclusion, SBZ causes significantly lower gastric ulcerogenic effect than PBZ when administered orally at equimolecular doses in horses.

  8. Detection of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from urban areas of Curitiba, Southern Brazil Detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros de áreas urbanas de Curitiba, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Monteforte Cassaro Villalobos


    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4% were positive: 2/29 (6.9% were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2% between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4% older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%. Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.Neospora caninum é um protozoário parasita que afeta cães como hospedeiros definitivos e diversos mamíferos como hospedeiros intermediários, envolvido em abortos e distúrbios do sistema nervoso central. A população reemergente de cavalos de carroceiros utilizados para transportar material reciclável em áreas urbanas de grandes cidades brasileiras na disseminação de doenças, e estes animais podem ser utilizados como sentinelas para vigilância ambiental. Deste modo, no presente estudo foi investigada a frequência de anticorpos anti-Neospora sp. em cavalos de carroceiros da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Anticorpos da classe IgG anti-Neospora sp. foram detectados utilizando a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, e t

  9. Liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach for the detection of Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator effects in horse doping control. (United States)

    Joré, Céline; Loup, Benoît; Garcia, Patrice; Paris, Anne-Christelle; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Audran, Michel; Bonnaire, Yves; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic


    Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESAs) were developed for therapeutic purposes to stimulate red blood cell (RBC) production. Consequently, tissue oxygenation is enhanced as athlete's endurance and ESAs misuse now benefits doping. Our hypothesis is that most of ESAs should have similar mechanisms and thus have the same effects on metabolism. Studying the metabolome variations could allow suspecting the use of any ESAs with a single method by targeting their effects. In this objective, a metabolomic study was carried out on 3 thoroughbred horses with a single administration of 4.2μg/kg of Mircera(®), also called Continuous Erythropoiesis Receptor Activator (CERA). Blood and urine samples were collected from D-17 to D+74 and haematological parameters were followed throughout the study as plasmatic CERA concentration (ELISA). Urine and plasma metabolic fingerprints were recorded by Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) in positive and negative mode. After preprocessing steps, normalized data were analyzed by multivariate statistics to build OPLS models. Hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit showed a significant increase after CERA administration unlike reticulocytes. CERA concentration showed a high intensity peak and then a slow decrease until becoming undetectable after D+31. Models built with multivariate statistics allow a discrimination between pre and post-administration plasma and urine samples until 74days after administration, i.e. 43days longer than ELISA method. By reducing and studying variables (ions), some potential candidate biomarkers were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing protoporphyrin IX-induced PDT (United States)

    Curnow, Alison; Pye, Andrew; Campbell, Sandra


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using porphyrin precursors is commonly used in dermatology. Evidence indicates that good clinical outcomes (associated with excellent cosmesis) can be achieved in superficial precancers and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), however, efficacy appears less favorable for thicker nodular BCC (nBCC) unless multiple PDT treatment cycles are performed. Enhancement is therefore required if nBCC lesions are to be treated effectively with a single PDT treatment. The most common technique currently being routinely employed clinically is the use of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) esters (usually methyl (MAL) or hexyl (HAL)). Standard dermatological PDT employing these porphyrin precursors already manipulates the normal heme biosynthesis pathway resulting in a temporary accumulation of the natural photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Further manipulation using iron chelating agents is possible however. In normal and malignant human cells in vitro, the novel iron chelating agent CP94 produced greater PPIX fluorescence when administered with ALA or MAL than either congener produced alone. CP94 was also significantly more effective than the clinically established iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFO). Topical application of ALA+CP94 to clinical nBCC lesions was a simple and safe treatment modification which produced a significant increase in clinical clearance when CP94 was included in the cream.

  11. Trigeminal Nerve Root Demyelination Not Seen in Six Horses Diagnosed with Trigeminal-Mediated Headshaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica L. Roberts


    Full Text Available Trigeminal-mediated headshaking is an idiopathic neuropathic facial pain syndrome in horses. There are clinical similarities to trigeminal neuralgia, a neuropathic facial pain syndrome in man, which is usually caused by demyelination of trigeminal sensory fibers within either the nerve root or, less commonly, the brainstem. Our hypothesis was that the neuropathological substrate of headshaking in horses is similar to that of trigeminal neuralgia in man. Trigeminal nerves, nerve roots, ganglia, infraorbital, and caudal nasal nerves from horse abattoir specimens and from horses euthanized due to trigeminal-mediated headshaking were removed, fixed, and processed for histological assessment by a veterinary pathologist and a neuropathologist with particular experience of trigeminal neuralgia histology. No histological differences were detected between samples from horses with headshaking and those from normal horses. These results suggest that trigeminal-mediated headshaking may have a different pathological substrate from trigeminal neuralgia in man.

  12. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica


    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  13. Resting concentrations of cardiac troponin I in fit horses and effect of racing. (United States)

    Nostell, Katarina; Häggström, Jens


    To determine normal resting values for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in healthy Standardbred, Thoroughbred and Warmblood horses and investigate if racing has an influence on cTnI concentrations. Measuring cTnI concentrations in plasma is the gold standard for detecting myocardial injury in humans. Cardiac troponin I is highly conserved between species and has gained interest as a marker for cardiac injury in horses. Increased levels of cTnI have been reported in association with endurance and short-term strenuous exercise on a treadmill in horses. However, the effect of true racing conditions has not yet been reported. Blood samples for analysis of cTnI concentrations in plasma were collected from 67 Standardbred racehorses, 34 Thoroughbred racehorses and 35 Warmblood dressage horses at rest. Blood samples were also collected prior to and after racing in 22 Standardbred racehorses and 6 Thoroughbred racehorses. All horses except one had resting plasma cTnI concentrations horses 1-2h after the race (1/17 Standardbreds and 2/6 Thoroughbreds) as well as 10-14 h after the race (4/21 Standardbreds and 1/6 Thoroughbreds). Resting cTnI concentrations in horses are low but mildly elevated cTnI concentrations may be detected in some horses 1-14 h after racing. These findings could be of importance when evaluating horses with suspected cardiac disease that recently have performed hard exercise.

  14. Singlet oxygen feedback delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX in organic solutions. (United States)

    Vinklárek, Ivo S; Scholz, Marek; Dědic, Roman; Hála, Jan


    Delayed fluorescence (DF) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has been recently proposed as a tool for monitoring of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo as well as for observation of the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) [E. G. Mik, Anesth. Analg., 2013, 117, 834-346; F. Piffaretti et al., J. Biomed. Opt., 2012, 17, 115007]. However, the efficiency of the mechanism of thermal activation (E-type DF), which was considered in the papers, is limited due to a large energy gap between the first excited singlet and the first triplet state of PpIX at room or body temperatures. Moreover, the energy gap is roughly equal to other porphyrinoid photosensitizers that generate DF mostly through the Singlet Oxygen Feedback-Induced mechanism (SOFDF) under certain conditions [M. Scholz and R. Dědic, Singlet Oxygen: Applications in Biosciences and Nanosciences, 2016, vol. 2, pp. 63-81]. The mechanisms of delayed fluorescence of PpIX dissolved either in dimethylformamide (DMF) or in the mixture of DMF with ethylene glycol (EG) were investigated at atmospheric partial pressure of oxygen by means of a simultaneous time-resolved detection of 1O2 phosphorescence and PpIX DF which makes a direct comparison of the kinetics and lifetimes of both the luminescence channels possible. Samples of PpIX (100 μM) exhibit concave DF kinetics, which is a typical footprint of the SOFDF mechanism. The dramatic decrease in the DF intensity after adding a selective 1O2 quencher sodium azide (NaN3, 10 mM) proves that >90% of DF is indeed generated through SOFDF. Moreover, the analysis of the DF kinetics in the presence of NaN3 implies that the second significant mechanism of DF generation is the triplet-triplet annihilation (P-type DF). The bimolecular mechanism of DF was further confirmed by the decrease of the DF intensity in the more viscous mixture DMF/EG and by the increase of the ratio of DF to the prompt fluorescence (PF) intensity with the increasing excitation intensity. These results show

  15. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.


    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  16. Intrinsic thermodynamics of inhibitor binding to human carbonic anhydrase IX. (United States)

    Linkuvienė, Vaida; Matulienė, Jurgita; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Michailovienė, Vilma; Jachno, Jelena; Matulis, Daumantas


    Human carbonic anhydrase 9th isoform (CA IX) is an important marker of numerous cancers and is increasingly interesting as a potential anticancer drug target. Various synthetic aromatic sulfonamide-bearing compounds are being designed as potent inhibitors of CA IX. However, sulfonamide compound binding to CA IX is linked to several reactions, the deprotonation of the sulfonamide amino group and the protonation of the CA active site Zn(II)-bound hydroxide. These linked reactions significantly affect the affinities and other thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpies and entropies of binding. The observed and intrinsic affinities of compound binding to CA IX were determined by the fluorescent thermal shift assay. The enthalpies and entropies of binding were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry. The pKa of CA IX was determined to be 6.8 and the enthalpy of CA IX-Zn(II)-bound hydroxide protonation was -24 kJ/mol. These values enabled the analysis of intrinsic thermodynamics of a library of compounds binding to CA IX. The most strongly binding compounds exhibited the intrinsic affinity of 0.01 nM and the observed affinity of 2 nM. The intrinsic thermodynamic parameters of compound binding to CA IX helped to draw the compound structure to thermodynamics relationship. It is important to distinguish the intrinsic from observed parameters of any disease target protein interaction with its inhibitors as drug candidates when drawing detailed compound structure to thermodynamics correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Testes bioquímico (albumina e proteína de ligação da vitamina D e molecular (gene KIT para detecção de marcadores genéticos para pelagem tobiana em cavalos Pampa e Paint Biochemical (albumin and vitamin D-binding protein and molecular (KIT gene tests for detection of genetic markers for Tobiano coat color in Pampa and Paint horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.A. Coelho


    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 159 cavalos Pampa, registrados na Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Cavalo Pampa, e um grupo-controle, de 32 cavalos da raça Paint, ambos os grupos provenientes de plantéis de diferentes regiões brasileiras, com o objetivo de comparar os testes bioquímico e molecular para detecção de marcadores genéticos para pelagem tobiana em cavalos Pampa. Houve diferença significativa (PIn this study, 159 Pampa horses, registered at the Associação Brasileira dos Criadores de Cavalo Pampa, and a control group of 32 Paint horses, both coming from herds located in different Brazilian regions, were used to compare biochemical and molecular tests for detection of genetic markers for the Tobiano coat color pattern in Pampa horses. Difference (P<0.001 between biochemical and molecular tess in Pampa horses was observed, but not for the Paint horses. The results showed that the molecular marker (KIT was more efficient to identify the probable homozygous dominant horses than the biochemical markers albumin (Al and vitamin D-binding Protein (Gc, in both breeds.

  18. Can jumping capacity of adult show jumping horses be predicted on the basis of submaximal free jumps at foal age? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, M.F.; Santamaria, S.; van Weeren, P.R.; Back, W.; Barneveld, A.


    The purpose of this study was to quantify performance characteristics of good jumping horses, and to determine whether these were already detectable at foal age. Kinematic data were collected of horses performing free jumps over a 0.60 m high fence at six months of age and of these same horses

  19. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.


    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills,

  20. Preferential accumulation of 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX in breast cancer: a comprehensive study on six breast cell lines with varying phenotypes (United States)

    Millon, Stacy R.; Ostrander, Julie H.; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Brown, J. Quincy; Bender, Janelle E.; Rajeha, Anita; Ramanujam, Nirmala


    We describe the potential of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence as a source of contrast for margin detection in commonly diagnosed breast cancer subtypes. Fluorescence intensity of PpIX in untreated and ALA-treated normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cell lines of varying estrogen receptor expression were quantitatively imaged with confocal microscopy. Percentage change in fluorescence intensity integrated over 610-700 nm (attributed to PpIX) of posttreated compared to pretreated cells showed statistically significant differences between four breast cancer and two normal mammary epithelial cell lines. However, a direct comparison of post-treatment PpIX fluorescence intensities showed no differences between breast cancer and normal mammary epithelial cell lines due to confounding effects by endogenous fluorescence from flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Clinically, it is impractical to obtain pre- and post-treatment images. Thus, spectral imaging was demonstrated as a means to remove the effects of endogenous FAD fluorescence allowing for discrimination between post-treatment PpIX fluorescence of four breast cancer and two normal mammary epithelial cell lines. Fluorescence spectral imaging of ALA-treated breast cancer cells showed preferential PpIX accumulation regardless of malignant phenotype and suggests a useful contrast mechanism for discrimination of residual cancer at the surface of breast tumor margins.

  1. Identification of a pegivirus (GB virus-like virus) that infects horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Cullen, John M


    The recent identification of nonprimate hepaciviruses in dogs and then in horses prompted us to look for pegiviruses (GB virus-like viruses) in these species. Although none were detected in canines, we found widespread natural infection of horses by a novel pegivirus. Unique genomic features...

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Susana; Dubey, Jp; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cotovio, Mário; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Cardoso, Luís; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela


    Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were

  3. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lawrence


    Full Text Available In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007, there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the light exercise category. Moderate exercise consists of 3 to 5 hours/week of mostly trotting with some walking, some cantering and possibly some jumping or other type of more difficult activity. Horses used for horse shows, ranch work and frequent recreational riding would fit into the moderate exercise category. Heavy exercise is described as 4 to 5 hours/week of trotting, cantering, galloping and some jumping, cattle work, etc. Horses engaged in three day eventing, polo, endurance racing or other competitive events would be in this category. The very heavy exercise category includes racehorses and a few other horses that compete at the elite level of endurance or three day eventing. The NRC (2007 provides recommendations for nutrient intakes by mature exercising horses and for yearlings and two year olds that are receiving regular exercise. Many of the recommendations are similar to those in the 1989 publication, but others have been increased or decreased. For example, crude protein recommendations for exercising horses are generally lower than in the last edition. However, lysine requirements are relatively similar and the publication suggests that protein quality should be emphasized more than in the past. The 2007 NRC contains more information about the factors that influence the requirements for each nutrient, making it easier for users to develop diets for individual horses.

  4. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel. (United States)

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gürbilek, Sevil E; Tel, Osman Y; Keskin, Oktay; Steinman, Amir


    Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  5. Nitric oxide inhibits the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX. (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which curing agents, especially nitrite, inhibit the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in dry-cured hams such as Parma ham. The oxidation-reduction potential of model solutions was increased by the addition of nitrite, but it was not clear whether the formation of ZPP is inhibited by the oxidizing property of nitrite. The effect of nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite on the formation of ZPP was examined. The amount of ZPP formed was decreased by the addition of NO donors. The amount of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which is the precursor of ZPP, was also decreased by the addition of NO donors. It is concluded that NO produced from nitrite inhibited the formation of PPIX and ZPP was therefore not formed in cured meat products with the addition of nitrite or nitrate.

  6. Quantitative determination of Zn protoporphyrin IX, heme and protoporphyrin IX in Parma ham by HPLC. (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito


    We measured the contents of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP), heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in Parma ham by simultaneous analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction with ethyl acetate-acetic acid (4:1) was suitable for the quantitative analysis of ZPP. The contents of heme, ZPP and PPIX in Parma ham were 15.0-29.9, 27.7-47.0 and 0.4-1.1μg/g, respectively, and total content of porphyrin was 43.7-76.6μg/g. The amount of ZPP in Parma ham was larger than that of heme, and ZPP accounted for 60-70% of all porphyrins.

  7. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan


    trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training......The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  8. Protoporphyrin IX in the skin measured noninvasively predicts photosensitivity in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerfordt, I M; Wulf, H C


    and to investigate how skin PpIX relates to erythrocyte PpIX and photosensitivity. METHODS: Skin PpIX was measured in 25 patients with EPP by calculating the difference in PpIX fluorescence before and after complete photobleaching of PpIX using controlled illumination. The patients reported symptoms during...... established a noninvasive method to measure skin PpIX based on measurements of PpIX fluorescence before and after complete PpIX photobleaching. The patients had an average skin PpIX of 2·0 units and skin emission spectra confirmed the presence of skin PpIX (peak emission 632 nm). Skin PpIX was associated...

  9. Clinical nutrition of adult horses. (United States)

    Ralston, S L


    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  10. Sacroiliac injuries in horses. (United States)

    Lorenz, Jennifer; Brounts, Sabrina H


    This article reviews the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of sacroiliac joint injuries. These injuries can be acute or chronic and can involve soft tissue structures surrounding the joint or the bony structures of the joint. The several diagnostic modalities for sacroiliac injuries vary in usefulness and accessibility. Treatment of sacroiliac problems is usually supportive and nonspecific and includes the use of antiinflammatory medications and an appropriate exercise regimen. The prognosis depends on the cause, but severe injuries can limit a horse's future athletic activity.

  11. RT-qPCR for the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses. (United States)

    Frank, Linda A; Kania, Stephen A; Weyant, Ellie


    Dermatophilus congolensis causes a crusting dermatitis that affects horses. Diagnosis requires the identification of the organism with cytological evaluation of crust samples. This method can lack sensitivity in chronic cases. To develop a probe-based real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test to assist with the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses. Twenty six privately owned horses and seven horses from a research colony were used. Crust samples, collected from 14 horses with suspected dermatophilosis and 12 horses with crusting skin disease not characteristic of dermatophilosis, were evaluated by cytological evaluation and RT-qPCR; the latter was also performed on hair samples collected from seven healthy horses. Cytological evaluation revealed organisms consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis from nine horses with suspected dermatophilosis, with only a few organisms seen from five samples. Cytological evaluation of all other crusts was negative for Dermatophilus. Other bacterial organisms were detected on cytological evaluation from 15 samples. RT-qPCR for Dermatophilus was positive from 11 crusts, whereas all other samples were negative. Two samples were cytologically negative but RT-qPCR positive for Dermatophilus. No samples were cytologically positive but RT-qPCR negative for Dermatophilus. Results of this study show that RT-qPCR may be a more sensitive and easier method than cytological evaluation for the diagnosis of dermatophilosis in horses. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries of Quarter Horse racehorses: 314 cases (1990-2007). (United States)

    Sarrafian, Tiffany L; Case, James T; Kinde, Hailu; Daft, Barbara M; Read, Deryck H; Moore, Janet D; Uzal, Francisco A; Stover, Susan M


    To determine major causes of death and the anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries in Quarter Horse racehorses in California. Retrospective case series. 314 Quarter Horse racehorses with musculoskeletal injuries that were necropsied through the California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Program from 1990 to 2007. Postmortem pathology reports were retrospectively reviewed. Musculoskeletal injuries were categorized by anatomic region and described. The number of Quarter Horse starts and starters for the same period of time were obtained from a commercial database for determination of fatal injury incidence. Musculoskeletal injuries accounted for 314 of the 443 (71 %) Quarter Horse racehorses that died during the 18-year study period. Fatal musculoskeletal injuries occurred at a rate of 2.0 deaths/1,000 race starts and 18.6 deaths/1,000 horses that started a race. Musculoskeletal injuries occurred predominantly during racing (84%) and in the forelimbs (81%). The most common fatal musculoskeletal injuries were metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) support injuries (40%) and carpal (24%), vertebral (10%), and scapular (8%) fractures. Proximal interphalangeal (pastern) joint luxations resulted in death of 3% of horses. Fracture configurations of some bones were consistent with those of Thoroughbred racehorses. Evidence of preexisting stress remodeling of bone was reported for some fractures. Knowledge of common locations and types of fatal musculoskeletal injuries in racing Quarter Horses may enhance practitioners' ability to detect mild injuries early, rest horses, and help prevent catastrophic injuries.

  13. Age-related and non-age-related changes in 100 surveyed horse brains. (United States)

    Jahns, H; Callanan, J J; McElroy, M C; Sammin, D J; Bassett, H F


    Brains from 100 horses, aged 2-25 years, were systematically examined by histopathology at 46 different neuroanatomical sites. The horses were sourced from a slaughterhouse (group A, n = 57), from a kennel that collected dead animals, and from 2 diagnostic laboratories (group B, n = 43). All horses from group A and 26 horses from group B were examined by a veterinarian in the period before death. None of the horses were known to exhibit clinical signs suggestive of neurologic disease. Among the main changes identified were vacuolation in the neuropil (n = 73), neurons (n = 32), white matter (n = 31), and focal perivascular lymphoid cell infiltrates (n = 35). Spheroids were frequently seen (n = 91), and 10 horses each had more than 10 spheroids in the cuneate or gracile nucleus. Statistically significant age-related changes noted included intraneuronal (n = 97) and glial or extracellular lipofuscin deposition (n = 41), hemosiderin deposition around blood vessels (n = 60), and calcium depositions (n = 24). One horse had low-grade nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis; Alzheimer type II cells were detected in the brains of 2 horses. Hyalinized vessel walls in the cerebellum were observed in 1 horse. It was concluded that some histopathologic changes are a frequent feature in equine brains, which has implications for the pathologists involved in equine neurology and disease surveillance.

  14. Duration of tetanus immunoglobulin G titres following basic immunisation of horses. (United States)

    Kendall, A; Anagrius, K; Gånheim, A; Rosanowski, S M; Bergström, K


    Recommendations for prophylactic vaccination against tetanus in horses vary greatly between countries and have scarce scientific support in the peer-reviewed literature. In human medicine, recommended booster vaccination intervals are also very variable, but are considerably longer than for horses. More information is needed about the duration of immunity induced by modern vaccines. To investigate if the duration of antibody titres previously determined to be protective against tetanus differ from what is indicated by recommended vaccination intervals for horses. Prospective seroconversion study. Thirty-four horses were enrolled for basic immunisation with an ISCOM Matrix-combination vaccine (Equilis Prequenza Te). Horses received the first vaccination at age 5-11 months, and the second dose 4 weeks later. A third vaccine dose was given 15-17 months after the second dose. Serum tetanus antibody titres were analysed by toxin-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 2 weeks as well as 14-16 months after the second dose. After the third vaccine dose, titres were checked once yearly for 3 years. Results were described by age and level of antibody titre at first sampling. Two weeks after the second dose, all horses (34/34) had antibody levels that exceeded the limit of detection, 0.04 iu/ml. After 16 months the levels were above 0.04 iu/ml in 28/33 horses, the remaining 5 horses potentially had suboptimal protection against tetanus. After the third vaccine dose antibody levels remained above 0.04 iu/ml in 25/26 horses for 1 year, 16/16 horses for 2 years, and 8/8 horses for 3 years. Horses that undergo basic immunisation with 3 doses of vaccine after age 5 months are likely to have serum antibody titres consistent with protection against tetanus for more than 3 years. Current guidelines for tetanus prophylaxis should be revised. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Aniridia in Two Related Tennessee Walking Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. McCormick


    Full Text Available Aniridia in horses is rare and has previously been reported to be genetically transmitted in Belgian horses and Quarter horses. This paper describes the defect in 2 related Tennessee Walking horses, with special reference to new findings regarding the molecular genetics of ocular development and how they might relate to equine aniridia. In addition to aniridia, these 2 horses possessed additional ocular abnormalities including cataracts and dermoid lesions. Euthanasia was elected, and the eyes were examined histologically. Iris hypoplasia, atypical dermoids, and cataracts were confirmed in both horses. Due to the heritability of aniridia in horses, breeding of affected animals is not recommended.

  16. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros


    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  17. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini


    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།


    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  19. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service's (APHIS) administration of the Horse Protection Program and...); (2) show or exhibit a horse at a horse show, public auction, or exhibition such as a college football...

  20. Quantitative assessment of increased sensitivity of chronic laminitic horses to hoof tester evoked pain. (United States)

    Viñuela-Fernandez, I; Jones, E; McKendrick, I J; Molony, V


    To evaluate quantitative sensory testing (QST) of the feet of laminitic horses using a power-assisted hoof tester. Hoof Compression Thresholds (HCTs) can be measured reliably and are consistently lower in horses with chronic laminitis than in normal horses. HCTs of chronic laminitic (n=7) and normal horses (n=7) were repeatedly measured using a hydraulically powered and feedback controlled hoof tester. Data from 2 tests, at 3 sites in both forefeet, during 3 sessions were collected and statistically analysed using linear mixed models. The mean±s.e. HCT for the laminitic horses was 29.6±3.5 kg/cm2 and for horses in the normal group was 59.8±4.3 kg/cm2. Residual variance was the largest of the error components and was greater (Ptester. The level of variability found indicates that, under these conditions, treatments may need to produce at least a 40% improvement to be detected. Simplification of the hoof tester, training of the horse and repeated testing may permit the method to be used clinically to detect changes in the HCTs of individual laminitic horses but these potential improvements will require further investigation. Measurement of HCTs can provide an additional means for assessing the effectiveness of treatments for alleviation of chronic equine laminitis. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Effect of long-term fluticasone treatment on immune function in horses with heaves. (United States)

    Dauvillier, J; Felippe, M J B; Lunn, D P; Lavoie-Lamoureux, A; Leclère, M; Beauchamp, G; Lavoie, J-P


    Corticosteroids currently are the most effective pharmacological treatment available to control heaves in horses. Systemically administered corticosteroids have been shown to alter immune response in horses, humans, and other species. Aerosolized administration theoretically minimizes systemic adverse effects, but the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on immune function has not been evaluated in horses. To evaluate the effects of prolonged administration of inhaled fluticasone on the immune system of heaves-affected horses. Heaves-affected horses were treated with inhaled fluticasone (n = 5) for 11 months or received environmental modifications only (n = 5). Prospective analysis. Clinical parameters and CBC, lymphocyte subpopulations and function, and circulating neutrophil gene expression were sequentially measured. Primary and anamnestic immune responses also were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibodies in response to vaccination with bovine viral antigen and tetanus toxoid, respectively. No clinical adverse effects were observed and no differences in immune function were detected between treated and untreated horses. The treatment of heaves-affected horses with inhaled fluticasone at therapeutic dosages for 11 months has no significant detectable effect on innate and adaptive (both humoral and cell-mediated) immune parameters studied. These results suggest that prolonged administration of fluticasone would not compromise the systemic immune response to pathogens nor vaccination in adult horses. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Stark broadening parameter tables for K VIII and K IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević M.S.


    Full Text Available Using a semiclassical approach, we have calculated electron−, proton−, and He III−impact line widths and shifts for 4 K VIII and 30 K IX multiplets as a function of temperature and perturber density.

  3. 3. IX avati Tartu Saksa Kultuuri Instituudi Kohvrigaleriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Hamburgist pärit kunstniku Julia Ackermanni näitus. Kunstnik esitleb värvidega täiendatud loodusobjektide ja esemete fotosuurendusi. 4. IX workshop Tartu Kõrgema Kunstikooli fotograafiaeriala üliõpilastele

  4. Bianchi-IX string cosmological model in Lyra geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A class of cosmological solutions of massive strings for the Bianchi-IX space-time are obtained within the framework of Lyra geometry. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of Arabian horse blood during training regimens. (United States)

    Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk-Szmukier, Monika; Żukowski, Kacper; Piórkowska, Katarzyna; Gurgul, Artur; Bugno-Poniewierska, Monika


    Arabian horses are believed to be one of the oldest and most influential horse breeds in the world. Blood is the main tissue involved in maintaining body homeostasis, and it is considered a marker of the processes taking place in the other tissues. Thus, the aim of our study was to identify the genetic basis of changes occurring in the blood of Arabian horses subjected to a training regimen and to compare the global gene expression profiles between different training periods (T1: after a slow canter phase that is considered a conditioning phase, T2: after an intense gallop phase, and T3: at the end of the racing season) and between trained and untrained horses (T0). RNA sequencing was performed on 37 samples with a 75-bp single-end run on a HiScanSQ platform (Illumina), and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified based on DESeq2 (v1.11.25) software. An increase in the number of DEGs between subsequent training periods was observed, and the highest amount of DEGs (440) was detected between untrained horses (T0) and horses at the end of the racing season (T3). The comparisons of the T2 vs. T3 transcriptomes and the T0 vs. T3 transcriptomes showed a significant gain of up-regulated genes during long-term exercise (up-regulation of 266 and 389 DEGs in the T3 period compared to T2 and T0, respectively). Forty differentially expressed genes were detected between the T1 and T2 periods, and 296 between T2 and T3. Functional annotation showed that the most abundant genes up-regulated in exercise were involved in pathways regulating cell cycle (PI3K-Akt signalling pathway), cell communication (cAMP-dependent pathway), proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, as well as immunity processes (Jak-STAT signalling pathway). We investigated whether training causes permanent transcriptome changes in horse blood as a reflection of adaptation to conditioning and the maintenance of fitness to compete in flat races. The present study identified the overrepresented

  6. Clenbuterol and the horse revisited. (United States)

    Kearns, Charles F; McKeever, Kenneth H


    Clenbuterol is a beta(2)-agonist and potent selective bronchodilator that is used to treat bronchospasm in the horse. The drug is normally administered to horses orally as a syrup formulation. Once absorbed into the systemic circulation, clenbuterol has the potential to cause many side effects, including a repartitioning effect and major alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle function. Recent studies have also reported that clenbuterol can affect bone and the immune, endocrine and reproductive systems. A great deal of information has been published on the beneficial effects of short term therapeutic doses of clenbuterol on the equine respiratory system, although there is limited information about chronic administration, particularly since this has been associated with adverse physiological effects on other systems. This review summarizes the relevant understanding of clenbuterol for clinicians and horse owners who may administer this drug to pleasure and performance horses.

  7. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  8. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail H Collins

    Full Text Available Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS and very high frequency (VHF radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  9. Reducing Respiratory Health Risks to Horses and Workers: A Comparison of Two Stall Bedding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen


    Full Text Available Stable air quality and the choice of bedding material are an important health issue both in horses and people working or visiting horse stables. Risks of impaired respiratory health are those that can especially be avoided by improving air quality in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions; where horses are kept most of the day and year indoors throughout their life. This study examined the effect of two bedding materials; wood shavings and peat; on stable air quality and health of horses. Ammonia and dust levels were also measured to assess conditions in the stable. Ammonia was not detected or was at very low levels (<0.25 ppm in the boxes in which peat was used as bedding; but its concentration was clearly higher (1.5–7.0 ppm in stalls with wood shavings as bedding. Personal measurements of workers revealed quite high ammonia exposure (5.9 ppm8h in the boxes in which wood shavings were used; but no exposure was Animals 2015, 5 966 observed in stalls bedded with peat. The respiratory symptoms in horses increased regardless of the bedding material at the beginning of the study. The health status of the horses in the peat bedding group returned to the initial level in the end of the trial but horses bedded with wood shavings continued to be symptomatic. The hooves of the horses with peat bedding had a better moisture content than those of the horses bedded with wood shavings. The results suggest that peat is a better bedding material for horses than wood shavings regarding the health of both horses and stable workers.

  10. Comparison of in vitro photodynamic antimicrobial activity of protoporphyrin IX between endoscopic white light and newly developed narrowband endoscopic light against Helicobacter pylori 26695. (United States)

    Choi, SungSook; Lee, HaeKyung; Chae, HiunSuk


    Helicobacter pylori might be readily affected with photodynamic therapy (PDT) by weak wavelengths, because it has few repair genes. Recently, gastrointestinal endoscopy emitting specific wavelengths (narrowband imaging, NBI) has been developed for the early detection of tumors. Coincidentally, its wavelength (415 nm) is very similar to the wavelength (410 nm) that activates protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) as a photosensitizer (PS). Therefore, we studied in vitro PDT against H. pylori using NBI and conventional white light (WL) according to low or high concentration of PpIX along with exposure time. The bactericidal effects, the degree of oxidative DNA damage and membrane integrity of H. pylori after PDT were evaluated. In the control, the numbers of viable cells remained constant during the experiment. Viable cells after PDT using both endoscopic light irradiation, were decreased approximately 10(3) - 10(5) fold at low concentration of PpIX and below 0.80 × 10 at high concentration of PpIX. Only membrane damage after PDT was observed microscopically in H. pylori without DNA injury. Conclusively, either the bactericidal effect in high concentration or the decrease of bacterial loading in low concentration of PpIX, would be expected with PDT using endoscopic light (NBI or WL). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences. (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D


    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  12. The earliest horse harnessing and milking. (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P


    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  13. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat. (United States)

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne


    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent.

  14. Chagas disease in a Texan horse with neurologic deficits. (United States)

    Bryan, Laura K; Hamer, Sarah A; Shaw, Sarah; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Auckland, Lisa D; Hodo, Carolyn L; Chaffin, Keith; Rech, Raquel R


    A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a six month-history of ataxia and lameness in the hind limbs. The horse was treated presumptively for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on clinical signs but was ultimately euthanized after its condition worsened. Gross lesions were limited to a small area of reddening in the gray matter of the thoracic spinal cord. Histologically, trypanosome amastigotes morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, were sporadically detected within segments of the thoracic spinal cord surrounded by mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Ancillary testing for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. was negative. Conventional and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of affected paraffin embedded spinal cord were positive for T. cruzi, and sequencing of the amplified T. cruzi satellite DNA PCR fragment from the horse was homologous with various clones of T. cruzi in GenBank. While canine Chagas disease cases have been widely reported in southern Texas, this is the first report of clinical T. cruzi infection in an equid with demonstrable amastigotes in the spinal cord. In contrast to previous instances of Chagas disease in the central nervous system (CNS) of dogs and humans, no inflammation or T. cruzi amastigotes were detected in the heart of the horse. Based on clinical signs, there is a potential for misdiagnosis of Chagas disease with other infectious diseases that affect the equine CNS. T. cruzi should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with neurologic clinical signs and histologic evidence of meningomyelitis that originate in areas where Chagas disease is present. The prevalence of T. cruzi in horses and the role of equids in the parasite life cycle require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Carmalt, James L; Kneissl, Sibylle; Rawlinson, Jennifer E; Zwick, Timo; Zekas, Lisa; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Bienert-Zeit, Astrid


    Published descriptions of nonseptic arthritis of the equine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are rare and large studies investigating variations in the TMJ for asymptomatic horses are lacking. The objectives of this cross-sectional, retrospective, multi-institutional study were to describe anatomical variations in the TMJ detected using computed tomography (CT) in an equid population asymptomatic for TMJ disease and determine whether these variations were associated with patient signalment, reason for CT examination, or CT slice width. Medical records at eight hospitals were searched for horses that had head/neck CT scans and no clinical signs of TMJ disease. Age, breed, sex, clinical presentation, and CT slice width data were recorded. Alterations in CT contour and density of the mandibular condyles, mandibular fossae, and TMJ intra-articular discs were described for each horse. Generalized logistic regression was used to test associations between anatomical variations and horse age. A total of 1018 horses were sampled. Anatomical variations were found in TMJ CT images for 40% of horses and 29% of joints. These were dichotomous with regard to age. Horses TMJ anatomic variations were common in CT images of younger and older horses asymptomatic for TMJ disease. Future studies are needed to more definitively characterize these CT variations using gross pathology and histopathology. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  16. [Stress parameters and behaviour of horses in walkers with and without the use of electricity]. (United States)

    Giese, C; Gerber, V; Howald, M; Bachmann, I; Burger, D


    In order to investigate stress responses of horses in walkers with and without electricity, 12 horses were trained during 3 weeks in a horse walker with and without the use of electricity (3.7 kV). To evaluate the stress response, cortisol levels in the blood were measured, the heart rate was monitored using the Polar® system and the behaviour was evaluated. Neither the cortisol levels nor the heart rates showed any relevant statistically significant difference between horses moved in the horse walker with or without the use of electricity. The highest cortisol levels and heart rates were recorded during the first week (habituation period). A significant difference could be observed regarding spontaneous compartment changes: while this happened mainly during the first week and before the first use of electricity, no horses changed compartments in the periods when electricity was used and thereafter. The results of this study indicate that the use of electricity in the horse walker does not seem to cause significant detectable stress in the horses.

  17. Temporal detection of Lawsonia intracellularis using serology and real-time PCR in Thoroughbred horses residing on a farm endemic for equine proliferative enteropathy. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Jackson, Ryan; Wilson, Rachel; Collier, Jessica; Mapes, Samantha; Gebhart, Connie


    The goals of this study were to evaluate titers of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis in 68 resident broodmares from a farm known to be endemic for equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) and to evaluate maternal antibodies, occurrence of seroconversion and fecal shedding in their foals. Serum samples collected from mares at delivery and from foals pre- and post-colostrum ingestion and monthly thereafter were tested for the presence of L. intracellularis antibodies by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Further, feces collected from mares at delivery and foals post-partum and monthly thereafter were assayed for L. intracellularis using real-time PCR. Thirty-seven mares (54.4%) had detectable antibody titers (> or =60) against L. intracellularis by IPMA at the time of foaling. Passive transfer of colostral antibodies against L. intracellularis was documented in 37 foals (54.4%) and the colostral antibodies remained detectable in the serum of foals for 1-3 months. Overall, 22 foals (33.3%) showed evidence of natural exposure to L. intracellularis throughout the study period, however, none of the study foals developed signs compatible with EPE. The serological results showed that mares residing on a farm known to be endemic for EPE are routinely exposed to L. intracellularis and that antibodies against L. intracellularis are passively transferred to foals.

  18. Seroprevalence study of Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) in Australian weanling horses using serotype-specific ERBV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (United States)

    Horsington, Jacquelyn; Hartley, Carol A; Gilkerson, James R


    Respiratory infections are a major burden in the performance horse industry. Equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) has been isolated from horses displaying clinical respiratory disease, and ERBV-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in 50-80% of horses in reported surveys. Current ERBV isolation and detection methods may underestimate the number of ERBV-positive animals and do not identify multiple serotype infections. The aim of the current study was to develop a serotyping ERBV antibody-detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and examine the seroprevalence of ERBV in a group of Australian weanling horses. ELISAs with high sensitivity and specificity were developed. The seroprevalence of ERBV in the weanling horses was high (74-86%); ERBV-3 antibodies were most prevalent (58-62%) and ERBV-2 antibodies were least prevalent (10-16%). Many horses were seropositive to 2 or more serotypes. All 3 serotypes of ERBV were detected, and concurrent positivity to multiple serotypes was common.

  19. Muscle as a target for supplementary factor IX gene transfer. (United States)

    Hoffman, Brad E; Dobrzynski, Eric; Wang, Lixin; Hirao, Lauren; Mingozzi, Federico; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W


    Immune responses to the factor IX (F.IX) transgene product are a concern in gene therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B. The risk for such responses is determined by several factors, including the vector, target tissue, and others. Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatic gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors can induce F.IX-specific immune tolerance. Muscle-derived F.IX expression, however, is limited by a local immune response. Here, skeletal muscle was investigated as a target for supplemental gene transfer. Given the low invasiveness of intramuscular injections, this route would be ideal for secondary gene transfer, thereby boosting levels of transgene expression. However, this is feasible only if immune tolerance established by compartmentalization of expression to the liver extends to other sites. Immune tolerance to human F.IX established by prior hepatic AAV-2 gene transfer was maintained after subsequent injection of AAV-1 or adenoviral vector into skeletal muscle, and tolerized mice failed to form antibodies or an interferon (IFN)-gamma(+) T cell response to human F.IX. A sustained increase in systemic transgene expression was obtained for AAV-1, whereas an increase after adenoviral gene transfer was transient. A CD8(+) T cell response specifically against adenovirus-transduced fibers was observed, suggesting that cytotoxic T cell responses against viral antigens were sufficient to eliminate expression in muscle. In summary, the data demonstrate that supplemental F.IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle does not break tolerance achieved by liver-derived expression. The approach is efficacious, if the vector for muscle gene transfer does not express immunogenic viral proteins.

  20. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  1. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ


    when horses were trained in pairs (P2) compared to when the same horses were subsequently trained alone (P1). Conclusions and potential relevance: It may not be efficient to habituate naive young horses to social separation initially with a partner as these horses appear to have to relearn being......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...... = 16) were trained first with a companion (P2) and then alone (P1). The training comprised 3 steps whereby distance from the group was gradually increased. The final learning criterion was met when a horse fed calmly alone inside a test arena (Step 3). Horses that were trained in a pair had to succeed...

  2. Wound care in horses. (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S


    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  3. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.


    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  4. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.


    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the

  5. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of coxofemoral subluxation in horses. (United States)

    Brenner, Suzanne; Whitcomb, Mary Beth


    The clinical and ultrasonographic features of seven horses with coxofemoral subluxation are presented. Affected horses included five adult geldings (11-20 years), one large pony (6 years) and a 3-month-old filly. All were lame at the walk except for the pony with grade 3/5 lameness. Lameness was acute in all horses, but three horses progressed after initial improvement. Crepitus, muscle atrophy, and pelvic asymmetry were inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of subluxation required dynamic visualization of femoral head displacement from the acetabulum while placing weight on the affected limb and subsequent replacement into its normal position upon limb resting. Acetabular rim fractures and joint effusion were visible regardless of weight bearing status in six horses each. No fractures were identified in the pony; the only patient with a good outcome. Six horses had a poor outcome with severe chronic lameness, four of which were euthanized. Postmortem ventrodorsal radiographs obtained in two horses confirmed subluxation only on extended limb projections, but not on hip-flexed projections. Acetabular rim fractures were not visible radiographically in either horse but were confirmed at necropsy. Subluxation was due to an elongated but intact ligament of the head of the femur in both horses. Osteoarthrosis was evident ultrasonographically, radiographically, and at necropsy. Dynamic ultrasonography was readily performed in the standing horse and produced diagnostic images with a low frequency curvilinear transducer. The apparent poor prognosis for horses with subluxation and acetabular fracture illustrate the importance of this imaging technique to identify affected horses.

  6. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.


    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  7. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses. (United States)

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W


    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  8. Of ghosts, horses, and psychopaths. (United States)

    Brandon, Catherine


    Recognition and respect for the cultures of Native Americans constitutes a basic requirement for cancer care and education approaches. This reflection shares the insights gained in fieldwork excavations in a pre-Apache archeological site on the Cibaque reservation. Despite the ghost pollution associated with contact with the dead, the Apache invited me to be a sponsor for a young girl's coming of age ceremony. I owed this gracious invitation to the wild horses, for the Apache had observed the horses' responses to my calls. Since horses are considered spiritually sensitive animals, their acceptance was an indicator of my resistance to ghost pollution. Therefore, I was a strong contender as a sponsor. My days among the tribe made me a better listener and observer, and thus a better physician to the cancer patients I continue to serve as a radiologist.

  9. The Broadband Spectral Variability of Holmberg IX X-1 (United States)

    Walton, D.J.; Furst, F.; Harrison, F.A.; Middleton, M.J.; Fabian, A. C.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Miller, J. M.; Ptak, A.; Rana, V.; hide


    We present results from four new broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 (L (sub X) greater than 10 (sup 40) ergs per second), performed by Suzaku and NuSTAR in coordination. Combined with the archival data, we now have broadband observations of this remarkable source from six separate epochs. Two of these new observations probe lower fluxes than seen previously, allowing us to extend our knowledge of the broadband spectral variability exhibited. The spectra are well fit by two thermal blackbody components that dominate the emission below 10 kiloelectronvolts, as well as a steep (Gamma approximately equal to 3.5) power-law tail that?dominates above approximately 15 kiloelectronvolts. Remarkably, while the 0.3-10.0 kiloelectronvolts flux varies by a factor of approximately 3 between all these epochs, the 15-40 kiloelectronvolts flux varies by only approximately 20 percent. Although the spectral variability is strongest in the approximately 1-10 kiloelectronvolts band, both of the thermal components are required to vary when all epochs are considered. We also revisit the search for iron absorption features by leveraging the high-energy NuSTAR data to improve our sensitivity to extreme velocity outflows in light of the ultra-fast outflow recently detected in NGC 1313 X-1. Iron absorption from a similar outflow along our line of sight can be ruled out in this case. We discuss these results in the context of super-Eddington accretion models that invoke a funnel-like geometry for the inner flow, and propose a scenario in which we have an almost face-on view of a funnel that expands to larger radii with increasing flux, resulting in an increasing degree of geometrical collimation for the emission from intermediate-temperature regions.

  10. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.


    developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... most of the injuries were found on the body, the category 3 injuries were mainly found on the limbs and head. The reason for this is probably that the skin there is tight and thus is more easily lacerated. Icelandic horses tended to have fewer and less severe injuries compared to other breeds...

  11. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bochnia

    could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis.

  12. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture (United States)

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.


    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis. PMID:26378918

  13. Phospholipids in sera of horses with summer eczema: lipid analysis of the autoserum preparation used in therapy. (United States)

    Hallamaa, R E; Batchu, K C; Tallberg, T


    Equine summer eczema, also known as insect bite hypersensitivity, affects horses recurrently during summer months. The treatment of this allergic pruritus is difficult and therefore there is a need for efficacious treatments. Autoserum therapy, based on the use of autogenous serum that is specifically prepared for oral administration and given when the animal shows clinical signs has been introduced recently. Lipids are thought to be responsible for the effect of this therapy. The main aim of this study was to analyse the phospholipid content of autogenous serum preparations and to further assess whether these preparations have different lipid profiles depending on the clinical status of the horse. The hypothesis is that the major serum phospholipids typical of the horse are present in the autoserum preparation. Descriptive controlled clinical study. Sera were collected from 10 affected and 6 healthy horses, prepared in a similar fashion and the lipids contained in the resulting autoserum preparations were analysed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidic acid and traces of lysophosphatidylcholine. Horses with summer eczema had significantly abundant concentrations of phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.042) and sphingomyelin (P = 0.0017) in comparison with healthy horses, while the concentration of phosphatidic acid was significantly higher in healthy horses (P = 0.0075). The autoserum preparation contains minute amounts of the main serum phospholipids in differing concentrations in healthy horses and horses with an allergic skin disease. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Advanced glycation endproducts in horses with insulin-induced laminitis. (United States)

    de Laat, M A; Kyaw-Tanner, M T; Sillence, M N; McGowan, C M; Pollitt, C C


    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, inflammatory conditions and diabetic complications. An interaction of AGEs with their receptor (RAGE) results in increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS), causing damage to susceptible tissues. Laminitis, a debilitating foot condition of horses, occurs in association with endocrine dysfunction and the potential involvement of AGE and RAGE in the pathogenesis of the disease has not been previously investigated. Glucose transport in lamellar tissue is thought to be largely insulin-independent (GLUT-1), which may make the lamellae susceptible to protein glycosylation and oxidative stress during periods of increased glucose metabolism. Archived lamellar tissue from horses with insulin-induced laminitis (n=4), normal control horses (n=4) and horses in the developmental stages (6h, 12h and 24h) of the disease (n=12) was assessed for AGE accumulation and the presence of oxidative protein damage and cellular lipid peroxidation. The equine-specific RAGE gene was identified in lamellar tissue, sequenced and is now available on GenBank. Lamellar glucose transporter (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4) gene expression was assessed quantitatively with qRT-PCR in laminitic and control horses and horses in the mid-developmental time-point (24 h) of the disease. Significant AGE accumulation had occurred by the onset of insulin-induced laminitis (48 h) but not at earlier time-points, or in control horses. Evidence of oxidative stress was not found in any group. The equine-specific RAGE gene was not expressed differently in treated and control animals, nor was the insulin-dependent glucose transporter GLUT-4. However, the glucose transporter GLUT-1 was increased in lamellar tissue in the developmental stages of insulin-induced laminitis compared to control horses and the insulin-independent nature of the lamellae may facilitate AGE formation. However, due to the lack of

  15. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to

  16. Trojan Horse Attacking Strategy on Quantum Cryptography (United States)

    Zeng, Guihua


    Trojan horse attacking strategy on quantum cryptography is investigated, three aspects are involved. First, the mechanism for the Trojan horse attacking strategy on quantum cryptography as well as classic cryptography is studied. Then the fragility of the quantum cryptographic algorithm employing EPR pairs as key against the Trojan horse attacking strategy is analyzed. To prevent the Trojan horse attacking strategy, an improvement scheme which makes use of non-orthogonal entangled states is proposed, results show the improvement scheme is robust to the Trojan horse attacking strategy without reducing the security on other kinds of attacking strategies.

  17. Poor efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics in sport horse nematodes in Morocco in relation to resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouiten H.


    Full Text Available Sport and leisure horses in Morocco are treated with several anthelmintics, organophosphates (dichlorvos, benzimidazoles (mostly thiabendazole or tetrahydropyrimidines (mostly pyrantel pamoate against nematodes. We studied three horse stables in Rabat, one in Meknes and one in Bouznika. Two of the Rabat and Bouznika stables had introduced a large number of horses from countries (Argentina or Europe where resistance to benzimidazoles is frequent, whereas the Meknes stud farm remained without foreign introduction. The number of treatments was not very frequent (twice a year in adult horses but the same anthelmintics were used repeatedly. No resistance to dichlorvos was detected whereas benzimidazole and pyrantel pamoate resistances were detected for the first time in African horses, outside South Africa.

  18. Knock-out of the magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase gene in Arabidopsis. Effects on chloroplast development and on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. (United States)

    Pontier, Dominique; Albrieux, Catherine; Joyard, Jacques; Lagrange, Thierry; Block, Maryse A


    Protoporphyrin IX is the last common intermediate between the heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways. The addition of magnesium directs this molecule toward chlorophyll biosynthesis. The first step downstream from the branchpoint is catalyzed by the magnesium chelatase and is a highly regulated process. The corresponding product, magnesium protoporphyrin IX, has been proposed to play an important role as a signaling molecule implicated in plastid-to-nucleus communication. To get more information on the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and on magnesium protoporphyrin IX derivative functions, we have identified an magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (CHLM) knock-out mutant in Arabidopsis in which the mutation induces a blockage downstream from magnesium protoporphyrin IX and an accumulation of this chlorophyll biosynthesis intermediate. Our results demonstrate that the CHLM gene is essential for the formation of chlorophyll and subsequently for the formation of photosystems I and II and cytochrome b6f complexes. Analysis of gene expression in the chlm mutant provides an independent indication that magnesium protoporphyrin IX is a negative effector of nuclear photosynthetic gene expression, as previously reported. Moreover, it suggests the possible implication of magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyl ester, the product of CHLM, in chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. Finally, post-transcriptional up-regulation of the level of the CHLH subunit of the magnesium chelatase has been detected in the chlm mutant and most likely corresponds to specific accumulation of this protein inside plastids. This result suggests that the CHLH subunit might play an important regulatory role when the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway is disrupted at this particular step.

  19. Oligonucleotide probes for DNA fingerprinting in horses. (United States)

    Wilke, K; Weimann, M; Jung, M; Geldermann, H


    10 different oligonucleotide probes were evaluated for DNA fingerprinting in horses. Five probes were able to detect polymorphic bands. The probes (GT)(8) , (GTG)(5) and (GGAT)(4) are most informative for individual identification and were used to analyze a population of Hannoveranian horses. The probability that two individuals have the same DNA fingerprint pattern is 1.2 × 10(-8) , 5.2 × 10(-10) and 1.5 × 10(-7) respectively. Using a combination of the three probes, paternity tests were performed with exclusion probabilities between 0.08% and 4%. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Oligonukleotide-Sonden für DNS-Fingerprints von Pferden Zur Darstellung von DNA-Fingerprints beim Pferd wurden zehn verschiedene Oligonukleotid-Sonden verglichen. Mit fünf Sonden konnten polymorphe Banden nachgewiesen werden. Die Sonden (GT)(8) , (GTG)(5) und (GGAT)(4) besaßen die größte Informativität für den Identitätsnachweis und wurden für die Analyse einer Population von Hannoverschen Pferden benutzt. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit, daß zwei Individuen dieselben Fingerprint-Muster aufweisen, liegt bei 1,2 × 10(-8) , 5,2 × 10(-10) bzw. 1,5 × 10(-7) . Bei Verwendung einer Kombination der drei Sonden wurden Vaterschaftskontrollen mit Ausschlußwahrscheinlichkeiten zwischen 0,08% und 4% erreicht. 1993 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Enhanced transduction of CAR-negative cells by protein IX-gene deleted adenovirus 5 vectors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vrij, Jeroen; van den Hengel, Sanne K; Uil, Taco G; Koppers-Lalic, Danijela; Dautzenberg, Iris J.C; Stassen, Oscar M.J.A; Bárcena, Montserrat; Yamamoto, Masato; de Ridder, Corrina M.A; Kraaij, Robert; Kwappenberg, Kitty M; Schilham, Marco W; Hoeben, Rob C


    .... The mechanism for the enhanced transduction is obscure. No differences in fiber loading, integrin-dependency of transduction, or factor-X binding could be established between protein IX-containing and protein IX-deficient...

  1. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková


    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  2. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan


    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... placed under the feed container, forcing the horses to step on the mat to get food). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups, i.e. previous habituation of TEST horses to six visual objects did not reduce responses in a fear-test involving visual and tactile stimulation. Due...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...

  3. Eastern equine encephalitis virus: high seroprevalence in horses from Southern Quebec, Canada, 2012. (United States)

    Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal


    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.

  4. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel. (United States)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir


    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country.

  5. Oxidant-antioxidant status in the blood of horses with symptomatic recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, A; Jaworski, Z


    Systemic oxidative stress in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to investigate whether equine RAO is associated with systemic disturbances in the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium. Seven healthy horses and 7 horses with symptomatic RAO. A prospective study. Healthy and RAO-affected horses were exposed to a 48-hour challenge with moldy hay and straw to induce clinical exacerbation of RAO. Venous blood was collected and the activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in equine erythrocyte lysates were measured. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARSs) was assessed both in erythrocyte lysates and in plasma. A significant increase in the activities of GPx and SOD was detected in RAO-affected horses compared with the control animals. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of the erythrocyte lysate activities of CAT, GR, or TBARs or the plasma concentration of TBARs. Our results support the hypothesis that RAO in horses is associated with systemic oxidative stress. Future studies are needed to assess whether horses suffering from RAO can benefit from antioxidant supplementation. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Effects of oral administration of phenylbutazone to horses on in vitro articular cartilage metabolism. (United States)

    Beluche, L A; Bertone, A L; Anderson, D E; Rohde, C


    To evaluate the effects of orally administered phenylbutazone on proteoglycan synthesis and chondrocyte inhibition by IL-1beta in articular cartilage explants of horses. 11 healthy 1- to 2-year-old horses. Horses were randomly assigned to the control (n = 5) or treated group (4.4 mg of phenylbutazone/kg of body weight, p.o., q 12 h; n = 6). Articular cartilage specimens were collected before treatment was initiated (day 0), after 14 days of treatment, and 2 weeks after cessation of treatment (day 30). Proteoglycan synthesis and stromelysin concentration in cartilage extracts were assessed after 72 hours of culture in medium alone or with recombinant human interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta; 0.1 ng/ml). On day 0, proteoglycan synthesis was significantly less in cartilage explants cultured in IL-1beta, compared with medium alone. Mean proteoglycan synthesis in explants collected on days 14 and 30 was significantly less in treated horses, compared with controls. However, incubation of explants from treated horses with IL-1beta did not result in a further decrease in proteoglycan synthesis. Significant differences in stromelysin concentration were not detected between or within groups. Oral administration of phenylbutazone for 14 days significantly decreased proteoglycan synthesis in articular culture explants from healthy horses to a degree similar to that induced by in vitro exposure to IL-1beta. Phenylbutazone should be used judiciously in athletic horses with osteoarthritis, because chronic administration may suppress proteoglycan synthesis and potentiate cartilage damage.

  7. Evidence that biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical.


    Shalloe, F; Elliott, G; Ennis, O; Mantle, T J


    A search of the database shows that human biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical. We have isolated flavin reductase from bovine erythrocytes and show that the activity co-elutes with biliverdin-IX beta reductase. Preparations of the enzyme that are electrophoretically homogeneous exhibit both flavin reductase and biliverdin-IX beta reductase activities; however, they are not capable of catalysing the reduction of biliverdin-IX alpha. Although there is little obvious s...

  8. A pilot study on potential plasma hypoxia markers in the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostheimer, C.; Bache, M.; Guettler, A.; Vordermark, D. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Kotzsch, M. [Technical University Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany)


    Hypoxic radioresistance plays a critical role in the radiotherapy of cancer and adversely impacts prognosis and treatment response. This prospective study investigated the interrelationship and the prognostic significance of several hypoxia-related proteins in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Pretreatment osteopontin (OPN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) plasma levels were determined by ELISA in 55 NSCLC (M0) patients receiving 66 Gy curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiation. Marker correlation, association with clinicopathological parameters and the prognostic value of a biomarker combination was evaluated. All biomarkers were linearly correlated and linked to different clinical parameters including lung function, weight loss (OPN), gross tumor volume (VEGF) and T stage (CA IX). High OPN (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.02) and CA IX (p = 0.04) values were significantly associated with poor survival. Double marker combination additively increased the risk of death by a factor of 2 and high plasma levels of the triple combination OPN/VEGF/CA IX yielded a 5.9-fold risk of death (p = 0.009). The combined assessment of OPN/VEGF/CA IX correlated independently with prognosis (p = 0.03) in a multivariate Cox regression model including N stage, T stage and GTV. This pilot study suggests that a co-detection augments the prognostic value of single markers and that the integration of OPN, VEGF and CA IX into a hypoxic biomarker profile for the identification of patients with largely hypoxic and radioresistant tumors should be further evaluated. (orig.) [German] Hypoxische Radioresistenz spielt eine kritische Rolle in der Radiotherapie maligner Tumoren und beeinflusst Prognose und Therapieansprechen negativ. Diese prospektive Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang und die prognostische Bedeutung einiger hypoxieassoziierter Proteine bei Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom

  9. Systematic pain assessment in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grauw, J C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822469; van Loon, J P A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834610


    Accurate recognition and quantification of pain in horses is imperative for adequate pain management. The past decade has seen a much needed surge in formal development of systematic pain assessment tools for the objective monitoring of pain in equine patients. This narrative review describes

  10. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin


    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  11. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick


    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  12. Cutaneous pythiosis in the horse. (United States)

    Chaffin, M K; Schumacher, J; McMullan, W C


    Pythiosis of horses in an invasive, ulcerative, proliferative, pyogranulomatous disease of the skin and subcutis caused by Pythium insidiosum, a fungus-like oomycete in the order Peronosporales of the kingdom Protista. Pythiosis is a form of "phycomycosis," which is a complex of pyogranulomatous diseases that also includes conidiobolomysosis, basidiobolobysosis, and disorders caused by members of the order Mucorales.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and intramuscular buprenorphine in the horse. (United States)

    Davis, J L; Messenger, K M; LaFevers, D H; Barlow, B M; Posner, L P


    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine following intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration in horses. Six horses received i.v. or i.m. buprenorphine (0.005 mg/kg) in a randomized, crossover design. Plasma samples were collected at predetermined times and horses were monitored for adverse reactions. Buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Following i.v. administration, clearance was 7.97±5.16 mL/kg/min, and half-life (T(1/2)) was 3.58 h (harmonic mean). Volume of distribution was 3.01±1.69 L/kg. Following i.m. administration, maximum concentration (C(max)) was 1.74±0.09 ng/mL, which was significantly lower than the highest measured concentration (4.34±1.22 ng/mL) after i.v. administration (PBuprenorphine has a moderate T(1/2) in the horse and was detected at concentrations expected to be therapeutic in other species after i.v. and i.m. administration of 0.005 mg/kg. Signs of excitement and gastrointestinal stasis may be noted. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. IgE in horses: occurrence in health and disease. (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina


    Since the initial characterization of IgE by Ishizaka et al. (1966), IgE was described in several mammalian species. In horses, a single gene encoding the IgE heavy chain constant region (IGHE gene) exists per haploid genome and several allelic variants of the equine IGHE gene were found. IgE occurs in its soluble form in equine serum and physiological concentrations of total IgE are around 1000-fold higher in normal horse than in normal human serum. Maternal IgE is enriched in the colostrum and transferred to the neonatal foal after birth. Foals do not produce detectable concentrations of endogenous IgE for several months after birth. IgE is also found on the surface of a small percentage of equine peripheral blood cells including basophils, and subpopulations of B-cells and monocytes, and on mast cells in various tissues such as the skin, and the submucosa of the airways and intestine. Both, the high- and low-affinity IgE receptor genes are identified in the horse suggesting binding of soluble IgE from the circulation to these receptors. Horses naturally develop type I hypersensitivities. IgE-mediated mechanisms were implicated in the pathogenesis of several allergic diseases in horses since almost 30 years. The findings were mainly based on the induction of immediate skin reactions after intradermal testing with allergen extracts. With the development of the first monoclonal antibodies to equine IgE within the past years, more insights into the pathogenesis of allergic diseases could be obtained. Today, various techniques are available to detect soluble IgE and the sensitization of mast cell or basophils with IgE in horses. An IgE-mediated allergic etiology is confirmed for skin hypersensitivity. The causing role of IgE in other diseases such as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) still remains controversial. More recent studies did not confirm an IgE-mediated pathogenesis of RAO. This suggested that the disease is a chronic inflammatory condition with some

  15. A Clash of Titans: College Football v. Title IX. (United States)

    Pieronek, Catherine


    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972, Civil Rights Act of 1971, designed to ensure equal educational opportunity for men and women, is reviewed as it pertains to college athletics. Related litigation and National Collegiate Athletic Association efforts to promote compliance are examined, an argument for excluding revenue-producing sports…

  16. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    [Sil S, Bose T, Roy D and Chakraborti A S 2004 Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in human red blood cells, haemoglobin and myoglobin; J. Biosci. 29 281–291]. 1. Introduction. Porphyrins are a class of tetrapyrroles that have attracted the attention of researchers worldwide owing to their extensive ...

  17. Counselor Education and Title IX: Current Perceptions and Questions (United States)

    Welfare, Laura E.; Wagstaff, Jennifer; Haynes, Jenna R.


    This national survey of counselor educator perceptions of the Title IX requirement to report student disclosures of gender-based discrimination revealed the need for greater clarity about faculty strategies for serving counseling program students while upholding the federal law. The authors describe the recent expansion of the requirements and…

  18. Bianchi type IX string cosmological model in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have investigated Bianchi type IX string cosmological models in general relativity. To get a determinate solution, we have assumed a condition p = λ i.e. rest energy density for a cloud of strings is equal to the string tension density. The various physical and geometrical aspects of the models are also discussed.

  19. IX : An OS for datacenter applications with aggressive networking requirements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The conventional wisdom is that aggressive networking requirements, such as high packet rates for small messages and microsecond-scale tail latency, are best addressed outside the kernel, in a user-level networking stack. We present IX, a dataplane operating system designed to support low-latency, high-throughput and high-connection count applications.  Like classic operating systems such as Linux, IX provides strong protection guarantees to the networking stack.  However, and unlike classic operating systems, IX is designed for the ground up to support applications with aggressive networking requirements on dense multi-core platforms with 10GbE and 40GbE Ethernet NICs.  IX outperforms Linux by an order of magnitude on micro benchmarks, and by up to 3.6x when running an unmodified memcached, a popular key-value store. The presentation is based on the joint work with Adam Belay, George Prekas, Ana Klimovic, Sam Grossman and Christos Kozyrakis, published at OSDI 2014; Best P...

  20. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes. (United States)

    Wolohan, John T.


    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  1. 23. IX korraldab Vaala galerii kunstioksjoni "Väliseesti eri"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Oksjonil on esindatud Eerik Haamer, Jaan Grünberg, Arno Vihalemm, Eduard Wiiralt, Ruth Tulving, Endel Kõks, Harald Jürissaar, Otto Paas, Ville Tops, Otto Puusta. Töödega saab tutvuda alates 18. IX, traditsiooniline sügisoksjon toimub 18. XI

  2. Prognostic impact of carbonic anhydrase IX expression in human renal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandlund, J.; Oosterwijk, E.; Grankvist, K.; Oosterwijk-Wakka, J.C.; Ljungberg, B.; Rasmuson, T.


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic information of carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as increased expression of CA IX is correlated with a worse prognosis in several malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CA IX expression was assessed in RCC tumours

  3. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited, modified...

  4. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry... § 93.324: Provided, That horses offered for importation from tick-infected areas of Mexico shall be...

  5. A mass spectrometric study on meloxicam metabolism in horses and the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, and the relevance of this microbial system as a model of drug metabolism in the horse. (United States)

    Tevell Aberg, Annica; Olsson, Charlotte; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael


    This paper describes a study where the metabolism of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam was investigated in six horses and in the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans. The metabolites identified were compared between the species, and then the fungus was used to produce larger amounts of the metabolites for future use as reference material. C. elegans proved to be a good model of phase I meloxicam metabolism in horses since all four metabolites found were the same in both species. Apart from the two main metabolites, 5'-hydroxymethylmeloxicam and 5'-carboxymeloxicam, a second isomer of hydroxymeloxicam and dihydroxylated meloxicam were detected for the first time in horse urine and the microbial incubations. Phase II metabolites were not discovered in the C. elegans samples but hydroxymeloxicam glucuronide was detected intact in horse urine for the first time in this study. Urine from six horses was further analyzed in a semi-quantitative sense and 5'-hydroxymethylmeloxicam gave peaks with much higher intensity compared to the parent drug and the other metabolites, and was detected for at least 14 days after the last given dose in some of the horses. From the results presented in this article, we suggest that analytical methods developed for the detection of meloxicam in horse urine after prohibited use should focus on the 5'-hydroxymethyl metabolite and that C. elegans can be used to produce large amounts of this metabolite for potential future use as a reference compound. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Experimental induction of pulmonary fibrosis in horses with the gammaherpesvirus equine herpesvirus 5. (United States)

    Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Lim, Ailam; Brandenberger, Christina; Maes, Roger; Behan, Ashley; Bolin, Steven R


    Gammaherpesviruses (γHV) are implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in humans and murine models of lung fibrosis, however there is little direct experimental evidence that such viruses induce lung fibrosis in the natural host. The equine γHV EHV 5 is associated with equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF), a progressive fibrosing lung disease in its natural host, the horse. Experimental reproduction of EMPF has not been attempted to date. We hypothesized that inoculation of EHV 5 isolated from cases of EMPF into the lungs of clinically normal horses would induce lung fibrosis similar to EMPF. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured in the horses before and after inoculation with EHV 5. PCR and virus isolation was used to detect EHV 5 in antemortem blood and BAL samples, and in tissues collected postmortem. Nodular pulmonary fibrosis and induction of myofibroblasts occurred in EHV 5 inoculated horses. Mean lung collagen in EHV 5 inoculated horses (80 µg/mg) was significantly increased compared to control horses (26 µg/mg) (p < 0.5), as was interstitial collagen (32.6% ± 1.2% vs 23% ± 1.4%) (mean ± SEM; p < 0.001). Virus was difficult to detect in infected horses throughout the experiment, although EHV 5 antigen was detected in the lung by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that the γHV EHV 5 can induce lung fibrosis in the horse, and hypothesize that induction of fibrosis occurs while the virus is latent within the lung. This is the first example of a γHV inducing lung fibrosis in the natural host.

  7. Musculoskeletal lesions and lameness in 121 horses with carpal sheath effusion (1999-2010). (United States)

    Jorgensen, Joan S; Genovese, Ronald L; Döpfer, Dörte; Stewart, Matthew C


    Equine carpal sheath effusion has multiple etiologies. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the prevalence of distinct musculoskeletal lesions lameness in a sample of horses with a clinical diagnosis of carpal sheath effusion. A total of 121 horses met inclusion criteria. Seventy-four percent (89/121) of horses were lame at presentation; middle-aged (9-18 years, 80%) and older (> 18 years, 85%) horses were lame more frequently than young horses (< 9 years, 44%). Ninety-three percent (113/121) were diagnosed with osseous and/or soft tissue abnormalities. Of these 113 horses, 10 exhibited osseous abnormalities, whereas 111 were diagnosed with soft tissue lesions. Eighty-four percent (93/111) of the soft tissue injuries extended from the caudodistal antebrachium to the palmar metacarpus. The superficial digital flexor tendon (98/111; 88%) and accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (64/111; 58%) were the most commonly injured structures, with both structures affected in 41 (41/111; 37%) horses. Injuries within the caudodistal antebrachium included the superficial digital flexor musculotendinous junction (66), the accessory ligament of the superficial digital flexor tendon (64), and deep digital flexor muscle (21), in isolation or in combination with other structures. Increased echogenicity in the medial superficial digital flexor musculotendinous junction was detected in 40 horses and was significantly associated with increasing age (middle-aged, 19/40; old, 18/40). Findings from this study indicated that age should be taken into consideration for horses presented with carpal sheath effusion and that adjacent structures within the caudodistal antebrachium should be included in evaluations. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić


    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  9. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses. (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A


    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (Ho ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (He ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (Fis ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (Fst  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Fluorometric quantification of protoporphyrin IX in biological skin samples from in vitro penetration/permeation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Cristina Rossetti


    Full Text Available A fluorometric analytical method was developed for quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX in skin samples and receptor phase solution after in vitro cutaneous penetration/permeation studies. Analytical conditions used were: excitation and emission wavelengths: 400 nm and 632 nm; bandwidth: 0.5 nm; excitation and emission slits: 10/10. PpIX was recovered from two different layers of skin, the stratum corneum (SC and the epidermis plus dermis ([E+D], by vortex homogenization, probe and bath sonication, using DMSO as an extraction solvent. The detection and quantification limits were 0.002 and 0.005 μg/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from 0.005 - 0.5 μg/mL. The within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy in DMSO and receptor phase solution were each studied at the two concentration levels 0.04 and 0.2 μg/mL, and 0.01 and 0.08 μg/mL, respectively. The coefficients of variation and deviation from the theoretical values were lower than 5%. The skin recovery of PpIX from SC and [E+D] layers using two different concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL were all above 90.0%. The method described has potential application to in vitro penetration/permeation studies of PpIX using porcine skin as a biological membrane model.Um método analítico por espectrofluorimetria foi desenvolvido para quantificar a protoporfirina IX (Pp IX em amostras de pele e fase receptora após a realização de testes in vitro de penetração/permeação cutâneas. As condições analíticas utilizadas foram: comprimentos de onda de excitação e emissão: 400 nm e 632 nm; largura de banda: 0,5 nm; fendas de excitação e emissão: 10/10. A PpIX foi extraída de amostras de estrato córneo (EC e da epiderme sem estrato córneo + derme ([E+D] através da agitação em vórtex e sonicação por haste e banho, utilizando-se o DMSO como solvente extrator. O limite de detecção e quantificação foram, respectivamente, de 0,002 e 0,005 μg/mL. O método mostrou

  11. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.


    -of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors to a known source of electromagnetic radiation individually. This was determined by measuring the output of all detection channels for radiation propagated through a continuously scanned polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer. As there is no on-board spectrometer...

  12. Identification of a new quantitative trait locus on equine chromosome 18 responsible for osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lampe, V; Dierks, C; Komm, K; Distl, O


    ..., Bünteweg 17p, 30559 Hannover, Germany 2 Corresponding author: ottmar.distl{at} In this study we present a newly detected QTL associated with osteochondrosis in Hanoverian warmblood horses on equine chromosome 18 (ECA18...

  13. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Lyashchenko


    Full Text Available A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis.

  14. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.


    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  15. Direct observation of the E- resonant state in GaA s1 -xB ix (United States)

    Alberi, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Mascarenhas, A.


    Bismuth-derived resonant states with T2 symmetry are detected in the valence band of GaA s1 -xB ix using electromodulated reflectance. A doublet is located 42 meV below the valence-band edge of GaAs that is split by local strain around isolated Bi impurity atoms. A transition associated with a singlet is also observed just above the GaAs spin-orbit split-off band. These states move deeper into the valence band with increasing Bi concentration but at a much slower rate than the well-known giant upward movement of the valence-band edge in GaA s1 -xB ix . Our results provide key insight for clarifying the mechanisms by which isovalent impurities alter the band structure of the host semiconductor.

  16. Use of Competition ELISA for Monitoring of West Nile Virus Infections in Horses in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Groschup


    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen of global importance and is considered to be the most widespread flavivirus in the World. Horses, as dead-end hosts, can be infected by bridge mosquito vectors and undergo either subclinical infections or develop severe neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to detect WNV specific antibodies in horses in Germany as an indicator for an endemic circulation of WNV. Sera from more than 5,000 horses (primarily fallen stock animals were collected in eight different federal states of Germany from 2010 to 2012. Sera were screened by a competitive ELISA and positive reactions were verified by an indirect IgM ELISA and/or by virus neutralization tests (VNT for WNV and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV in order to exclude cross-reacting antibody reactions. In essence WNV specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the horse sera. Not surprisingly, a small number of sera contained antibodies against TBEV. It is noteworthy that equine sera were often collected from horse carcasses and therefore were of poor quality. Nonetheless, these sera were still suitable for WNV ELISA testing, i.e., they did not produce a high background reaction which is a frequently observed phenomenon. According to these data there is no evidence for indigenous WNV infections in horses in Germany at present.

  17. Use of competition ELISA for monitoring of West Nile virus infections in horses in Germany. (United States)

    Ziegler, Ute; Angenvoort, Joke; Klaus, Christine; Nagel-Kohl, Uschi; Sauerwald, Claudia; Thalheim, Sabine; Horner, Steffen; Braun, Bettina; Kenklies, Susanne; Tyczka, Judith; Keller, Markus; Groschup, Martin H


    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne viral pathogen of global importance and is considered to be the most widespread flavivirus in the World. Horses, as dead-end hosts, can be infected by bridge mosquito vectors and undergo either subclinical infections or develop severe neurological diseases. The aim of this study was to detect WNV specific antibodies in horses in Germany as an indicator for an endemic circulation of WNV. Sera from more than 5,000 horses (primarily fallen stock animals) were collected in eight different federal states of Germany from 2010 to 2012. Sera were screened by a competitive ELISA and positive reactions were verified by an indirect IgM ELISA and/or by virus neutralization tests (VNT) for WNV and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in order to exclude cross-reacting antibody reactions. In essence WNV specific antibodies could not be detected in any of the horse sera. Not surprisingly, a small number of sera contained antibodies against TBEV. It is noteworthy that equine sera were often collected from horse carcasses and therefore were of poor quality. Nonetheless, these sera were still suitable for WNV ELISA testing, i.e., they did not produce a high background reaction which is a frequently observed phenomenon. According to these data there is no evidence for indigenous WNV infections in horses in Germany at present.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated to West Nile virus in horses from Andalusia, Southern Spain. (United States)

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Arenas-Montes, Antonio; Napp, Sebastián; Jaén-Téllez, Juan A; Fernández-Morente, Manuel; Fernández-Molera, Vicente; Arenas, Antonio


    West Nile virus (WNV) is recognized as an emerging zoonotic pathogen, whose incidence in horses, humans and birds has increased significantly in different European countries in the last decade. A serosurvey study was carried out in non vaccinated horses to determine the geographical distribution of WNV in Andalusia (Southern Spain), and to assess the factors that influence the risk of WNV infection in horses. Antibodies to WNV were detected in 54 out of 510 horses analyzed by a blocking ELISA, of which 36 were confirmed by micro virus neutralization test (7.1%; CI(95%): 4.9-9.3). A total of 28 out of the 348 equine herds (8.3%; CI(95%): 5.4-11.2) had at least one seropositive animal. A generalized estimating equations model showed that the main risk factors associated to WNV seroprevalence were: number of horses within the holding (low), transport of the horse within the last six months (Yes) and presence of mosquitoes in the holding (Yes). The results demonstrated that WNV circulation in Andalusia was more widespread than previously reported. Besides, the distribution of WNV infections was not homogeneous as significant differences among provinces were observed. The results show the need to improve the active surveillance in Spain, so that the early detection of WNV circulation allows the establishment control measures such as vaccination and implementation of vector control programs during the risk period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.


    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  20. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals. (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  1. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ok-Deuk Kang


    Full Text Available The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson. The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (p<0.001 while it decreased after the HRLP. The results of the salivary cortisol concentration of the riders were similar to the horses’ results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.

  2. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum... (United States)


    ...In a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified Persons to assess and enforce minimum penalties for violations of the Horse Protection Act. This document corrects an error in that final rule.

  3. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses. (United States)

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K


    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses. (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus


    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  5. The use of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays to investigate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in Ethiopian horses. (United States)

    Alemu, T; Luckins, A G; Phipps, L P; Reid, S W; Holmes, P H


    A field study involving 309 horses was undertaken in the provinces of Arsi and Bale in the Ethiopian highlands to investigate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum infections using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of both trypanosomal antigen and antibody. Adult horses of both sexes were examined for clinical signs of T. equiperdum infection and serum samples were collected for the assays. One hundred and one horses showed the presence of trypanosomal antibodies in their serum and 70 animals showed typical clinical signs of dourine. Nineteen horses showed the presence of trypanosomal antigen. Eight horses were positive for both T. equiperdum antibody and antigen. Blood and genital washes from seven antigenaemic horses were inoculated into mice and rabbits in an attempt to isolate trypanosomes but none became infected. Statistical analysis of the results of antibody assays indicated that there were significant differences in the distribution of serologically positive horses in the different clinical groupings, with seropositivity increasing with the severity of the observed clinical signs (P equiperdum occurs in Arsi and Bale provinces of Ethiopia. Furthermore, in view of the large number of horses in Ethiopia and the unrestricted movement of animals throughout the country it is likely that dourine may be more widespread in Ethiopia than is currently realised. The assays used show potential for diagnosis of dourine, but to be widely applied in field situations for the diagnosis and control of dourine in Africa they require validation of their specificity and sensitivity.

  6. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). (United States)

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra


    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Crotalaria juncea intoxication in horses. (United States)

    Nobre, D; Dagli, M L; Haraguchi, M


    Twenty horses died 30 d after being fed a diet containing 40% of tritured Crotalaria juncea seeds. Before death, they had staggering, dyspnea and fever. At necropsy the most evident lesions were areas of lung parenchyma consolidation and enlarged and congested livers. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse fibrosing alveolitis with hyaline membranes, suggesting a blood-borne insult, and passive congestion in the liver with compression of the hepatocyte trabecules. To confirm the diagnosis, guinea pigs were given 60% of a commercial diet + 40% tritured C juncea seeds. After 4 mo of feeding the animals died with dyspnea. Their lungs had diffuse fibrosing alveolitis with discrete formation of hyaline membranes and the livers were congested. Reproduction of the lesions implicated the plant and supported the diagnosis of C juncea intoxication in the horses.

  8. Localization of GPIb/IX and GPIIb/IIIa on Discoid Platelets. (United States)

    White, J G; Krumwiede, M D; Johnson, D K; Escolar, G


    The organization and reorganization of mobile receptors, GPIIb/IIIa and GPIb/IX, on surface- and suspension-activated platelets have been studied in detail, but their distribution on resting, discoid platelets is uncertain. The present study has treated platelets in suspension with cytochalasin E before mounting on formvar grids or glass slide fragments in order to preserve their discoid appearance, then probed the organization of GPIIb/IIIa with fibrinogen coupled to gold particles (Fgn/Au) and GPIb/IX with bovine or ristocetin-activated human plasma detected by combined anti-vWF antibody and protein A coupled to gold particles. Multimers of vWF had the same tortuous, linear distribution from edge to edge observed previously on surface-activated platelets. However, the gold particles marking the complex of vWF-anti-vWF bound to GPIb/M were closer together on the discoid cells. Fgn/Au particles bound to GPIIb/IIIa receptors were uniformly distributed from edge to edge on many discoid platelets. On others they tended to clump or cluster in strips or patches. The latter organization of Fgn/Au-GPIIb/IIIa receptors may be due to the rugose nature of the discoid platelet surface or an influence of cytochalasin E. Definition of mobile receptor organization on discoid cells provides a useful baseline for determining their fate following surface or suspension activation.

  9. Prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in Thoroughbred racing horses. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; David Wilson, W


    The objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (SMLN) and bronchial lymph (BLN) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 70 racing Thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. A combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. Tissues were deemed positive for latent EHV-1 and/or -4 infection when found PCR positive for the corresponding glycoprotein B (gB) gene in the absence of detectable late structural protein gene (gB gene) mRNA. The EHV-1 genotype was also determined using a discriminatory real-time PCR assay targeting the DNA polymerase gene (ORF 30). Eighteen (25.7%) and 58 (82.8%) horses were PCR positive for the gB gene of EHV-1 and -4, respectively, in at least one of the three tissues sampled. Twelve horses were dually infected with EHV-1 and -4, two carried a latent neurotropic strain of EHV-1, six carried a non-neurotropic genotype of EHV-1 and 10 were dually infected with neurotropic and non-neurotropic EHV-1. The distribution of latent EHV-1 and -4 infection varied in the samples, with the TG found to be most commonly infected. Overall, non-neurotropic strains were more frequently detected than neurotropic strains, supporting the general consensus that non-neurotropic strains are more prevalent in horse populations, and hence the uncommon occurrence of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. In-vivo fluorescence dosimetry of aminolevulinate-based protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in human nonmelanoma skin cancers and precancers (United States)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Chang, Sung; Bailin, Philip A.; Maytin, Edward V.


    PDT is clinically useful for precancers (actinic keratoses; AK) of the skin, but the optimal duration for 5-ALA application is still controversial. For basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cure rates remain inferior to surgical excision. Lack of knowledge about regional levels of PpIX levels within target tissues clearly contribute to these suboptimal results. To investigate PpIX levels achievable in human skin neoplasias in-vivo, a clinical study to monitor PpIX accumulation in vivo was performed. PpIX-fluorescence in patients undergoing ALA-PDT for facial AK was monitored via real-time in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry, with measurements q20 min following application of 5-ALA (Levulan Kerastick). PpIX accumulation followed linear kinetics in nearly all cases. The slopes varied widely, and did not correlate with clinical outcome in all patients. Some patients with a low accumulation of PpIX fluorescence had a good response to therapy, whereas others with high PpIX accumulation required repeat treatment (although not necessarily of the same lesion). PpIX accumulation rates did correlate to a certain degree with the overall amount of erythema. We conclude that unknown factors besides PpIX levels must be critical for the response to treatment. To assess the relationship between PpIX levels in various skin cancers, patients undergoing routine Mohs surgery for BCC or SCC were measured by in-vivo dosimetry at 2 h after 5-ALA application. Overall, a progressive increase in PpIX signal during malignant progression was observed, in the following rank order: Normal skin < AK < SCC ~ BCC.

  11. Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses. (United States)

    Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M


    Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized.

  12. Bianchi-IX, Darboux-Halphen and Chazy-Ramanujan (United States)

    Chanda, Sumanto; Guha, Partha; Roychowdhury, Raju


    Bianchi-IX four metrics are SU(2) invariant solutions of vacuum Einstein equation, for which the connection-wise self-dual case describes the Euler top, while the curvature-wise self-dual case yields the Ricci flat classical Darboux-Halphen system. It is possible to see such a solution exhibiting Ricci flow. The classical Darboux-Halphen system is a special case of the generalized one that arises from a reduction of the self-dual Yang-Mills equation and the solutions to the related homogeneous quadratic differential equations provide the desired metric. A few integrable and near-integrable dynamical systems related to the Darboux-Halphen system and occurring in the study of Bianchi-IX gravitational instanton have been listed as well. We explore in details whether self-duality implies integrability.

  13. Star formation rate in Holmberg IX dwarf galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić M.M.


    Full Text Available In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009 to calculate star formation rate (SFR in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3:4 x 10-4M.yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  14. Dual-wavelength excitation to reduce background fluorescence for fluorescence spectroscopic quantitation of erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX and protoporphyrin-IX from whole blood and oral mucosa (United States)

    Hennig, Georg; Vogeser, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Homann, Christian; Großmann, Michael; Stepp, Herbert; Gruber, Christian; Erdogan, Ilknur; Hasmüller, Stephan; Hasbargen, Uwe; Brittenham, Gary M.


    Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) and protoporphyrin-IX (PPIX) accumulate in a variety of disorders that restrict or disrupt the biosynthesis of heme, including iron deficiency and various porphyrias. We describe a reagent-free spectroscopic method based on dual-wavelength excitation that can measure simultaneously both ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence from unwashed whole blood while virtually eliminating background fluorescence. We further aim to quantify ZnPP and PPIX non-invasively from the intact oral mucosa using dual-wavelength excitation to reduce the strong tissue background fluorescence while retaining the faint porphyrin fluorescence signal originating from erythrocytes. Fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were made on 35 diluted EDTA blood samples using a custom front-face fluorometer. The difference spectrum between fluorescence at 425 nm and 407 nm excitation effectively eliminated background autofluorescence while retaining the characteristic porphyrin peaks. These peaks were evaluated quantitatively and the results compared to a reference HPLC-kit method. A modified instrument using a single 1000 μm fiber for light delivery and detection was used to record fluorescence spectra from oral mucosa. For blood measurements, the ZnPP and PPIX fluorescence intensities from the difference spectra correlated well with the reference method (ZnPP: Spearman's rho rs = 0.943, p oral mucosa, background fluorescence was reduced significantly, while porphyrin signals remained observable. The dual-wavelength excitation method evaluates quantitatively the ZnPP/heme and PPIX/heme ratios from unwashed whole blood, simplifying clinical laboratory measurements. The difference technique reduces the background fluorescence from measurements on oral mucosa, allowing for future non-invasive quantitation of erythrocyte ZnPP and PPIX.

  15. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w{sub 1}(t),w{sub 2}(t),w{sub 3}(t), and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a{sub 0},a{sub 2},a{sub 4} of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki’s noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  16. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V. [Hematological Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A. [Shemyakin Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: effective dynamics (United States)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Montoya, Edison


    We study solutions to the effective equations for the Bianchi IX class of spacetimes within loop quantum cosmology (LQC). We consider Bianchi IX models whose matter content is a massless scalar field, by numerically solving the loop quantum cosmology effective equations, with and without inverse triad corrections. The solutions are classified using certain geometrically motivated classical observables. We show that both effective theories—with lapse N  =  V and N  =  1—resolve the big bang singularity and reproduce the classical dynamics far from the bounce. Moreover, due to the positive spatial curvature, there is an infinite number of bounces and recollapses. We study the limit of large field momentum and show that both effective theories reproduce the same dynamics, thus recovering general relativity. We implement a procedure to identify amongst the Bianchi IX solutions, those that behave like k  =  0,1 FLRW as well as Bianchi I, II, and VII0 models. The effective solutions exhibit Bianchi I phases with Bianchi II transitions and also Bianchi VII0 phases, which had not been studied before. We comment on the possible implications of these results for a quantum modification to the classical BKL behaviour.

  18. Characterization of a Full-Length Endogenous Beta-Retrovirus, EqERV-Beta1, in the Genome of the Horse (Equus caballus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A.C.


    Information on endogenous retroviruses fixed in the horse (Equus caballus) genome is scarce. The recent availability of a draft sequence of the horse genome enables the detection of such integrated viruses by similarity search. Using translated nucleotide fragments from gamma-, beta-, and

  19. Evaluation and comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, using serum and cerebrospinal fluid of naturally and experimentally infected, and vaccinated horses. (United States)

    Duarte, Paulo C; Daft, Barbara M; Conrad, Patricia A; Packham, Andrea E; Saville, William J; MacKay, Robert J; Barr, Bradd C; Wilson, W David; Ng, Terry; Reed, Stephen M; Gardner, Ian A


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of horses naturally and experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona, to assess the correlation between serum and CSF titers, and to determine the effect of S. neurona vaccination on the diagnosis of infection. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve for the IFAT were 0.97 (serum) and 0.99 (CSF). Sensitivity and specificity were 83.3 and 96.9% (serum, cutoff 80) and 100 and 99% (CSF, cutoff 5), respectively. Titer-specific likelihood ratios (LRs) ranged from 0.03 to 187.8 for titers between <10 and 640. Median time to conversion was 22-26 days postinfection (DPI) (serum) and 30 DPI (CSF). The correlation between serum and CSF titers was moderately strong (r = 0.6) at 30 DPI. Percentage of vaccinated antibody-positive horses ranged from 0 to 95% between 0 and 112 days after the second vaccination. Thus, the IFAT was reliable and accurate using serum and CSF. Use of LRs potentially improves clinical decision making. Correlation between serum and CSF titers affects the joint accuracy of the IFAT; therefore, the ratio of serum to CSF titers has potential diagnostic value. The S. neurona vaccine could possibly interfere with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis diagnosis.

  20. Investigation of corneal autoantibodies in horses with immune mediated keratitis (IMMK). (United States)

    Braus, B K; Miller, I; Kummer, S; Kleinwort, K J H; Hirmer, S; Hauck, S M; McMullen, R J; Kerschbaumer, M; Deeg, C A


    Immune mediated keratitis (IMMK) is primarily a non-ulcerative keratitis in horses causing intermittent ocular pain, eventually resulting in visual impairment. Affected horses typically respond to immunomodulatory treatment. However, the underlying cause of the disease remains enigmatic. The current study was undertaken to investigate the presence of autoantibodies in horses with immune mediated keratitis. Using 28 horses with IMMK and 27 healthy controls screening for serum autoantibodies against the corneal proteome using indirect immunofluorescence, one-dimensional (1DE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) with subsequent western blot analysis was performed followed by mass spectrometric identification of bands or spots of interest. Indirect immunofluorescence did not reveal a difference in immune response towards corneal proteins between healthy horses and those with IMMK. Using western blot analysis some horses affected by IMMK (4/28) showed a single band (1D) or a single spot (2DE) (5/28) not detected in healthy controls. The corresponding spot was identified as maspin (SERPINB5), a protein responsible for the inhibition of corneal vascularisation, cell migration and cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Tests with a recombinant human protein commercially available did not verify blot findings, but the human protein may not be fully cross-reactive. Still, maspin might play a role in some cases of equine IMMK. Further research is needed to clarify the etiology of this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Warchoł


    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX.

  2. Daily endogenous cortisol production and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics in adult horses and neonatal foals. (United States)

    Hart, Kelsey A; Dirikolu, Levent; Ferguson, Duncan C; Norton, Natalie A; Barton, Michelle H


    To compare daily endogenous cortisol production rate and the pharmacokinetics of an i.v. bolus of hydrocortisone between neonatal foals and adult horses. 10 healthy full-term 2- to 4-day-old foals and 7 healthy adult horses. Blood samples were collected from each horse every 15 to 20 minutes for 24 hours for determination of 24-hour mean cortisol concentration. Afterward, dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) was administered i.v. to suppress endogenous cortisol production. Twelve hours afterward, hydrocortisone sodium succinate (1.0 mg/kg) was administered as a rapid i.v. bolus and serial blood samples were collected to determine hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics. Cortisol concentrations, daily cortisol production rate, and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics were determined, and results were compared between adult horses and foals. The mean ± SD 24-hour cortisol concentration was significantly lower in foals (20 ± 4 ng/mL) than in horses (26 ± 6 ng/mL), but the daily cortisol production rate was significantly greater in foals (6,710 ± 320 ng/kg/d) than in horses (2,140 ± 400 ng/kg/d). For hydrocortisone, foals had a significantly greater volume of distribution at steady state (1.92 ± 1.11 L/kg) and total body clearance (1.39 ± 0.108 L/kg/h) and significantly lower peak plasma concentration (1,051 ± 343 ng/mL) than did horses (0.58 ± 0.15 L/kg, 0.349 ± 0.065 L/kg/h, and 8,934 ± 3,843 ng/mL, respectively). Important differences were detected in cortisol production and metabolism between neonatal foals and adult horses consistent with lower plasma protein binding of cortisol in foals. This decrease may contribute to cortisol insufficiency during prolonged critical illness in neonatal foals.

  3. Phospholipid analysis in sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in matched healthy controls. (United States)

    Hallamaa, Raija; Batchu, Krishna


    Lipids have become an important target for searching new biomarkers typical of different autoimmune and allergic diseases. The most common allergic dermatitis of the horse is related to stings of insects and is known as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) or summer eczema, referring to its recurrence during the summer months. This intense pruritus has certain similarities with atopic dermatitis of humans. The treatment of IBH is difficult and therefore new strategies for therapy are needed. Autoserum therapy based on the use of serum phospholipids has recently been introduced for horses. So far, serum lipids relating to these allergic disorders have been poorly determined. The main aim of this study was to analyse phospholipid profiles in the sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in their healthy controls and to further assess whether these lipid profiles change according to the clinical status after therapy. Sera were collected from 10 horses with allergic dermatitis and from 10 matched healthy controls both before and 4 weeks after the therapy of the affected horses. Eczema horses were treated with an autogenous preparation made from a horse's own serum and used for oral medication. Samples were analysed for their phospholipid content by liquid chromatography coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Data of phospholipid concentrations between the groups and over the time were analysed by using the Friedman test. Correlations between the change of concentrations and the clinical status were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test. The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Eczema horses had significantly lower total concentrations of PC (p equine insect bite hypersensitivity.

  4. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken


    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  5. Disposition and tolerance of suxibuzone in horses. (United States)

    Jaraiz, M V; Rodriguez, C; San Andres, M D; Gonzalez, F; San Andres, M I


    Suxibuzone (SBZ), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was administered to 6 horses at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bwt by intravenous (i.v.) route. Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of suxibuzone and its main active metabolites, phenylbutazone (PBZ) and oxyphenbutazone (OPBZ), were measured simultaneously by a sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. Plasma SBZ concentrations rapidly decreased and were not detectable beyond 20 min after treatment. The parent drug was not detected in any synovial fluid samples. Average maximum plasma concentrations of PBZ (16.43 microg/ml) and OPBZ (2.37 microg/ml) were attained at 0.76 and 7.17 h, respectively. The mean residence time (MRT) of PBZ was 6.96 h in plasma. Oxyphenbutazone plasma concentrations were below those reached by phenylbutazone during the first 12 h after suxibuzone administration, even though its values were detectable for at least 24 h (MRT = 10.65 h). Plasma concentrations of PBZ and OPBZ exceeding EC50 and IC50 of TXB2 and PGE2 were reached by at least 12 h. Synovial fluid concentrations of PBZ and OPBZ were 2.87+/-0.37 microg/ml and 0.97+/-0.08 microg/ml at 9 h after suxibuzone administration and exceeded IC50 of PGE2 for at least this time. In the present study, suxibuzone was well tolerated following i.v. injection.

  6. Pharmacokinetic profiles of the active metamizole metabolites in healthy horses. (United States)

    Giorgi, M; Aupanun, S; Lee, H-K; Poapolathep, A; Rychshanova, R; Vullo, C; Faillace, V; Laus, F


    Metamizole (MT) is an analgesic and antipyretic drug labelled for use in humans, horses, cattle, swine and dogs. MT is rapidly hydrolysed to the active primary metabolite 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA). MAA is formed in much larger amounts compared with other minor metabolites. Among the other secondary metabolites, 4-aminoantipyrine (AA) is also relatively active. The aim of this research was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of MAA and AA after dose of 25 mg/kg MT by intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) routes in healthy horses. Six horses were randomly allocated to two equally sized treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 crossover study design. Blood was collected at predetermined times within 24 h, and plasma was analysed by a validated HPLC-UV method. No behavioural changes or alterations in health parameters were observed in the i.v. or i.m. groups of animals during or after (up to 7 days) drug administration. Plasma concentrations of MAA after i.v. and i.m. administrations of MT were detectable from 5 min to 10 h in all the horses. Plasma concentrations of AA were detectable in the same range of time, but in smaller amounts. Maximum concentration (Cmax ), time to maximum concentration (Tmax ) and AUMC0-last of MAA were statistically different between the i.v. and i.m. groups. The AUCIM /AUCIV ratio of MAA was 1.06. In contrast, AUC0-last of AA was statistically different between the groups (P < 0.05) with an AUCIM /AUCIV ratio of 0.54. This study suggested that the differences in the MAA and AA plasma concentrations found after i.m. and i.v. administrations of MT might have minor consequences on the pharmacodynamics of the drug. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Use of monoclonal antibodies against horse immunoglobulin in an enzyme immunoassay of bacterial toxins and anatoxins]. (United States)

    Burkin, M A; Gal'vidis, I A; Iakovleva, I V; Sviridov, V V


    Immunization of BALB/c mice by horse antiserum against diphtheria made it possible to obtain IgG1 monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) 2B7E4 specific for light chains of horse immunoglobulin (Ig). Unlike commercial preparations of anti-horse immunoglobulin antibodies, which are specific for the whole Ig molecule or its Fc-fragment, the peroxidase (HRP) conjugate of the MoAb, 2B7E4-HRP did not interact with human, mouse, rabbit, and sheep Igs, or horse albumin. The conjugate obtained was used with MoAbs against bacterial toxins and commercial horse anatoxins, as a universal reagent in sandwich enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) for bacterial toxins and anatoxins. The detection sensitivity of diphtheria toxin/anatoxin equaled 0.0005 Lf/ml; tetanus toxin and anatoxin were detected with sensitivities of 20 LD50/ml and 0.005 UI/ml, respectively. A similar sandwich ELISA for botulinum anatoxins (group measurement) allowed types A, B, and E to be detected at 0.02, 0.002, and 0.001 UI/ml, respectively; selective measurement was only possible in the case of type E anatoxin (0.001 UI/ml).

  8. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.


    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe

  9. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.


      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  10. Some possible factors affecting horse welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Fejsáková


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various stimuli that confound interpretation of assessed indicators of horse welfare during rest and working period by the use of non-invasive methods of sampling. In total, 40 horses of different breeds and used for different purposes in Slovakia were used. The following indicators were tested: concentration of cortisol in saliva and 11,17-dioxoandrostanes in faeces measured by Elisa methods, heart rate and heart rate variability recording with the Polar Heart Rate Monitor and presence of stereotypical behaviour assessed with a horse questionnaire survey. The evaluated physiological responses were mostly affected by the type of work undertaken, especially horse movement intensity (P P P < 0.05 compared to horses without stereotypical behaviour. Horse breed, age, sex and stabling conditions affected only some of the heart rate indicators. The type of riding style had no fundamental influence on evaluated indicators. These observations highlight the difficulties in determining the welfare status in horses, since measurements can be affected by many factors that need to be investigated for achieving relevant outcomes. This is the first study in Slovakia focusing on the evaluation of horse welfare by non-invasive sampling.

  11. International Competition Yeongcheon Horse Park in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grigorieva


    Full Text Available The international project competition for the design of a Horse Park in Yeongcheon, Korea was organized by the Korean Racing Authority (KRA and approved by the UIA. The jury awarded three prizes and eight honourable mentions for projects that successfully integrated the themes of horses and nature with the local history and culture.

  12. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses. (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I


    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  13. Runs of homozygosity reveal signatures of positive selection for reproduction traits in breed and non-breed horses. (United States)

    Metzger, Julia; Karwath, Matthias; Tonda, Raul; Beltran, Sergi; Águeda, Lídia; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo Glynne; Distl, Ottmar


    Modern horses represent heterogeneous populations specifically selected for appearance and performance. Genomic regions under high selective pressure show characteristic runs of homozygosity (ROH) which represent a low genetic diversity. This study aims at detecting the number and functional distribution of ROHs in different horse populations using next generation sequencing data. Next generation sequencing was performed for two Sorraia, one Dülmen Horse, one Arabian, one Saxon-Thuringian Heavy Warmblood, one Thoroughbred and four Hanoverian. After quality control reads were mapped to the reference genome EquCab2.70. ROH detection was performed using PLINK, version 1.07 for a trimmed dataset with 11,325,777 SNPs and a mean read depth of 12. Stretches with homozygous genotypes of >40 kb as well as >400 kb were defined as ROHs. SNPs within consensus ROHs were tested for neutrality. Functional classification was done for genes annotated within ROHs using PANTHER gene list analysis and functional variants were tested for their distribution among breed or non-breed groups. ROH detection was performed using whole genome sequences of ten horses of six populations representing various breed types and non-breed horses. In total, an average number of 3492 ROHs were detected in windows of a minimum of 50 consecutive homozygous SNPs and an average number of 292 ROHs in windows of 500 consecutive homozygous SNPs. Functional analyses of private ROHs in each horse revealed a high frequency of genes affecting cellular, metabolic, developmental, immune system and reproduction processes. In non-breed horses, 198 ROHs in 50-SNP windows and seven ROHs in 500-SNP windows showed an enrichment of genes involved in reproduction, embryonic development, energy metabolism, muscle and cardiac development whereas all seven breed horses revealed only three common ROHs in 50-SNP windows harboring the fertility-related gene YES1. In the Hanoverian, a total of 18 private ROHs could be shown to be

  14. Evidence that biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical. (United States)

    Shalloe, F; Elliott, G; Ennis, O; Mantle, T J


    A search of the database shows that human biliverdin-IX beta reductase and flavin reductase are identical. We have isolated flavin reductase from bovine erythrocytes and show that the activity co-elutes with biliverdin-IX beta reductase. Preparations of the enzyme that are electrophoretically homogeneous exhibit both flavin reductase and biliverdin-IX beta reductase activities; however, they are not capable of catalysing the reduction of biliverdin-IX alpha. Although there is little obvious sequence identity between biliverdin-IX alpha reductase (BVR-A) and biliverdin-IX beta reductase (BVR-B), they do show weak immunological cross-reactivity. Both enzymes bind to 2',5'-ADP-Sepharose. PMID:8687377

  15. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses. (United States)

    Pfau, T; Parkes, R S; Burden, E R; Bell, N; Fairhurst, H; Witte, T H


    The high, repetitive demands imposed on polo horses in training and competition may predispose them to musculoskeletal injuries and lameness. To quantify movement symmetry and lameness in a population of polo horses, and to investigate the existence of a relationship with age. Convenience sampled cross-sectional study. Sixty polo horses were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the poll, and between the tubera sacrale. Six movement symmetry measures were calculated for vertical head and pelvic displacement during in-hand trot and compared with values for perfect symmetry, compared between left and right limb lame horses, and compared with published thresholds for lameness. Regression lines were calculated as a function of age of horse. Based on 2 different sets of published asymmetry thresholds 52-53% of the horses were quantified with head movement asymmetry and 27-50% with pelvic movement asymmetry resulting in 60-67% of horses being classified with movement asymmetry outside published guideline values for either the forelimbs, hindlimbs or both. Neither forelimb nor hindlimb asymmetries were preferentially left or right sided, with directional asymmetry values across all horses not different from perfect symmetry and absolute values not different between left and right lame horses (P values >0.6 for all forelimb symmetry measures and >0.2 for all hindlimb symmetry measures). None of the symmetry parameters increased or decreased significantly with age. A large proportion of polo horses show gait asymmetries consistent with previously defined thresholds for lameness. These do not appear to be lateralised or associated with age. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bange


    Full Text Available Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  17. A review of the human-horse relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.


    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  18. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  19. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  20. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  1. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 93.314 - Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses, certification, and... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.314 Horses, certification, and accompanying equipment. (a) Horses offered for importation from any part of the world shall...

  3. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  4. Efficacy of the early administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride for the treatment of neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type-1 infection in horses. (United States)

    Maxwell, Lara K; Bentz, Bradford G; Gilliam, Lyndi L; Ritchey, Jerry W; Pusterla, Nicola; Eberle, R; Holbrook, Todd C; McFarlane, Dianne; Rezabek, Grant B; Meinkoth, James; Whitfield, Chase; Goad, Carla L; Allen, George P


    OBJECTIVE To determine whether prophylactic administration of valacyclovir hydrochloride versus initiation of treatment at the onset of fever would differentially protect horses from viral replication and clinical disease attributable to equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) infection. ANIMALS 18 aged mares. PROCEDURES Horses were randomly assigned to receive an oral placebo (control), treatment at detection of fever, or prophylactic treatment (initiated 1 day prior to viral challenge) and then inoculated intranasally with a neuropathogenic strain of EHV-1. Placebo or valacyclovir was administered orally for 7 or 14 days after EHV-1 inoculation or detection of fever (3 horses/group). Effects of treatment on viral replication and clinical disease were evaluated. Plasma acyclovir concentrations and viremia were assessed to determine inhibitory concentrations of valacyclovir. RESULTS Valacyclovir administration decreased shedding of virus and viremia, compared with findings for control horses. Rectal temperatures and clinical disease scores in horses that received valacyclovir prophylactically for 2 weeks were lower than those in control horses. The severity of but not the risk for ataxia was decreased by valacyclovir administration. Viremia was decreased when steady-state trough plasma acyclovir concentrations were > 0.8 μg/mL, supporting the time-dependent activity of acyclovir. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Valacyclovir treatment significantly decreased viral replication and signs of disease in EHV-1-infected horses; effects were greatest when treatment was initiated before viral inoculation, but treatment was also effective when initiated as late as 2 days after inoculation. During an outbreak of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, antiviral treatment may be initiated in horses at various stages of infection, including horses that have not yet developed signs of viral disease.

  5. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia. (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J


    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Common variable immunodeficiency in three horses with presumptive bacterial meningitis. (United States)

    Pellegrini-Masini, Alessandra; Bentz, Amy I; Johns, Imogen C; Parsons, Corrina S; Beech, Jill; Whitlock, Robert H; Flaminio, M Julia B F


    Three adult horses were evaluated for signs of musculoskeletal pain, dullness, ataxia, and seizures. A diagnosis of bacterial meningitis was made on the basis of results of CSF analysis. Because primary bacterial meningitis is so rare in adult horses without any history of generalized sepsis or trauma, immune function testing was pursued. Flow cytometric phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed, and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, and lipopolysaccharide was determined. Serum IgA, IgM, and IgG concentrations were measured by means of radial immunodiffusion, and serum concentrations of IgG isotypes were assessed with a capture antibody ELISA. Serum tetanus antibody concentrations were measured before and 1 month after tetanus toxoid administration. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity of isolated peripheral blood phagocytes were evaluated by means of simultaneous flow cytometric analysis. Persistent B-cell lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and abnormal in vitro responses to mitogens were detected in all 3 horses, and a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was made.

  7. Serum biomarker levels for musculoskeletal disease in two- and three-year-old racing Thoroughbred horses: A prospective study of 130 horses. (United States)

    Frisbie, D D; Mc Ilwraith, C W; Arthur, R M; Blea, J; Baker, V A; Billinghurst, R C


    Biomarkers have shown some in vivo promise for the detection of musculoskeletal injuries, but further study to assess biomarker levels in clinical orthopaedic disease is required. To assess 7 serum biomarkers for the detection of musculoskeletal injuries. Two- and 3-year-old racehorses were entered into the study (n = 238). Exit criteria were lack of training for >30 days, or completion of 10 study months. Data from horses with solitary musculoskeletal injuries and completion of >2 months were analysed. Musculoskeletal injury was considered intra-articular fragmentation (IAF), tendon or ligamentous injury (TL), stress fractures (SF) and dorsal metacarpal disease (DMD). Monthly lameness examination and serum collection were performed. Serum was analysed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), type I and II collagen degradation (C1, 2C), type II collagen synthesis (CPII), type II collagen degradation (Col CEQ), aggrecan synthesis (CS846), osteocalcin (OC) as a marker of bone formation and (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen) CTX as a marker of bone degradation. Of the 238 horses 59 injured and 71 uninjured control horses met the analysis criteria. Based on injury no significant differences in the proportions were observed for age, gender or lesion type, although a higher proportion of injuries occurred at the beginning of the study. Of injured horses, 16 (27%) sustained an IAF, 17 (29%) a TL injury, 7 (12%) SF and 19 (32%) were diagnosed with DMD. There were significant changes seen in biomarkers based on the injury incurred when longitudinal samples were assessed. Furthermore, based on the serum biomarkers collected prior to injury, horses could be correctly classified as injured or uninjured 73.8% of the time. A unique biomarker pattern occurred before each injury and this was beneficial in classifying horses as injured or uninjured. Biomarkers have the potential to be used as a screening aid prior to musculoskeletal injury. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Mg-protoporphyrin IX signals enhance plant’s tolerance to cold stress


    Zhong-Wei Zhang; Zi-Li Wu; Ling-Yang Feng; Li-Hua Dong; An-Jun Song; Ming Yuan; Yang-Er Chen; Jian Zeng; Guang-Deng Chen; Shu Yuan


    The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant’s tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4 °C for additional 72 h. Glutamate + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The p...

  9. Immune deviation by mucosal antigen administration suppresses gene-transfer-induced inhibitor formation to factor IX. (United States)

    Cao, Ou; Armstrong, Elina; Schlachterman, Alexander; Wang, Lixin; Okita, David K; Conti-Fine, Bianca; High, Katherine A; Herzog, Roland W


    Formation of inhibitory antibodies is a serious complication of protein or gene replacement therapy for hemophilias, congenital X-linked bleeding disorders. In hemophilia B (coagulation factor IX [F.IX] deficiency), lack of endogenous F.IX antigen expression and other genetic factors may increase the risk of antibody formation to functional F.IX. Here, we developed a protocol for reducing inhibitor formation in gene therapy by prior mucosal (intranasal) administration of a peptide representing a human F.IX-specific CD4(+) T-cell epitope in hemophilia B mice. C3H/HeJ mice with a F.IX gene deletion produced inhibitory IgG to human F.IX after hepatic gene transfer with an adeno-associated viral vector. These animals subsequently lost systemic F.IX expression. In contrast, repeated intranasal administration of the specific peptide resulted in reduced inhibitor formation, sustained circulating F.IX levels, and sustained partial correction of coagulation following hepatic gene transfer. This was achieved through immune deviation to a T-helper-cell response with increased IL-10 and TGF-beta production and activation of regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells.

  10. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors. (United States)

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert


    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. DeltaPhage—a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display (United States)

    Nilssen, Nicolay R.; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.


    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  12. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema. (United States)

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R


    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  13. Epidemiology of shivering (shivers) in horses. (United States)

    Draper, A C E; Bender, J B; Firshman, A M; Baird, J D; Reed, S; Mayhew, I G; Valberg, S J


    Investigating the epidemiology of shivering in horses. The purpose of this study was to characterise the signalment, clinical signs and management factors associated with shivering (also known as shivers), a relatively rare, poorly defined movement disorder in horses. Web-based case series survey and case-control study. A Web-based survey was used to obtain information from owners, worldwide, who suspected that their horse had shivering. Survey respondents were asked to answer standardised questions and to provide a video of the horse. Authors reviewed the surveys and videos, and horses were diagnosed with shivering if they displayed normal forward walking, with difficulty during manual lifting of the hoof and backward walking due to hyperflexion or hyperextension of the pelvic limbs. Cases confirmed by video were designated 'confirmed shivering', while those with compatible clinical signs but lacking video confirmation were designated 'suspected shivering'. Owners of confirmed shivering horses were asked to provide information on 2 horses without signs of shivering (control group). Three hundred and five surveys and 70 videos were received; 27 horses were confirmed shivering (50 controls), 67 were suspected shivering and the rest had a variety of other movement disorders. Suspected shivering horses resembled confirmed shivering cases, except that the suspected shivering group contained fewer draught breeds and fewer horses with exercise intolerance. Confirmed shivering signs often began at <5 years of age and progressed in 74% of cases. Owner-reported additional clinical signs in confirmed cases included muscle twitching (85%), muscle atrophy (44%), reduced strength (33%) and exercise intolerance (33%). Shivering horses were significantly taller (confirmed shivering, mean ∼173 cm; control horses, ∼163 cm) with a higher male:female ratio (confirmed shivering, 3.2:1 vs. control, 1.7:1). No potential triggering factors or effective treatments were reported

  14. Localization of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA in horse skeletal muscle by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled probe.


    Räsänen, L A; Karvonen, U; Pösö, A R


    In situ hybridization was used to localize xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA in horse skeletal muscle. Capillary endothelial cells were found to express XDH, but muscle cells did not give any signal. The digoxigenin-labelled probe was produced by PCR with primers based on the cDNA sequence of mouse XDH and horse lung cDNAs. A 4.3 kb mRNA was detected in a Northern blot.

  15. Factor IX complex for the correction of traumatic coagulopathy. (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Amini, Albert; Friese, Randall S; Houdek, Matthew; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Wynne, Julie; O'Keeffe, Terence; Latifi, Rifat; Rhee, Peter


    Damage control resuscitation advocates correction of coagulopathy; however, options are limited and expensive. The use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), also known as factor IX complex, can quickly accelerate reversal of coagulopathy at relatively low cost. The purpose of this study is to describe our experience in the use of factor IX complex in coagulopathic trauma patients. All patients receiving PCC at our Level I trauma center over a two-year period (2008-2010) were reviewed. PCC was used at the discretion of the trauma attending for treatment of coagulopathy, reversal of coumadin, and when recombinant factor VIIa was indicated. Forty-five trauma patients received 51 doses of PCC. Sixty-two per cent were male and mean Injury Severity Score was 23 (± 14.87). Standard dose was 25 units per kg and mean cost per patient was $1,022 ($504-3,484). Fifty-eight per cent of patients were on warfarin before admission. Mean international normalized ratio (INR) was decreased after PCC administration (p = 0.001). Packed red blood cell transfusion was also reduced after factor IX complex (p = 0.018). Mean INR was reduced in both the nonwarfarin (p = 0.001) and warfarin (p = 0.001) groups. Packed red blood cell transfusion was less in the nonwarfarin group (p = 0.002) however was not significant in the warfarin group. Subsequent thromboembolic events were observed in 3 of the 45 patients (7%). Mortality was 16 of 45 (36%). PCC rapidly and effectively treats coagulopathy after traumatic injury. PCC therapy leads to a significant correction in INR in all trauma patients, regardless of coumadin use, and concomitant reduction in blood product transfusion. PCC should be considered as an effective tool to treat acute coagulopathy of trauma. Further prospective studies examining the safety, efficacy, cost, and outcomes comparing PCC and recombinant factor VIIa are needed.

  16. Seroconversion for west Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses among sentinel horses in Colombia

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    Salim Mattar


    Full Text Available We prospectively sampled flavivirus-naïve horses in northern Colombia to detect West Nile virus (WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV seroconversion events, which would indicate the current circulation of these viruses. Overall, 331 (34.1% of the 971 horses screened were positive for past infection with flaviviruses upon initial sampling in July 2006. During the 12-month study from July 2006-June 2007, 33 WNV seroconversions and 14 SLEV seroconversions were detected, most of which occurred in the department of Bolivar. The seroconversion rates of horses in Bolivar for the period of March-June 2007 reached 12.4% for WNV and 6.7% for SLEV. These results comprise the first serologic evidence of SLEV circulation in Colombia. None of the horses sampled developed symptoms of encephalitis within three years of initial sampling. Using seroconversions in sentinel horses, we demonstrated an active circulation of WNV and SLEV in northern Colombia, particularly in the department of Bolivar. The absence of WNV-attributed equine or human disease in Colombia and elsewhere in the Caribbean Basin remains a topic of debate and speculation.

  17. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)


    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  18. Ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in six horses. (United States)

    Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary; Engiles, Julie


    To determine the characteristics of and prognosis for ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Six horses treated for ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. A retrospective review of medical records from 2007 to 2015 was performed to identify horses with a histologic diagnosis of ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. Signalment (age, sex, breed), duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, tumor size and location, medical and surgical treatment including postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up time, and outcome were obtained from medical records. Histopathology was reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. In six horses diagnosed with ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma, no breed, age, or sex was overrepresented. Sites included the temporal limbus (3), third eyelid (2), and uvea (1). With the exception of one horse with uveal hemangiosarcoma, 5/6 horses had lightly pigmented periocular haircoat. Histologic features of ocular hemangiosarcoma in 6/6 cases included high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and inflammation with a mitotic index ranging from 0 to 8 mitoses per 10 consecutive 400× fields. Five of six tumors displayed solar elastosis, indicating ultraviolet light-induced damage to sub-epithelial collagen. Treatment included surgical excision in all cases and was not associated with recurrence in 4/6. Three cases that received ancillary treatment with topical mitomycin C had no postoperative recurrence. Two cases with postexcisional recurrence had histologic evidence of incomplete excision. Complete surgical excision may be associated with resolution of periocular and ocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Etiopathogenesis may include exposure to ultraviolet light. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

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    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty


    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  20. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling of intravenous buprenorphine in conscious horses. (United States)

    Love, Emma J; Pelligand, Ludovic; Taylor, Polly M; Murrell, Joanna C; Sear, John W


    Describe the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine in horses and to relate the plasma buprenorphine concentration to the pharmacodynamic effects. Single phase non-blinded study. Six dedicated research horses, aged 3-10 years and weighing 480-515 kg. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive thresholds, heart and respiratory rates and locomotor activity were measured before and 15, 30, 45 & 60 minutes and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hours post-administration of 10 μg kg(-1) buprenorphine IV. Intestinal motility was measured 1, 6, 12 & 24 hours after buprenorphine administration. Venous blood samples were obtained before administration of buprenorphine 10 μg kg(-1) IV and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, 30, 45 & 60 minutes, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 & 24 hours afterwards. Plasma buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) assay with solid-phase extraction. A non-compartmental method was used for analysis of the plasma concentration-time data and plasma buprenorphine concentrations were modelled against two dynamic effects (change in thermal threshold and mechanical threshold) using a simple Emax model. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were detectable to 480 minutes in all horses and to 720 minutes in two out of six horses. Norbuprenorphine was not detected. Thermal thresholds increased from 15 minutes post-buprenorphine administration until the 8-12 hour time points. The increase in mechanical threshold ranged from 3.5 to 6.0 Newtons (median: 4.4 N); and was associated with plasma buprenorphine concentrations in the range 0.34-2.45 ng mL(-1) . The suitability of the use of buprenorphine for peri-operative analgesia in the horse is supported by the present study. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  1. Anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of horses. (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M


    Suppressive anthelmintic treatment strategies originally designed to control Strongylus vulgaris in horses were extremely successful in reducing morbidity and mortality from parasitic disease. Unfortunately, this strategy has inadvertently resulted in the selection of drug-resistant cyathostomes (Cyathostominea), which are now considered the principal parasitic pathogens of horses. Resistance in the cyathostomes to benzimidazole drugs is highly prevalent throughout the world, and resistance to pyrantel appears to be increasingly common. However, there are still no reports of ivermectin resistance in nematode parasites of horses despite 20 years of use. It is unknown why resistance to ivermectin has not yet emerged, but considering that ivermectin is the single most commonly used anthelmintic in horses most parasitologists agree that resistance is inevitable. The fecal egg count reduction test is considered the gold standard for clinical diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance in horses, but diagnosis is complicated by lack of an accepted standard for the performance of this test or for the analysis and interpretation of data. Presently there is very little data available on the molecular mechanisms of anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomes; beta-tubulin gene is the only anthelmintic-resistance associated gene that has been cloned. The increasingly high prevalence of anthelmintic-resistant cyathostomes must be taken into account when designing worm control programs for horses. Strategies to decelerate further selection for drug resistance thereby extending the lifetime of currently effective anthelmintics should be implemented whenever possible. Considering the nature of the equine industry in which horses often graze shared pastures with horses from diverse locations, transmission and widespread dispersal of resistant parasites is virtually assured. A proactive approach to this problem centered on understanding the molecular basis of anthelmintic resistance in

  2. Observation of the distribution of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in Parma ham by using purple LED and image analysis


    Wakamatsu, J.; Odagiri, H; Nishimura, T; Hattori, A.


    We investigated the distribution of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in Parma ham by using purple LED light and image analysis in order to elucidate the mechanism of ZPP formation. Autofluorescence spectra of Parma ham revealed that ZPP was present in both lean meat and fat, while red emission other than that of ZPP was hardly detected. Although ZPP was found to be distributed widely in Parma ham, it was more abundant in intermuscular fat and subcutaneous fat than in lean meat. The intensity of red...

  3. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of IgG antibodies against Babesia equi in horses Um ensaio imunoenzimático para a detecção de anticorpos IgG contra Babesia equi em eqüinos

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    Cristiane Divan Baldani


    Full Text Available A crude antigenic preparation of Babesia equi was used to develop and establish the suitability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of parasite carriers. Optimal dilutions of the antigen, using positive and negative reference sera, were determined by checkboard titrations. The specificity and sensitivity of the ELISA were 100 %. A total of 90 serum samples were taken from horses from the Northeast region of São Paulo State and examined for diagnosis of equine B. equi infection by ELISA. Approximately 75% (n=67 of all the horses tested were found serologically positive for B. equi. These results suggest that the ELISA described may prove to be an appropriate serological test for epidemiological studies on B. equi infections in the field and that equine piroplasmosis is a cause for serious concern in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.Um ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA baseado em antígeno bruto de Babesia equi foi desenvolvido para a detecção de portadores crônicos de babesiose eqüina. As diluições ótimas do antígeno e dos soros controles positivo e negativo foram determinadas através de titulação em bloco. A sensibilidade e especificidade do teste foram de 100%. O ELISA foi empregado em 90 soros de eqüinos da região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, de modo que aproximadamente 75% (n=67 dos eqüinos foram positivos para B. equi. Estes resultados sugerem que o ELISA descrito pode ser utilizado no diagnóstico sorológico de B. equi e que a piroplasmose eqüina é um problema sério no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

  4. Multiple congenital ocular abnormalities (MCOA) in Rocky Mountain Horses and Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horses in Europe


    Kaps, S.; Spiess, B M


    The study describes the prevalence of multiple congenital ocular abnormalities (MCOA) in Rocky Mountain Horses and Kentucky Moutain Saddle Horses in Europe. Materials and methods: 35 RMH und KMSH were examined between 1999 and 2010. Their coat color were chocolate (24), seal brown (7), and one each of bay, black, chestnut and palomino. Ciliary body cysts (CBC) were found in 17/35 hor- ses. Two (2/35) horses had multiple congenital ocular abnormalities consistent with anterior segment dysgenes...

  5. Staphylococcus hyicus in skin lesions of horses. (United States)

    Devriese, L A; Vlaminck, K; Nuytten, J; De Keersmaecker, P


    Staphylococcus hyicus (subspecies hyicus) was isolated as the only pathogenic organism from two independent cases of dermatitis of the lower parts of the limbs (grease heel) in horses. The organism was recovered together with other pathogenic staphylococci from similar conditions in two other horses of different origins. These conditions were characterised by epidermolysis, alopecia and crust formation. They responded quickly to antibiotic treatment. The organism was also isolated from a long standing case of "summer eczema" which healed without antibiotic treatment, and from a horse with dermatophilosis (streptotrichosis, Dermatophilus congolensis infection). Experimentally, Staph hyicus caused epidermolysis, exudation and inflammation in the superficial layers of the skin.


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    Vlasta Mandić


    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  7. Effect of IX dosing on polypropylene and PVDF membrane fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint


    The performance of ion exchange (IX) resin for organics removal from wastewater was assessed using advanced characterisation techniques for varying doses of IX. Organic characterisation using liquid chromatography with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence spectroscopy (Method A), and UV254, organic carbon and organic nitrogen detectors (Method B), was undertaken on wastewater before and after magnetic IX treatment. Results showed partial removal of the biopolymer fraction at high IX doses. With increasing concentration of IX, evidence for nitrogen-containing compounds such as proteins and amino acids disappeared from the LC-OND chromatogram, complementary to the fluorescence response. A greater fluorescence response of tryptophan-like proteins (278nm/343nm) for low IX concentrations was consistent with aggregation of tryptophan-like compounds into larger aggregates, either by self-aggregation or with polysaccharides. Recycling of IX resin through multiple adsorption steps without regeneration maintained the high level of humics removal but there was no continued removal of biopolymer. Subsequent membrane filtration of the IX treated waters resulted in complex fouling trends. Filtration tests with either polypropylene (PP) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher rates of initial fouling following treatment with high IX doses (10mL/L) compared to filtration of untreated water, while treatment with lower IX doses resulted in decreased fouling rates relative to the untreated water. However, at longer filtration times the rate of fouling of IX treated waters was lower than untreated water and the relative fouling rates corresponded to the amount of biopolymer material in the feed. It was proposed that the mode of fouling changed from pore constriction during the initial filtration period to filter cake build up at longer filtration times. The organic composition strongly influenced the rate of fouling during the initial filtration period due to

  8. Anisotropic cosmology and inflation from a tilted Bianchi IX model (United States)

    Sundell, P.; Koivisto, T.


    The dynamics of the tilted axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmological models are explored allowing energy flux in the source fluid. The Einstein equations and the continuity equation are presented treating the equation of state w and the tilt angle of the fluid λ as time-dependent functions, but when analyzing the phase space w and λ are considered free parameters and the shear, the vorticity and the curvature of the spacetime span a three-dimensional phase space that contains seven fixed points. One of them is an attractor that inflates the universe anisotropically, thus providing a counterexample to the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Also, examples of realistic though fine-tuned cosmologies are presented wherein the rotation can become significant towards the present epoch but the shear stays within the observational bounds. The examples suggest that the model used here can explain the parity-violating anomalies of the cosmic microwave background. The result significantly differs from an earlier study, where a nonaxisymmetric Bianchi IX type model with a tilted perfect dust source was found to induce too much shear for observationally significant vorticity.

  9. Concentrations of stromal cell-derived factor-1 in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid of horses with osteochondral injury. (United States)

    Dymock, David C; Brown, Murray P; Merritt, Kelly A; Trumble, Troy N


    To determine whether stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentrations in serum, plasma, and synovial fluid differed among untrained, race-trained, and osteochondral-injured Thoroughbred racehorses. 22 racehorses without osteochondral injury and 37 racehorses with osteochondral injury. Horses without osteochondral injury were examined before and after 5 to 6 months of race training. Horses with osteochondral injury were undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments from carpal or metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joints (fetlock joints). Serum, plasma, and fetlock or carpal synovial fluid samples were obtained and analyzed for SDF-1 concentration by use of an ELISA. In horses with fetlock or carpal joint injury, mean synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were significantly higher, serum SDF-1 concentrations were significantly lower, and synovial fluid-to-serum SDF-1 ratios were significantly higher than in untrained and trained horses. Synovial fluid SDF-1 concentrations were not significantly different between trained and untrained horses. Plasma SDF-1 concentrations were not different among the 3 groups. Results obtained with serum, compared with synovial fluid and plasma, had better sensitivity for differentiating between osteochondral-injured horses and uninjured horses. In horses with fetlock joint osteochondral injury, serum SDF-1 concentrations were correlated with radiographic and arthroscopic inflammation scores, but not arthroscopic cartilage scores. Results suggested that serum SDF-1 concentrations were more sensitive than plasma and synovial fluid concentrations for detection of osteochondral injury in the fetlock or carpal joint of racehorses. Analysis of serum and synovial SDF-1 concentrations in horses with experimentally induced joint injury may help define the onset and progression of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and aid in the evaluation of anti-inflammatory treatments.

  10. Phosphorylated neurofilament H (pNF-H) as a potential diagnostic marker for neurological disorders in horses. (United States)

    Intan-Shameha, A R; Divers, Thomas J; Morrow, Jennifer K; Graves, Amy; Olsen, Emil; Johnson, Amy L; Mohammed, Hussni O


    The current study aimed at the investigating the potential use of phosphorylated neurofilament H (pNF-H) as a diagnostic biomarker for neurologic disorders in the horse. Paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (n=88) and serum only (n=30) were obtained from horses diagnosed with neurologic disorders and clinically healthy horses as control. The neurologic horses consisted of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) (38 cases) and cervical vertebral malformation (CVM) (23 cases). Levels of pNF-H were determined using an ELISA. The correlation between CSF and serum concentrations of pNF-H was evaluated using Spearman's Rank test and the significance of the difference among the groups was assessed using a nonparametric test. Horses had higher pNF-H levels in the CSF than serum. Horses afflicted with EPM had significantly higher serum pNF-H levels in comparison to controls or CVM cases. The correlation between CSF and serum pNF-H levels was poor in both the whole study population and among subgroups of horses included in the study. There was significant association between the likelihood of EPM and the concentrations of pNF-H in either the serum or CSF. These data suggest that pNF-H could be detected in serum and CSF samples from neurologic and control horses. This study demonstrated that pNF-H levels in serum and CSF have the potential to provide objective information to help in the early diagnosis of horses afflicted with neurologic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Kinetics and comparison of δ-aminolevulinic-acid-induced endogenous protoporphyrin-IX in single cell by steady state and multiphoton fluorescence imaging (United States)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Elangovan, Masilamani; Periasamy, Ammasi


    Photodynamic Therapy has emerged as a new modality in the treatment of various nonmalignant and malignant diseases. It involves the systemic administration of tumor specific photo-sensitizers with the subsequent application of visible light. This combination causes the generation of cytotoxic species, which damage sensitive targets, producing cell injury and tumor destruction. Although, photofrin is the only photosensitizer currently approved for PDT and tumor detection, its concomitant cutaneous photosensitization poses a significant problem. Hence, δ-aminoleuvulinic acid (δ-ALA) a precursor for the endogenous production of Protoporphyrin IX, through heme biosynthesis pathway, has gained significant importance in the Photodynamic Therapy. Though δ-ALA is present naturally in the cells, exogenous δ-ALA helps to synthesis more of PpIX in the tumor cells, as the fast growing tumor cells take up the administered δ-ALA more than the normal cells. Based on these facts, many invasive studies have been reported on the kinetics of δ-ALA at cellular level by chemical extraction of PpIX from the cells. In the present study we have studied the kinetics of δ-ALA induced PpIX fluorescence from Hela cells by perchloric/Methanol extraction method. However, the amount of PpIX synthesized in the cells at different point of incubation time by noninvasive methods has not been reported. Hence we have also used a noninvasive technique of measuring the kinetics δ-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence from Hela, an epithelial cell derived from human cervical cancer by both single photon (steady state) and multi photon excitation. From the studies it is observed that the δ-ALA induced PpIX is more at 2 hours incubation time for 2 mM of δ-ALA concentration. Further, it is observed that with steady state fluorescence imaging method, the excitation light itself cause the Photodynamic damage, due to the prolonged exposure of the cells than in multi photon excitation, leading to the rounding

  12. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX (United States)

    Suggs, Welch


    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting…

  13. Characteristic growth pattern in male X-linked phosphorylase-b kinase deficiency (GSD IX)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, HM; Smit, GPA; Rake, JP; Visser, G

    Growth retardation is one of the clinical characteristics of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX. Initial growth retardation has been described in a few case reports, followed by a complete catch-up in growth. This study aimed to determine the growth pattern of patients with GSD IX. Growth charts

  14. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports (United States)

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.


    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  15. Perceptions of Women's Teams Coaches Regarding Gender Equity and Title IX Compliance in Community Colleges (United States)

    Kenney, Cynthia A.


    Title IX was enacted over 40 years ago, and although there have been marked increases in the number of girls and women participating in athletics at every level, gender equity in athletics continues to be a concern. This is especially evident at the community college level. Title IX requires equity in the areas of opportunities for participation,…

  16. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Monday, April 26, 2010, at 1:30 p.m...

  17. Induction of immune tolerance to coagulation factor IX antigen by in vivo hepatic gene transfer. (United States)

    Mingozzi, Federico; Liu, Yi-Lin; Dobrzynski, Eric; Kaufhold, Antje; Liu, Jian Hua; Wang, YuQin; Arruda, Valder R; High, Katherine A; Herzog, Roland W


    Gene replacement therapy is an attractive approach for treatment of genetic disease, but may be complicated by the risk of a neutralizing immune response to the therapeutic gene product. There are examples of humoral and cellular immune responses against the transgene product as well as absence of such responses, depending on vector design and the underlying mutation in the dysfunctional gene. It has been unclear, however, whether transgene expression can induce tolerance to the therapeutic antigen. Here, we demonstrate induction of immune tolerance to a secreted human coagulation factor IX (hF.IX) antigen by adeno-associated viral gene transfer to the liver. Tolerized mice showed absence of anti-hF.IX and substantially reduced in vitro T cell responses after immunization with hF.IX in adjuvant. Tolerance induction was antigen specific, affected a broad range of Th cell subsets, and was favored by higher levels of transgene expression as determined by promoter strength, vector dose, and mouse strain. Hepatocyte-derived hF.IX expression induced regulatory CD4(+) T cells that can suppress anti-hF.IX formation after adoptive transfer. With a strain-dependent rate of success, tolerance to murine F.IX was induced in mice with a large F.IX gene deletion, supporting the relevance of these data for treatment of hemophilia B and other genetic diseases.

  18. Horses (United States)

    ... chronic or severe diarrhea. More Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE), St. Louis Encephalitis Virus (SLEV), and Venezuelan Encephalitis (VEE) EEE , WEE, SLEV , and VEE are viruses carried by ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Vostrý


    Full Text Available The Haflinger as a small moutain horse breed originated from the South Tyrol district as a cross of Alpen Mountain breeds with Araber. This breed was expanding to Czech Republic during the last 25 years. The aim of this study was to analyse genetic diversity within the population using microsatellite markers. A total of 95 alleles have been detected. The highest frequency 88.18% showed allele 101 (HTG 6. The heterosigosity varied from 0.25 (HTG 6 to 0.84 (VHL 20, genetic diversity reached 0.6–0.8. The heterozygosity of the whole population studied is FIS= -0.013. The average effective number of allele per locus was 2.93 with standard deviation 1.54, with minimal and maximal level 1.30 and 7.83, respectively. Average polymorphism information content per locus was 0.608 with standard derivation 0.146, with minimal and maximal level 0.208 and 0.824, respectively. The results showed that breeding program of Czech Haflinger is optimal, including optimized mating strategies. The diversity of the population Czech Haflinger, based on a small number of microsatellites, seems to be sufficient.

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  1. A Validated Trichinella Digestion Assay and an Associated Sampling and Quality Assurance System for Use in Testing Pork and Horse Meat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forbes, Lorry B; Gajadhar, Alvin A


    A revised digestion method, developed for efficiency and quality assurance, was validated for the detection of Trichinella larvae in pork and horse meat to meet requirements for food safety testing...

  2. Invisible Trojan-horse attack. (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim


    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  3. [Exosome: Trojan horse in immunotherapy]. (United States)

    Mou, Dan-Lei; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Bai, Xue-Fan


    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles that are secreted by a multitude of eukaryocytes as a consequence of fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes can play critical roles in different physiological processes depending on their origins. Exosomes secreted from professional antigen-presenting cells are enriched in MHC class I and II complexes, costimulatory molecules, hsp 70 and hsp 90 chaperones, therefore exosomes, like Trojan horse, are of importance of immunoregulation in vivo and in vitro. The review will present current trends of research on the fundamental properties, production and purification of exosomes, and will focus on their implementation in cancer and virus immunotherapy as a novel cell-free peptide-based vaccine.

  4. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.


    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H. R.


    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that o...

  5. Inactivation of Dengue and Yellow Fever viruses by heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX. (United States)

    Assunção-Miranda, I; Cruz-Oliveira, C; Neris, R L S; Figueiredo, C M; Pereira, L P S; Rodrigues, D; Araujo, D F F; Da Poian, A T; Bozza, M T


    To investigate the effect of heme, cobalt-protoporphyrin IX and tin-protoporphyrin IX (CoPPIX and SnPPIX), macrocyclic structures composed by a tetrapyrrole ring with a central metallic ion, on Dengue Virus (DENV) and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) infection. Treatment of HepG2 cells with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX after DENV infection reduced infectious particles without affecting viral RNA contents in infected cells. The reduction of viral load occurs only with the direct contact of DENV with porphyrins, suggesting a direct effect on viral particles. Previously incubation of DENV and YFV with heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX resulted in viral particles inactivation in a dose-dependent manner. Biliverdin, a noncyclical porphyrin, was unable to inactivate the viruses tested. Infection of HepG2 cells with porphyrin-pretreated DENV2 results in a reduced or abolished viral protein synthesis, RNA replication and cell death. Treatment of HepG2 or THP-1 cell lineage with heme or CoPPIX after DENV infection with a very low MOI resulted in a decreased DENV replication and protection from death. Heme, CoPPIX and SnPPIX possess a marked ability to inactivate DENV and YFV, impairing its ability to infect and induce cytopathic effects on target cells. These results open the possibility of therapeutic application of porphyrins or their use as models to design new antiviral drugs against DENV and YFV. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  7. Theophylline and dyphylline pharmacokinetics in the horse. (United States)

    Ayres, J W; Pearson, E G; Riebold, T W; Chang, S F


    The pharmacokinetics of theophylline and dyphylline were determined after IV administration in horses. In a preliminary experiment, the usual human dosage (milligram per kilogram) of each drug was given to 1 horse. Results were used to calculate dosages for a cross-over study, using 6 horses for each drug. Theophylline plasma concentrations decreased triexponentially in 5 of 6 healthy horses after IV infusion of 10 mg of aminophylline/kg of body weight for 16 to 32 minutes. In the 6 horses, total body elimination rate constants were variable, and the half-life of theophylline was 9.7 to 19.3 hours. Clearance was 42.3 to 69.2 ml/hr/kg. The initial distribution phase was rapid (t1/2 approx 3.5 to 4 minutes); a 2nd distribution phase was slower (t1/2 approx 1.5 to 2 hours). Plasma concentrations of theophylline were in the assumed effective range (10 to 20 micrograms/ml) from 15 minutes until 40 minutes after time zero. The mean apparent volume of distribution was 1.02 L/kg. After bolus IV injection of dyphylline (20 mg/kg), pharmacokinetics were best described by a 2-compartment open model in 2 horses and by a 3-compartment open model in 4 horses. In the 6 horses, elimination half-life of dyphylline was 1.9 to 2.9 hours, and clearance was 200 to 320 ml/hr/kg. Plasma concentrations (approx 50 micrograms/ml) were observed at 10 minutes after injection without adverse effects. Concentrations greater than 10 micrograms/ml were observed from time zero to about 1.5 hours after injection. Theophylline induced significant increases in heart rate, but dyphylline did not affect heart rate significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Adaptation strategies of horses with lameness


    Weishaupt, Michael A.


    The skill to diagnose lameness in horses is paramount for every equine practitioner. Early recognition of locomotor deficiencies plays a central role in sports medicine management, preventing deterioration of the disease or catastrophic injuries. Horses use characteristic compensatory movements of specific body parts to decrease loading of the affected limb. This article describes the underlying changes in intra- and interlimb coordination and the resulting load redistribution between the lim...

  9. Methiocarb poisoning of a horse in Australia. (United States)

    Kaye, B M; Elliott, C R B; Jalim, S L


    Snail bait poisoning is rare in horses. Cases have been reported, but clinical signs and subsequent prognostic indicators have been poorly documented and must be extrapolated from cases in companion animals. We describe in detail the poisoning of a horse that consumed a lethal dose of the carbamate, methiocarb. There are currently no guidelines for treating equine methiocarb toxicoses, but the principles of management are based on supportive therapy. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis


    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  11. Seroprevalence of Neospora Spp. in Horses in North East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Hosseini


    Full Text Available Background: Neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle, while limited information is presently available on the seropreva­lence of Neospora antibodies in horses' worldwide .The aim of the present study was to de­termine serologic prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran.Methods: Sera from 150 horses from Mashhad suburb in Razavi Khorasan Province, northeast Iran were examined for antibodies to Neospora spp. using Neospora modified direct agglutina­tion test (N-MAT.Results: Antibodies to this parasite were detected in 45 (30% of the examined serum samples. Thirty four percent of the samples had titer of 1:40 while then reduced to 30% when 1:80 serum dilution was applied as significant cut off titer.Conclusion: This study is the first investigation carried out on the Neospora in horses in Iran and indi­cates that horses in Iran are exposed to this parasite.

  12. Analysis of the population of the Old Kladruby horse in point of the body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sobotková


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was a detailed analysis of the body conformation of the Old Kladruby horse in the Stud Farm Kladruby. We applied 26 body dimensions, 9 angles of extremity joints and 12 hippo-metrical indices of 167 breeding horses to analyse the population according to the colouration (grey, black, lines (9 lines, sex (stallions and mares and age categories (4 classes. The resulting measures were analysed statistically by means of a linear model with fixed effects (GLM. Most of the statistical highly significant differences were differences detected between stallions and mares and between the Old Kladruby grey and black horses. The stallions have a significantly longer profile of the head (by more than 1 cm and width of the cheeks. The mares have a highly significantly larger chest (longer by 2.9 cm, more deeply by 3.3 cm, width of coxae and angles of the shoulder and knee joints. The black horses have highly significantly longer profile of the head (by more than 2.5 cm and width of cheeks, longer the blade-bone and significantly longer the pelvis (by 2.3 cm. The grey horses have highly significantly shorter arm and forearm, longer metacarpus, pastern and shinbone. The differences between age categories are highly significant by heights of body, girth and by hippo-metrical indices. The differences among the lines of the same colouration are minimal. Only white line Rudolfo is significantly small sized and the least compact.

  13. Nationwide molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus responsible for horse infections in France. (United States)

    Guérin, François; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Meignen, Pierrick; Delente, Géraldine; Fondrinier, Caroline; Bourdon, Nancy; Cattoir, Vincent; Léon, Albertine


    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in horse infections is not well documented, especially in France. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA isolates in horse infections from 2007 to 2013 in France and to characterize phenotypically and genotypically this collection. Out of 1393 S. aureus horse isolates, 85 (6.1%) were confirmed to be MRSA. Interestingly, the prevalence of MRSA significantly increased from 2007-2009 to 2010-2013 (0.7 vs. 9.5%, P MRSA strains belonged mainly since not all belong to two sequence types (STs): ST398 (53/85, 62.4%) and ST8 (28/85, 32.9%). It is worth to note that all ST398 MRSA isolates were detected in the period 2010-2013. Other molecular typing methods were also used, such SCC mec analysis, spa typing and rep-PCR (Diversilab, bioMérieux). All these four techniques were in good agreement, with spa typing and rep-PCR being more discriminative than MLST and SCC mec typing. This study is the first epidemiological study in France with extensive characterization of MRSA isolates associated with horse infections in stud farms. It shows that there is a significant increase of MRSA prevalence between 2007 and 2013, which mainly results from the spread of ST398 clones. It also highlights the importance of horses as a potential reservoir of important antimicrobial resistance genes.

  14. Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Baragli

    Full Text Available Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.

  15. DNA testing for parentage verification in a conservation nucleus of Pantaneiro horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Tavares Pires de Souza Sereno


    Full Text Available We investigated the genealogy of the in situ conservation nucleus of the Pantaneiro horse using DNA microsatellites by evaluating 101 horses, the group consisting of 71 adult horses (3 stallions, 40 male and 31 mares and 27 foals (14 colts and 13 fillies. Genomic DNA was extracted from hair roots and genotyped using 12 microsatellite markers (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, HMS3 HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, LEX33 and VHL20. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 to 13, with a mean of 7.8 and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.544 to 0.734 (mean 0.644. The VLH20, ASB2, HTG10, ASB23 markers had a high (> 0.8 polymorphism information content and the total exclusion probability of the 12 microsatellite loci was 0.99. The genealogical study of the Pantaneiro horse using genetic markers was efficient in detecting mistakes during paternity and maternity designation and is an important tool which can be used together with traditional systems of animal identification. The use of genetic markers is recommended in the systematic control of the genealogical registrations and conservation plans to improve genetic aspects of the Pantaneiro horse.

  16. Pathophysiologic effects of phenylbutazone on the right dorsal colon in horses. (United States)

    McConnico, Rebecca S; Morgan, Timothy W; Williams, Cathleen C; Hubert, Jeremy D; Moore, Rustin M


    To determine pathophysiologic effects of phenylbutazone on the equine right dorsal colon (RDC). 12 healthy adult horses. A controlled crossover observational study was conducted. Clinical and serum variables, colonic inflammation (histologic grading), and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) concentrations, ingesta volatile fatty acid (VFA) content, and arterial blood flow in the RDC were evaluated for a 21-day period in horses administered phenylbutazone (8.8 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a control substance. Data from 8 horses were analyzed. Plasma albumin concentrations decreased significantly from days 10 to 21 during phenylbutazone treatment, compared with results during the same days for the control treatment. Phenylbutazone treatment caused neutropenia (phenylbutazone or control treatments. Two horses developed colitis while receiving phenylbutazone. No significant differences were detected in the RDC between phenylbutazone and control treatments for MPO activity, MDA and PGE(2) concentrations, and histologic evidence of inflammation. Arterial blood flow in the RDC was significantly increased during phenylbutazone treatment, compared with values for the control treatment. Differences were identified in VFA production during phenylbutazone treatment, compared with the control treatment, with a decrease in acetic acid concentrations over time. Prolonged phenylbutazone administration caused hypoalbuminemia, neutropenia, changes in RDC arterial blood flow, and changes in VFA production. Veterinarians should monitor serum albumin concentrations and neutrophil counts and be cautious when making dosing recommendations for phenylbutazone treatment of horses.

  17. Increased protoporphyrin IX accumulation does not improve the effect of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, C V; Heerfordt, I M; Wiegell, S R


    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is highly effective for treating actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/scalp, but less effective on the extremities. Insufficient accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) may cause these inferior efficacy rates. However......, it is possible to increase PpIX accumulation by extending the MAL application time and/or pretreating the skin with curettage. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether increased PpIX accumulation improves the effect of MAL-PDT for AKs in a randomized intra-individual study. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with 533 AKs...... on both hands were treated with MAL-PDT. To obtain different concentrations of PpIX, four symmetrical areas on each patient were randomly allocated to different regimens: (i) 3-h MAL application without prior curettage (3hC-); (ii) 3 h with curettage (3hC+); (iii) 21 h without curettage (21hC-); and (iv...

  18. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva


    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Arroyo, Luis; Staempfli, Henry

    Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens are important causes of equine colitis but can also be found in healthy individuals. Epidemiologic information is restricted to cross-sectional studies of fecal shedding with little information on prevalence in gastrointestinal compartments other...... than feces and variability in shedding over time. The objectives were to investigate the presence of C. difficile and C. perfringens in healthy horses over time and assess prevalence in different gastrointestinal compartments. Feces were collected monthly from 25 horses for one year. Ingesta were...... collected from nine GI compartments of a separate group of 15 euthanized horses. Selective enrichment culture was performed, followed by toxin gene detection and ribotyping (C. difficile) and multiplex PCR (C. perfringens). Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from 15/275 (5.5%) samples from 10/25 (40...

  20. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses (United States)

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.


    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  1. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.


    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  2. Treatment of supraventricular tachycardia in a horse. (United States)

    Whelchel, Dorothy D; Tennent-Brown, Brett S; Coleman, Amanda E; Rapoport, Gregg S; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Maisenbacher, Herbert W; Credille, Brenton C; Giguère, Steeve


    To describe the treatment of persistent supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in a young horse in endurance training. A 6-year-old Arab gelding in endurance training presented for a dysrhythmia and decreased performance. SVT was diagnosed and conversion to a normal sinus rhythm was achieved following administration of a constant rate infusion of amiodarone. However, reversion to SVT occurred shortly after initiation of ridden exercise. A second attempt to convert the dysrhythmia with amiodarone failed, but normal sinus rhythm was achieved with transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC). Postmortem examination of the heart revealed extensive fibrous replacement of most of the left atrial myocardium; these changes likely provided the structural substrate for the dysrhythmia. The underlying cause of the fibrosis was not identified. SVT is a form of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia rarely diagnosed in the horse. A recent report has described sudden death of a horse following attempted conversion of SVT with oral flecainide acetate. In the present report, we describe short-term conversion of SVT in a horse using intravenous amiodarone with no significant adverse effects. When the dysrhythmia recurred, the animal was donated for teaching purposes and conversion was achieved with TVEC. Normal sinus rhythm persisted for 2 weeks until the horse was euthanized for postmortem evaluation of the heart. Intravenous amiodarone or TVEC could be considered as treatments for supraventricular tachyarrhyhmias other than atrial fibrillation in the horse. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  3. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

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    A.M. Antonello


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  4. A prospective longitudinal study of naturally infected horses to evaluate the performance characteristics of rapid diagnostic tests for equine influenza virus. (United States)

    Read, A J; Arzey, K E; Finlaison, D S; Gu, X; Davis, R J; Ritchie, L; Kirkland, P D


    An outbreak of equine influenza (EI) occurred in Australia in 2007. During the laboratory support for this outbreak, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays and a blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) were used as testing methods to detect infection with the virus. The qRT-PCR and bELISA tests had not been used for EI diagnosis before, so it was not known how soon after infection these tests would yield positive results, or for how long these results would remain positive. To answer these questions, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected daily from a group of 36 naturally infected horses. EI viral RNA was detected in all horses by qRT-PCR from the first to tenth day after clinical signs were evident, and was detected in some horses for up to 34 days. Antibody was detected in the bELISA in some horses by day 3, with a median time to seroconversion of 5 days. The results from this study indicate that viral RNA can be detected from nasal swabs for much longer than infectious virus is thought to be shed from horses. The bELISA detected antibodies against EI virus in all horses for 139 days following infection, but only detected approximately 50% of horses 12 months following infection. Haemagglutination inhibition testing detected antibodies against H3 antigens in all horses for 28 days following infection, but 2 were negative by 35 days following infection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A quantitative study of in vivo protoporphyrin IX fluorescence build up during occlusive treatment phases. (United States)

    Campbell, C Louise; Brown, C Tom A; Wood, Kenneth; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Inada, Natalia M; Bagnato, Vanderlei S; Moseley, Harry


    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive light based therapy used to treat non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and dysplasia. During PDT, the light sensitive molecule protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is activated, resulting in the production of singlet oxygen, which subsequently leads to cell death. PpIX is metabolised from a topically applied pro-drug and the strong fluorescence signal associated with PpIX can be utilised as an indicator of the amount of PpIX present within the tumour tissue. In this work we measure the build up PpIX during the occlusive treatment phase and investigate how the PpIX production rate is affected by different lesion and patient characteristics. Fluorescence measurements were used to investigate the build up of PpIX within the tumour tissue during the 3h long occlusive treatment prior to irradiation. The study included in vivo measurements of 38 lesions from 38 individual patients. Actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were the lesion types included in this study. The resulting data from the study was analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models. It was found that the surface fluorescence signal linearly increased with occlusive treatment time. The predictive models suggest that there is a significant difference in PpIX production between lesion location, however no significant difference is demonstrated between different lesion types, gender and skin type. The study extends and supports previous knowledge of PpIX production during the occlusive treatment phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Leu7Pro mutation in the signal peptide of platelet glycoprotein (GP)IX in a case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome abolishes surface expression of the GPIb-V-IX complex. (United States)

    Lanza, François; De La Salle, Corinne; Baas, Marie-Jeanne; Schwartz, Agnès; Boval, Bernadette; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Caen, Jacques P


    This paper describes the molecular defect of the second case of Bernard-Soulier syndrome, initially reported in 1957. Analysis of the patient's platelets by flow cytometry and Western blotting failed to detect surface expression of any of the four subunits of the glycoprotein (GP)Ib-V-IX complex and revealed small amounts of intracellular GPIbalpha, GPIbbeta and GPV but no GPIX. DNA sequencing revealed a novel missense mutation in the GPIX gene which replaced Leu (CTG) by Pro (CCG) at position 7 of the signal peptide. This mutation is, to date, the only known example of a leader sequence defect in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The change occurred in a prototypic alpha-helical hydrophobic core region, typically enriched in leucine and devoid of proline residues. Co-transfection of GPIXPro7 with normal GPIbalpha and GPIbbeta into Chinese hamster ovary cells reproduced the platelet phenotype, resulting in no detectable GPIX, low intracellular levels of GPIbalpha and GPIbbeta, and an absence of surface expression. This mutation presumably leads to an abnormal conformation and, hence, incorrect insertion of GPIX into the endoplasmic reticulum and/or to defective signal peptide cleavage, both of which are required for correct transport to the cell membrane. This provides further evidence for a critical role of GPIX in controlling biosynthesis of the GPIb-IX complex.

  7. Impact of training load on the heart rate of horses


    Eva Mlyneková; Marko Halo; Miroslav Maršálek; Lucie Starostová


    In our work, we analyzed the effect of training load on the heart rate of horses in a simulated load by the loading regulator for horse motion Horse Gym 2000. In the experiment were observed 8 Slovak Warmblood horses (3 mares, 4 geldings, 1 stallion) aged 6-10 years. The experiment was divided into two parts after three weeks. The speed of the tested horses was 4.9 km/h in the first part of experiment, in the second part was the speed 5.2 km/h with a gradual uphill up to 7 %. The tested horse...

  8. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables. (United States)

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A


    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Wijk-Jansen, van E.E.C.


    A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation, and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of horse

  10. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy. (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H


    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  11. Validation of the protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique for mitochondrial oxygen measurements in the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Harms (Floor A.); S.I.A. Bodmer (Sander I. A.); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); R.J. Stolker (Robert); E.G. Mik (Egbert)


    textabstractMitochondrial oxygen tension can be measured in vivo by means of oxygen-dependent quenching of delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Here we demonstrate that mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) can be measured in the skin of a rat after topical application of the PpIX precursor


    Gonçalves, Rita; Malalana, Fernando; McConnell, James Fraser; Maddox, Thomas


    For accurate interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the equine brain, knowledge of the normal cross-sectional anatomy of the brain and associated structures (such as the cranial nerves) is essential. The purpose of this prospective cadaver study was to describe and compare MRI and computed tomography (CT) anatomy of cranial nerves' origins and associated skull foramina in a sample of five horses. All horses were presented for euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the head. Heads were collected posteuthanasia and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in the transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes. Thin-slice MR sequences were also acquired using transverse 3D-CISS sequences that allowed mutliplanar reformatting. Transverse thin-slice CT images were acquired and multiplanar reformatting was used to create comparative images. Magnetic resonance imaging consistently allowed visualization of cranial nerves II, V, VII, VIII, and XII in all horses. The cranial nerves III, IV, and VI were identifiable as a group despite difficulties in identification of individual nerves. The group of cranial nerves IX, X, and XI were identified in 4/5 horses although the region where they exited the skull was identified in all cases. The course of nerves II and V could be followed on several slices and the main divisions of cranial nerve V could be distinguished in all cases. In conclusion, CT allowed clear visualization of the skull foramina and occasionally the nerves themselves, facilitating identification of the nerves for comparison with MRI images. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  13. Protoporphyrin IX: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (United States)

    Sachar, Madhav; Anderson, Karl E.


    Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is ubiquitously present in all living cells in small amounts as a precursor of heme. PPIX has some biologic functions of its own, and PPIX-based strategies have been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment (the good). PPIX serves as the substrate for ferrochelatase, the final enzyme in heme biosynthesis, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated during heme synthesis. Accumulation of PPIX in human porphyrias can cause skin photosensitivity, biliary stones, hepatobiliary damage, and even liver failure (the bad and the ugly). In this work, we review the mechanisms that are associated with the broad aspects of PPIX. Because PPIX is a hydrophobic molecule, its disposition is by hepatic rather than renal excretion. Large amounts of PPIX are toxic to the liver and can cause cholestatic liver injury. Application of PPIX in cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on its photodynamic effects. PMID:26588930

  14. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum. (United States)

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva


    Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring.

  15. Twenty years of Hendra virus: laboratory submission trends and risk factors for infection in horses. (United States)

    Smith, C S; McLAUGHLIN, A; Field, H E; Edson, D; Mayer, D; Ossedryver, S; Barrett, J; Waltisbuhl, D


    Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition. Peaks in submissions for testing, and visitations to the Government HeV website, were associated with reported equine incidents. Significantly differing between-year HeV detection rates in north and south Queensland suggest a fundamental difference in risk exposure between the two regions. The statistical association between HeV detection and stockhorse type may suggest that husbandry is a more important risk determinant than breed per se. The detection of HeV in horses with neither neurological nor respiratory signs poses a risk management challenge for attending veterinarians and laboratory staff, reinforcing animal health authority recommendations that appropriate risk management strategies be employed for all sick horses, and by anyone handling sick horses or associated biological samples.

  16. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

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    Evan S Sergeant

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41. This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012 assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  17. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses

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    Constanza Stefania Meneses


    Full Text Available The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43. For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1 was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  18. Immunofluorescence characterization of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia and astrocytes in horses. (United States)

    Meneses, Constanza Stefania; Müller, Heine Yacob; Herzberg, Daniel Eduardo; Uberti, Benjamín; Bustamante, Hedie Almagro; Werner, Marianne Patricia


    The role of glial cells in pain modulation has recently gathered attention. The objective of this study was to determine healthy spinal microglia and astrocyte morphology and disposition in equine spinal cord dorsal horns using Iba-1 and GFAP/Cx-43 immunofluorescence labeling, respectively. Five adult horses without visible wounds or gait alterations were selected. Spinal cord segments were obtained post-mortem for immunohistochemical and immunocolocalization assays. Immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn astrocytes was done using a polyclonal goat antibody raised against Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a polyclonal rabbit antibody against Connexin 43 (Cx-43). For immunodetection of spinal cord dorsal horn microglia, a polyclonal rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminus of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) was used. Epifluorescence and confocal images were obtained for the morphological and organizational analysis. Evaluation of shape, area, cell diameter, cell process length and thickness was performed on dorsal horn microglia and astrocyte. Morphologically, an amoeboid spherical shape with a mean cell area of 92.4 + 34 µm2 (in lamina I, II and III) was found in horse microglial cells, located primarily in laminae I, II and III. Astrocyte primary stem branches (and cellular bodies to a much lesser extent) are mainly detected using GFAP. Thus, double GFAP/Cx-43 immunolabeling was needed in order to accurately characterize the morphology, dimension and cell density of astrocytes in horses. Horse and rodent astrocytes seem to have similar dimensions and localization. Horse astrocyte cells have an average diameter of 56 + 14 µm, with a main process length of 28 + 8 µm, and thickness of 1.4 + 0.3 µm, mainly situated in laminae I, II and III. Additionally, a close association between end-point astrocyte processes and microglial cell bodies was found. These results are the first

  19. The use of CA-IX as a diagnostic method for oral leukoplakia. (United States)

    Pérez-Sayáns, M; Suárez-Peñaranda, J M; Torres-López, M; Supuran, C T; Gándara-Vila, P; Gayoso-Diz, P; Barros-Angueira, F; Gallas-Torreira, M; García-García, A


    The presence and degree of dysplasia are important diagnostic and prognostic criteria for oral leukoplakia, but evaluation of dysplasia is difficult and subjective. Carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX) is expressed primarily in tumor cells and is considered a specific hypoxia marker. We investigated the role of CA-IX in oral leukoplakia. We investigated 30 specimens of oral leukoplakia and 35 dysplasia specimens adjacent to the tumor margin. We analyzed clinical variables including age, sex, degree of dysplasia, and smoking, clinical appearance of leukoplakia, number of lesions, location, size, clinical monitoring, malignant transformation and recurrence. For the immunohistochemical study, we used a noncommercial monoclonal antibody against human CA-IX MAb M75. We found greater CA-IX positivity in nonsmokers, erythroplakia and mottled leukoplakia, those located on the tongue, patients with multiple lesions, 2-4 cm leukoplakias and in recurrent cases, although differences were not statistically significant. All lesions in all samples without dysplasia were negative for CA-IX; however, for all other categories of dysplasia, the percentages of positivity and negativity varied. Regarding the diagnostic index values, we found a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 13%. Leukoplakias appear mainly in females and potentially are malignant; more than 90% have some degree of dysplasia, and therefore require close clinical and histopathological monitoring. The CA-IX immunohistochemical marker may be useful for screening samples without dysplasia owing to its high specificity.

  20. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms. (United States)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C; Kanick, Stephen Chad


    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r > 0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤ 0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤ 0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  1. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier. (United States)

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn


    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier.

  2. Analysis of the IX Congress of the SEPR; Analisis del IX Congreso de la Sociedad Espanola de Proteccion Radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, A.; Lequerica, J. I.; Alonso, A.; Gonzalez, A.


    The most salient aspects of the IX Congress of the SEPR are briefly analysed, from the new development of the sessions, to the analysis of the round table discussions. The Congress included three technical sessions, presented by experts, which covered, among other issues, the scientific and social basis of radiation protection, regulation, radioactive waste management and dismantling: as well as protection in medical applications, radiation workers, members of the public and the environment, without forgetting ionizing radiation physics and measurements. On their side, the round tables discussed respectively issues related to the application of the new radiation protection regulations, the formation on radiation protection and the formal qualification of radiation experts, as well as the evolution of the basic standards and their application to the international marketing of commodities. (Author)

  3. Pathological Findings in Accidental Electrocution in a Horse (Case Report

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    Adrian Florin Gal


    Full Text Available Recently, the veterinarians are dealing with a number of cases that require forensic expertise. Such a circumstance could be the accidental electrocution in animals, one of the causes of unnatural death. There is a scarcity with reference to the pathological findings in veterinary forensic medicine. In this paper, we present the main lesions that occurred in a horse with accidental electrocution that was presented for complete necropsy survey. A horse corpse was sent to the Pathology Department (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania for a full medical survey. Preliminary results and external examination: the body was in rigor mortis; from the nasal cavities drained out reddish foam and in the mouth was observed the presence of ingested feed (straw that was not chewed, suggesting a quick death. The findings detected after internal examination of the carcass were poor blood coagulability, haemorrhagic diathesis throughout the body, with haemorrhages of various sizes in different body regions (e.g., muscles of the withers, in the gluteal muscle, the mucosa of epiglottis, larynx, trachea, in the interstitium of the lung, and ecchymosis in the left kidney. Some other lesions detected were infarcts and haemorrhages in the fundic region of the stomach’s mucosa. In electrocution, haemorrhages are most often located in the respiratory tract, aspect observed in our case too. However, the diagnosis of electrocution has to corroborate the necropsy findings (which are not specific, with some other data such as the fulminant death and inspection of power source.

  4. Dominance and Leadership: Useful Concepts in Human–Horse Interactions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Christensen, Janne Winther; McGreevy, Paul D.


    been sufficiently addressed are human safety aspects related to approaching and handling group-kept horses. Given horse's natural tendency to synchronize activity to promote group cohesion, questions remain about how group dynamics influence human–horse interactions. Group dynamics influence a variety...... of management scenarios, ranging from taking a horse out of its social group to the prospect of humans mimicking the horse's social system by taking a putative leadership role and seeking after an alpha position in the dominance hierarchy to achieve compliance. Yet, there is considerable debate about whether...... the roles horses attain in their social group are of any relevance in their reactions to humans. This article reviews the empirical data on social dynamics in horses, focusing on dominance and leadership theories and the merits of incorporating those concepts into the human–horse context. This will provide...

  5. Prevention and Reversal of Antibody Responses Against Factor IX in Gene Therapy for Hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushrusha eNayak


    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM administration of an adeno-associated viral (AAV vector represents a simple and safe method of gene transfer for treatment of the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B (factor IX, F.IX, deficiency. However, the approach is hampered by an increased risk of immune responses against F.IX. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug cocktail of immune suppressants rapamycin, IL-10, and a specific peptide (encoding a dominant CD4+ T cell epitope caused an induction of regulatory T cells (Treg with a concomitant apoptosis of antigen-specific effector T cells (J. Thromb. Haemost. 7:1523, 2009. This protocol was effective in preventing inhibitory antibody formation against human F.IX (hF.IX in muscle gene transfer to C3H/HeJ hemophilia B mice (with targeted F9 gene deletion. Here, we show that this protocol can also be used to reverse inhibitor formation. IM injection of AAV1-hF.IX vector resulted in inhibitors of on average 8-10 BU within 1 month. Subsequent treatment with the tolerogenic cocktail accomplished a rapid reduction of hF.IX-specific antibodies to <2 BU, which lasted for >4.5 months. Systemic hF.IX expression increased from undetectable to >200 ng/ml, and coagulation times improved. In addition, we developed an alternative prophylactic protocol against inhibitor formation that did not require knowledge of T cell epitopes, consisting of daily oral administration of rapamycin for 1-month combined with frequent, low-dose intravenous injection of hF.IX protein. Experiments in T cell receptor transgenic mice showed that the route and dosing schedule of drug administration substantially affected Treg induction. When combined with intravenous antigen administration, oral delivery of rapamycin had to be performed daily in order to induce Treg, which were suppressive and phenotypically comparable to natural Treg.

  6. Modulation of the endogenous production of protoporphyrin IX in a yeast-based model organism (United States)

    Joniová, Jaroslava; Gerelli, Emmanuel; Wagnières, Georges


    The main aim of this study was to assess conditions at which simple yeast-based model organism produces maximal levels of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after an exogenous administration of its precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and the ferrous-ion chelator 2,2'-bipyridyl. We observed that the fluorescing porphyrin, produced after these administrations, was likely to be PpIX since fluorescence spectroscopy of the porphyrins produced endogenously in yeast cells resembles that of PpIX in DMSO and in vivo in the chick's chorioallantoic membrane model. Also, fluorescence lifetimes of these porphyrins are very similar to that of PpIX in vitro and in vivo. This suggests that PpIX is the main fluorescent compound produced by yeast in our conditions. We found that the conditions at which yeast produces the maximal PpIX were a synchronous administration of 5 μM ALA and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl for yeast incubated in aqueous glucose and 1 mM 2,2'-bipyridyl in the presence of YPD medium. Such a simple model is of high interest to study basic mechanisms involved in the mitochondrial respiration since PpIX, which is produced in this organelle, can be used as an oxygen sensor, or to perform photodynamic therapy and photodiagnosis. Since the absorption and scattering coefficients of this model are much smaller than those of soft tissues over the visible part of the spectrum, a version of this model loaded with appropriated amounts of light absorbing and scattering particles could be designed as a phantom to mimic tumors containing PpIX, a useful tool to optimize certain cancer photodetection set-ups.

  7. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.


    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was

  8. Safety of AAV factor IX peripheral transvenular gene delivery to muscle in hemophilia B dogs. (United States)

    Haurigot, Virginia; Mingozzi, Federico; Buchlis, George; Hui, Daniel J; Chen, Yifeng; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Arruda, Valder R; Radu, Antoneta; Franck, Helen G; Wright, J Fraser; Zhou, Shangzhen; Stedman, Hansell H; Bellinger, Dwight A; Nichols, Timothy C; High, Katherine A


    Muscle represents an attractive target tissue for adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene transfer for hemophilia B (HB). Experience with direct intramuscular (i.m.) administration of AAV vectors in humans showed that the approach is safe but fails to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Here, we present a careful evaluation of the safety profile (vector, transgene, and administration procedure) of peripheral transvenular administration of AAV-canine factor IX (cFIX) vectors to the muscle of HB dogs. Vector administration resulted in sustained therapeutic levels of cFIX expression. Although all animals developed a robust antibody response to the AAV capsid, no T-cell responses to the capsid antigen were detected by interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot). Interleukin (IL)-10 ELISpot screening of lymphocytes showed reactivity to cFIX-derived peptides, and restimulation of T cells in vitro in the presence of the identified cFIX epitopes resulted in the expansion of CD4(+)FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) T-cells. Vector administration was not associated with systemic inflammation, and vector spread to nontarget tissues was minimal. At the local level, limited levels of cell infiltrates were detected when the vector was administered intravascularly. In summary, this study in a large animal model of HB demonstrates that therapeutic levels of gene transfer can be safely achieved using a novel route of intravascular gene transfer to muscle.

  9. Tenogenically induced allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVandenberghe


    Full Text Available Suspensory ligament injuries are a common injury in sport horses, especially in competing dressage horses. Because of the poor healing of chronic recalcitrant tendon injuries, this represents a major problem in the rehabilitation of sport horses and often compromises the return to the initial performance level. Stem cells are considered as a novel treatment for different pathologies in horses and humans. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are well known for their use in the treatment of tendinopathies, however, recent studies report a safe use of allogeneic MSCs for different orthopaedic applications in horses. Moreover, it has been reported that predifferentiation of MSCs prior to injection might result in improved clinical outcomes. For all these reasons, the present case report describes the use of allogeneic tenogenically induced peripheral blood-derived MSCs for the treatment of a proximal suspensory ligament injury. During conservative management for 4 months, the horse demonstrated no improvement of a right front lameness with a Grade 2/5 on the AAEP scale and a clear hypo-echoic area detectable in 30% of the cross sectional area. From 4 weeks after treatment, the lameness reduced to an AAEP Grade 1/5 and a clear filling of the lesion could be noticed on ultrasound. At 12 weeks (T4 after the first injection, a second intralesional injection with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs and PRP was given and at 4 weeks after the second injection (T5, the horse trotted sound under all circumstances with a close to total fiber alignment. The horse went back to previous performance level at 32 weeks after the first regenerative therapy and is currently still doing so (i.e. 20 weeks later or 1 year after the first stem cell treatment.In conclusion, the present case report demonstrated a positive evolution of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis after treatment with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs.

  10. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy. (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M


    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  11. Comparison of efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Bertone, Alicia L; Hendrickson, Dean; Hughes, Faith; Macallister, Charles; McClure, Scott; Reinemeyer, Craig; Rossier, Yves; Sifferman, Roger; Vrins, André A; White, Gary; Kunkle, Bruce; Alva, Roberto; Romano, Davida; Hanson, Peter D


    To compare efficacy and safety of paste formulations of firocoxib and phenylbutazone in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 253 client-owned horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Horses were treated with firocoxib (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) or phenylbutazone (4.4 mg/kg [2 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 14 days. Physical examinations and lameness evaluations were performed prior to treatment and after 7 and 14 days. Clinical improvement was defined as a reduction of at least 1 lameness grade or a combined reduction of at least 3 points in scores for pain during manipulation or palpation, joint swelling, joint circumference, and range of motion. Proportion of horses clinically improved on day 14 for the firocoxib group (104/123 [84.6%]) was not significantly different from the proportion for the phenylbutazone group (103/119 [86.6%]). Proportion of horses that were improved on day 14 was significantly greater for horses treated with firocoxib than for horses treated with phenylbutazone with regard to score for pain on manipulation or palpation (P = 0.028), joint circumference score (P = 0.026), and range of motion score (P = 0.012), but not for overall lameness score or joint swelling score. No direct treatment-related adverse effects were detected during the study. Results suggested that overall clinical efficacy of a paste formulation of firocoxib in horses with naturally occurring osteoarthritis was comparable to efficacy of a paste formulation of phenylbutazone.

  12. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. Methods A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. Results The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66–78%. A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1–8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. Conclusion The results show that

  13. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms. (United States)

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan


    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  14. Development of Immunotherapy for Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in Horses


    Jónsdóttir, Sigríður


    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a type I allergy of horses with production of IgE and release of inflammatory mediators. It is caused by bites of midges of the genus Culicoides. The disease is a recurrent dermatitis characterized by pruritic skin and hair loss, which can result in secondary infections. All breeds of horses can be affected, but horses born in Iceland and exported are more frequently affected than Icelandic horses born abroad. Allergens have been identified at the molecul...

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson


    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  16. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners]. (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M


    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  17. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding]. (United States)

    Meier, H


    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  18. Hemithyroidectomy in a horse with confirmed hyperthyroidism. (United States)

    Alberts, M K; McCann, J P; Woods, P R


    A 23-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was admitted to the hospital because of cachexia and hyperactive behavior of 1 year's duration. At admission the horse was severely emaciated, tachycardic with a grade V/VI diastolic murmur, pyrexic, polydipsic, enophthalmic, and alopecic. The right lobe of the thyroid gland was noticeably larger than typical. The horse was also hyperexcitable and had a ravenous appetite. A presumptive diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made on the basis of clinical signs and high plasma thyroid hormone concentrations. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made on the basis of results of a triiodothyronine-suppression test. Following endocrine testing, the affected portion of the thyroid gland was removed and identified histologically as an adenoma. Return or plasma thyroid hormone concentrations to reference range values and resolution of the clinical signs of disease following hemithyroidectomy provided further conformation of the diagnosis. On the basis of finding in this horse, it appears that horses with hyperthyroidism may be successfully treated by hemithyroidectomy.

  19. The effect of equine recombinant growth hormone on second intention wound healing in horses. (United States)

    Dart, Andrew J; Cries, Lucile; Jeffcott, Leo B; Hodgson, David R; Rose, Reuben J


    To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone on healing of full thickness skin wounds on equine limbs. Experimental. Nine Standardbred horses. In study 1, standardized full thickness skin wounds (2.5 x 2.5 cm) were made over the dorsomedial aspect of the mid-cannon bone of 1 forelimb and 1 hindlimb in 9 horses. Wounds were bandaged without treatment (control subjects) and videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Then, in study 2, similar wounds were created on the opposite limbs; 6 horses were administered intramuscular recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days), and 3 horses (control subjects) were administered equivalent volumes of sterile water. Wounds were videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Wound healing variables were measured from the videorecordings using a computer software package and analyzed as a randomized complete block design factorial analysis of variance; significance was set at P wounds in study 1 and the control wounds in study 2. In recombinant equine growth hormone-treated horses, wounds retracted more during treatment and contracted faster after treatment stopped when compared with wounds from untreated horses. No other treatment effects were detected. Recombinant equine growth hormone seemingly increases wound retraction. After treatment ceases, wound contraction increases. Intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days) does not appear to have any beneficial clinical effect on healing of equine limb wounds. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  20. Are Eyes a Mirror of the Soul? What Eye Wrinkles Reveal about a Horse's Emotional State. (United States)

    Hintze, Sara; Smith, Samantha; Patt, Antonia; Bachmann, Iris; Würbel, Hanno


    Finding valid indicators of emotional states is one of the biggest challenges in animal welfare science. Here, we investigated in horses whether variation in the expression of eye wrinkles caused by contraction of the inner eyebrow raiser reflects emotional valence. By confronting horses with positive and negative conditions, we aimed to induce positive and negative emotional states, hypothesising that positive emotions would reduce whereas negative emotions would increase eye wrinkle expression. Sixteen horses were individually exposed in a balanced order to two positive (grooming, food anticipation) and two negative conditions (food competition, waving a plastic bag). Each condition lasted for 60 seconds and was preceded by a 60 second control phase. Throughout both phases, pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per condition and phase were randomly selected. Pictures were scored in random order and by two experimenters blind to condition and phase for six outcome measures: qualitative impression, eyelid shape, markedness of the wrinkles, presence of eye white, number of wrinkles, and the angle between the line through the eyeball and the highest wrinkle. The angle decreased during grooming and increased during food competition compared to control phases, whereas the two phases did not differ during food anticipation and the plastic bag condition. No effects on the other outcome measures were detected. Taken together, we have defined a set of measures to assess eye wrinkle expression reliably, of which one measure was affected by the conditions the horses were exposed to. Variation in eye wrinkle expression might provide valuable information on horse welfare but further validation of specific measures across different conditions is needed.

  1. Transmission and control of African horse sickness in The Netherlands: a model analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantien A Backer

    Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is an equine viral disease that is spread by Culicoides spp. Since the closely related disease bluetongue established itself in The Netherlands in 2006, AHS is considered a potential threat for the Dutch horse population. A vector-host model that incorporates the current knowledge of the infection biology is used to explore the effect of different parameters on whether and how the disease will spread, and to assess the effect of control measures. The time of introduction is an important determinant whether and how the disease will spread, depending on temperature and vector season. Given an introduction in the most favourable and constant circumstances, our results identify the vector-to-host ratio as the most important factor, because of its high variability over the country. Furthermore, a higher temperature accelerates the epidemic, while a higher horse density increases the extent of the epidemic. Due to the short infectious period in horses, the obvious clinical signs and the presence of non-susceptible hosts, AHS is expected to invade and spread less easily than bluetongue. Moreover, detection is presumed to be earlier, which allows control measures to be targeted towards elimination of infection sources. We argue that recommended control measures are euthanasia of infected horses with severe clinical signs and vector control in infected herds, protecting horses from midge bites in neighbouring herds, and (prioritized vaccination of herds farther away, provided that transport regulations are strictly applied. The largest lack of knowledge is the competence and host preference of the different Culicoides species present in temperate regions.

  2. Are Eyes a Mirror of the Soul? What Eye Wrinkles Reveal about a Horse's Emotional State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hintze

    Full Text Available Finding valid indicators of emotional states is one of the biggest challenges in animal welfare science. Here, we investigated in horses whether variation in the expression of eye wrinkles caused by contraction of the inner eyebrow raiser reflects emotional valence. By confronting horses with positive and negative conditions, we aimed to induce positive and negative emotional states, hypothesising that positive emotions would reduce whereas negative emotions would increase eye wrinkle expression. Sixteen horses were individually exposed in a balanced order to two positive (grooming, food anticipation and two negative conditions (food competition, waving a plastic bag. Each condition lasted for 60 seconds and was preceded by a 60 second control phase. Throughout both phases, pictures of the eyes were taken, and for each horse four pictures per condition and phase were randomly selected. Pictures were scored in random order and by two experimenters blind to condition and phase for six outcome measures: qualitative impression, eyelid shape, markedness of the wrinkles, presence of eye white, number of wrinkles, and the angle between the line through the eyeball and the highest wrinkle. The angle decreased during grooming and increased during food competition compared to control phases, whereas the two phases did not differ during food anticipation and the plastic bag condition. No effects on the other outcome measures were detected. Taken together, we have defined a set of measures to assess eye wrinkle expression reliably, of which one measure was affected by the conditions the horses were exposed to. Variation in eye wrinkle expression might provide valuable information on horse welfare but further validation of specific measures across different conditions is needed.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamics of cobalt following a single intravenous administration to horses. (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Mitchell, M M; Holser, I; Poppenga, R; Smith, L L; Helm, M N; Sams, R A; Gaskill, C L


    Cobalt has been used by human athletes due to its purported performance-enhancing effects. It has been suggested that cobalt administration results in enhanced erythropoiesis, secondary to increased circulating erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations leading to improvements in athletic performance. Anecdotal reports of illicit administration of cobalt to horses for its suspected performance enhancing effects have led us to investigate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects of this compound when administered in horses, so as to better regulate its use. In the current study, 18 horses were administered a single intravenous dose of cobalt chloride or cobalt gluconate and serum and urine samples collected for up to 10 days post administration. Cobalt concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and pharmacokinetic parameters determined. Additional blood samples were collected for measurement of equine EPO concentrations as well as to assess any effects on red blood cell parameters. Horses were observed for adverse effects and heart rate monitored for the first 4 h post administration. Cobalt was characterized by a large volume of distribution (0.939 L/kg) and a prolonged gamma half-life (156.4 h). Cobalt serum concentrations were still above baseline values at 10 days post administration. A single administration of cobalt had no effect on EPO concentrations, red blood cell parameters or heart rate in any of the horses studied and no adverse effects were noted. Based on the prolonged gamma half-life and prolonged residence time, regulators should be able to detect administration of a single dose of cobalt to horses. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of an equine coronavirus-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine serologic responses in naturally infected horses. (United States)

    Kooijman, Lotte J; Mapes, Samantha M; Pusterla, Nicola


    Equine coronavirus (EqCoV) infection has been documented in most reports through quantitative qPCR analysis of feces and viral genome sequencing. Although qPCR is used to detect antigen during the acute disease phase, there is no equine-specific antibody test available to study EqCoV seroprevalence in various horse populations. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) targeting antibodies to the spike (S) protein of EqCoV and validated its use, using acute and convalescent sera from 83 adult horses involved in 6 outbreaks. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA was able to reliably detect antibodies to EqCoV in naturally infected horses. The greatest seroconversion rate was observed in horses with clinical signs compatible with EqCoV infection and EqCoV qPCR detection in feces. The EqCoV S protein-based ELISA could be used effectively for seroepidemiologic studies in order to better characterize the overall infection rate of EqCoV in various horse populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Palmar annular ligament desmotomy in horses with the Arthrex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes


    Jan 25, 2018 ... Published: 07/02/2018. Palmar annular ligament desmotomy in horses with the Arthrex-Centerline™ ... Ten horse distal front limbs from horses free of PAL disease were prepared for tenoscopy of the digital flexor tendon sheath .... operative field, a better diagnosis and a reduction in both the surgical wound.

  6. A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 314 Arab horses of ages ranging from 4 to 15 years were examined of which 35(11.2%) were Albino and 279(88.85%) were non albino horses. Nine horses (2.86%) were observed to have cutaneous neoplasm. Gross characteristics of the cutaneous neoplasm found were studied and some biopsy samples ...

  7. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.


    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  8. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh


    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  9. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses (United States)

    Tahmoush, David


    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  10. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  11. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311 Section 93.311 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or...

  12. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  13. Playing with fire ? What is influencing horse owners? decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?


    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg


    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Aus...

  14. Improved diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions in submucous fibrosis patients with 5-aminolevulinic acid induced PpIX fluorescence (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Tsuimin; Chiang, Chung-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chen, Chin-Tin


    We investigate the possibility of using ALA-derived PpIX fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of epithelial hyperkeratosis (EH) or epithelial dysplasia (ED) lesions in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) patients that could not be found by autofluorescence spectroscopy. Twenty percent of ALA solution gel was applied onto oral neoplasia and surrounding normal tissue [normal oral mucosa (NOM)] for 90 min. Fluorescence emission spectra were measured under 410 nm excitation. Generally, the most intense fluorescence emission peaks occurred at 460 and 630 nm. The ratios of the area under red peak (630+/-10 nm) to the area under blue peak (460+/-10 nm), denoted as R/B, were calculated. We found that OSF mucosa has the lowest R/B value, followed by NOM, EH on OSF, and ED on OSF. An ANOVA test showed significant differences between OSF, NOM, EH on OSF, and ED on OSF (p0.05). These results indicate that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence spectroscopy could be used to identify the premalignant lesions on oral fibrotic mucosa, which could not be found by autofluorescence.

  15. Spinal anesthetics and analgesics in the horse. (United States)

    Natalini, Claudio C


    In the past 10 years, there have been many recent advances in spinal techniques in horses, both epidural and subarachnoid, to identify drugs or drug combinations that have sensory effects without motor nerve paralysis, thus providing pain control without these horses becoming recumbent. Opioids, alpha-2 agonists, dissociative drugs, and others have been investigated. Many of these drugs, which have serious side effects when injected systemically in horses, have been shown to have useful analgesic effects when injected spinally. Morphine-like opioids have the greatest potential for spinal use as they produce long-lasting analgesia without motor effects. Often the doses used spinally are significantly lower than those needed for systemic effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán


    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  17. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun


    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  18. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery. (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun


    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  19. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic... (United States)


    ... identification which includes a description of the horse, name, age, markings, if any, registration number, if any, and tattoo or eartag; the region of origin; the name and address of the exporter; the port of... all horses to be imported. (B) The permanent electronic identification of each horse to be imported...

  20. Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, S.R.; Skiveren, J.; Philipsen, P.A.


    Background Pain during photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a considerable problem that needs to be studied to improve this otherwise attractive treatment of skin diseases. Objectives To compare pain during PDT using two different fluence rates, and also to evaluate the association between pain...... and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization. Methods Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT. Patients with acne were illuminated using...... two different fluence rates. Pain score during PDT and PpIX fluorescence prior to illumination were measured. Results The study showed that pain during illumination was associated with the PpIX fluorescence in the treatment area (P = 0.0003, R-2 = 0.31). When using a fluence rate of 34 mW cm(-2...

  1. Cellular invasion and collagen type IX in the primary corneal stroma in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cai, C X; Fitch, J M; Svoboda, K K; Birk, D E; Linsenmayer, T F


    .... One of these is the fibril-associated collagen type IX. This molecule is present when the primary corneal stroma is in a compact state, but rapidly disappears just prior to stromal swelling and its invasion by mesenchymal cells...

  2. Special Section Guest Editorial: Nanostructured Thin Films IX: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling (United States)

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Mackay, Tom G.; Suzuki, Motofumi


    This guest editorial introduces the special section on Nanostructured Thin Films IX: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and Modeling, which appears in the October-December 2017 issue of the Journal of Nanophotonics.

  3. 11. IX toimus Rotermanni soolalaos happening "Olematute bändide festival"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Kiwa raamatu "Lastehaiglast põgenenud mänguasjad" (koostaja Hasso Krull, kujundaja Peeter Laurits, kaanel modell Eleonora Kampe ja Kiwa) ja sound-art-projektide esitlus. 12. IX Kiwa ja Andres Lõo loeng

  4. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L


    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Core Training and Rehabilitation in Horses. (United States)

    Clayton, Hilary M


    The central body axis or core is a key component in controlling body posture and providing a stable platform for limb movements and generation of locomotor forces. Persistent dysfunction of the deep stabilizing muscles seems to be common in horses indicating a need for core training exercises to restore normal function. Core training should be performed throughout the horse's athletic career to maintain a healthy back and used therapeutically when back pain is identified. This article reviews the structure and function of the equine thoracolumbar spine with special reference to function, dysfunction, conditioning, and rehabilitation of the core musculature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Serum protein concentrations from clinically healthy horses determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Riond, Barbara; Wenger-Riggenbach, Bettina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans


    Serum protein electrophoresis is a useful screening test in equine laboratory medicine. The method can provide valuable information about changes in the concentrations of albumin and alpha-, beta-, and gamma-globulins and thereby help characterize dysproteinemias in equine patients. Reference values for horses using agarose gel as a support medium have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to establish reference intervals for serum protein concentrations in adult horses using agarose gel electrophoresis and to assess differences between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses. In addition, the precision of electrophoresis for determining fraction percentages and the detection limit were determined. Blood samples were obtained from 126 clinically healthy horses, including 105 Thoroughbreds and 21 heavy draught horses of both sexes and ranging from 2 to 20 years of age. The total protein concentration was determined by an automated biuret method. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed using a semi-automated agarose gel electrophoresis system. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were calculated for within-run and within-assay precision. Data from warm-blooded and draught horses were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Within-run and within-assay CVs were <5% for all protein fractions. No significant difference was found between warm-blooded and heavy draught horses and so combined reference intervals (2.5-97.5%) were calculated for total protein (51.0-72.0 g/L), albumin (29.6-38.5 g/L), alpha(1)-globulin (1.9-3.1 g/L), alpha(2)-globulin (5.3-8.7 g/L), beta(1)-globulin (2.8-7.3g/L), beta(2)-globulin (2.2-6.0 g/L), and gamma-globulin (5.8-12.7 g/L) concentrations, and albumin/globulin ratio (0.93-1.65). Using agarose gel as the supporting matrix for serum protein electrophoresis in horses resulted in excellent resolution and accurate results that facilitated standardization into 6 protein fractions.

  7. Oesophageal lumen pH in yearling horses and effects of management and administration of omeprazole. (United States)

    Wilson, C S; Brookes, V J; Hughes, K J; Trope, G D; Ip, H; Gunn, A J


    In human subjects, arytenoid chondritis can be caused by chemical trauma of mucosa attributable to gastro-oesophageal reflux. Although a similar process may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of arytenoid chondritis in horses, the oesophageal lumen pH in this species is poorly understood. To determine if gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in horses by characterising oesophageal lumen pH. Blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover, experimental study. Luminal oesophageal pH in six yearling horses was recorded over four 24 h periods using an ambulatory pH recorder attached to a catheter with two electrodes (proximal and distal) inserted into the oesophagus. Recordings of pH were made during three management protocols. Initially, horses grazed in a paddock (Protocol A). Horses were then moved to stables to simulate sale preparation of Thoroughbred yearlings, and were given either omeprazole (Protocol B) or placebo paste (Protocol C) orally once per day. Protocol A was repeated for each horse (after a 13 day washout period) between Protocols B and C. Summary statistics described pH range and frequency of pH changes. Associations with predictor variables were investigated using linear mixed-effects models. Data are presented as the mean ± s.d. Oesophageal lumen pH ranged from 4.90 to 9.70 (7.36 ± 0.27 and 7.18 ± 0.24 for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively) and varied frequently (1.2 ± 0.9 changes/min and 0.8 ± 0.8 changes/min for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively). Oesophageal lumen pH was associated with time since concentrate feeding, activity and time of day, but not with treatment of omeprazole. A small number of horses were used and measurement periods were limited. Gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in clinically normal yearling horses. Although omeprazole had no detectable effect, oesophageal lumen pH recorded during this study did not fall within the therapeutic range of omeprazole. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Pembelajaran Ritme Menggunakan Alat Musik Tar Pada Siswa Kelas IX Di Mts Negeri 2 Pontianak


    Wahyudi, Deki; Ghozali, Imam; Wartiningsih, Agus


    Rhythm Learning by Using Musical Instruments Tar. The background of this research is that many teachers have difficulty in selecting appropriate learning media in lesson learning the art of music, especially rhythm objective of these problems is the description of the application of learning rhythm using musical instruments tar in Class IX in MTs N 2 Pontianak, as well as knowing the results achieved in learning rhythm using musical instruments tar in Class IX MTs N 2 Pontianak. This type of ...

  9. Evaluation of Sonochemiluminescence in a Phantom in the Presence of Protoporphyrin IX Conjugated to Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shanei


    Full Text Available Introduction When a liquid is irradiated with high-intensity and low-frequency ultrasound, acoustic cavitation occurs and there are some methods to determine and quantify this phenomenon. The existing methods for performing these experiments include sonochemiluminescence (SCL and chemical dosimetric methods. The particles in a liquid decrease the ultrasonic intensity threshold needed for cavitation onset. In this study, a new nanoconjugate made up of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and gold nanoparticles (GNP, i.e., Au-PpIX was used to provide nucleation sites for cavitation. The nonradiative relaxation time of PpIX in the presence of GNPs is longer than the similar time for PpIX without GNPs. This effect can be used in medical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Materials and Methods The acoustic cavitation activity was investigated studying integrated SCL signal in the wavelength range of 400-500 nm in polyacrylamide gel phantom containing luminol using a cooled CCD spectrometer at different intensities of 1 MHz ultrasound. In order to confirm these results, a chemical dosimetric method was utilized, too. Results SCL signal level in gel phantom containing Au-PpIX was higher than the other phantoms. These results have been confirmed by the chemical dosimetric data. Conclusion This finding can be related to the existence of PpIX as a sensitizer and GNPs as cavitation nuclei. In other words, nanoparticles have acted as the sites for cavitation and have increased the cavitation rate. Another theory is that activation of PpIX has produced more free radicals and has enhanced the SCL signal level.

  10. A Spectroelectrochemical Investigation Oxidation of the Bilirubin IX-Alpa in Dimethylformamide. (United States)


    spectroscopy. The data suggest a CECEC mechanism for oxidation of bilirubin to biliverdin . The oxidation - potential for the mono-deprotonated bilirubin...8217 ’ " Introduction Bilirubin IX-a (Br, Figure 1) is an open-chained tetropyrrole formed in the body from the enzymatic reduction of biliverdin IX-a (Bv...sulfate -. which retained biliverdin and mono- and dipyrrole impurities. Photochemical degradation was prevented by wrapping the column with aluminum

  11. Qualitative cosmology - Diagrammatic solutions for Bianchi type IX universes with expansion, rotation, and shear. II. (United States)

    Ryan, M. P., Jr.


    The investigation of expanding, rotating, shearing Bianchi type IX universes is extended to the most general case possible. Use is made of the techniques of Arnowitt et al. (1962). It is shown that the conclusion reached by Arnowitt et al. regarding the small effect of rotation on the singularity of type IX universes is true in general. The superspace approach to the motion of the universe is discussed in an appendix.

  12. Queering the Horse-Crazy Girl: Part II


    Hansen, Natalie Corinne


    This paper continues my examination of horse-crazy girls, contrasting two representations of girl-horse love in order to argue for a revaluation of this love. I suggest that popular framings of girl-horse love reconfirm existing systems of power and powerlessness, for girls, the women they become, and for horses. I begin with an analysis of Hasbro’s popular My Little PonyTM line of toys, which, I argue, sexualizes girls and girl-horse love, demeaning female subjectivity and agency and dismiss...

  13. Desmitis of the fetlock annular ligament in the horse. (United States)

    Verschooten, F; Picavet, T M


    Desmitis of the fetlock annular ligament was diagnosed in 30 horses during a period of eight years. Most of the horses had been lame for a prolonged period and had chronically distended digital flexor tendon sheaths. Air tendograms demonstrated thickened palmar or plantar annular ligaments. In 25 horses the ligament was cut longitudinally; of these, 16 horses returned to full work without any difficulty and one became sound after a second operation. Follow up time varied from three months to seven-and-a-half years. None of the five untreated horses returned to work.

  14. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hwan Lee


    Full Text Available Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa. The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX. The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk.

  15. West Nile virus 'circulation' in Vojvodina, Serbia: Mosquito, bird, horse and human surveillance. (United States)

    Petrić, Dušan; Petrović, Tamaš; Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana; Zgomba, Marija; Milošević, Vesna; Lazić, Gospava; Ignjatović Ćupina, Aleksandra; Lupulović, Diana; Lazić, Sava; Dondur, Dragan; Vaselek, Slavica; Živulj, Aleksandar; Kisin, Bratislav; Molnar, Tibor; Janku, Djordje; Pudar, Dubravka; Radovanov, Jelena; Kavran, Mihaela; Kovačević, Gordana; Plavšić, Budimir; Jovanović Galović, Aleksandra; Vidić, Milan; Ilić, Svetlana; Petrić, Mina


    Efforts to detect West Nile virus (WNV) in the Vojvodina province, northern Serbia, commenced with human and mosquito surveillance in 2005, followed by horse (2009) and wild bird (2012) surveillance. The knowledge obtained regarding WNV circulation, combined with the need for timely detection of virus activity and risk assessment resulted in the implementation of a national surveillance programme integrating mosquito, horse and bird surveillance in 2014. From 2013, the system showed highly satisfactory results in terms of area specificity (the capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease - WNND) and sensitivity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level. A small number (n = 50) of Culex pipiens (pipiens and molestus biotypes, and their hybrids) females analysed per trap/night, combined with a high number of specimens in the sample, provided variable results in the early detection capacity at different administrative levels (NUTS2 versus NUTS3). The clustering of infected mosquitoes, horses, birds and human cases of WNND in 2014-2015 was highly significant, following the south-west to north-east direction in Vojvodina (NUTS2 administrative level). Human WNND cases grouped closest with infected mosquitoes in 2014, and with wild birds/mosquitoes in 2015. In 2014, sentinel horses showed better spatial correspondence with human WNND cases than sentinel chickens. Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the incidence of human WNND cases recorded at the NUTS2 and NUTS3 levels. From 2010, West Nile virus was detected in mosquitoes sampled at 43 different trap stations across Vojvodina. At 14 stations (32.56%), WNV was detected in two different (consecutive or alternate) years, at 2 stations in 3 different years, and in 1 station during 5 different years. Based on these results, integrated surveillance will be progressively improved to allow evidence-based adoption of

  16. Modified technique for common carotid artery transposition in standing horses. (United States)

    Tapio, Heidi; Argüelles, David; Gracia-Calvo, Luis A; Raekallio, Marja


    To describe a modified technique for permanent translocation of the common carotid artery (CCA) to a subcutaneous position in standing horses. Experimental study. Healthy adult Standardbred and Warmblood horses (n = 8). Surgery was performed with the horses standing under sedation and with local anesthesia. A combination of previously described techniques was used modifying the approach and closure of the incision. The right CCA was approached through a linear skin incision dorsal and parallel to the jugular vein and through the brachiocephalicus and omohyoideus muscles. The artery was dissected free of its sheath and elevated to the skin incision with Penrose drains. The brachiocephalicus muscle was sutured in two layers underneath the artery leaving it in a subcutaneous position. The horses were allowed to heal for 3 weeks prior to catheterization of the artery. The transposed CCA was successfully used for repeated catheterization in six of eight horses for a period of 10 weeks. None of the horses had intraoperative complications. Two horses developed mild peri-incisional edema that resolved spontaneously. Right-sided laryngeal hemiplegia was observed endoscopically in two horses postoperatively. Two horses developed complications (surgical site infection and excessive periarterial fibrosis) that compromised the patency of the CCA and precluded catheterization. Permanent translocation of the CCA in standing horses was successful in six out of eight horses. Upper airway endoscopy postoperatively may be warranted as laryngeal hemiplegia may ensue. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders. (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela


    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Probing strong optical fields in compact aggregates of silver nanoparticles by SERRS of protoporphyrin IX. (United States)

    Sládkova, Magdalena; Vlcková, Blanka; Mojzes, Peter; Slouf, Miroslav; Naudin, Coralie; Le Bourdon, Gwenelle


    TEM images and measurements of SERRS (surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering) spectra as a function of the porphyrin concentrations in systems with unmodified and chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) are reported. TEM images have shown formation of compact aggregates in systems with chloride modified Ag nanoparticles, as opposed to systems with the unmodified particles constituted by isolated particles. SERRS spectra of PPIX as a function of PPIX concentration were measured and subjected to factor analysis. Two spectral components were identified and tentatively attributed to unperturbed PPIX and to Ag+ -PPIX surface species. Concentration value of the SERRS spectral detection limit of the latter species was determined to be nearly three orders of magnitude lower in the system with the compact aggregates than in the system with separated nanoparticles and achieves the value of 1 x 10(-10) M in a macrosampling Raman experiment. TEM images and SERRS-micro-Raman spectra of single compact aggregates of chloride-modified Ag nanoparticles incorporating PPIX molecules were acquired from a sample prepared by attachment of the aggregates to amine groups of derivatized, SiOx/formvar coated copper grids for TEM. The SERRS signal has shown large temporal fluctuations as well as variations from one aggregate to another. Within the signal fluctuations, a SERRS spectrum showing the characteristic bands of both SERRS spectral forms of PPIX and originating most probably from a few PPIX molecules located in hot spots in the interstices between the Ag nanoparticles, was obtained.

  19. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen


    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty...... after each regrouping (2 × 20 min/group/day). Injuries were scored by the end of the experimental period. The level of aggression shown by horses in Unstable groups immediately after regrouping was not affected by week (F5,35 = 0.42, P = 0.83), indicating that horses neither habituated, nor sensitized...... injuries were registered and there was no treatment effect (U = 184; P = 0.11). We conclude that the behaviour of young horses is affected by group management, and that horses appear not to adapt to weekly regroupings....

  20. Surgical management of compound odontoma in two horses. (United States)

    Brounts, Sabrina H; Hawkins, Jan F; Lescun, Timothy B; Fessler, John F; Stiles, Phaedra; Blevins, William E


    Two horses were admitted for evaluation of mandibular swelling (horse 1) or maxillary distortion (horse 2). Both horses had radiographic evidence of tumors of dental origin that had the appearance of a compound odontoma. Extensive surgical resection was performed for treatment. Horse 1 was treated with 1-stage surgical resection, but an iatrogenic fracture occurred during surgery, which was managed successfully with a type I external fixator and extraoral alimentation. Horse 2 was treated in multiple stages to remove all portions of the tumor. To manage an extensive orosinal fistula, a custom-designed dental bridge was constructed to occlude the fistula. For both horses, the histopathologic diagnosis was compound odontoma. Compound odontomas are benign, locally expansive tumors of dental origin. Compound odontomas can be treated successfully; however, multiple surgeries may be necessary.

  1. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.


    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena...... access during 3 min was given after completion of a predetermined number of responses on a panel. Fixed ratios (FR) of 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 responses per arena access were applied in a random order, one per daily test session, within each test week (Monday to Friday), and the number of rewards per daily...

  2. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection? (United States)

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg


    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against Hendra

  3. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiea Arianna Goyen

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162 of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214 currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1 perceived low risk (compared to high of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2 perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3 horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4 horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5 handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only and 6 perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination. Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  4. Playing with fire – What is influencing horse owners’ decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection? (United States)

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra


    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners’ attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners’ location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  5. The First Investigation of West Nile Virus in Horses Using Real Time RT-PCR in Middle Black Sea Region in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Yazici


    Full Text Available Background: West Nile Virus (WNV is a mosquito-borne disease that can cause fatal infection in mammals in­cluding humans, dogs, horses, birds and reptiles. Although West Nile Virus is an asymptomatic infection, especially it can cause neurologic disorders in humans and horses. The aim of this study was to the investigate virological pres­ence of WNV in horses in the Black Sea Region of Turkey using real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR.Methods: Totally, 120 horse sera were collected equally from 4 provinces in Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey and investigated for WNV presence by Taqman based rRT-PCR.Results: WNV nucleic acid was not detected in any horse serum sample.Conclusion: Although obtained result indicated no evidence of WNV–RNA in horses, Black Sea Region of Turkey is one of the suitable places for the WNV infection. For this reason, our research will continue for the determination of the viruses in vectors and susceptible animals such as horses, dogs, etc

  6. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever). (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D


    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Microbial quality of raw horse milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazeleger, Wilma C.; Beumer, Rijkelt R.


    Consumption of horse milk has become popular in developed countries, especially among people suffering from bowel problems and skin diseases. Since the positive effect is supposedly not observed after pasteurisation, the product is mostly consumed as raw milk. Since the microbiological quality of

  8. Potentially novel Ehrlichia species in horses, Nicaragua. (United States)

    O'Nion, Victoria L; Montilla, Hernan J; Qurollo, Barbara A; Maggi, Ricardo G; Hegarty, Barbara C; Tornquist, Susan J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B


    Ehrlichia sp. DNA was amplified from 4 Ehrlichia-seroreactive horses from Mérida, Nicaragua. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, sodB, and groEL genes indicated that the bacterium is most likely a novel Ehrlichia species. The tick vector and the potential for canine and human infection remain unknown.

  9. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)


    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  10. Optimized horse trail design for Illinois soil (United States)

    C.J. Jones; Logan O. Park


    One of the fastest growing forms of outdoor recreation is equestrian trail riding. In a study examining long-term trends of use on Forest Service lands, equestrian-based recreation was identified as one of the top five activities experiencing growth. As the numbers of horse riders rise, the economic impact of equestrian recreation can be expected to increase across the...

  11. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,


    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  12. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together (United States)

    Symington, Ashley


    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  13. Do Horses Have a Concept of Person? (United States)

    Sankey, Carol; Henry, Séverine; André, Nicolas; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick; Hausberger, Martine


    Background Animals' ability for cross-modal recognition has recently received much interest. Captive or domestic animals seem able to perceive cues of human attention and appear to have a multisensory perception of humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we used a task where horses have to remain immobile under a vocal order to test whether they are sensitive to the attentional state of the experimenter, but also whether they behave and respond differently to the familiar order when tested by a familiar or an unknown person. Horses' response varied according to the person's attentional state when the order was given by an unknown person: obedience levels were higher when the person giving the order was looking at the horse than when he was not attentive. More interesting is the finding that whatever the condition, horses monitored much more and for longer times the unknown person, as if they were surprised to hear the familiar order given by an unknown voice. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that recognition of humans may lie in a global, integrated, multisensory representation of specific individuals, that includes visual and vocal identity, but also expectations on the individual's behaviour in a familiar situation. PMID:21479184

  14. Phenylbutazone and the horse--a review. (United States)

    Jeffcott, L B; Colles, C M


    The clinical uses and side-effects of phenylbutazone in man, horses, and other animals are reviewed. The blood dyscrasias commonly described in man have not been reported in the horse, although several of the more minor side-effects have occasionally been seen (e.g. water retention, depression, transient staggering and phlebitis). Despite the lack of documented evidence, the toxicity of phenylbutazone in the horse is considered to be lower than that in man. This may be associated with the lower dose rates normally used, the more rapid plasma clearance rate and the comparatively younger age of most horses under treatment. The following guidelines for the use of phenylbutazone in practice are put toward. It should only be used under strict veterinary control and then only if there are clear clinical indications. It should not be given if there are signs of gastro-intestinal ulceration, clotting defects or any cardiac, renal or hepatic dysfunction. Dose rates should be kept to a minimum and the drug withdrawn immediately if any side-effects occur or if there is no clinical response within 4 days. If prolonged therapy is necessary, periodic haematological analyses should be carried out.

  15. Diagnostic value of computed tomography, radiography and ultrasonography in metacarpophalangeal joint disorders in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.V. Machado


    Full Text Available In modern society the work and athletic performance of horses has led to a very important animal production sector in which Brazil possesses the third largest horse stock. Among all equine lesions described, metacarpophalangeal (fetlock joint lesions are considered one of the main causes of lameness. Consequently, there is a need to improve the understanding and diagnosis of these injuries. The most efficient imaging diagnostic methods for the fetlock region are computed tomography, radiography and ultrasound. Imaging studies of the anatomical structures involving this joint are extremely important to obtain a more precise diagnose. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the capacity of different imaging diagnostic modalities to detect a variety of lesions in different fetlock structures. Twenty horses (Equus caballus used for horsemanship activities were referred to the Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology of São Paulo State University, Botucatu campus, with clinical signs of metacarpophalangeal joint injuries. Horses were submitted to radiographic and ultrasonographic exam and computed tomography scan. Image analysis revealed a significant capacity of these methods to characterize lesions in this region. However, computed tomography provided broader and better evaluation of lesions in bones and adjacent structures, because it allows the analysis to be performed on three-dimensional projections, with attenuation coefficients (window selections and tissue density measurement through Hounsfield Units (HU.

  16. Purification and Characterization of Cathepsin B from the Muscle of Horse Mackerel Trachurus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Yoshida


    Full Text Available An endogenous protease in fish muscle, cathepsin B, was partially purified and characterized from horse mackerel meat. On SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme under reducing conditions, main protein bands were detected at 28 and 6 kDa and their respective N-terminal sequences showed high homology to heavy and light chains of cathepsin B from other species. This suggested that horse mackerel cathepsin B formed two-chain forms, similar to mammalian cathepsin Bs. Optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were 5.0 and 50 °C, respectively. A partial cDNA encoding the amino acid sequence of 215 residues for horse mackerel cathepsin B was obtained by RT-PCR and cloned. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a part of light and heavy chains of cathepsin B. The active sites and an N-glycosylation site were conserved across species. We also confirmed that the modori phenomenon was avoided by CA-074, a specific inhibitor for cathepsin B. Therefore, our results suggest that natural cysteine protease inhibitor(s, such as oryzacystatin derived from rice, can apply to thermal-gel processing of horse mackerel to avoid the modori phenomenon. Meanwhile, this endogenous protease may be used for food processing, such as weaning meal and food for the elderly.

  17. Effects of meloxicam and phenylbutazone on renal responses to furosemide, dobutamine, and exercise in horses. (United States)

    Raidal, Sharanne L; Hughes, Kris J; Charman, Amanda-Lee; Nielsen, Sharon G; Phillips, Jacqueline K; Noble, Glenys K


    To compare the effects of 2 NSAIDs (phenylbutazone and meloxicam) on renal function in horses. 9 Thoroughbred or Standardbred mares (mean ± SD age, 5.22 ± 1.09 years [range, 2 to 12 years]; mean body weight, 470 ± 25 kg [range, 442 to 510 kg]). A randomized blinded placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted to examine the effects of treatment with phenylbutazone, meloxicam, or a placebo (control solution) on renal responses to the administration of furosemide, dobutamine, and exercise (15 minutes at 60% of maximum heart rate). Renal function was assessed by use of bilateral ureteral catheterization for simultaneous determination of creatinine clearance, sodium excretion, and urine flow rate. Both phenylbutazone and meloxicam attenuated diuresis and natriuresis and reduced glomerular filtration rate, compared with results for the control solution, when horses were treated with furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure, urine flow rate, and glomerular filtration rate were increased during or after (or both) dobutamine infusion. Both NSAIDs reduced urine flow rate and sodium excretion associated with dobutamine infusion and exercise but had no effect on glomerular filtration rate. Responses to meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 preferential agent, appeared comparable to those detected after phenylbutazone treatment, which suggested that COX-2 was the mediator of prostanoid-induced changes to renal function in horses and indicated that COX-2-preferential agents would be likely to have adverse renal effects similar to those for nonselective COX inhibitors in volume-depleted horses.

  18. An Ambulatory Electroencephalography System for Freely Moving Horses: An Innovating Approach (United States)

    Cousillas, Hugo; Oger, Martial; Rochais, Céline; Pettoello, Claire; Ménoret, Mathilde; Henry, Séverine; Hausberger, Martine


    Electroencephalography (EEG) that has been extensively studied in humans presents also a large interest for studies on animal brain processes. However, since the quality of the recordings is altered by muscular activity, most EEG recordings on animals are obtained using invasive methods with deeply implanted electrodes. This requires anesthesia and can thus only be used in laboratory or clinical settings. As EEG is a very useful tool both for detecting brain alterations due to diseases or accidents and to evaluate the arousal and attentional state of the animal, it seemed crucial to develop a tool that would make such recordings possible in the horse’s home environment, with a freely moving horse. Such a tool should neither be invasive nor cause discomforts to the horse as the usual other practice which consists, after shaving the zone, in gluing the electrodes to the skin. To fulfill these requirements, we developed a novel EEG headset adapted to the horse’s head that allows an easy and fast positioning of the electrodes and that can be used in the home environment on a freely moving horse. In this study, we show that this EEG headset allows to obtain reliable recordings, and we propose an original evaluation of an animal’s “EEG profile” that allows comparisons between individuals and situations. This EEG headset opens new possibilities of investigation on horse cognition, and it can also become a useful tool for veterinarians to evaluate cerebral disorders or check the anesthesia level during a surgery. PMID:28512633

  19. Echocardiographic measurement of cart horses in the metropolitan region of Curitiba-PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Turner Giannico


    Full Text Available In order to maintain the horses’ performance during the exercise, their hearts adapt to the variations on metabolic activity, resulting in muscular adaptation. Thus, echocardiography allows to assess on both eventual adaptations of heart tissue and impairment of the ability to pump blood. Little is yet known about echocardiography in cart horses, whose general conditions of health and treatment are often inappropriate to the type of exercise they are submitted to. The goal of this study was to establish echocardiographic numbers for cart horses. Nineteen mongrel horses were submitted for echocardiographic examination, and values of the distance from E point (maximum opening mitral valve to the interventricular septum; diameter of left ventricle cavity, interventricular septum thickness and thickness of left ventricle free wall during systole and diastole, fractional shortening and ejection fraction were obtained by M-mode. In the 2D images, diameter of the aortic valve and left atrium were evaluated, and their relationship. The velocities of the blood flow were evaluated in aorta and pulmonary artery and the mitral valve by means of Doppler, and possible insufficiency was detected through the color Doppler. Mean values for echocardiographic parameters were established considering 19 traction horses that worked pulling cart loads. There were no significant values that indicated either an inappropriate cardiac remodeling, a left ventricular dysfunction – with consequent decrease in exercises performance – or diseases that affect the animal’s performance at work.

  20. A field study to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in Mongolian horses. (United States)

    Clausen, Peter-Henning; Chuluun, Saruultuya; Sodnomdarjaa, Ruuragchaa; Greiner, Matthias; Noeckler, Karsten; Staak, Christian; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Schein, Eberhard


    From May to July 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Trypanosoma equiperdum in the horse population of the central province (Tuv aimag) of Mongolia. On average, four herds were selected from each of the 29 aimag subdivisions (119 herds). From each herd, 10 horses were sampled in proportion to sex and age categories in the respective herds (1190 horses). Sera from 1122 horses were analysed for T. equiperdum antibodies using two serological assays, the complement fixation test (CFT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The crude estimate of the CFT and the ELISA seroprevalence was 7.6 and 6.7%, respectively. Concordance between the CFT and ELISA results was high (96%). The highest number of CFT positive animals was detected in one herd in Möngönmorit (6/10), followed by herds in Bayandelger (5/10) and in Bayantsagaan (5/10). Poor body condition was significantly correlated with positive serological status in both CFT and ELISA. A history of abortion appeared to be a risk factor for both CFT and ELISA seropositivity. Blood samples of all horses belonging to herds with at least three (3/10) seropositive animals (CFT and/or ELISA) were analysed by light microscopy and by PCR using a Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei specific primer pair. No trypanosomes or any other haemoparasites could be detected in Giemsa stained thin blood smears. Eight out of the 130 samples (6.2%) analysed by PCR gave positive signals. Seven out of the eight PCR positive horses were also serologically positive. One PCR (and ELISA) positive stallion from Möngönmorit showed emaciation, scrotal and preputial oedema and an oedematous skin plaque. From the serological and DNA-based results it is concluded, that trypanosome infections occur in horses in the Tuv aimag of Mongolia. Since at present neither serological nor DNA-based tests allow a subspecies specific identification within the subgenus Trypanozoon, no definitive diagnosis can be given

  1. IX Congress of Spanish radiation protection Society (Bilbao, May-2002); IX Congreso de la Sociedad espanola de proteccion radiologica (Bilbao, Mayo 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The present book contains the papers presented to the IX Congress of Spanish Radiation Protection Society. The main sessions were : 1.- Scientific area of Radiation Protection and Regulation, Social aspects, Radioactive waste management and Dismantling. 2.- Radiation protection in Medical applications. 3.- Physics of radiations and their measurements.


    Rhoads, C P


    Through the kindness of Dr. W. H. Park we have been enabled to study a horse antipoliomyelitic serum. This preparation has been supplied us in three forms: citrated blood plasma, serum, and globulin concentrate. We have tested these preparations in vitro and in vivo for inactivating or neutralizing or, to use perhaps a better term, antiviral effects against a constant, potent, filtrate virus of poliomyelitis. The preparations exhibited these effects when combined in vitro. Their action in this respect appears to be greater and more constant than that found by Stewart and Haselbauer for the Pettit antipoliomyelitic horse serum. On the other hand, in vivo tests carried out by us were less successful. In comparison with the constancy of action, under given conditions, of convalescent monkey and human sera, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum displayed striking irregularity, and certain preparations were devoid of protective power. The precise nature of the inactivating substances in the horse antiserum and their relation to the corresponding substances in convalescent sera have still, to be determined. As far as one absorption test carried out by us indicates, precipitin does not play a major rôle in the inactivating process. When an active globulin concentrate was filtered through Berkefeld candles, it lost its in vitro inactivating power. This is not true of convalescent sera in the native state. No tests have, however, been made with globulin concentrates from such sera. The experiments described in this paper raise the question whether, therapeutically considered, the antipoliomyelitic horse serum should be regarded as an exact equivalent of, and hence employed as a perfect substitute for, convalescent serum. This question can only be answered by further experiment and observation.

  3. The use of phenylbutazone in the horse. (United States)

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; Maylin, G M


    This review presents a brief historical prospective of the genesis of regulated medication in the US racing industry of which the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) phenylbutazone (PBZ) is the focus. It presents some historical guideposts in the development of the current rules on the use of PBZ by racing jurisdictions in the US. Based on its prevalent use, PBZ remains a focus of attention. The review examines the information presented in a number of different models used to determine the effects and duration of PBZ in the horse. They include naturally occurring lameness and reversible-induced lameness models that directly examine the effects and duration of the administration of various doses of PBZ. The review also examines indirect plasma and tissue models studying the suppression of the release of arachidonic acid-derived mediators of inflammation. The majority of studies suggest an effect of PBZ at 24 h at 4.4 mg/kg. This reflects and substantiates the opinion of many clinical veterinarians, many of whom will not perform a prepurchase lameness examination unless the horse is free of NSAID. This remains the opinion of many regulatory veterinarians responsible for the prerace examination of race horses that they wish to examine a horse without the possibility of an NSAID interfering with the examination and masking possible musculoskeletal conditions. Based on scientific studies, residual effects of PBZ remain at 24 h. The impact of sustained effect on the health and welfare of the horse and its contribution to injuries during competition remains problematic. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. The lower cranial nerves: IX, X, XI, XII. (United States)

    Sarrazin, J-L; Toulgoat, F; Benoudiba, F


    The lower cranial nerves innervate the pharynx and larynx by the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and vagus (CN X) (mixed) nerves, and provide motor innervation of the muscles of the neck by the accessory nerve (CN XI) and the tongue by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). The symptomatology provoked by an anomaly is often discrete and rarely in the forefront. As with all cranial nerves, the context and clinical examinations, in case of suspicion of impairment of the lower cranial nerves, are determinant in guiding the imaging. In fact, the impairment may be located in the brain stem, in the peribulbar cisterns, in the foramens or even in the deep spaces of the face. The clinical localization of the probable seat of the lesion helps in choosing the adapted protocol in MRI and eventually completes it with a CT-scan. In the bulb, the intra-axial pathology is dominated by brain ischemia (in particular, with Wallenberg syndrome) and multiple sclerosis. Cisternal pathology is tumoral with two tumors, schwannoma and meningioma. The occurrence is much lower than in the cochleovestibular nerves as well as the leptomeningeal nerves (infectious, inflammatory or tumoral). Finally, foramen pathology is tumoral with, outside of the usual schwannomas and meningiomas, paragangliomas. For radiologists, fairly hesitant to explore these lower cranial pairs, it is necessary to be familiar with (or relearn) the anatomy, master the exploratory technique and be aware of the diagnostic possibilities. Copyright © 2013 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ares I-X Roll Control System Development (United States)

    Unger, Ronald J.; Massey, Edmund C.


    Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team (IPT) mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget. IPT challenges also included communications and negotiations among inter- and intra-government agencies, including the US Air Force, NASA/MSFC Propulsion Engineering, LaRC, GRC, KSC, WSTF, and the Constellation Program. In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware. The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations. The IPT consisted of NASA/MSFC (project management, engineering, and safety/quality) and contractors (Teledyne Brown Engineering and Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, who supplied heritage hardware experience). The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures. This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects.

  6. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci. (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á


    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Identification of genetic variation on the horse y chromosome and the tracing of male founder lineages in modern breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wallner

    Full Text Available The paternally inherited Y chromosome displays the population genetic history of males. While modern domestic horses (Equus caballus exhibit abundant diversity within maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, no significant Y-chromosomal sequence diversity has been detected. We used high throughput sequencing technology to identify the first polymorphic Y-chromosomal markers useful for tracing paternal lines. The nucleotide variability of the modern horse Y chromosome is extremely low, resulting in six haplotypes (HT, all clearly distinct from the Przewalski horse (E. przewalskii. The most widespread HT1 is ancestral and the other five haplotypes apparently arose on the background of HT1 by mutation or gene conversion after domestication. Two haplotypes (HT2 and HT3 are widely distributed at high frequencies among modern European horse breeds. Using pedigree information, we trace the distribution of Y-haplotype diversity to particular founders. The mutation leading to HT3 occurred in the germline of the famous English Thoroughbred stallion "Eclipse" or his son or grandson and its prevalence demonstrates the influence of this popular paternal line on modern sport horse breeds. The pervasive introgression of Thoroughbred stallions during the last 200 years to refine autochthonous breeds has strongly affected the distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in modern horse breeds and has led to the replacement of autochthonous Y chromosomes. Only a few northern European breeds bear unique variants at high frequencies or fixed within but not shared among breeds. Our Y-chromosomal data complement the well established mtDNA lineages and document the male side of the genetic history of modern horse breeds and breeding practices.

  8. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data (United States)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.


    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  9. Fecal Ciliate Composition of Domestic Horses (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758) Living in Kyrgyzstan. (United States)

    Gürelli, Gözde; Canbulat, Savaş; Aldayarov, Nurbek


    Species composition and distribution of intestinal ciliates were investigated in the feces from 15 domestic horses living in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Twenty-three species belonging to 14 genera were identified. This is the first study on intestinal ciliates in domestic horses living in Kyrgyzstan. The mean number of ciliates was 14.1 ± 6.8 x10(4) cells ml(-1) of feces and the mean number of ciliate species per host was 6.0 ± 3.2. No endemic or new species were detected. Blepharocorys was the major genus as these ciliates were detected in high proportions. In contrast Holophryoides, Allantosoma were only observed at low frequencies. Recorded ciliate species in this investigation had almost the same characteristics as those described in previous studies. There was no important geographic variation in the intestinal ciliate fauna of equids.

  10. Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009. (United States)

    de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Iamamoto, Keila; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Achkar, Samira Maria; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Ono, Ekaterina Durymanova; Lobo, Renata Spinelli Vaz; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Carnieli, Pedro; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Kotait, Ivanete; Macedo, Carla Isabel


    Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.

  11. A soluble class I molecule analogous to mouse Q10 in the horse and related species. (United States)

    Lew, A M; Valas, R B; Maloy, W L; Coligan, J E


    Horse serum is shown to contain a soluble class I molecule analogous to the secreted Q10 molecule in the mouse. This molecule has several similarities to the recently described mouse Q10 molecule: it is smaller than membrane-bound equine class I molecules; it occurs in a high molecular mass complex of 200-300 kd in serum; and the serum levels of the equine molecule are similar to that of the Q10 molecule (about 30 micrograms/ml). A soluble molecule is also detected in the sera of species related to the horse; it has in fact been found in all the wild members of the order Perissodactyla so far tested. However, it was not detected in the serum of members of the orders Carnivora, Sirenia, Proboscidea, Artiodactyla, and Primates that were tested, nor in the serum of members of the order Rodentia other than in that of the genus Mus.

  12. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis


    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy.Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR.In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney.These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  13. Diagnostic and operative arthroscopy of the coxofemoral joint in horses. (United States)

    Nixon, A J


    Arthroscopic examination of the hip joint was performed in mature and juvenile horses, using a lateral approach and standard or long instruments depending on body weight. Nine hip joints were examined in three cadavers and four anesthetized horses. The lateral, cranial, and caudal regions of the femoral head and acetabulum were accessible, and, after distraction of the limb, the ligament of the head of the femur and the acetabular notch were also visible. In small horses, the medial regions of the hip joint were visible but were inaccessible in larger horses. Iatrogenic injury to the sciatic nerve or periarticular vasculature was not evident at necropsy examination. Six horses with lameness localized to the hip joint were examined arthroscopically. At surgery, two horses had tearing of the ligament of the head of the femur, two horses had osteochondrosis of the femoral head or acetabulum, and two horses had degenerative joint disease, one associated with a rim fracture of the caudal aspect of the acetabulum and the other of indeterminant origin. Improvement after debridement occurred in one of the horses with partial disruption of the ligament of the head of the femur and in both horses with osteochondrosis. Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the hip can be accomplished in foals and weanlings using standard equipment, but, in adults weighing more than 300 kg, longer instruments are required and the ease of access and the visible extent of the hip joint is considerably reduced.

  14. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. (United States)

    Bunning, Michel L; Bowen, Richard A; Cropp, C Bruce; Sullivan, Kevin G; Davis, Brent S; Komar, Nicholas; Godsey, Marvin S; Baker, Dale; Hettler, Danielle L; Holmes, Derek A; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Mitchell, Carl J


    A total of 12 horses of different breeds and ages were infected with West Nile virus (WNV) via the bites of infected Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Half the horses were infected with a viral isolate from the brain of a horse (BC787), and half were infected with an isolate from crow brain (NY99-6625); both were NY99 isolates. Postinfection, uninfected female Ae. albopictus fed on eight of the infected horses. In the first trial, Nt antibody titers reached >1:320, 1:20, 1:160, and 1:80 for horses 1 to 4, respectively. In the second trial, the seven horses with subclinical infections developed Nt antibody titers >1:10 between days 7 and 11 post infection. The highest viremia level in horses fed upon by the recipient mosquitoes was approximately 460 Vero cell PFU/mL. All mosquitoes that fed upon viremic horses were negative for the virus. Horses infected with the NY99 strain of WNV develop low viremia levels of short duration; therefore, infected horses are unlikely to serve as important amplifying hosts for WNV in nature.

  15. Evaluation of high-molecular weight adiponectin in horses. (United States)

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Edwards, Heather Gray; Plaisance, Eric P; Applegate, Rory; Taylor, Debra R; Taintor, Jennifer; Zhong, Qiao; Judd, Robert L


    To characterize adiponectin protein complexes in lean and obese horses. 26 lean horses and 18 obese horses. Procedures-Body condition score (BCS) and serum insulin activity were measured for each horse. Denaturing and native western blot analyses were used to evaluate adiponectin complexes in serum. A human ELISA kit was validated and used to quantify high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes. Correlations between variables were made, and HMW values were compared between groups. Adiponectin was present as a multimer consisting of HMW (> 720-kDa), low-molecular weight (180-kDa), and trimeric (90-kDa) complexes in serum. All complexes were qualitatively reduced in obese horses versus lean horses, but the percentage of complexes < 250 kDa was higher in obese versus lean horses. High-molecular weight adiponectin concentration measured via ELISA was negatively correlated with serum insulin activity and BCS and was lower in obese horses (mean ± SD, 3.6 ± 3.9 μg/mL), compared with lean horses (8.0 ± 4.6 μg/mL). HMW adiponectin is measurable via ELISA, and concentration is negatively correlated with BCS and serum insulin activity in horses. A greater understanding of the role of adiponectin in equine metabolism will provide insight into the pathophysiology of metabolic disease conditions.

  16. Congenital ocular anomalies in purebred and crossbred Rocky and Kentucky Mountain horses in Canada. (United States)

    Grahn, Bruce H; Pinard, Chantale; Archer, Sheila; Bellone, Rebecca; Forsyth, George; Sandmeyer, Lynne S


    Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in purebred and crossbred Rocky and Kentucky Mountain horses in Canada are frequently diagnosed with biomicroscopic and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. In order of frequency detected, these include temporal ciliary epithelial cysts; iridal hypoplasia; prominent corneas; focal temporal retinal degeneration related to ciliary cysts; and, rarely, retinal detachment. A pedigree analysis confirms a dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance and with a linkage to coat color.

  17. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.


    resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  18. Diagnosis of theileria equi infections in horses in the Azores using cELISA and nested PCR (United States)

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease of equids that is often caused by the parasite Theileria equi. We applied competitive ELISA (cELISA) and nested PCR diagnostic methods to detect this parasite in horses by screening 162 samples from mainland Portugal where the parasite is endemic, and 143...

  19. The use of a novel combination of diagnostic molecular and cytogenetic approaches in horses with sexual karyotype abnormalities: a rare case with an abnormal cellular chimerism. (United States)

    Demyda-Peyrás, S; Anaya, G; Bugno-Poniewierska, M; Pawlina, K; Membrillo, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M


    Sex chromosome aberrations are known to cause congenital abnormalities and unexplained infertility in horses. Most of these anomalies remain undiagnosed because of the complexity of the horse karyotype and the lack of specialized laboratories that can perform such diagnoses. On the other hand, the utilization of microsatellite markers is a technique widely spread in horse breeding, mostly because of their usage in parentage tests. We studied the usage of a novel combination of diagnostic approaches in the evaluation of a very uncommon case of chromosomal abnormalities in a Spanish purebred colt, primarily detected using a commercial panel of short tandem repeat (STR) makers. Based on these results, we performed a full cytogenetic analysis using conventional and fluorescent in situ hybridization techniques with individual Equus caballus chromosome X and Equus caballus chromosome Y painting probes. We also tested the presence of two genes associated with the sexual development in horses and an extra novel panel of eight microsatellite markers specifically located in the sex chromosome pair. This is the first case report of a leukocyte chimerism between chromosomally normal (64,XY) and abnormal (63,X0) cell lines in horses. Our results indicate that the use of the short tandem repeat markers as a screening technique and as a confirmation utilizing cytogenetic techniques can be used as a very interesting, easy, and nonexpensive diagnostic approach to detect chromosomal abnormalities in the domestic horse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus. (United States)

    Ramsay, Joshua D; Evanoff, Ryan; Wilkinson, Tom E; Divers, Thomas J; Knowles, Donald P; Mealey, Robert H


    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; nonprimate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes hepatitis has been lacking. In this study, we detected EHCV in 2 horses that developed post-transfusion hepatitis. Plasma and serum from these horses were used to experimentally transmit EHCV to 4 young adult Arabian horses, two 1-month-old foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross), and 2 foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Our results demonstrated that EHCV had infection kinetics similar to HCV and that infection was associated with acute and chronic liver disease as measured by elevations of liver-specific enzymes and/or by histopathology. Although most of these animals were coinfected with equine pegivirus (EPgV), also a flavivirus, EPgV viral loads were much lower and often undetectable in both liver and blood. Three additional young adult Arabian-pony crosses and 1 SCID foal were then inoculated with plasma containing only EHCV, and evidence of mild hepatocellular damage was observed. The different levels of liver-specific enzyme elevation, hepatic inflammation, and duration of viremia observed during EHCV infection suggested that the magnitude and course of liver disease was mediated by the virus inoculum and/or by host factors, including breed, age, and adaptive immune status. This work documents the complete infection kinetics and liver pathology associated with acute and chronic EHCV infection in horses and further justifies it as a large animal model for HCV. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Blood-feeding patterns of horse flies in the French Pyrenees. (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Gardès, L; De Stordeur, E; Jay-Robert, P; Garros, C


    Horse flies can mechanically transmit Besnoitia besnoiti, the agent of bovine besnoitiosis. Although previously limited to enzootic areas, especially the French Pyrenees Mountains, bovine besnoitiosis is now considered a re-emerging disease in western Europe. To improve understanding of the role of horse flies as mechanical vectors, this study investigated their blood-feeding ecology in the eastern French Pyrenees, in two high-altitude summer pastures whose main domestic ungulates were cattle, and in a wildlife park with native fauna. Species-specific PCR assays were conducted to identify the sources of blood meals: wild boar, horse, cattle (or bison), sheep (or mouflon), goat, red deer, roe deer and izard (or Pyrenean chamois). In La Mouline pasture, tabanids (N=20) fed on red deer (70%) and cattle (30%). In Mantet pasture, tabanids (N=24) fed on cattle (52%), red deer (20%), wild boar (16%), horse (8%) and sheep (4%). In the wildlife park, Tabanus bromius (N=32), the most abundant species collected, fed on red deer (85%), bison (9%) and wild boar (6%). Despite relatively high densities in both the pastures and in the wildlife park, small wild ungulates (izard, mouflon and roe deer) were not detected as a source of blood meals. Only two mixed blood meals were identified in two specimens of T. bromius: cattle/horse for the specimen collected in the pastures, and bison/wild boar for the specimen collected in the wildlife park. Our findings showed that tabanids display a level of opportunistic feeding behaviour, in addition to a preference for red deer, the latter being particularly true for Philipomyia aprica, the most abundant species collected in the pastures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood Glucose and Insulin Concentrations after Octreotide Administration in Horses With Insulin Dysregulation. (United States)

    Frank, N; Hermida, P; Sanchez-Londoño, A; Singh, R; Gradil, C M; Uricchio, C K


    Octreotide is a somatostatin analog that suppresses insulin secretion. We hypothesized that octreotide would suppress insulin concentrations in horses and that normal (N) horses and those with insulin dysregulation (ID) would differ significantly in their plasma glucose and insulin responses to administration of octreotide. Twelve horses, N = 5, ID = 7. Prospective study. An oral sugar test was performed to assign horses to N and ID groups. Octreotide (1.0 μg/kg IV) was then administered, and blood was collected at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minute, and 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hour for measurement of glucose and insulin concentrations. Area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. Mean AUC values for glucose and insulin did not differ between normal (n = 5) and ID (n = 7) groups after octreotide injection. Significant time (P insulin concentrations. A group × time interaction (P = .091) was detected for insulin concentrations after administration of octreotide, but the group (P = .33) effect was not significant. Octreotide suppresses insulin secretion, resulting in hyperglycemia, and then concentrations increase above baseline as glycemic control is restored. Our hypothesis that octreotide causes insulin concentrations to decrease in horses was supported, but differences between N and ID groups did not reach statistical significance when blood glucose and insulin responses were compared. The utility of an octreotide response test remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses. (United States)

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid


    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  4. Coat color genotypes and risk and severity of melanoma in gray quarter horses. (United States)

    Teixeira, R B C; Rendahl, A K; Anderson, S M; Mickelson, J R; Sigler, D; Buchanan, B R; Coleman, R J; McCue, M E


    Both graying and melanoma formation in horses have recently been linked to a duplication in the STX17 gene. This duplication, as well as a mutation in the ASIP gene that increases MC1R pathway signaling, affects melanoma risk and severity in gray horses. To determine if melanoma susceptibility in gray Quarter Horses (QH) is lower than gray horses from other breeds because of decreased MC1R signaling resulting from a high incidence of the MC1R chestnut coat color allele in the QH population. A total of 335 gray QH with and without dermal melanomas. Blood or hair root samples were collected from all horses for DNA extraction and genotyping for STX17, ASIP, and MC1R genotypes. Age, sex, and external melanoma presence and grade were recorded. The effect of age and genotype on melanoma presence and severity was evaluated by candidate gene association. Melanoma prevalence (16%) and grade (0.35) in this QH cohort was lower than that reported in other breeds. Age was significantly associated with melanoma prevalence (P = 5.28 × 10(-11)) and severity (P = 2.2 × 10(-13)). No significant effect of MC1R genotype on melanoma prevalence or severity was identified. An effect of ASIP genotype on melanoma risk was not detected. Low STX17 homozygosity precluded evaluation of the gray allele effect. Melanoma prevalence and severity is lower in this population of gray QH than what is reported in other breeds. This could be because of the infrequent STX17 homozygosity, a mitigating effect of the MC1R mutation on ASIP potentiation of melanoma, other genes in the MC1R signaling pathway, or differences in breed genetic background. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Induced diarrhoea in horses. Part 2: Response to administration of an oral rehydration solution. (United States)

    Ecke, P; Hodgson, D R; Rose, R J


    Hydration status, electrolyte balance and acid-base balance were studied in four adult standardbred geldings with castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The horses received an oral rehydration solution (ORS) at a point when signs consistent with mild decreases in effective circulating fluid volume were first detected. Within 1.5 h of ORS administration, all horses exhibited a significant metabolic acidosis. At this time, mean values for venous blood pH, [HCO3], and standard base excess were 7.264 +/- 0.011, 17.7 +/- 0.3 mmol L-1, and -8.2 +/- 0.4 mmol L-1, respectively. Throughout the duration of the study, plasma volume did not change significantly, despite a decreasing trend, which tended to recover towards normal values 8 h after administration of the ORS. Signs of abdominal discomfort were observed in all horses following the last of three doses of ORS (8-10 L) administered at 30 min intervals. Faecal fluid sodium concentration increased significantly with diarrhoea, and reached values fourfold those in normal horses, while faecal dry matter sodium concentration increased exponentially following the onset of clinical signs. Despite this increase in sodium concentration, faecal fluid remained hypotonic at all stages. Our findings suggest that, while ORS can help restore systemic fluid balance, several factors influence their effectiveness. Two likely factors identified in this study were the ionic composition of the ORS as well as the rate of administration. We concluded that the electrolyte composition of current ORS may not be ideal to treat diarrhoea in horses and that administration of 8-10 of ORS every 30 min via nasogastric tube may result in too rapid small intestinal transit to allow sufficient time for absorption.

  6. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R.; Foil, Lane D.


    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  7. The horse pinworm (Oxyuris equi) in archaeology during the Holocene: Review of past records and new data. (United States)

    Dufour, Benjamin; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Lepetz, Sébastien; Le Bailly, Matthieu


    This paper focuses on the horse pinworm, Oxyuris equi, in archaeology during the Holocene period, and presents an overview of past published occurrences, early mentions in texts, and new data from our paleoparasitology research. This original compilation shows that the most ancient record of the horse pinworm dates to ca. 2500 years before present (ybp) in Central Asia and to ca. 2020 ybp in Western Europe. It also shows that the parasite is not detected on the American continent until contemporary periods. The role of European migrations from 1492 (Christopher Columbus) is discussed to explain the transfer of the horse pinworm from the Old World to the Americas. The absence of any record of this parasite before ca. 2500 ybp in Eurasia could be explained by parasite ecology, unfavorable sampling and scarcity of horse archeological remains. For the Americas, the absence of horse for long periods can be an additional explanation for the absence of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of diffusion of triamcinolone acetonide from the distal interphalangeal joint into the navicular bursa in horses. (United States)

    Boyce, Mary; Malone, Erin D; Anderson, Lorraine B; Park, Seijin; Godden, Sandra M; Jenner, Florien; Trumble, Troy N


    To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses from the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) to the navicular bursa, diffusion is direct or systemic, and addition of sodium hyaluronan has an effect on diffusion in horses. 11 adult horses without forelimb lameness. 1 randomly chosen forelimb DIPJ of each horse received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 20 mg of sodium hyaluronan (group 1), and the contralateral forelimb DIPJ received an injection of 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide plus 2 mL of lactated Ringer's solution (group 2). Synovial fluid samples were taken from both forelimb navicular bursae and 1 hind limb navicular bursa (systemic control group) at 6 hours. Triamcinolone acetonide concentrations in synovial fluid were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography plus tandem mass spectrometry. Data were logarithmically transformed, and contrast analysis was performed on the 3 groups. Triamcinolone acetonide was detected in navicular bursal samples in all groups. Groups 1 and 2 had significantly greater concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide than the systemic control group. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. Triamcinolone acetonide diffused directly from the DIPJ into the navicular bursa in clinically normal horses, and diffusion was not affected by addition of hyaluronan. Injection into the DIPJ with triamcinolone acetonide or a triamcinolone acetonide-hyaluronan combination can potentially be used for treatment of navicular syndrome, but further studies are needed to determine whether triamcinolone acetonide diffuses similarly in horses with navicular syndrome.

  9. Horses in Denmark Are a Reservoir of Diverse Clones of Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Md Zohorul; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Damborg, Peter


    Denmark is a country with high prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex (CC) 398 in pigs. Even though pig farming is regarded as the main source of human infection or colonization with MRSA CC398, 10-15% of the human cases appear...... not to be linked to pigs. Following the recent reports of MRSA CC398 in horses in other European countries and the lack of knowledge on S. aureus carriage in this animal species, we carried out a study to investigate whether horses constitute a reservoir of MRSA CC398 in Denmark, and to gain knowledge...... identification by MALDI-TOF MS and MRSA confirmation by standard PCR-based methods, S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 54 (13%) and 17 (4%) horses originating from 30 (40%) and 7 (9%) farms, respectively. Based on spa typing, MSSA differed genetically from MRSA isolates. The spa type prevalent among MSSA...

  10. Prognostic Relevance of the Expression of CA IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF in Ovarian Epithelial Cancers. (United States)

    Kim, Kyungbin; Park, Won Young; Kim, Jee Yeon; Sol, Mee Young; Shin, Dong Hun; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Jeong Hee; Choi, Kyung Un


    Tumor hypoxia is associated with malignant progression and treatment resistance. Hypoxia-related factors, such as carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) permit tumor cell adaptation to hypoxia. We attempted to elucidate the correlation of these markers with variable clinicopathological factors and overall prognosis. Immunohistochemistry for CA IX, GLUT-1, and VEGF was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 125 cases of ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC). CA IX expression was significantly associated with an endometrioid and mucinous histology, nuclear grade, tumor necrosis, and mitosis. GLUT-1 expression was associated with tumor necrosis and mitosis. VEGF expression was correlated only with disease recurrence. Expression of each marker was not significant in terms of overall survival in OECs; however, there was a significant correlation between poor overall survival rate and high coexpression of these markers. The present study suggests that it is questionable whether CA IX, GLUT-1, or VEGF can be used alone as independent prognostic factors in OECs. Using at least two markers helps to predict patient outcomes in total OECs. Moreover, the inhibition of two target gene combinations might prove to be a novel anticancer therapy.

  11. Evaluation of the potential inhibitor of Ix (Pp-Ix) protoporphyrin of the genetic damage induced by gamma rays administered to different dose reasons in Drosophila melanogaster; Evaluacion del potencial inhibidor de la protoporfirina IX (PP-IX) del dano genetico inducido por rayos gama administrados a diferentes razones de dosis en Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores A, J. A.


    Ionizing radiation can damage in DNA directly or indirectly by free radicals (Rl), characterized by unstable and highly reactive. To avoid damage by Rl the cell has endogenous antioxidants such as Sod, Cat, GSH or exogenous as some vitamins, but if with these mechanisms does not reach the cell homeostasis, the consequence may be the generation of chronic-disease degenerative such as cancer. This study was conducted in order to test the inhibitory role of Rl protoporphyrin Ix (Pp-Ix), induced by 20 Gy of gamma rays administered at different dose ratios using the assay of somatic mutation and recombination in the Drosophila wing. The results indicated that 20 Gy delivered at a rate of low dose (6.659 Gy/h), caused elevated frequencies of genetic damage (p <0.001), compared with those that induced a high dose reason (1111.42 Gy/h) in larvae of 48 h old. The difference is probably due to an indirect damage by Rl; when this hypothesis was approved with the possible inhibitor role of Pp-Ix (0.69 m M), damage was increased with the two reasons of tested doses. This result may be due to: 1) the Pp-Ix is not a good inhibitor of Rl, 2) the difference in the frequency of mutation found with both dose reasons, not due to Rl so that this compound did not reduce the genetic damage, and 3) that Pp-Ix acts as pro oxidant. (Author)

  12. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton


    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  13. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses. (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic


    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie


    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  15. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill. (United States)

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R


    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha.

  16. Incidence of the endothelin receptor B mutation that causes lethal white foal syndrome in white-patterned horses. (United States)

    Santschi, E M; Vrotsos, P D; Purdy, A K; Mickelson, J R


    To determine incidence of the Ile118Lys endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) mutation responsible for overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS) and its association with specific types of white patterning. 945 horses of white-patterned bloodlines and 55 solid-colored horses of other breeds. Horses were genotyped by use of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction to determine incidence of the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation. Genotypes detected were homozygous Ile118, homozygous Lys118, and heterozygous. All foals with OLWS were homozygous for the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation, and adults that were homozygous were not found. White patterning was strongly associated with EDNRB genotype. Color patterns with highest incidence (> 94%) of heterozygotes were frame overo, highly white calico overo, and frame blend overo. White-patterned bloodlines with lowest incidence of heterozygotes (white calico overo, splashed white overo, nonframe blend overo, and breeding-stock solid. The mutation was not detected in solid-colored horses from breeds without white patterning. In homozygotes, the Ile118Lys EDNRB mutation causes OLWS. In heterozygotes, the mutation is usually responsible for a frame overo phenotype. The frame pattern can be combined with other white patterns, making accurate estimation of EDNRB genotype by visual inspection difficult. Wide range of incidence of heterozygotes in various subtypes of white-patterned horses indicates different genetic control of these color patterns. Determination of EDNRB genotype by use of a DNA-based test is the only way to determine with certainty whether white-patterned horses can produce a foal affected with OLWS.

  17. Evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. (United States)

    Murcia, Pablo R; Baillie, Gregory J; Stack, J Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T; Holmes, Edward C; Wood, James L N


    Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites.

  18. Thyroid Status in Exercising Horses and Laminitic Ponies


    Carter, Rebecca Ann


    THYROID STATUS IN EXERCISING HORSES AND LAMINITIC PONIES Rebecca A. Carter (ABSTRACT) The objective of these studies was to contribute to the understanding and assessment of thyroid function in horses. The first study evaluated methods of assessing thyroid function in horses, including validation of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measuring equine thyroid hormones and development and assessment of a thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) response test. Our data indicated that EIA is...

  19. Identification of Protocadherin 18-like Protein in Horse Molar Cementum


    深澤, 加與子; 佐原, 紀行; 森山, 敬太; 久野, 知子; 藤井, 慈貴; 音琴, 淳一; 太田, 紀雄; 宇田川, 信之; 矢ケ﨑, 裕; 小澤, 英浩


    Cementum plays an important role in tooth regeneration; however, the organization system has not yet been clarified. We have studied odontoclastic resorption in human deciduous teeth, and found that the cementum completely covers the enamel tissues of horse molar teeth. In order to study the regeneration system ofcementum, an EDTA soluble fraction extracted from horse cementum was analyzed. The 30 kDa protein was isolated from the EDTA fraction of horse cementum by hydroxyapatite chromatograp...

  20. Evolution of Equine Influenza Virus in Vaccinated Horses (United States)

    Murcia, Pablo R.; Baillie, Gregory J.; Stack, J. Conrad; Jervis, Carley; Elton, Debra; Mumford, Jennifer A.; Daly, Janet; Kellam, Paul; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Holmes, Edward C.


    Influenza A viruses are characterized by their ability to evade host immunity, even in vaccinated individuals. To determine how prior immunity shapes viral diversity in vivo, we studied the intra- and interhost evolution of equine influenza virus in vaccinated horses. Although the level and structure of genetic diversity were similar to those in naïve horses, intrahost bottlenecks may be more stringent in vaccinated animals, and mutations shared among horses often fall close to putative antigenic sites. PMID:23388708

  1. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  2. Accidental monensin toxicosis in horses in Mozambique : short communication

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    C.G. Bila


    Full Text Available Horses on several farmsin Mozambique were inadvertently fed with a concentrate containing 69 ppm monensin. The horses developed acute signs of toxicity and several died. The animals were depressed, anorectic and paretic before death. Epistaxis was observed in 1 case. Petechial haemorrhages were present in the muscles, heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and spleen in 3 horses necropsied. No significant histopathological cardiac and skeletal muscle lesions were seen, except in 1 case, in which there was focal loss of myofibrils.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies specific for native equine IgE and their application to monitor total serum IgE responses in Icelandic and non-Icelandic horses with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Wilson, A Douglas; Harwood, Lisa; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Marti, Eliane


    Immunoglobulin E forms a minor component of serum antibody in mammals. In tissues IgE is bound by FcvarepsilonRI receptors on the surface of mast cells and mediates their release of inflammatory substances in response to antigen. IgE and mast cells have a central role in immunity to parasites and the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in horses and other mammals. This paper describes the production of several novel monoclonal antibodies that detect native equine IgE in immunohistology, ELISA and Western blotting. An antigen capture ELISA to quantify equine IgE in serum has been developed using two of these antibodies. The mean serum IgE concentration of a group of 122 adult horses was 23,523ng/ml with a range of 425-82,610ng/ml. Total serum IgE of healthy horses was compared with that of horses with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity (IBDH) an allergic reaction to the bites of blood feeding insects of Culicoides or Simulium spp. IBDH does not occur in Iceland where Culicoides spp. are absent, but following importation into mainland Europe native Icelandic horses have an exceptionally high incidence of this condition. In the present study Icelandic horses with IBDH had significantly higher total IgE than healthy Icelandic horse controls (Phypersensitivity response to insect allergens but indicate that IBDH in Icelandic horses may have a different pathogenesis from the same condition in other breeds.

  4. An ethological study of young horses

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    Pavla Šišková


    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  5. The bioavailability of phenylbutazone in the horse. (United States)

    Smith, P B; Caldwell, J; Smith, R L; Horner, M W; Moss, M S


    [phenyl-14C]-Phenylbutazone was administered to 2 horses p.o. and i.v. on separate occasions. Plasma levels and urinary and faecal elimination of 14C were monitored for up to 7 days after dosing. Phenylbutazone was rapidly and extensively absorbed after oral administration, and its bioavailability was 91% assessed by comparison of plasma AUCs of unchanged drug after p.o. and i.v. administration. The plasma elimination half-life of phenylbutazone was 9.7 h and this was independent of the route of administration. The pattern of elimination of phenylbutazone was independent of the route of administration, with 55% of the dose being found in the urine in 3 days and a further 39% in the faeces in 7 days. These data, which are the first reports of the absolute bioavailability and excretion pathways of phenylbutazone in the horse, are discussed in terms of their significance for the gastrointestinal toxicity of this drug.

  6. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)


    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  7. Articular fetlock injuries in exercising horses. (United States)

    Santschi, Elizabeth M


    Articular injuries to the fetlock joint can be categorized as injuries to the soft tissues (synovium, ligaments, cartilage) or bone (third metacarpus/metatarsus, first phalanx, proximal sesamoids). This article focuses on the traumatic injuries to the cartilage and bone from anatomic, functional, and pathophysiological perspectives. An understanding of fetlock motion and loading will assist clinicians in the diagnosis, treatment, and, most importantly, prevention of fetlock injury in working horses.

  8. Perception of emotional valence in horse whinnies. (United States)

    Briefer, Elodie F; Mandel, Roi; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Briefer Freymond, Sabrina; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna


    Non-human animals often produce different types of vocalisations in negative and positive contexts (i.e. different valence), similar to humans, in which crying is associated with negative emotions and laughter is associated with positive ones. However, some types of vocalisations (e.g. contact calls, human speech) can be produced in both negative and positive contexts, and changes in valence are only accompanied by slight structural differences. Although such acoustically graded signals associated with opposite valence have been highlighted in some species, it is not known if conspecifics discriminate them, and if contagion of emotional valence occurs as a result. We tested whether domestic horses perceive, and are affected by, the emotional valence of whinnies produced by both familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. We measured physiological and behavioural reactions to whinnies recorded during emotionally negative (social separation) and positive (social reunion) situations. We show that horses perceive acoustic cues to both valence and familiarity present in whinnies. They reacted differently (respiration rate, head movements, height of the head and latency to respond) to separation and reunion whinnies when produced by familiar, but not unfamiliar individuals. They were also more emotionally aroused (shorter inter-pulse intervals and higher locomotion) when hearing unfamiliar compared to familiar whinnies. In addition, the acoustic parameters of separation and reunion whinnies affected the physiology and behaviour of conspecifics in a continuous way. However, we did not find clear evidence for contagion of emotional valence. Horses are thus able to perceive changes linked to emotional valence within a given vocalisation type, similar to perception of affective prosody in humans. Whinnies produced in either separation or reunion situations seem to constitute acoustically graded variants with distinct functions, enabling horses to increase their apparent vocal


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    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།


    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)


    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

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    Gabriella Gronqvist


    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  12. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

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    Joo-Hee Seo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  13. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet


    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  14. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

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    Hendrickson Larry E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  15. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A


    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

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    Tereza Petlachová


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  17. Frequency of gray coat color in native Chinese horse breeds. (United States)

    Gao, K X; Chen, N B; Liu, W J; Li, R; Lan, X Y; Chen, H; Lei, C Z; Dang, R H


    Gray horses are born colored, and they then gradually lose their hair pigmentation. Tremendous progress has been made in identifying the genes responsible for graying with age in horses in recent years. Results show that gray coat color in horses is caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of the syntaxin 17 gene (STX17), which constitutes a cis-acting-regulatory mutation. However, little is known about the gray phenotype in native Chinese horses. This study was conducted to explore the frequency distribution of the gray mutation in native Chinese horse breeds. A total of 489 samples from 14 native Chinese horse breeds were genotyped for the STX17 duplication using a simplified conventional PCR-based method. The results show that the gray mutation was present in 12 native Chinese horse breeds, except the Balikun and Guanzhong breeds. The Chakouyi and Hequ breeds had the highest frequency of the gray mutation (P(G) = 0.367 and P(G) = 0.274, respectively). There was no significant geographical difference in the distribution of gray coat color across native Chinese horse breeds. Our results suggest that gray is a common coat color in Chinese horses.

  18. Pneumonia Caused by Klebsiella spp. in 46 Horses. (United States)

    Estell, K E; Young, A; Kozikowski, T; Swain, E A; Byrne, B A; Reilly, C M; Kass, P H; Aleman, M


    Klebsiella spp. are implicated as a common cause of bacterial pneumonia in horses, but few reports describe clinical presentation and disease progression. To describe the signalment, clinicopathologic data, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, antimicrobial susceptibility, outcome, and pathologic lesions associated with Klebsiella spp. pneumonia in horses. Forty-six horses from which Klebsiella spp. was isolated from the lower respiratory tract. Retrospective study. Medical records from 1993 to 2013 at the William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis were reviewed. Exact logistic regression was performed to determine if any variables were associated with survival to hospital discharge. Survival in horses Klebsiella pneumoniae was the primary isolate, survival was 52%. Mechanical ventilation preceded development of pneumonia in 11 horses. Complications occurred in 25/46 horses, with thrombophlebitis and laminitis occurring most frequently. Multi-drug resistance was found in 47% of bacterial isolates. Variables that significantly impacted survival included hemorrhagic nasal discharge, laminitis, and thoracic radiographs with a sharp demarcation between marked caudal pulmonary alveolar infiltration and more normal-appearing caudodorsal lung. Klebsiella spp. should be considered as a differential diagnosis for horses presenting with hemorrhagic pneumonia and for horses developing pneumonia after mechanical ventilation. Multi-drug resistance is common. Prognosis for survival generally is fair, but is guarded for adult horses in which K. pneumoniae is isolated as the primary organism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Ulcerative cystitis associated with phenylbutazone administration in two horses. (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Nieto, Jorge E; Higgins, Jamie K


    A 15-year-old Quarter Horse gelding and a 26-year-old Thoroughbred gelding were evaluated because of hematuria of 4 to 6 days' duration following prolonged oral administration of phenylbutazone. The horses had received either treatment with phenylbutazone for 3 months or intermittent long-term phenylbutazone treatment prior to development of hematuria. Each horse was systemically stable but had orthopedic or neurologic problems. Clinicopathologic findings included normochromic normocytic anemia in both horses and hypoalbuminemia and high BUN concentration in 1 horse. In both horses, urinalysis revealed proteinuria and RBCs, but no evidence of WBCs or bacteria. Ulceration and hemorrhage of the urinary bladder with no evidence of uroliths were observed via cystoscopy. Gastric ulceration along the margo plicatus was observed via gastroscopy. For each horse, phenylbutazone treatment was discontinued and a synthetic prostaglandin (misoprostol) was administered. The hematuria resolved, and results of a follow-up CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and cystoscopy 25 or 30 days after cessation of phenylbutazone treatment were unremarkable in both cases. Given the known adverse effects of NSAID treatment in several species, phenylbutazone and its metabolites were suspected to have caused ulceration of the urinary bladder, resulting in hematuria, in the 2 horses. A definitive cause of urinary bladder ulceration was not confirmed in these cases; however, resolution of ulceration after discontinuation of phenylbutazone treatment and administration of synthetic prostaglandins and exclusion of other causes suggested an association between phenylbutazone administration and ulcerative cystitis in these horses.

  20. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.


    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  1. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses. (United States)

    Christensen, J W; Malmkvist, J; Nielsen, B L; Keeling, L J


    In fear-eliciting situations, horses tend to show flight reactions that can be dangerous for both horse and man. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. To investigate whether the presence of a calm companion horse influences fear reactions in naive subject horses. The presence of a habituated (calm) companion horse in a fear-eliciting situation can reduce fear reactions in naive subject horses, compared to subject horses with a nonhabituated companion (control). Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions). During the test, unique pairs of companion and subject horses were exposed to the test stimulus while heart rate and behavioural responses were registered. Subsequently, subject horses were exposed to the stimulus on their own (post test). Subject horses, paired with a calm companion horse, showed less fear-related behaviour and lower heart rate responses compared to subject horses with control companions. Results from the post test suggest that the difference between treatment groups remained in the subsequent absence of companion horses. It appears possible to reduce fear reactions in young, naive horses by allowing them to interact with a calm companion horse in fear-eliciting situations.

  2. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard


    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  3. Improved induction of immune tolerance to factor IX by hepatic AAV-8 gene transfer. (United States)

    Cooper, Mario; Nayak, Sushrusha; Hoffman, Brad E; Terhorst, Cox; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W


    Gene therapy for hemophilia B has been shown to result in long-term expression and immune tolerance to factor IX (F.IX) after in vivo transduction of hepatocytes with adeno-associated viral (AAV-2) vectors in experimental animals. An optimized protocol was effective in several strains of mice with a factor 9 gene deletion (F9(-/-)). However, immune responses against F.IX were repeatedly observed in C3H/HeJ F9(-/-) mice. We sought to establish a gene transfer protocol that results in sustained expression without a requirement for additional manipulation of the immune system. Compared with AAV-2, AAV-8 was more efficient in transgene expression and induction of tolerance to F.IX in three different strains of wild-type mice. At equal vector doses, AAV-8 induced transgene product-specific regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells at significantly higher frequency. Moreover, sustained correction of hemophilia B in C3H/HeJ F9(-/-) mice without antibody formation was documented in all animals treated with > or =4 x 10(11) vector genomes (VG)/kg and in 80% of mice treated with 8 x 10(10) VG/kg. Therefore, it is possible to develop a gene transfer protocol that reliably induces tolerance to F.IX largely independent of genetic factors. A comparison with other studies suggests that additional parameters besides plateau levels of F.IX expression contributed to the improved success rate of tolerance induction.

  4. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments (United States)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.


    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  5. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab). (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C


    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  6. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses. (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C


    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  7. IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors


    Barredo Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bisquerra Alzina, Rafael; Blanco Cuch, Aida; Giner, Antoni; Pérez Escoda, Núria; Tey, Amèlia


    Barredo Gutierrez, B.; Bisquerra Alzina, R.; Blanco Cuch, A.; Giner Tarrida, A.; Perez Escoda, N.; Tey Teijón, A. (eds.) IX Jornades d’educació emocional. Educació emocional i valors / IX Jornadas de educación emocional. Educación emocional y valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic.valores. Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona (Institut de Ciències de l’Educació), 2013. Document electrònic

  8. Optical observations of M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters: Holmberg IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina B.


    Full Text Available We present observations of the nearby tidal dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX in M81 galaxy group in narrow band [SII] and Hα filters, carried out in March and November 2008 with the 2m RCC telescope at NAO Rozhen, Bulgaria. Our search for resident supernova remnants (identified as sources with enhanced [SII] emission relative to their Hα emission in this galaxy yielded no sources of this kind, besides M&H 10-11 or HoIX X-1. Nevertheless, we found a number of objects with significant H® emission that probably represent uncatalogued HII regions.

  9. Cytokine and chemokine profiles of aqueous humor and serum in horses with uveitis measured using multiplex bead immunoassay analysis. (United States)

    Curto, Elizabeth; Messenger, Kristen M; Salmon, Jacklyn H; Gilger, Brian C


    horses with positive ocular leptospiral titers or leptospiral PCR, significant elevations of IL-10 (P=0.0018; 0.0032) and IP-10 (P=0.0342; 0.043) were detected in the AH compared to leptospiral negative eyes. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IP-10 appear to play an important role in ERU. Further studies are needed to further clarify and characterize cytokine profiles of specific ocular inflammatory diseases, but multiplex bead immunoassay technology shows promise as a diagnostically valuable tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knezevic Sabina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appearance of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13 have a significantly reduced frequency of occurrence of ultrasonographic changes of the SSL consistent with a diagnosis of desmitis when compared to ridden horses (n = 13 and those with clinical signs of back pain (n = 13. Results The supraspinous ligament of all horses was imaged between T(thoracic6-T18 and ultrasonographic appearance. There was an average of 2.08 abnormal images per horse from the whole group. The average number of abnormalities in unridden horses was 4.92, in ridden horses 2.92 and in horses with clinical back pain 4.69. No lesions were found between T6 and T10 and 68% of lesions were found between T14 and T17. No significant difference (p Conclusion The main conclusion was that every horse in this study (n = 39 had at least one site of SSL desmitis (range 2 to 11. It was clear that ultrasonographically diagnosed SSL desmitis cannot be considered as prima facie evidence of clinically significant disease and further evidence is required for a definitive diagnosis.

  11. Biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta in warmblood horses, Friesian horses, and Friesians with aortic rupture. (United States)

    Saey, Veronique; Famaey, Nele; Smoljkic, Marija; Claeys, Erik; van Loon, Gunther; Ducatelle, Richard; Ploeg, Margreet; Delesalle, Catherine; Gröne, Andrea; Duchateau, Luc; Chiers, Koen


    Thoracic aortic rupture and aortopulmonary fistulation are rare conditions in horses. It mainly affects Friesian horses. Intrinsic differences in biomechanical properties of the aortic wall might predispose this breed. The biomechanical and biochemical properties of the thoracic aorta were characterized in warmblood horses, unaffected Friesian horses and Friesians with aortic rupture in an attempt to unravel the underlying pathogenesis of aortic rupture in Friesian horses. Samples of the thoracic aorta at the ligamentum arteriosum (LA), mid thoracic aorta (T1) and distal thoracic aorta (T2) were obtained from Friesian horses with aortic rupture (A), nonaffected Friesian (NA) and warmblood horses (WB). The biomechanical properties of these samples were determined using uniaxial tensile and rupture assays. The percentages of collagen and elastin (mg/mg dry weight) were quantified. Data revealed no significant biomechanical nor biochemical differences among the different groups of horses. The distal thoracic aorta displayed an increased stiffness associated with a higher collagen percentage in this area and a higher load-bearing capacity compared to the more proximal segments. Our findings match reported findings in other animal species. Study results did not provide evidence that the predisposition of the Friesian horse breed for aortic rupture can be attributed to altered biomechanical properties of the aortic wall.

  12. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in clinically healthy racing horses in Korea. (United States)

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Kyung Woo; Ha, Tae Young


    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. The present study aimed to determine leptospiral seroprevalence in clinically healthy racing horses from all three racecourses in Korea. Serum samples from 1,226 racing horses were examined using a microscopic agglutination test to detect the presence of antibodies against 18 Leptospira serovars. Of the tested samples, 307 (25.0%) were found to be positive. The distribution of seroprevalence differed significantly by racecourse (P=0.004); the Jeju course had the highest incidence (31.1%), followed by the Seoul (25.2%) and Busan (19.5%) racecourses. Seasonal variation in seropositivity was also apparent (P=0.000), being lower in spring (13.0%) and winter (12.5%), and higher in summer (36.7%) and autumn (34.7%). No significant age- or gender-related difference in seroprevalence was noted in this study (P>0.05). Seroprevalence was higher (P=0.006) among ponies than among thoroughbreds. Sejroe was the most frequently detected serovar (n=236), followed by Bratislava (n=35), Ballum (n=16), Autumnalis (n=10), and Canicola (n=10). The majority of serum titers were relatively low; most values ranged from 1:100 (n=217) to 1:200 (n=69). These results suggest that the Sejroe serovar may be maintained in the racing horse population in Korea.

  13. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease. (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar


    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  14. Perceptions of Title IX's Impact on Gender Equity within Intercollegiate Athletics: The Mississippi Public Community and Junior Colleges (United States)

    Van Daniel, Roderick


    Title IX's legislation has been in place since 1972 and has affected female participation in a positive form towards gender equity. However many institution sill have difficulty complying with the standards mandated by Title IX. Gender equity is established by meeting substantial proportionality, continued expansion, or full accommodations prongs…

  15. "To Study the Relationship of Academic Stress and Socio-Economic Status among IX Standard Students of Raipur City" (United States)

    Khan, Suhail Ahmed; Ayyub, Khan Farhat


    This paper focuses on the relationship between academic stress and socio-economic status among IX standard students. The research was carried out in Raipur City (Chhattisgarh) on a sample of 600 IX standard students of English and Hindi medium schools. Academic Stress was measured by Stress Inventory for School Students prepared by Seema Rani…

  16. In vivo visualization of Mg-protoporphyrin IX, a coordinator of photosynthetic gene expression in the nucleus and the chloroplast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankele, Elisabeth; Kindgren, Peter; Pesquet, Edouard


    property of tetrapyrroles, Mg-ProtoIX could be visualized in the cells using confocal laser scanning spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that Mg-ProtoIX accumulated both in the chloroplast and in the cytosol during stress conditions. Thus, the signaling metabolite is exported from the chloroplast...

  17. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina. (United States)

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S


    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Technical note: a novel method for routine genotyping of horse coat color gene polymorphisms. (United States)

    Royo, L J; Fernández, I; Azor, P J; Alvarez, I; Pérez-Pardal, L; Goyache, F


    The aim of this note is to describe a reliable, fast, and cost-effective real-time PCR method for routine genotyping of mutations responsible for most coat color variation in horses. The melanocortin-1 receptor, Agouti-signaling peptide, and membrane-associated transporter protein alleles were simultaneously determined using 2 PCR protocols. The assay described here is an alternative method for routine genotyping of a defined number of polymorphisms. Allelic variants are detected in real time and no post-PCR manipulations are required, therefore limiting costs and possible carryover contamination. Data can be copied to a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet for semiautomatic determination of the genotype using a macro freely available at (last accessed February 26, 2007). The performance of the method is demonstrated on 156 Spanish Purebred horses.

  19. Brazilian Green Propolis Extract Synergizes with Protoporphyrin IX-mediated Photodynamic Therapy via Enhancement of Intracellular Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Attenuation of NF-κB and COX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Wang


    Full Text Available Brazilian green propolis (BGP is noted for its impressive antitumor effects and has been used as a folk medicine in various cultures for many years. It has been demonstrated that BGP could enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytostatic drugs on tumor cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a therapeutic approach used against malignant cells. To assess the synergistic effect of BGP extract on protoporphyrin IX (PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity, MTT assays were performed using A431 and HeLa cells. TUNEL assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining were performed to confirm the induction of apoptosis. Western blotting analysis was performed to examine the pro-apoptotic proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins and inflammation related proteins in A431 cells. Intracellular accumulation of PpIX was examined by flow cytometry. The synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT was also evaluated with a xenograft model. Our findings reveal that BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in A431 and HeLa cells. PpIX-PDT with BGP extract treatment resulted in a decrease in Bcl-xL and an increase in NOXA, Bax and caspase-3 cleavage. The protein expression levels of p-IKKα/β, NF-κB and COX-2 were upregulated by PpIX-PDT but significantly attenuated when in combination with BGP extract. BGP extract was also found to significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation of PpIX in A431 cells. BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in a xenograft model as well. Our findings provide evidence for a synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. r-VKORC1 expression in factor IX BHK cells increases factor IX carboxylation but is limited by saturation of another carboxylation component or by a shift in the rate limiting step† (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin W.; Qian, Wen; Yakubenko, Anna V.; Runge, Kurt W.; Berkner, Kathleen L.


    Carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins is required for their activity and depends upon reduced vitamin K generated by vitamin K oxidoreductase (VKOR) and a redox protein that regenerates VKOR activity. VKD protein carboxylation is inefficient in mammalian cells, and to understand why carboxylation becomes saturated we developed an approach that directly measures intracellular VKD protein carboxylation. Analysis of factor IX (fIX)-expressing BHK cells indicated that slow fIX egress from the endoplasmic reticulum and preferential secretion of the carboxylated form contribute to secreted fIX being more fully-carboxylated. The analysis also revealed the first reported in vivo VKD protein turnover, which was 14-fold faster than occurs in vitro, suggesting facilitation of this process in vivo. r-VKORC1 expression increased the rate of fIX carboxylation and extent of carboxylated fIX ~2-fold, which shows that carboxylation is the rate-limiting step in fIX turnover and which was surprising because turnover in vitro is limited by release of carboxylated fIX. Interestingly, the increases were significantly less than the amount of VKOR overexpression (15-fold). However, when cell extracts were tested in single turnover experiments in vitro, where redox protein is functionally substituted by dithiothreitol, VKOR overexpression increased the fIX carboxylation rate 14-fold, showing r-VKORC1 is functional for supporting fIX carboxylation. These data indicate that the effect of VKOR overexpression is limited in vivo, possibly because a carboxylation component like the redox protein becomes saturated or because another step is now rate-limiting. The studies illustrate the complexity of carboxylation and potential importance of component stoichiometry to overall efficiency. PMID:16634640