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Sample records for horse radish black

  1. Immobilization of chemically modified horse radish peroxidase within activated alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Dragica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilization of horse radish peroxidase (HRP within alginate beads was improved by chemical modification of the enzyme and polysaccharide chains. HRP and alginate were oxidized by periodate and subsequently modified with ethylenediamine. Highest specific activity of 0.43 U/ml of gel and 81 % of bound enzyme activity was obtained using aminated HRP and alginate oxidized by periodate. Immobilized enzyme retained 75 % of original activity after 2 days of incubation in 80 % (v/v dioxane and had increased activity at basic pH values compared to native enzyme. During repeated use in batch reactor for pyrogallol oxidation immobilized peroxidase retained 75 % of original activity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON173017 i br. ON172049

  2. The pH dependence of phototautomerism in horse radish peroxidase monitored by fluorescence site-selection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidy, Judit; Koloczek, Henryk; Paul, Karl-Gustav; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    1987-12-01

    Fluorescence site-selection spectra of mesoporphyrin horse radish peroxidase C 2 were measured at cryogenic temperatures in 50% glycerol-water. With irradiation at ≈ 17300 cm -1 interconverting emission lines were detected, which are attributed to phototautomerization within the excited sites. The reactivity for tautomerization was found to be much higher at pH 5.1 than at pH 8.0. The fluorescence decay for the two tautomers is single exponential with lifetimes of 23 and 21 ns, respectively. pH sensitivity is discussed in terms of possible conformational changes of the amino acid chain or a role of the liberated histidine in the reaction pathway.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan coatings and films against Listeria monocytogenes on black radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana D; Klaus, Anita S; Nikšić, Miomir P

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of chitosan coatings prepared with acetic or lactic acid, as well as of composite chitosan-gelatin films prepared with essential oils, was evaluated in fresh shredded black radish samples inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 during seven days of storage at 4°C. The chitosan coating prepared with acetic acid showed the most effective antibacterial activity. All tested formulations of chitosan films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity on the growth of L. monocytogenes on black radish, although a higher inhibition of pathogens was achieved at higher concentrations of chitosan. The antimicrobial effect of chitosan films was even more pronounced with the addition of essential oils. Chitosan-gelatin films with thyme essential oils showed the most effective antimicrobial activity. A reduction of 2.4log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and 2.1log10CFU/g for L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 was achieved in the presence of 1% chitosan film containing 0.2% of thyme essential oil after 24h of storage. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 46288 - Black Horse Ranch LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and Soliciting Comments, Protests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Black Horse Ranch LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order and... Horse Ranch LLC. e. Name of Project: Black Horse Ranch Micro Hydro Project. f. Location: The existing Black Horse Ranch Micro Hydro Project is located on Moose Creek, near the town of Hunters,...

  5. Hydrogen peroxide sensors for cellular imaging based on horse radish peroxidase reconstituted on polymer-functionalized TiO2 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; André, Rute; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Jochum, Florian D.; Theato, Patrick; Natalio, Filipe; Berger, Rüdiger; Branscheid, Robert; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface functionalization, HRP reconstitution and catalytic activity were confirmed by UV-Vis, FT-IR, CLSM and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Biocompatibility and cellular internalization of active HRP reconstituted TiO2 nanorods were confirmed by a classical MTT cytotoxicity assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, respectively. The intracellular localization allowed H2O2 detection, imaging and quantification in HeLa cells. The polymer functionalized hybrid system creates a complete sensor including a ``cell positioning system'' in each single particle. The flexible synthetic concept with functionalization by post-polymerization modification allows introduction of various dyes for sensitisation at different wavelengths and introduction of various anchor groups for anchoring on different particles.We describe the reconstitution of apo-horse radish peroxidase (apo-HRP) onto TiO2 nanorods functionalized with a multifunctional polymer. After functionalization, the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) functionalized TiO2 nanorods were well dispersible in aqueous solution, catalytically active and biocompatible, and they could be used to quantify and image H2O2 which is a harmful secondary product of cellular metabolism. The shape, size and structure of TiO2 nanorods (anatase) were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high

  6. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH=7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol-gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more--NH2 reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N=3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility.

  7. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH = 7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol–gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more −NH{sub 2} reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N = 3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility. - Highlights: • Glassy carbon electrode modified by a novel composite in which pPDA as nucleophile is chemically attached to MWCNTs. • The developed biosensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity in electrochemically determination of L-Dopa. • The biosensor showed acceptable sensitivity, reproducibility, detection limit, selectivity and stability. • MWCNT-pPDA provides a good electrical conductivity and large effective surface area for enzyme immobilization.

  8. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 27 pages] CDC Safety and Health in the Horse Racing Industry CDC Heads Up: Preventing Concussion fact sheet [PDF – 2 pages] CDC Horse Stabled at Tennessee Walking Horse 2006 National Celebration ...

  9. Improved activity and thermo-stability of the horse radish peroxidase with graphene quantum dots and its application in fluorometric detection of hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received extensive concern in many fields such as optical probe, bioimaging and biosensor. However, few reports refer on the influence of GQDs on enzyme performance. The paper reports two kinds of graphene quantum dots (termed as GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs) that were prepared by cutting of graphene oxide and pyrolysis of citric acid and L-cysteine, and their use for the horse radish peroxidase (HRP) modification. The study reveals that GO-GQDs and N,S-GQDs exhibit an opposite effect on the HRP performance. Only HRP modified with GO-GQDs offers an enhanced activity (more than 1.9 times of pristine enzyme) and thermo-stability. This is because GO-GQDs offer a larger conjugate rigid plane and fewer hydrophilic groups compared to N,S-GQDs. The characteristics can make GO-GQDs induce a proper conformational change in the HRP for the catalytic performance, improving the enzyme activity and thermo-stability. The HRP modified with green luminescent GO-GQDs was also employed as a biocatalyst for sensing of H2O2 by a fluorometric sensor. The colorless tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is oxidized into blue oxidized TMB in the presence of H2O2 by the assistance of HRP/GO-GQDs, leading to an obvious fluorescence quenching. The fluorescence intensity linearly decreases with the increase of H2O2 concentration in the range from 2 × 10 - 9 to 2 × 10 - 4 M with the detection limit of 6.8 × 10 - 10 M. The analytical method provides the advantage of sensitivity, stability and accuracy compared with present H2O2 sensors based on the pristine HRP. It has been successfully applied in the determination of H2O2 in real water samples. The study also opens a new avenue for modification of enzyme activity and stability that offers great promise in applications such as biological catalysis, biosensing and enzyme engineering.

  10. Digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus in the Turkish Black Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Öztürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the digenean parasites of Atlantic horse mackerel, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758, in the Turkish Black Sea coast for the first time. Fish were collected throughout a year period from local fishermen in Sinop. A total of 256 fish specimens were weighed and measured, subsequently examined for parasites using conventional methods under an Olympus microscope (BX53 equipped with a digital camera (DP50. The examination included gills, pharynx, body cavity and visceral organs (stomach, intestine, liver, swim bladder and gonads. Parasites recovered were fixed and preserved using methods commonly applied. A total of five species including adults of Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray and Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 and metacercaria of Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 were identified. Each parasite species were counted, their prevalence (% and mean intensity values were determined according to Bush et al. (1997. Kruskal-Wallis test (Non-parametric ANOVA was performed to find out the significant differences in the mean intensity values of the parasite for two length classes of fish as well as for the seasons. All the statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 5%. The calculated overall infection prevalence (% and mean intensity values were 48.8% and 3.78±0.34, respectively. This data is the first on the digenean parasite fauna of the Atlantic horse mackerel collected from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Lasiotocus typicus and Stephanostomum cesticillum are new parasite records for Turkey.

  11. A brief analysis on meaning of the"white horse black ox" covenant%简析"白马乌牛"盟的刑牲意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏日娜

    2015-01-01

    "白马乌牛"盟从契丹到清初一直是在社会动荡、政治力量不稳固、需要两个或两个以上的政权建立联盟、祭祀天地、缔结盟誓时的一种习俗.杀白马乌牛是为了警示同盟者,诅咒背叛盟誓的行为,如背叛盟誓将与白马乌牛一般死去.同时,刑白马乌牛又是对神的一种献祭,作为回报期望得到神的庇佑. 盟誓让人们看到遵循和违背誓言的两种美好与残酷的结果,只为保障联盟者得到真正的幸福美满.%The"white horse black ox"covenant is a custom when two or more than two political powers take an oath of alliance to worship heaven and earth for building an alliance,due to social unrest and poor political power during the time from Qidan to early-Qing dynasty. To kill white horse, black ox is a behavior which alert the allies that it is a curse of betrayal, which means someone who betray the oath would be killed like the white horse and black ox. At the same time, punishing the white horse and black ox is also a sacrifice to God, being a reward for expecting to obtain God′s blessing. The covenant tells people the beauty of keeping the oath and cruelty of betraying the oath, which is just a guarantee for happiness of the covenanter.

  12. RadishBase: a database for genomics and genetics of radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Di; Sun, Honghe; Huang, Mingyun; Zheng, Yi; Li, Xixiang; Fei, Zhangjun

    2013-02-01

    Radish is an economically important vegetable crop. During the past several years, large-scale genomics and genetics resources have been accumulated for this species. To store, query, analyze and integrate these radish resources efficiently, we have developed RadishBase (http://bioinfo.bti.cornell.edu/radish), a genomics and genetics database of radish. Currently the database contains radish mitochondrial genome sequences, expressed sequence tag (EST) and unigene sequences and annotations, biochemical pathways, EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and genetic maps. RadishBase is designed to enable users easily to retrieve and visualize biologically important information through a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools, including the BLAST search and unigene annotation query interfaces, and tools to classify unigenes functionally, to identify enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and to visualize genetic maps. A database containing radish pathways predicted from unigene sequences is also included in RadishBase. The tools and interfaces in RadishBase allow efficient mining of recently released and continually expanding large-scale radish genomics and genetics data sets, including the radish genome sequences and RNA-seq data sets.

  13. 萝卜霜霉病、黑斑病、白斑病、白锈病、炭疽病和黑根病的识别与防治技术%ldentification and Control Method of Radish Downy Mildew, Melasma, Leuko-derma, White Rust, An-thracnose and Black Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金苹

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced the damage characteristics and occurrence regularity of radish downy mildew, melasma, leukoderma, white rust, an-thracnose and black root. Then it pro-posed the corresponding control methods from two aspects including agricultural control and chemical control.%介绍了萝卜霜霉病、黑斑病、白斑病、白锈病、炭疽病及黑根病的危害症状、发病特点,指出各种病害的识别特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面提出了相应的防治方法。

  14. Genetic variations and evolutionary relationships among radishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vera 1

    To determine the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among red radishes, ... valuable material in red pigment industry; (2) the white-flesh radish is an ancestor of the red-flesh ..... number of SSR alleles common to landraces i and j.

  15. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  16. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik;

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  17. Source-sink relationships in radish plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of source-sink relationships in di- and tetraploidal radish plants grown in. hydroponic cultures was investigated in two stages of their development: with intensively growing swollen hypocotyl and in the period of actively accumulating nutrients in the storage organ. It was found, that the proportion, between the mass of organs, their RGR and NAR was very similar in di- and tetraploidal populations, probably owing to a similar rate of photosynthesis and pattern of assimilates distribution. The high variability of swollen hypocotyls size is slightly correlated with the size of the whole aerial part and is not correlated with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. Partial defoliation of radish plants did not affect the rate of photosynthesis of the remaining leaves. Only in the cotyledones the oldest donors of 14C-assimilates, a slight compensation of photosynthesis was reported. It may suggest, that the rate of photosynthesis in radish plants is not under the control of sink activity. The size of the storage organ have determined in some extent its attractive force and influenced the amount of 14C-assimilates exported from their donors. Translocation of photosynthates from the young, still growing leaves was conditioned mainly by their retention power. Therefore, in young radish plants cotyledons were the main donor of 14C-assimilates.

  18. Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

  19. Adsorption Studies of Radish Leaf Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish leaves (Raphanus sativus powder fractions was subjected to moisture adsorption isotherms at different isothermal temperature conditions from 15-45°C with an equal interval of 10°C. The sorption data obtained in gravimetric static method under 0.11–0.90 water activity conditions were subjected for sorption isotherms and found to be typical sigmoid trend. Experimental data were assessed for the applicability in the prediction through sorption models fitting and found that Polynomial and GAB equations performed well over all fitted models in describing equilibrium moisture content – equilibrium relative humidity (EMC–ERH relationships for shelf stable dehydrated radish leaf powder, over the entire range of temperatures condition under study. The net isosteric heat of sorption, differential entropy and free energy were determined at different temperatures and their dependence was seen with respect to equilibrium moisture content.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available radish Raphanus sativus Raphanus_sativus_L.png Raphanus_sativus_NL.png Raphanus_sativu...s_S.png Raphanus_sativus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativu...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+sativus&t=NS ...

  1. Sport horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro

    on dressage and show-jumping, and pedigree information. Firstly, the effect of specialisation was studied on the connectedness between the subpopulations of dressage and show-jumping horses, using the pedigree information. Results indicated that relatedness between horses in the two subpopulations has been...... parameters of traits recorded in the two subpopulations. Traits recorded at studbook-entry inspection were defined as a dressage trait or a show-jumping trait according to the type of horse that received the inspection. Bivariate analyses were performed to estimate the genetic correlation between the two...... traits. Results indicated that the specialisation process has resulted in a difference in mean trait values between dressage and show-jumping horses. However, differences in heritabilities for traits defined as dressage or show-jumping did not differ significantly, and the genetic correlations between...

  2. Evaluation of production of lettuce and radish in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Santos Valete Damasceno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of radish-lettuce consortium, as well as the best arrangement for the development of the vegetables. The experiment was carried out in randomized block design, in the University of Mato Grosso – UNEMAT, Campus Alta Floresta. It were evaluated the cropping system of lettuce, radish, and the consortium between cultures in two arrangements (three rows of lettuce with two rows of radish and three rows of radish with two rows of lettuce, with 6 replications. Evaluated characteristics were total fresh weight, commercial fresh weight, leaf fresh weight and number of leaves by plants. Means were compared by Scott-Knott test, at 5% of probability. The arrangement with three lettuce crop rows and two radish proved feasible, with promising for use in the consortium system.

  3. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille...

  4. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon ... The quality and safety of natural extracts used as .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils .... the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives.

  5. Carbon turnover and sequestration potential of fodder radish cover crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2013-01-01

    We studied fodder radish carbon turnover as affected by soil tillage in Foulum, Denmark. Actively growing fodder radish monoliths from direct-drilled (DD) and conventionally tilled (CT) plots were extracted and labelled regularly with 14C isotope across their entire growth period. At the end......- to 45-cm-depth increments for determination of 14C distribution and retention. Carbon-14 declined significantly with increasing soil depth at each sampling for the two tillage practices (P

  6. Crazy Horse, The Story of an American Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, John R.

    A great monument is being blasted out of Thunderhead Mountain near Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Slowly, Chief Crazy Horse emerges from the stone. One day he will sit on his Indian pony pointing over the Black Hills as though saying, "My lands are where my dead lie buried." This biography of Crazy Horse begins with sculptor Korczak…

  7. Method to assess water footprint, a case study for white radishes in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyounghoon Cha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the water footprint of white radishes which is cultivated during four seasons. The methodology is developed in accordance with ISO 14040s and ISO 14046. This study suggested the water depletion and eutrophication results of white radishes as water footprint results. The water depletion results are 25.58 m3 freshwater/ton (spring season white radish, 20.74 m3 freshwater/ton (autumn season white radish, 26.68 m3 freshwater/ton (alpine region white radish, and 28.56 m3 freshwater/ton (facility white radish, respectively. And the eutrophication results are 3.23E-11 kg P/ton (spring season white radish, 2.66E-11 kg P/ton (autumn season white radish, 3.94E-11 kg P/ton (alpine region white radish, and 1.56E-11 kg P/ton (facility white radish, respectively. In conclusion, autumn season white radish is more competitive than other cultivation types in the context of water footprint assessment. As a result, switching from other cultivation types to autumn season white radish is expected to offer a more water-efficient means of white radish cultivation. Henceforth, drawing upon evidence within this report, decision-makers would be wise to cultivate in more effective water use cultivation type and crop species.

  8. Oilseed Radish (Raphanus Sativus) Effects on Soil Structure and Soil Water Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleifera) reduces nematode populations. Fall-incorporated radish biomass may also improve soil physical and hydraulic properties to increase the yield and quality of subsequently grown sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.). This field study determined radish effects on...

  9. Draft sequences of the radish (Raphanus sativus L.) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Li, Feng; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kawanabe, Takahiro; Zou, Zhongwei; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Tonosaki, Kaoru; Shirasawa, Sachiko; Fukushima, Aki; Yokoi, Shuji; Takahata, Yoshihito; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Ishida, Masahiko; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Koji; Shirasawa, Kenta; Tabata, Satoshi; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-10-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., n = 9) is one of the major vegetables in Asia. Since the genomes of Brassica and related species including radish underwent genome rearrangement, it is quite difficult to perform functional analysis based on the reported genomic sequence of Brassica rapa. Therefore, we performed genome sequencing of radish. Short reads of genomic sequences of 191.1 Gb were obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for a radish inbred line, and 76,592 scaffolds of ≥ 300 bp were constructed along with the bacterial artificial chromosome-end sequences. Finally, the whole draft genomic sequence of 402 Mb spanning 75.9% of the estimated genomic size and containing 61,572 predicted genes was obtained. Subsequently, 221 single nucleotide polymorphism markers and 768 PCR-RFLP markers were used together with the 746 markers produced in our previous study for the construction of a linkage map. The map was combined further with another radish linkage map constructed mainly with expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers into a high-density integrated map of 1,166 cM with 2,553 DNA markers. A total of 1,345 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map, spanning 116.0 Mb. Bulked PCR products amplified by 2,880 primer pairs were sequenced by NGS, and SNPs in eight inbred lines were identified.

  10. Food safety evaluation of broccoli and radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Frías, Juana; Gulewicz, Piotr; Gulewicz, Krzysztof; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2008-05-01

    Three cultivars of broccoli seeds (Brassica oleracea var. italica), cv. Tiburon, cv. Belstar and cv. Lucky, and two cultivars of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus), cv. Rebel and cv. Bolide, were germinated for three and five days and safety aspects such as microbiological counts and biogenic amines were investigated. Cytotoxicity evaluation was also carried out. Broccoli and radish sprouts contained numbers of mesophilic, psychrotrophic, total and faecal coliform bacteria which are the usual counts for minimally processed germinated seeds. Putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine increased during sprout production although these levels were below those permitted by legislation (5 mg/100 g of edible food). Broccoli and radish sprouts demonstrated no toxic effects on proliferation and viability of HL-60 cells and should be included in our diets as healthy and safe fresh foods.

  11. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  12. Induced resistance in Arabidopsis and radish; involvement of PR proteins

    OpenAIRE

    HOFFLAND, E.; Pieterse, C. M. J.; Bik, L.; Pelt, J.A. van

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS417 and salicylic acid can induce systemic resistance in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana against Fusarium oxysporum. In neither of the two plant species this induction is associated with induction of PRs. This indicates that PR-accumulation is not a prerequisite for induction of systemic resistance.

  13. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E

    2016-02-18

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  14. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  15. Fear in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2006-01-01

    Fear is generally considered to be an undesirable emotional state that may reduce welfare, growth and reproductive performance in animals. Fear in horses is additionally problematic, because fear reactions can cause serious injury to both horse and human. Horses are primarily used for sports and leisure for a large number of children and young women. Unfortunately, horse riding ranks as one of the most dangerous sports in terms of the number and seriousness of accidents, and the ability of a ...

  16. Larval trypanorhynchs (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda: Trypanorhyncha) from black-scabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus in Madeira (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G; Veltkamp, C J; Chubb, J C

    2003-12-01

    Four different types of trypanorhynch postlarvae were found attached to the stomach mucosa, external stomach wall or free in the body cavity of two marine fishes from Madeira, namely blackscabbard fish, Aphanopus carbo and oceanic horse mackerel, Trachurus picturatus. Morphological features shown by SEM indicated that the postlarvae belonged to the species Tentacularia coryphaenae, Sphyriocephalus tergestinus, Nybelinia lingualis and possibly N. yamaguitii. Prevalence [mean intensity (range)] of T. coryphaenae, S. tergestinus and Nybelinia spp. in A. carbo (n = 135) was 12.6% [1.65 +/- 1.27(1-6)], 5.9% [1.57 +/- 0.79 (1-3)] and 2.2% [1.33 +/- 0.58 (1-2)] respectively. The prevalence of T. coryphaenae and S. tergestinus showed some seasonality, with a rise in prevalence of T. coryphaenae corresponding to a decrease in prevalence of S. tergestinus. However these differences were not significant. In T. picturatus (n = 304) only N. lingualis was found at a prevalence of 9.6%. Both S. tergestinus and N. lingualis were recovered only from the stomach mucosa or external stomach wall, while T. coryphaenae was observed either attached to the stomach mucosa or free in the visceral cavity of the fish. The paper presents the first scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of Sphyriocephalus tergestinus and a new geographical record of N. lingualis in T. picturatus.

  17. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  18. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. Conclusions: To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of cultivated radish WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Choi, Ah Young; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2016-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of radish cultivar WK10039 (Raphanus sativus L.). The total length of the mtDNA sequence is 244,054 bp, with GC content of 45.3%. The radish mtDNA contains 82 protein-coding genes, 17 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA genes. Among the protein-coding genes, 34 encode proteins with known functions. There are two 5529 bp repeats in the radish mitochondrial genome that may contribute to DNA recombination resulting in at least three different forms of mtDNA in radish.

  20. Salinomycin toxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Magdesian, K Gary; Peterson, Tracy S; Galey, Francis D

    2007-06-15

    A 4-month-old American Paint filly was evaluated because of sudden onset of ataxia that progressed to recumbency. Five additional horses from the same and neighboring premises developed signs of poor performance, generalized weakness, ataxia, and recumbency; 2 of those horses were also evaluated. A new batch of a commercial feed supplement had been introduced to the horses' diet on each farm within the preceding 3 days. Other than recumbency, findings of physical and neurologic examinations of the foal were unremarkable. The other 2 horses had generalized weakness and mild ataxia, and 1 horse also had persistent tachycardia. The foal had mild leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hyperglycemia, and mildly high serum creatine kinase activity. Results of cervical radiography, CSF analysis, and assessments of heavy metals and selenium concentrations in blood and vitamin E concentration in serum were within reference limits. Feed analysis revealed high concentrations of the ionophore antimicrobial salinomycin. The 5 affected horses survived, but the foal was euthanized. At necropsy, a major histopathologic finding was severe vacuolation within neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, which was compatible with ionophore toxicosis. The surviving horses developed muscle atrophy, persistent weakness, and ataxia. In horses, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for acute weakness, ataxia, recumbency, or sudden death. Furthermore, ionophore toxicosis should be considered as a cause of poor performance, weakness, muscle wasting, and cardiac arrhythmias in horses. Surviving horses may have impaired athletic performance.

  1. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  2. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Dorofeev; E.V. Bojarkin; A.A. Peshkova

    2013-01-01

    Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  3. Quality characteristics of the radish grown under reduced atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Bisbee, Patricia A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Birmele, Michele N.; Prior, Ronald L.; Perchonok, Michele; Dixon, Mike; Yorio, Neil C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    This study addresses whether reduced atmospheric pressure (hypobaria) affects the quality traits of radish grown under such environments. Radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb Hybrid II) plants were grown hydroponically in specially designed hypobaric plant growth chambers at three atmospheric pressures; 33, 66, and 96 kPa (control). Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were maintained constant at 21 and 0.12 kPa, respectively. Plants were harvested at 21 days after planting, with aerial shoots and swollen hypocotyls (edible portion of the radish referred to as the “root” hereafter) separated immediately upon removal from the chambers. Samples were subsequently evaluated for their sensory characteristics (color, taste, overall appearance, and texture), taste-determining factors (glucosinolate and soluble carbohydrate content and myrosinase activity), proximate nutrients (protein, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) and potential health benefit attributes (antioxidant capacity). In roots of control plants, concentrations of glucosinolate, total soluble sugar, and nitrate, as well as myrosinase activity and total antioxidant capacity (measured as ORACFL), were 2.9, 20, 5.1, 9.4, and 1.9 times greater than the amount in leaves, respectively. There was no significant difference in total antioxidant capacity, sensory characteristics, carbohydrate composition, or proximate nutrient content among the three pressure treatments. However, glucosinolate content in the root and nitrate concentration in the leaf declined as the atmospheric pressure decreased, suggesting perturbation to some nitrogen-related metabolism.

  4. Survey of Viruses Present in Radish Fields in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 2014 nationwide survey in radish fields investigated the distribution of common viruses and possible emerging viruses. Radish leaves with virus-like symptoms were collected and 108 samples assayed by RT-PCR using specific primers for Radish mosaic virus (RaMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV; 47 samples were TuMV positive, and RaMV and CMV were detected in 3 and 2 samples, respectively. No samples showed double infection of TuMV/RaMV, or RaMV/CMV, but two double infections of TuMV/CMV were detected. TuMV isolates were sorted by symptom severity, and three isolates (R007-mild; R041 and R065-severe selected for BLAST and phylogenetic analysis, which indicated that the coat protein (CP of these isolates (R007, R041, and R065 have approx. 98-99% homology to a previously reported TuMV isolate. RaMV CP showed approx. 99% homology to a previously reported isolate, and the CMV CP is identical to a previously reported Korean isolate (GenBank : GU327368. Three isolates of TuMV showing different pathogenicity (degree of symptom severity will be valuable to study determinants of pathogenicity.

  5. EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION OF RADISH RED PIGMENT FROM A WASTE WATER OF SALTING RADISH BY D61 RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouXiaohua; KangJajie; 等

    1996-01-01

    Extraction and separation of Radish red pigment from a waste water of salting Radish was studied on D61 resin.The exchange capacity of adsorption the pigment was equal to 60.91mg·g-1 wet resin,and the equilibium time only 40mins.All Radish red pigment adsorbed on D61 resin was eluted using a eluent in which concentraction of HCl or alcohol was 0.1mol·L-1 or 80% at 50℃ when the flow rate was at 2BV·hm-1.Stability of D61 resin was very well,and while the resin was recycled fifteen times, the exchange capacity was only decreased 11.9%,and the exchange capacity didn′t changed.Because of negative ion of mustard oil,it could′t be adsorbed on the resin.Finally, a paste product with yield of 1.96mg·100ml-1 waste water was obtained after alcohol evaporation and vacuum drying.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers are increasingly using forage radish as a winter cover crop to achieve multiple soil and environmental benefits. In this study, pilot-scale mixed digesters were used to quantify methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production when using forage radish, a sulfur-rich cover crop, as a co-d...

  7. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  8. 59 FR- Intent To Gather Wild Horses From the Owyhee Herd Management Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management [ID-015-1060-04] Intent To Gather Wild Horses From the Owyhee Herd Management... Hardtrigger and Black Mountain Herd Areas located within the Owyhee Herd Management Area. A public...

  9. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  10. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders

    OpenAIRE

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi; Shirin Farjadian; Zeynab Hosseini; Alireza Raayat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. Material and Methods: A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. Results: The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse se...

  11. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  12. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  13. Repetitive sequence analysis and karyotyping reveals centromere-associated DNA sequences in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qunyan; Cai, Zexi; Hu, Tianhua; Liu, Huijun; Bao, Chonglai; Mao, Weihai; Jin, Weiwei

    2015-04-18

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n = 2x = 18) is a major root vegetable crop especially in eastern Asia. Radish root contains various nutritions which play an important role in strengthening immunity. Repetitive elements are primary components of the genomic sequence and the most important factors in genome size variations in higher eukaryotes. To date, studies about repetitive elements of radish are still limited. To better understand genome structure of radish, we undertook a study to evaluate the proportion of repetitive elements and their distribution in radish. We conducted genome-wide characterization of repetitive elements in radish with low coverage genome sequencing followed by similarity-based cluster analysis. Results showed that about 31% of the genome was composed of repetitive sequences. Satellite repeats were the most dominating elements of the genome. The distribution pattern of three satellite repeat sequences (CL1, CL25, and CL43) on radish chromosomes was characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). CL1 was predominantly located at the centromeric region of all chromosomes, CL25 located at the subtelomeric region, and CL43 was a telomeric satellite. FISH signals of two satellite repeats, CL1 and CL25, together with 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA, provide useful cytogenetic markers to identify each individual somatic metaphase chromosome. The centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) has been used as a marker to identify centromere DNA sequences. One putative CENH3 (RsCENH3) was characterized and cloned from radish. Its deduced amino acid sequence shares high similarities to those of the CENH3s in Brassica species. An antibody against B. rapa CENH3, specifically stained radish centromeres. Immunostaining and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) tests with anti-BrCENH3 antibody demonstrated that both the centromere-specific retrotransposon (CR-Radish) and satellite repeat (CL1) are directly associated with RsCENH3 in radish. Proportions

  14. Uptake of iron by a vegetable; kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Chika; Hirasawa, Rie; Sadayasu, Chie; Yamashiro, Sachiko; Tominaga, Mihoko; Sato, Kazuyoshi

    2004-08-01

    Uptake of iron and several other minerals into kaiware daikon (Japanese radish sprout) was investigated by changing their supplementary conditions. The supplementation of calcium sulfate (0.1% (w/v), 230 ppm as calcium ion) and iron (III) chloride (0.1% (w/v), 200 ppm as iron ion) in hydroponics promoted the growth of kaiware daikon ca. 1.0-1.5 cm longer than the control group of no additions, while magnesium sulfate (0.1% (w/ v), 100 ppm as magnesium ion) did not affect the length of sprouts so much, but caused their leaves to grow a little wider. Mineral contents in the sprout were maximal when it was added, at ca. 0.1% (w/v), to the hydroponic solution. In tests regarding iron (II) ion supplementation, the color of the kaiware daikon seeds changed from brownish to black and the sprout did not grow well. In contrast, the iron (III) ion did not affect their color and promoted growth of the sprout. When the seeds were soaked in an iron (II) sulfate (75 ppm) or an ammonium iron (III) citrate (180 ppm) solution for 24 h prior to germination, the resulting kaiware daikon contained a few times higher the amount of iron than commercially available ones.

  15. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  16. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  17. Tolerance Induction of Horse Allergy by Horse Contact with Curly Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C

    2017-07-01

    A horse allergic rider completed 60 riding lessons on Curly Horses within six months. This rider has become clinically tolerant to normal horse breeds within this time. This case may indicate that riding and brushing ABCR Curly Horses after 60 riding hours facilitates tolerance induction. Our data indicate that this could be a valid alternative to the common recommendation to strictly avoid horse riding. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  19. Use of mulches and their effects on the radish crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerffson L. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate the influence of green fertilization and the compost on the production of radish, cv. ‘Cometa’. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 treatments and 4 replicates: T1 - Leucaena, T2 - ‘Madeira-nova’, T3 - Compost (maize straw and composted cattle manure, T4 – ‘Sempre verde’ grass + compost and T5 – ‘Sempre verde’ grass and T6 - control without fertilization, totaling 24 experimental plots. The total area of the experimental plot was 1.44 m2, with useful area of 0.80 m2 and 21.0 t ha-1 of fertilizer (dry basis were incorporated in each treatment. The radish crop was directly sown in the beds, in 2- to 3-cm-deep holes, leaving one plant at spacing of 20 cm between rows and 5 cm between plants. Twenty-nine days after planting, plants were evaluated for total yield, commercial yield, percentages of commercial roots (% and waste roots (%, fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots, total and individual leaf area and the SPAD index. The incorporation of Leucaena at the amount of 21.0 t ha-1 (dry basis promoted the highest increments for the analyzed characteristics.

  20. Antioxidant enzymes responses to cadmium in radish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitória, A P; Lea, P J; Azevedo, R A

    2001-07-01

    To investigate the antioxidant responses of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) to cadmium (Cd) treatment, seedlings of a tolerant variety were grown in increasing concentrations of CdCl(2), ranging from 0.25-1 mM, for up to 72 h in a hydroponic system. Analysis of Cd uptake indicated that most of the Cd accumulated in the roots, but some was also translocated and accumulated in the leaves, especially at the higher concentrations of Cd used in the experiments. Roots and leaves were analysed for catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. Catalase and glutathione reductase activities increased considerably in the roots and leaves after 24 h exposure to the metal, indicating a direct correlation with Cd accumulation. The analysis of native PAGE enzyme activity staining, revealed several superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in leaves, with the two predominant isoenzymes exhibiting increases in activity in response to Cd treatment. The results suggest that in radish, the activity of antioxidant enzymes responds to Cd treatment. The main response may be via the activation of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for the removal of hydrogen peroxide, or to ensure the availability of glutathione for the synthesis of Cd-binding proteins.

  1. An Old Town on the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    FOR centuries, Southwest China's Yunnan Province has been known as home of black tea. It was in the Tang Dynasty(618 - 907) that caravans began to transport bricks of tea from Xishuangbanna and Simao to India, passing through Yunnan's Dali and Lijiang and Tibet. The route became known as the Ancient Tea-Horse Trail.

  2. Effect of biodegradable chelating ligand on iron bioavailability and radish growth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The effect of chelating ligands on iron (Fe) uptake and growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was investigated. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased 55Fe uptake in roots of radish though its subsequent translocation from roots to shoots and leaves did not increase. About 70%-80% of the total 55Fe was distributed in the roots while about 5%-15% and 11%-17% were in shoots and leaves, respectively. The EDTA increased iron uptake into the roots of radish, but not in the above gro...

  3. The Last Horse Trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Horse trains used to be the chief means of transport in southwest China's mountainous areas, areas that were almost inaccessible because of the difficult terrain. They have largely disappeared as most such areas are already serviced by modern road systems. At binzhonluo, however, the last horse trains can still be found, their drivers being Nus, Lisus and Tibetans. As I discovered at country fairs, goods shipped in by horse trains from Tibetan are mostly butter tea, edible fungus and wild orchid plants, and goods shipped to Tibet include drinks, batteries, salt and instant noodles. For centuries,horse trains have traversed the Nujiang Canyon or the Tibetan-Yi Corridor which, to be accurate, should be called an economic and cultural corridor linking Tibet and the rest of China.

  4. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  5. Germination of radish seeds (Raphanus sativus treated with homeopathic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Monteiro de Toledo Piza Gomes Carneiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The radish is a short cycle crop, since it is harvested at 25-30 days after direct sowing. Under the economic point of view it is an important species, but there are few studies on germination of radish seeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high diluted substances on the germination of radish seeds. The trial was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute of Paraná (IAPAR in Londrina / Paraná. It was used a pesticide free cultivar named Cometa. The treatments were: Bryonia, hydroalcoholic solution, Arnica montana, Cina and Lupine + Oat, all of them diluted and agitated at 9x; distilled water and agitated distilled water were used as controls. The mother tincture of Lupine + Oat was prepared from plants collected at the experimental station of IAPAR in Londrina. The mother tincture and all treatments were prepared according to the guidelines in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia, Part I [1]. The agitations of the treatments were made by a mechanical equipment, model Denise 10-50 manufactured by Autic. The water was distilled the day before preparing the treatments. The experiment was performed with 300 seeds per treatment. The seeds were placed in gerbox with germitest paper, and 50 gerbox were used per treatment, with six seeds in each gerbox. The germitest papers were moistened with the treatments and the seeds were soaked for 2 hours previously set up the experiment. The substances in high dilutions were agitated 100 times on the machine before soaking the seeds and moistening the germitest paper. The experimental design was entirely randomized and the gerbox were kept at the bench at the Laboratory of Plant Protection of IAPAR. A person not involved in conduct of the experiment coded (blinded the treatments solutions with a random letter code. The code was kept secret until all measurements and data processing were finished. Seeds were observed daily for germination and counted only those

  6. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  7. Interactions between fodder radish and tagetes varieties and Meloidogyne hapla populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, resistance to Meloidogyne hapla populations is the focal point. It involves a screening of fodder radish and Tagetes varieties with a number of local M. hapla populations to determine their infection rate.

  8. Root Glucosinolate Profiles for Screening of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Gibum; Lim, Sooyeon; Chae, Won Byoung; Park, Jeong Eun; Park, Hye Rang; Lee, Eun Jin; Huh, Jin Hoe

    2016-01-13

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.), a root vegetable, is rich in glucosinolates (GLs), which are beneficial secondary metabolites for human health. To investigate the genetic variations in GL content in radish roots and the relationship with other root phenotypes, we analyzed 71 accessions from 23 different countries for GLs using HPLC. The most abundant GL in radish roots was glucoraphasatin, a GL with four-carbon aliphatic side chain. The content of glucoraphasatin represented at least 84.5% of the total GL content. Indolyl GL represented only 3.1% of the total GL at its maximum. The principal component analysis of GL profiles with various root phenotypes showed that four different genotypes exist in the 71 accessions. Although no strong correlation with GL content and root phenotype was observed, the varied GL content levels demonstrate the genetic diversity of GL content, and the amount that GLs could be potentially improved by breeding in radishes.

  9. Plant Productivity and Characterization of Zeoponic Substrates after Three Successive Crops of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Douglas W.; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.; Golden, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate, termed zeoponics. The zeoponic substrate (consisting of NH4(-) and K-exchanged clinoptilolite, synthetic apatite, and dolomite) provides all of the plant-essential nutrients through mineral dissolution and ion exchange, with only the addition of water. Previous studies have shown high productivity of wheat in zeoponic substrates; however, no experiments have been conducted on other crops. The objective of this study was to determine the productivity and nutrient uptake of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) grown in zeoponic substrates with three successive crops in the same substrate. Radish was chosen because of its sensitivities to NH4(+). Average fresh weights of edible roots were similar for radish grown in zeoponic substrates watered with deionized H2O (10.97 g/plant) and in potting mix control substrate irrigated with nutrient solution (10.92 g/plant). Average fresh weight production of edible roots for radish grown in same zeoponic substrate increased in yield over time with the lowest yield in the first crop (7.10 g/plant) and highest in the third crop (13.90 g/plant). The Ca plant tissue levels in radishes (1.8-2.9 wt. %) grown in zeoponic substrates are lower than the suggested sufficient range of 3.0-4.5 wt. % Ca; however, the Ca level is highest (2.9 wt. %) in radishes grown in the third crop in the same zeoponic substrates. The higher radish yield in the third crop was attributed to a reduction in an NH4(-) induced Ca deficiency that has been previously described for wheat grown in zeoponic substrates. The P levels in plant tissues of radish grown in the zeoponic substrates ranged from 0.94-1.15 wt. %; which is slightly higher than the sufficient levels of 0.3-0.7 wt. %. With the exception of Ca and P, other macronutrient and micronutrient levels in radish grown in zeoponic substrates were well within the recommended sufficient ranges. After three

  10. Analysis and Evaluation of Nutritional Quality in Chinese Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhao-liang; LIU Li-wang; LI Xiao-yan; GONG Yi-qin; HOU Xi-lin; ZHU Xian-wen; YANG Jin-lan; WANG Long-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. High nutritional quality was critical in its genetic improvement and production. The nutritional quality of 42 Chinese radish cultivars was analyzed in this study. The contents of six nutritional facts, dry matter (DM), crude fiber (CF), total soluble sugar (TSS), vitamin C (Vc), protein, and nitrate, ranged from 29.7 to 88.2, 4.507 to 18.546, 2.233 to 15.457, 0.1416 to 0.3341, 0.34 to 1.15, and 1.81 to 5.89 g kg-1 flesh weight (FW), respectively. Significant differences among the 42 radish cultivars were detected in the contents of nutritional facts. The data were subjected to cross-correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). It was found that DM content was positively correlated with the content of TSS (r=0.7104), Vc (r=0.4011) and protein (r=0.4120). Vitamin C (Vc) content of radish showed a positive correlation (r= 0.3300) with the protein content. According to the principal component analysis, out of the 42 radish cultivars, Nau-17, Nau-28, Nau-6, Nau-11, Nau-10, Nau-27, and Nau-31 were detected with very high scores in comprehensive evaluation. It could be concluded that abundant diversity of nutritional fact content occurred in different radish genotypes, and PCA analysis was effective for selecting radish germplasm with high quality. The results could contribute useful knowledge of nutritional quality, and provide important germplasms for the elite cultivar development and the inheritance study of nutritional facts in radish.

  11. Growth Enhancement of Radish Sprouts Induced by Low Pressure O2 Radio Frequency Discharge Plasma Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Satoshi; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    We studied growth enhancement of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.) induced by low pressure O2 radio frequency (RF) discharge plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 7 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 30-60% greater than that without irradiation. O2 plasma irradiation does not affect seed germination. The experimental results reveal that oxygen related radicals strongly enhance growth, whereas ions and photons do not.

  12. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Radish: Comparison between Soil and Floating Hydroponics Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore, M. Di; Carafa, A. M.; Mingo, A.; Carratù, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two plant growing methods, namely use of soil and a floating hydroponic system, were compared in order to determine whether the response of radish to Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn was affected by the cultural system. Seed germination, plant biomass (root, shoot, hypocotyl), and heavy metal accumulation in different parts of the radish plants were monitored. The presence of heavy metals in the germination medium had no effect on seed germination, while the biomass of plants grown in hydroponics was negati...

  13. Characterization of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Red Radish Brines during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Jing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Red radish (Raphanus L. pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5–19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15–30 µg/mL. 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2–92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206–220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  14. Anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam Il; Xu, Hui; Li, Xiaohua; Jang, In Hyuk; Park, Suhyoung; Ahn, Gil Hwan; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Sang Un

    2011-06-08

    Radish [Raphanus sativus (Rs)] is an important dietary vegetable in Asian countries, especially China, Japan, and Korea. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation in radish, the gene expression of enzymes directly involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis was analyzed. These genes include phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS). RsDFR and RsANS were found to accumulate in the flesh or skin of two radish cultivars (Man Tang Hong and Hong Feng No.1). Radish skin contained higher CHS, CHI, and F3H transcript levels than radish flesh in all three cultivars. In the red radish, 16 anthocyanins were separated and identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and elctrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Some of them were acylated with coumaroyl, malonoyl, feruoyl, and caffeoyl moieties. Furthermore (-)-epicatechin and ferulic acid were also identified in the three cultivars.

  15. Transcriptional identification and characterization of differentially expressed genes associated with embryogenesis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Feng, Haiyang; Li, Chao; Luo, Xiaobo; Everlyne, Muleke M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-02-23

    Embryogenesis is an important component in the life cycle of most plant species. Due to the difficulty in embryo isolation, the global gene expression involved in plant embryogenesis, especially the early events following fertilization are largely unknown in radish. In this study, three cDNA libraries from ovules of radish before and after fertilization were sequenced using the Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tag profiling strategy. A total of 5,777 differentially expressed transcripts were detected based on pairwise comparison in the three libraries (0_DAP, 7_DAP and 15_DAP). Results from Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were implicated in numerous life processes including embryo development and phytohormones biosynthesis. Notably, some genes encoding auxin response factor (ARF ), Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) and somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase (SERK ) known to be involved in radish embryogenesis were differentially expressed. The expression patterns of 30 genes including LEC1-2, AGL9, LRR, PKL and ARF8-1 were validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the cooperation between miRNA and mRNA may play a pivotal role in the radish embryogenesis process. This is the first report on identification of DEGs profiles related to radish embryogenesis and seed development. These results could facilitate further dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying embryogenesis and seed development in radish.

  16. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  17. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, E Kathalijne; Van Reenen, Cornelis G; Blokhuis, Mari Zetterqvist; Morgan, E Karin M; Hassmén, Peter; Rundgren, T Margareta M; Blokhuis, Harry J

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, knowledge, and personality of the rider on one hand and the temperament, experience, and physical abilities of the horse on the other. A study with 16 riders and 16 warm-blood riding horses tested the effect of personality of riders and temperament of horses on cooperation between riders and horses. More emotionally reactive horses showed more evasive behavior during riding. Riders preferred to ride those horses who were assessed by the riders as being attentive to the rider's aid. The frequency of evasive behaviors during riding--as assessed by riders, in contrast to the assessments made by an external judge--influenced the cooperation between rider and horse. On average, a rider's personality did not affect the cooperation between rider and horse; however, it is suggested that a rider's personality does affect the cooperation with more emotionally reactive horses.

  18. Horse Allergy: Curly Horses Allow Horse Allergic Riders To Ride Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitlehner, W; Mitlehner, H C; Niggemann, B

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that so called hypoallergenic horses (Curly horses) allow horse allergic riders to ride again, we investigated 40 horse allergic riders in a period of 37 months. Methods: We tested these patients (pts.) by skin prick test (SPT) with different non-curly and Curly horses and studied the riding hours and horse brushing by measurements of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and Tiffeneau tests (FEV1) as well as peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) over 12 months. The results in 37/40 pts. showed no relevant reactions of the lower airways or nasal flow. Only in 3/40 patients an initial significant fall of FEV1 was observed, reversed by a single inhalation of salbutamol and not repeated despite further riding contact. In contrast to other allergic events (e. g. baker's asthma) a further and regular contact with these horses abolished the mild allergic reactions of the start period of contact. This may be due to hypoallergenic properties of these horses, whose test material produces weaker reactions in the SPT than that of normal horses. After a period of three years, a loss of reactivity to normal horses could be confirmed in some of the riders. Conclusion: The tested purebreed Curly horses may be a suitable alternative for horse allergic riders if the methodological precautions of this study are followed.

  19. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  20. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  1. De novo assembly and characterization of the complete chloroplast genome of radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Min; Chung, Won-Hyung; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Namshin; Yu, Hee-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an edible root vegetable crop that is cultivated worldwide and whose genome has been sequenced. Here we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the radish cultivar WK10039 chloroplast (cp) genome, along with a de novo assembly strategy using whole genome shotgun sequence reads obtained by next generation sequencing. The radish cp genome is 153,368 bp in length and has a typical quadripartite structure, composed of a pair of inverted repeat regions (26,217 bp each), a large single copy region (83,170 bp), and a small single copy region (17,764 bp). The radish cp genome contains 87 predicted protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 91 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the radish cp genome. Phylogenetic analysis of 62 protein-coding gene sequences from the 17 cp genomes of the Brassicaceae family suggested that the radish cp genome is most closely related to the cp genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassicanapus. Comparisons with the B. rapa and B. napus cp genomes revealed highly divergent intergenic sequences and introns that can potentially be developed as diagnostic cp markers. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions of cp genes suggested that nucleotide substitutions have occurred at similar rates in most genes. The complete sequence of the radish cp genome would serve as a valuable resource for the development of new molecular markers and the study of the phylogenetic relationships of Raphanus species in the Brassicaceae family.

  2. The effect of stimulus height on visual discrimination in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C A; Cassaday, H J; Derrington, A M

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus height on the ability of horses to learn a simple visual discrimination task. Eight horses were trained to perform a two-choice, black/white discrimination with stimuli presented at one of two heights: ground level or at a height of 70 cm from the ground. The height at which the stimuli were presented was alternated from one session to the next. All trials within a single session were presented at the same height. The criterion for learning was four consecutive sessions of 70% correct responses. Performance was found to be better when stimuli were presented at ground level with respect to the number of trials taken to reach the criterion (P discrimination could be enhanced by placing the stimuli on the ground. In addition, the results of the present study suggest that the visual appearance of ground surfaces is an important factor in both horse management and training.

  3. Effect of light conditions on the contents of glucosinolates in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciska, Ewa; Honke, Joanna; Kozłowska, Halina

    2008-10-08

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of light conditions on contents of glucosinolates (GLS) in germinating seeds of white mustard, red radish, white radish, and rapeseed. The seeds were germinated in light and dark, at 25 degrees C, for up to 7 days. As compared to the nongerminated seeds, in seeds exposed to light and germinated for 4, 5, 6, and 7 days the content of total GLS was observed to decrease by 30 to 70% depending on the species. Germination in conducted the dark for the respective periods of time resulted in decreases of total GLS not exceeding 25%. The changes in the concentration of total GLS were attributed to aliphatic GLS predominating in seeds, yet in the case of white mustard to sinalbin belonging to aralkyl glucosinolates. Although seeds germinated in the dark, as compared to those exposed to light, were characterized by a higher total content of indole GLS, the percentage contribution of that group of compounds in white mustard, red radish, and white radish remained at a similar level, irrespective of germination time. Only in the case of rapeseed was the percentage of the sum of indole GLS observed to increase from 17 to up to 45% once the seeds were exposed to light and to 50% once they were germinated in the dark.

  4. Cantharidin toxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, D G

    1989-01-01

    Cantharidin toxicosis in horses has become an increasing problem in certain regions of the United States. Toxicosis occurs when horses ingest alfalfa hay or products that are contaminated with "blister" beetles. Clinical signs may vary from depression to severe shock and death, depending upon the amount of toxin ingested. The most frequently observed signs include varying degrees of abdominal pain, anorexia, depression, and signs suggestive of oral irritation. Many horses make frequent attempts to void urine. Less commonly observed signs include synchronous diaphragmatic flutter and erosions of the oral mucosal surfaces. Clinical laboratory abnormalities suggestive of cantharidin toxicosis include persistent hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, development of hypoproteinemia, microscopic hematuria, and mild azotemia with inappropriate urine specific gravity. Chemical analysis for cantharidin is accomplished by evaluation of urine or stomach contents. Treatment of cantharidin toxicosis is symptomatic, but must include removal of toxin source. Gastrointestinal protectants, laxative, intravenous fluids, analgesics, diuretics, calcium gluconate, and magnesium are all included in the treatment regimen. Early and vigorous therapy is imperative if it is to be successful. In horses that remain alive for several days, persistence of elevated heart and respiratory rates and increasing serum creatine kinase concentration are associated with a deteriorating condition. Prevention is aimed at timely harvesting of alfalfa hay. Hay fields should be inspected for the presence of beetle clusters before harvesting. Involved areas of the field should not be harvested.

  5. Homegrown Olympic Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Potential equine Olympians prepare for 2008 "All the horses for the modern pentathlon at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be made-in-China," said Zhang Bin, Deputy Director of the Competition Office of the Modern Pentathlon WorldCup Final, which was recently held in Beijing.

  6. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  7. Evidence that the role of plant defensins in radish defense responses is independent of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, F R; Penninckx, I A; Goderis, I J; Broekaert, W F

    1998-09-01

    Radish leaves contain two homologous 5-kDa plant defensins which accumulate systemically upon infection by fungal pathogens (F.R.G. Terras et al., 1995, Plant Cell 7: 573-588). Here we report on the molecular cloning of the cDNAs encoding the two pathogen-inducible plant defensin isoforms from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) leaves. Tissue-print and whole-leaf electroblot immunostaining showed that the plant defensin peptides not only accumulate at high levels at or immediately around the infection sites in leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola, but also accumulate in healthy tissue further away from the infection sites and in non-infected leaves from injected plants. Gel blot analysis of RNA confirmed that expression of plant defensin genes is systemically triggered upon fungal infection whereas radish PR-1 gene expression is only activated locally. In contrast to the radish PR-1 gene(s), expression of the radish plant defensin genes was not induced by external application of salicylic acid. Activation of the plant defensin genes, but not that of PR-1 genes, occurred upon treatment with methyl jasmonate, ethylene and paraquat.

  8. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of a Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seed Protein Homologous to Nonspecific Lipid Transfer Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, F R; Goderis, I J; Van Leuven, F; Vanderleyden, J; Cammue, B P; Broekaert, W F

    1992-10-01

    A basic 9-kD protein was purified from seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The 43 amino-terminal amino acids show extensive sequence identity with nonspecific lipid transfer proteins from other plant species. The radish seed nonspecific lipid transfer protein-like protein inhibits the growth of several fungi in vitro.

  9. Effect of copper on pro- and antioxidative reactions in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukatkin, Alexander; Egorova, Irina; Michailova, Irina; Malec, Przemysław; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The generation of superoxide radicals, lipid peroxidation (as measured by malone dialdehyde formation) and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) were assessed in radish (Raphanus sativus L.), in response to elevated concentrations of copper ions in the culture medium in vitro and in vivo. Experiments were performed on 7-day-old seedlings and 5-week-old calluses grown on media supplemented with CuSO4 in concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000μМ. The exposure to elevated Cu concentrations in the medium significantly reduced both callogenesis and the proliferation of radish calluses in vitro. Cu treatment resulted in the increased generation of the superoxide radical (O2(-)) in radish seedlings and calluses indicating the occurrence of oxidative stress in radish cells, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) remained unchanged. Both in calluses and in radish seedlings in vivo, the relative level of oxidative stress was maximal at micromolar Cu concentrations and became attenuated with increasing Cu concentrations. Stronger oxidative stress occurred in the radish seedlings in vivo, compared with radish calluses in vitro. The observed lower sensitivity of calluses to Cu-induced oxidative stress and their ability to proliferate upon exposure to Cu concentrations of up to 1000μМ demonstrate the potential of in vitro cell-selection to obtain metal-tolerant radish plant lines.

  10. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    Group housing of horses is not very widespread, despite obvious advantages for their development and mental well-being. One often expressed rationale for this is that horse owners are worried about the risk of injuries due to kicks, bites or being chased into obstacles. To address this concern, we...... developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... to categorize 1124 injuries in 478 horses. Most of these horses were allocated to groups to study the effect of group composition (i.e. same age or mixed, same gender or mixed, socially stable or unstable groups) on behaviour and injuries. The material included mainly riding and leisure purpose horses...

  11. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Tatjana Tušek; Damir Alagić; Josip Ljubešić

    2000-01-01

    Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slau...

  12. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  13. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sanitizing radish seeds by simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide, high relative humidity, and mild heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Choi, Moonhak; Son, Hyeri; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2016-11-21

    Sanitizing radish seeds intended for edible sprout production was achieved by applying simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), high relative humidity (RH, 100%), and mild heat (55°C). Gaseous ClO2 was produced from aqueous ClO2 (0.66ml) by mixing sulfuric acid (5% w/v) with sodium chlorite (10 mg/mL) in a sealed container (1.8L). Greater amounts of gaseous ClO2 were measured at 23% RH (144ppm after 6h) than at 100% RH (66ppm after 6h); however, the lethal activity of gaseous ClO2 against naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) on radish seeds was significantly enhanced at 100% RH. For example, when exposed to gaseous ClO2 at 23% RH, the number of MAB on radish seeds decreased from 3.7logCFU/g to 2.6logCFU/g after 6h. However, when exposed to gaseous ClO2 at 100% RH for 6h, the MAB population decreased to 0.7logCFU/g after 6h. Gaseous ClO2 was produced in higher amounts at 55°C than at 25°C, but decreased more rapidly over time at 55°C than at 25°C. The lethal activity of gaseous ClO2 against MAB on radish seeds was greater at 55°C than at 25°C. When radish seeds were treated with gaseous ClO2 (peak concentration: 195ppm) at 100% RH and 55°C, MAB were reduced to populations below the detectable level (0.05) decreased after treatment for 6h. The information reported here will be useful when developing decontamination strategies for producing microbiologically safe radish seed sprouts.

  15. Distinct Phylogeographic Structures of Wild Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides Makino) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingxiang; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Coastal plants with simple linear distribution ranges along coastlines provide a suitable system for improving our understanding of patterns of intra-specific distributional history and genetic variation. Due to the combination of high seed longevity and high dispersibility of seeds via seawater, we hypothesized that wild radish would poorly represent phylogeographic structure at the local scale. On the other hand, we also hypothesized that wild radish populations might be geographically differentiated, as has been exhibited by their considerable phenotypic variations along the islands of Japan. We conducted nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and chloroplast DNA haplotype analyses for 486 samples and 144 samples, respectively, from 18 populations to investigate the phylogeographic structure of wild radish in Japan. Cluster analysis supported the existence of differential genetic structures between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan populations. A significant strong pattern of isolation by distance and significant evidence of a recent bottleneck were detected. The chloroplast marker analysis resulted in the generation of eight haplotypes, of which two haplotypes (A and B) were broadly distributed in most wild radish populations. High levels of variation in microsatellite loci were identified, whereas cpDNA displayed low levels of genetic diversity within populations. Our results indicate that the Kuroshio Current would have contributed to the sculpting of the phylogeographic structure by shaping genetic gaps between isolated populations. In addition, the Tokara Strait would have created a geographic barrier between the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan. Finally, extant habitat disturbances (coastal erosion), migration patterns (linear expansion), and geographic characteristics (small islands and sea currents) have influenced the expansion and historical population dynamics of wild radish. Our study is the first to record the robust phylogeographic structure in wild

  16. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

    2004-07-01

    The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

  17. Leptospirosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashutosh; Stevenson, Brian; Adler, Ben

    2013-11-29

    Leptospirosis in horses has been considered a relatively uncommon infection. However, recent data suggest that the infection is widespread, with the incidence and infecting serovars varying considerably in different geographical regions. The majority of infections remain asymptomatic. Clinical signs in equine leptospirosis resemble those seen in other animal species. However, leptospirosis as a cause of acute respiratory distress is becoming more frequently recognised. A particular feature of equine leptospirosis is post infection recurrent uveitis (moon blindness or periodic ophthalmia), which appears to be mediated by autoimmune mechanisms involving cross reactivity between ocular tissues and leptospiral membrane proteins. There are no leptospiral vaccines licensed for use in horses, with no prospect for any becoming available in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, prevention of equine leptospirosis must rely on good hygiene practices, minimisation of rodent contact, and vaccination of other species of production and companion animals.

  18. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.

  19. Horse chestnut pollen quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćalić Dušica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality of horse chestnut, expressed as pollen productivity, viability and germination was studied. Anthers of horse chestnut genotypes had pollen production from 3.66 to 5.06 x 103 pollen grains per anther, depending of genotype. Also, pollen of horse chestnut Ah1-Ah4 genotypes showed different viability (from 56 to 68%, after staining with fluorescein diacetate. Pollen germination of Ah1-Ah4 genotypes varied from 50-66% on basic medium. Inclusion of polyethylene glycol-PEG from 10%, 15% and 20% v/w increased pollen germination. The best results were achieved on medium with the largest PEG concentration. On these medium 76-91% pollen grains were germinated, depending of genotype. The best pollen quality, for all tested parameters, had genotype Ah2. Knowledge about morphology, production, viability, in vitro germination, tube growth as well as pollen: ovule ratio can be of great importance for future pollen biology studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173015

  20. Transcriptome profiling of taproot reveals complex regulatory networks during taproot thickening in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Radish (Raphanus sativus L., is one of the most important vegetable crops worldwide. Taproot thickening represents a critical developmental period that determines yield and quality in radish life cycle. To isolate differentially expressed genes (DGEs involved in radish taproot thickening process and explored the molecular mechanism in underlying taproot development, three cDNA libraries from radish taproot collected at pre-cortex splitting stage (L1, cortex splitting stage (L2 and expanding stage (L3 were constructed and sequenced by RNA-Seq technology. More than seven million clean reads were obtained from the three libraries, respectively, from which 4,717,617 (L1, 65.35%, 4,809,588 (L2, 68.24% and 4,973,745 (L3, 69.45% reads were matched to the radish reference genes. A total of 85,939 transcripts were generated from three libraries, from which 10,450, 12,325 and 7,392 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs were detected in L1 vs. L2, L1 vs. L3, and L2 vs. L3 comparisons, respectively. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that many DEGs, including EXPA9, Cyclin, CaM, Syntaxin, MADS-box, SAUR and CalS were involved in cell events, cell wall modification, regulation of plant hormone levels, signal transduction and metabolisms, which may relate to taproot thickening. Furthermore, the integrated analysis of mRNA-miRNA revealed that 43 miRNAs and 92 genes that formed 114 miRNA-target mRNA pairs were co-expressed, and three miRNA-target regulatory networks of taproot were constructed from different libraries. Finally, the expression patterns of 16 selected genes were confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. A hypothetical model of genetic regulatory network associated with taproot thickening in radish was put forward. The taproot formation of radish is mainly contributed to cell differentiation, division and expansion, which are regulated and promoted by certain specific signal transduction pathways and metabolism possesses. These results could

  1. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  2. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  3. L-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Miho; Maruyama, Takuma; Yoshimi, Yoshihisa; Kotake, Toshihisa; Matsuoka, Koji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Tryfona, Theodora; Dupree, Paul; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2015-10-13

    The carbohydrate moieties of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) have β-(1 → 3)-galactan backbones to which side chains of (1 → 6)-linked β-Gal residues are attached through O-6. Some of these side chains are further substituted with other sugars. We investigated the structure of L-Fuc-containing oligosaccharides released from the carbohydrate moieties of a radish leaf AGP by digestion with α-L-arabinofuranosidase, followed by exo-β-(1 → 3)-galactanase. We detected a series of neutral β-(1 → 6)-galactooligosaccharides branching variously at O-3 of the Gal residues, together with corresponding acidic derivatives terminating in 4-O-methyl-GlcA (4-Me-GlcA) or GlcA at the non-reducing terminals. In neutral oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization (dp) mainly higher than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →. This sequence was verified by isolation of the pentasaccharide α-L-Fuc-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 → 3)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal upon digestion of the higher oligosaccharides with endo-β-(1 → 6)-galactanase. By contrast, in lower polymerized (predominantly dp 4) acidic oligosaccharides, L-Fuc groups were attached directly at the non-reducing terminals through α-(1 → 2)-linkages, resulting in the release of the tetrasaccharides, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal and α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-β-4-Me-GlcA-(1 → 6)-β-Gal-(1 → 6)-Gal. In long acidic oligosaccharides with dp mainly higher than 13, L-Fuc groups localized on branches were attached to the uronic acids directly and/or L-Ara residues as in the neutral oligosaccharides.

  4. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills, kn

  5. Does horse temperament influence horse-rider cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Blokhuis, M.Z.; Morgan, E.K.M.; Hassmen, P.; Rundgren, T.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rider and horse is of major importance in equitation. A balanced team of horse and rider improves (sport) performances and welfare aspects by decreasing stress, frustration, risks of injuries, and accidents. Important features affecting the cooperation are the physical skills,

  6. Horse sense: social status of horses (Equus caballus) affects their likelihood of copying other horses' behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Heinze, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Animals that live in stable social groups need to gather information on their own relative position in the group's social hierarchy, by either directly threatening or by challenging others, or indirectly and in a less perilous manner , by observing interactions among others. Indirect inference of dominance relationships has previously been reported from primates, rats, birds, and fish. Here, we show that domestic horses, Equus caballus, are similarly capable of social cognition. Taking advantage of a specific "following behavior" that horses show towards humans in a riding arena, we investigated whether bystander horses adjust their response to an experimenter according to the observed interaction and their own dominance relationship with the horse whose reaction to the experimenter they had observed before. Horses copied the "following behavior" towards an experimenter after watching a dominant horse following but did not follow after observing a subordinate horse or a horse from another social group doing so. The "following behavior," which horses show towards an experimenter, therefore appears to be affected by the demonstrator's behavior and social status relative to the observer.

  7. Nutrient needs of performance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lawrence

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the National Research Council (NRC Subcommittee on Horse Nutrition defined three categories of exercise: light, moderate or intense. In the 6th revised edition of "The Nutrient Requirements of Horses" (NRC, 2007, there are four categories for exercising horses: light exercise, moderate exercise, heavy exercise and very heavy exercise. Light exercise is described as 1 to 3 hours/week of mostly walking and trotting. Many horses kept for recreational riding would be included in the light exercise category. Moderate exercise consists of 3 to 5 hours/week of mostly trotting with some walking, some cantering and possibly some jumping or other type of more difficult activity. Horses used for horse shows, ranch work and frequent recreational riding would fit into the moderate exercise category. Heavy exercise is described as 4 to 5 hours/week of trotting, cantering, galloping and some jumping, cattle work, etc. Horses engaged in three day eventing, polo, endurance racing or other competitive events would be in this category. The very heavy exercise category includes racehorses and a few other horses that compete at the elite level of endurance or three day eventing. The NRC (2007 provides recommendations for nutrient intakes by mature exercising horses and for yearlings and two year olds that are receiving regular exercise. Many of the recommendations are similar to those in the 1989 publication, but others have been increased or decreased. For example, crude protein recommendations for exercising horses are generally lower than in the last edition. However, lysine requirements are relatively similar and the publication suggests that protein quality should be emphasized more than in the past. The 2007 NRC contains more information about the factors that influence the requirements for each nutrient, making it easier for users to develop diets for individual horses.

  8. Investigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potentialInvestigation of waste banana peels and radish leaves for their biofuels potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the production of biodiesel and bioethanol from waste banana peels and radish leaves. The oily content from both the samples were converted to biodiesel by acid catalyzed and base catalyzed transesterification using methanol and ethanol. The biodiesel so obtained was subjected to analysis in accordance with the American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM. The carbohydrates were extracted by distilled water and characterized by physical, chemical and biochemical methods. The carbohydrates were subjected to anaerobic fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce bioethanol which was confirmed by the preparation of UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and ethyl salicylate. The highest % yield of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty acid ethyl ester was found to be 75% and 38%, respectively. The yield of bioethanol from banana peels and radish leaves was found to be 1.37% and 1.23%, respectively.

  9. Septic arthritis in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstanjen, B; Boehart, S; Cislakova, M

    2010-01-01

    Septic arthritis in horses is a serious disease which can become life-threatening. In case the infection can be eliminated before irreversible joint damage occurs, complete recovery is possible. This article gives an overview of the literature concerning etiology, diagnosis and strategies of therapy in cases of septic arthritis in adult horses, with special reference to novel options of treatment.

  10. Two-Dice Horse Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  11. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  12. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  13. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... organizations, veterinary associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse... of inflammation. If the horse is not free of these symptoms, it is considered to be sore under Sec... sometimes sends veterinary medical officers (VMOs) to conduct inspections of horses at horse shows...

  14. Trailer-loading of horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Payana; Elmgreen, Katrine; Ladewig, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The traditional way to train horses is by the application of negative reinforcement (NR). In the past few years, however, the use of positive reinforcement (PR) has become more common. To evaluate the effectiveness and the possible stressor effect of the 2 training methods, 12 horses showing severe...... trailer-loading problems were selected and exposed to trailer-loading. They were randomly assigned to one of the 2 methods. NR consisted of various degrees of pressure (lead rope pulling, whip tapping). Pressure was removed as soon as the horse complied. PR horses were exposed to clicker training...... and taught to follow a target into the trailer. Heart rate (HR) was recorded every 5 seconds and behavior denoting discomfort was observed using one-zero sampling with 10 seconds sampling intervals. Training was completed when the horse could enter the trailer upon a signal, or was terminated after a maximum...

  15. Clinical nutrition of adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S L

    1990-08-01

    Horses suffering from trauma, sepsis, and severe burns need 12% to 16% of protein (dry matter basis) in their diet. Since reduced appetite may be a problem, relatively energy dense (greater than 2 Mcal DE/kg) feeds should be offered. In hepatic failure, maintenance protein requirements (8% on a dry matter basis for adult horses) should be met with feeds that are high in short branched-chain amino acids and arginine but low in aromatic amino acids and tryptophan (for example, milo, corn, soybean, or linseed meal) in addition to grass hay. Vitamins A, C, and E should also be supplemented. In cases with renal failure, protein, calcium, and phosphorus should be restricted to maintenance or lower levels. Grass hay and corn are the best feeds for horses with reduced renal function. Do not offer free-choice salt to horses with dependent edema from uncompensated chronic heart failure. Following gastrointestinal resection, legume hay and grain mixtures are the feeds of choice. Horses with diarrhea should not be deprived or oral or enteral alimentation for prolonged periods of time. Liquid formulas may be used if bulk or gastrointestinal motility are a problem. Apple cider vinegar and a high grain diet may reduce the incidence of enteroliths in horses prone to this problem. Pelleted feeds will reduce fecal volume and produce softer feces for horses that have had rectovaginal lacerations or surgery. Horses with small intestinal dysfunction or resection should be offered low residue diets initially, but long-term maintenance requires diets that promote large intestinal digestion (alfalfa hay, vegetable oil, restricted grain). Geriatric horses (greater than 20 years old need diets similar to those recommended for horses 6 to 18 months old.

  16. Hay Days: The Horse in Iowa History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    "The Goldfinch" introduces young children to various facets of Iowa history. Each issue has a specific topic, and a number of articles covering different aspects of the topic being addressed. This particular issue focuses on horses. Featured articles discuss historical uses of horses, an Iowa child who owns a quarter horse, show horses,…

  17. Induced systemic resistance in radish is not associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Bik, L.; Pelt, J.A. van den

    1995-01-01

    The non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain WCS417r has been shown to induce systemic resistance in radish against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. raphani. In this paper we investigate the involvement of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in this Pseudomonas-induced resistance. For comparison, salicy

  18. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When t

  19. Methane and hydrogen sulfide production during co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish cover crops were investigated as a co-substrate to increase biogas production from dairy manure-based anaerobic digestion. Lab-scale batch digesters (300 mL) were operated under mesophilic conditions during two experiments. In the first experiment, the optimal co-digestion ratio for ...

  20. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    radish on N dynamics and root growth. Field experiments were carried out on a humid temperate sandy loam soil. Aboveground biomass and soil inorganic N were determined in late autumn; N uptake and grain yield of winter wheat were measured at harvest. Nitrate leaching was estimated from soil water samples...

  1. Antiviral effect of ribavirin and acyclic nucleosid phosphonates against Radish mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    VOZÁBOVÁ, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of the antiviral effectiveness of ribavirin and acyclic nucleotide phosphonates to radish mosaic virus. Virus inoculation of plants with RaMV and immunological assay of the virus by ELISA. Subsequent application of antiviral agents and monitoring relative content of the virus in plants. Subsequent processing of data in tables and graphs, and then statistical evaluation.

  2. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  3. Ringtest to evaluate four methods of resistance testing in fodder radish against Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Berg, van den W.; Korthals, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    To measure levels of resistance in fodder radish cultivars a reliable, objective and cost effective testing method is required. In 2006 German and Dutch plant breeder’s organizations (Bundesverband Deutscher Pflanzenzüchter; BDP and Plantum), a number of research institutes (PRI, PPO (WUR) and JKI)

  4. Sinapine detection in radish taproot using surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dejuan; Luo, Liping; Jiang, Cuicui; Han, Jing; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Tingting; Jiang, Jie; Zhou, Zhiquan; Chen, Huanwen

    2011-03-23

    Plant research and natural product detection are of sustainable interests. Benefited by direct detection with no sample preparation, sinapine, a bioactive chemical usually found in various seeds of Brassica plants, has been unambiguously detected in radish taproot (Raphanus sativus) tissue using a liquid-assisted surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (DAPCI-MS). A methanol aqueous solution (1:1) was nebulized by a nitrogen sheath gas toward the corona discharge, resulting in charged ambient small droplets, which affected the radish tissue for desorption/ionization of analytes on the tissue surface. Thus, sinapine was directly detected and identified by tandem DAPCI-MS experiments without sample pretreatment. The typical relative standard deviation (RSD) of this method for sinapine detection was 5-8% for six measurements (S/N=3). The dynamic response range was 10(-12)-10(-7) g/cm2 for sinapine on the radish skin surface. The discovery of sinapine in radish taproot was validated by using HPLC-UV methods. The data demonstrated that DAPCI assisted by solvent enhanced the overall efficiency of the desorption/ionization process, enabling sensitive detection of bioactive compounds in plant tissue.

  5. Molecular characterization of a trisegmented chrysovirus isolated from the radish Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liqiang; Liu, Jianning; Xu, Aixia; Wang, Ting; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Xiwu

    2013-09-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is cultivated worldwide and is of agronomic importance. dsRNAs associated with partitiviruses were previously found in many R. sativus varieties. In this study, three large dsRNAs from radish were cloned using a modified single primer amplification technique. These three dsRNAs-of lengths 3638, 3517 and 3299 bp-shared conserved untranslated terminal regions, and each contained a major open reading frame putatively encoding the chrysoviral replicase, capsid protein and protease respectively. Isometric virus-like particles (VLP), approximately 45nm in diameter, were isolated from the infected radish plants. Northern blotting indicated that these dsRNAs were encapsidated in the VLP. The virus containing these dsRNA genome segments was named Raphanus sativus chrysovirus 1 (RasCV1). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that RasCV1 is a new species of the Chrysoviridae family and forms a plant taxon with another putative plant chrysovirus, Anthurium mosaic-associated virus (AmaCV). Furthermore, no fungal mycelia were observed in radish leaf tissues stained with trypan blue. These results indicated that RasCV1 is most likely a plant chrysovirus rather than a chrysovirus in symbiotic fungi. An exhaustive BLAST analysis of RasCV1 and AmaCV revealed that chrysovirus-like viruses might widely exist in eudicot and monocot plants and that endogenization of chrysovirus segments into plant genome might have ever happened.

  6. Cytokinin-dependent secondary growth determines root biomass in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Geupil; Lee, Jung-Hun; Rastogi, Khushboo; Park, Suhyoung; Oh, Sang-Hun; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-08-01

    The root serves as an essential organ in plant growth by taking up nutrients and water from the soil and supporting the rest of the plant body. Some plant species utilize roots as storage organs. Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas), cassava (Manihot esculenta), and radish (Raphanus sativus), for example, are important root crops. However, how their root growth is regulated remains unknown. In this study, we characterized the relationship between cambium and radial root growth in radish. Through a comparative analysis with Arabidopsis root expression data, we identified putative cambium-enriched transcription factors in radish and analysed their expression in representative inbred lines featuring distinctive radial growth. We found that cell proliferation activities in the cambium positively correlated with radial growth and final yields of radish roots. Expression analysis of candidate transcription factor genes revealed that some genes are differentially expressed between inbred lines and that the difference is due to the distinct cytokinin response. Taken together, we have demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that cytokinin-dependent radial growth plays a key role in the yields of root crops.

  7. Initiation of spontaneous tumors in radish (Raphanus sativus): Cellular, molecular and physiological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva Osipova, Maria A; Tvorogova, Varvara E; Vinogradova, Alena P; Gancheva, Maria S; Azarakhsh, Mahboobeh; Ilina, Elena L; Demchenko, Kirill N; Dodueva, Irina E; Lutova, Lyudmila A

    2015-01-15

    In plant meristems, the balance of cell proliferation and differentiation is maintained by phytohormones, specifically auxin and cytokinin, as well as transcription factors. Changing of the cytokinin/auxin balance in plants may lead to developmental abnormalities, and in particular, to the formation of tumors. The examples of spontaneous tumor formation in plants include tumors formed on the roots of radish (Raphanus sativus) inbred lines. Previously, it was found that the cytokinin/auxin ratio is altered in radish tumors. In this study, a detailed histological analysis of spontaneous radish tumors was performed, revealing a possible mechanism of tumor formation, namely abnormal cambial activity. The analysis of cell proliferation patterns revealed meristematic foci in radish tumors. By using a fusion of an auxin-responsive promoter (DR5) and a reporter gene, the involvement of auxin in developmental processes in tumors was shown. In addition, the expression of the root meristem-specific WUSCHEL-related homeobox 5 (WOX5) gene was observed in cells adjacent to meristematic foci. Taken together, the results of the present study show that tumor tissues share some characteristics with root apical meristems, including the presence of auxin-response maxima in meristematic foci with adjacent cells expressing WOX5.

  8. The mechanism for weed suppression by a forage radish cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Mid-Atlantic region, forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) winter cover crops planted prior to 1 September suppress winter annual weeds from fall until early April. Little is known about the mechanism of this weed suppression. Published research reports suggest that allelopat...

  9. LC-PDA-EIS/MSn identification of new anthocyanins in purple radish (Raphanus sativus L. variety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-PDA-ESI/MSn profiling method was used for a comprehensive study of the anthocyanins of purple Bordeaux radish. This study identified 57 anthocyanins: 23 acylated cyanidin 3-sophoroside-5-diglucosides, 12 acylated cyanidin 3-(glucosylacyl) acylsophoroside-5-diglucosides, and 22 acylated cyanid...

  10. Consequence of irrigation with arsenic and zinc contaminated water on accumulation of zinc in radishes plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Banejad

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: It was found that zinc concentration in radish roots, tubers, and leafs is correlated with the concentration of zinc in water. Moreover, there was a competition between the absorption of zinc and arsenic in plants. With increasing arsenic in irrigation water, transition of Zn was reduced to aerial part.

  11. Raphanusanin-mediated resistance to pathogens is light dependent in radish and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehninsi; Miura, Kenji; Yamada, Kosumi; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2014-09-01

    Raphanusanin (Ra) is a light-induced inhibitor of hypocotyl growth that responds to unilateral blue light illumination in radish seedlings. We have previously shown that Ra regulates genes that are involved in common defense mechanisms. Many genes that are induced by Ra are also positively regulated by early blue light. To extend the understanding of the role of Ra in pathogen defense, we evaluated the effects of Ra on radish and Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) infected with the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) and biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae (P. syringae). Radish and A. thaliana were found to be resistant to both pathogens when treated with Ra, depending on the concentration used. Interestingly, Ra-mediated resistance to P. syringae is dependent on light because Ra-treated seedlings exhibited enhanced susceptibility to P. syringae infection when grown in the dark. In addition to regulating the biotic defense response, Ra inhibited seed germination and root elongation and enhanced the growth of root hairs in the presence of light in radish and A. thaliana. Our data suggest that Ra regulates the expression of a set of genes involved in defense signaling pathways and plays a role in pathogen defense and plant development. Our results show that light may be generally required not only for the accumulation of Ra but also for its activation during the pathogen defense response.

  12. Return to Our Roots: Raising Radishes to Teach Experimental Design. Methods and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research in teaching applied statistics. Concludes that students should analyze data from studies they have designed and conducted. Describes an activity in which students study germination and growth of radish seeds. Includes a table providing student instructions for both the experimental procedure and data analysis. (CFR)

  13. Removal of a combination of endocrine disruptors from aqueous systems by seedlings of radish and ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, C Eliana; Cunha, Bruno Barboza; Rosa, André H; Loffredo, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are widespread in the environment, especially aquatic systems, and cause dangerous effects on wildlife and humans. This work was aimed to assess the capacity of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seedlings to tolerate and remove two combinations of EDs containing bisphenol A (BPA), 17alpha-ethynilestradiol (EE2), and linuron from four aqueous media: distilled water, a solution of natural organic matter (NOM), a lake water and a river water. Seeds of the two species were germinated in each contaminated medium and, at the end of germination, the seedling growth was evaluated by biometric measurements and residual EDs were quantified by chromatographic analysis. Biometric measurements revealed that the phytotoxicity of the two combinations of EDs depended on the medium used. Radish showed a discrete tolerance in distilled water and lake water but was inhibited in the solution of NOM and river water. Ryegrass was negatively affected mainly in river water. The concentration of each ED appeared significantly reduced in all media in the presence of seedlings of both species, but not in the blanks without plants. In 5 days, radish removed up to 88% of BPA, 100% of EE2 and 42% of linuron, and in 6 days ryegrass removed up to 92% of BPA, 74% of EE2 and 16% of linuron. The considerable removal capacity of radish and ryegrass in all media tested encourages the use of phytoremediation to remove EDs from waters.

  14. A Dark Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康成

    2012-01-01

    What s the meamng of a "dark horse "? It's soineone who wins while no one expects it. Han Xiaopeng became an Olympic "dark horse" by winning the gold medal in men's freest~ie aerial skiing ( 自由式滑雪空中技巧) in Turin, Italy. He made two almost perfect jumps for the highest score: Han had never won a world gold medal before, let alone (更不用说) in the Olympics!

  15. Analysis of the population of the Old Kladruby horse in point of the body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sobotková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was a detailed analysis of the body conformation of the Old Kladruby horse in the Stud Farm Kladruby. We applied 26 body dimensions, 9 angles of extremity joints and 12 hippo-metrical indices of 167 breeding horses to analyse the population according to the colouration (grey, black, lines (9 lines, sex (stallions and mares and age categories (4 classes. The resulting measures were analysed statistically by means of a linear model with fixed effects (GLM. Most of the statistical highly significant differences were differences detected between stallions and mares and between the Old Kladruby grey and black horses. The stallions have a significantly longer profile of the head (by more than 1 cm and width of the cheeks. The mares have a highly significantly larger chest (longer by 2.9 cm, more deeply by 3.3 cm, width of coxae and angles of the shoulder and knee joints. The black horses have highly significantly longer profile of the head (by more than 2.5 cm and width of cheeks, longer the blade-bone and significantly longer the pelvis (by 2.3 cm. The grey horses have highly significantly shorter arm and forearm, longer metacarpus, pastern and shinbone. The differences between age categories are highly significant by heights of body, girth and by hippo-metrical indices. The differences among the lines of the same colouration are minimal. Only white line Rudolfo is significantly small sized and the least compact.

  16. Foliar application of brassinosteroids alleviates adverse effects of zinc toxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Bellamkonda; Rao, S Seeta Ram

    2015-03-01

    Growth chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the comparative effect of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) and 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 μM concentrations by foliar application on radish plants growing under Zn(2+) stress. In radish plants exposed to excess Zn(2+), growth was substantially reduced in terms of shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight. However, foliar application of brassinosteroids (BRs) was able to alleviate Zn(2+)-induced stress and significantly improve the above growth traits. Zinc stress decreased chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids levels in radish plants. However, follow-up treatment with BRs increased the photosynthetic pigments in stressed and stress-free plants. The treatment of BRs led to reduced levels of H2O2, lipid peroxidation and, electrolyte leakage (ELP) and improved the leaf relative water content (RWC) in stressed plants. Increased levels of carbonyls indicating enhanced protein oxidation under Zn(2+) stress was effectively countered by supplementation of BRs. Under Zn(2+) stress, the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) were increased but peroxidase (POD) and glutathione reductase (GR) decreased. Foliar spraying of BRs enhanced all these enzymatic activities in radish plants under Zn(2+) stress. The BRs application greatly enhanced contents of ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH), and proline under Zn(2+) stress. The decrease in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) caused by Zn(2+) stress was restored to the level of control by application of BRs. These results point out that BRs application elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes as well as antioxidants could have conferred resistance to radish plants against Zn(2+) stress resulting in improved plant growth, relative water content and photosynthetic attributes. Of the two BRs, EBL was most effective in amelioration of Zn(2+) stress.

  17. The match between horse and rider

    OpenAIRE

    Axel-Nilsson, Malin

    2015-01-01

    A successful relationship between horse and rider is a partnership based on compatibility and is often referred to as a good match. In the present thesis, ‘match’ includes the good interaction, interplay and cooperation between horse and rider as well as the related positive experience. A good horse-rider match is important for horse welfare, rider safety and good performance. The aim of this thesis was to investigate which parameters riders consider important for a good match, if horse tempe...

  18. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  19. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  20. Multiple origins of cultivated radishes as evidenced by a comparison of the structural variations in mitochondrial DNA of Raphanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Terachi, Toru

    2003-02-01

    Configurations of mitochondrial coxI and orfB gene regions were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in three wild and one cultivated species of Raphanus. A total of 207 individual plants from 60 accessions were used. PCR with five combinations of primers identified five different amplification patterns both in wild and cultivated radishes. While the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) type of Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm was distinguishable from the normal type, the mtDNAs of normal radishes were further classified into four types. The variations were common to wild and cultivated radishes, although contrasting features were found depending on the region of cultivation. These results provide evidence that cultivated radishes have multiple origins from various wild plants of Raphanus.

  1. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaochuan Sun; Yan Wang; Liang Xu; Chao Li; Wei Zhang; Xiaobo Luo; Haiyan Jiang; Liwang Liu

    2017-01-01

    .... Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction...

  2. The Effects of Bio-priming with PGPR on Germination of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Seeds under Saline Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAK, Haluk Çağlar; GÜVENÇ, İsmail; YARALI, Faika; DÖNMEZ, Mesude Figen

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of bio-priming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on the germination of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds under different saline (NaCl) conditions. Three radish cultivars ('Antep', 'Beyaz', and 'Siyah') were used as plant material and 5 bacteria strains (Agrobacterium rubi strain A 16, Burkholderia gladii strain BA 7, Pseudomonas putida strain BA 8, Bacillus subtilis strain BA 142, and Bacillus...

  3. Transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal, is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO32 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72% was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56% or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%. A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30% was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40% and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%, while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low

  4. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  5. Unraveling the Root Proteome Changes and Its Relationship to Molecular Mechanism Underlying Salt Stress Response in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Xiaobo; Jiang, Haiyan; Liu, Liwang

    2017-01-01

    To understand the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish, iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the differences in protein species abundance under different salt treatments. In total, 851, 706, and 685 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) were identified between CK vs. Na100, CK vs. Na200, and Na100 vs. Na200, respectively. Functional annotation analysis revealed that salt stress elicited complex proteomic alterations in radish roots involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, stress and defense and transport. Additionally, the expression levels of nine genes encoding DAPS were further verified using RT-qPCR. The integrative analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data in conjunction with miRNAs was further performed to strengthen the understanding of radish response to salinity. The genes responsible for signal transduction, ROS scavenging and transport activities as well as several key miRNAs including miR171, miR395, and miR398 played crucial roles in salt stress response in radish. Based on these findings, a schematic genetic regulatory network of salt stress response was proposed. This study provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress response in radish roots and would facilitate developing effective strategies toward genetically engineered salt-tolerant radish and other root vegetable crops.

  6. Uptake and accumulation of bulk and nanosized cerium oxide particles and ionic cerium by radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilan; Ebbs, Stephen D; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Gao, Cunmei; Ma, Xingmao

    2015-01-21

    The potential toxicity and accumulation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in agricultural crops has become an area of great concern and intense investigation. Interestingly, although below-ground vegetables are most likely to accumulate the highest concentrations of ENMs, little work has been done investigating the potential uptake and accumulation of ENMs for this plant group. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate how different forms of cerium (bulk cerium oxide, cerium oxide nanoparticles, and the cerium ion) affected the growth of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and accumulation of cerium in radish tissues. Ionic cerium (Ce(3+)) had a negative effect on radish growth at 10 mg CeCl3/L, whereas bulk cerium oxide (CeO2) enhanced plant biomass at the same concentration. Treatment with 10 mg/L cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) had no significant effect on radish growth. Exposure to all forms of cerium resulted in the accumulation of this element in radish tissues, including the edible storage root. However, the accumulation patterns and their effect on plant growth and physiological processes varied with the characteristics of cerium. This study provides a critical frame of reference on the effects of CeO2 NPs versus their bulk and ionic counterparts on radish growth.

  7. Postanesthetic Poliomyelomalacia in a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, M. Christine

    1985-01-01

    A clinically normal horse was anesthetized preparatory to surgery in dorsal recumbency for removal of a retained testicle. After recovery from the anesthetic, the horse was weak in the hind legs, subsequently deteriorated and became unable to rise and died on the eighth day after surgery. On microscopic examination, extensive poliomalacia of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord was found. It is postulated that this lesion was a result of ischemic insult to the spinal cord during anesthesia and...

  8. Composição química dos cascos de eqüinos das raças Pantaneira e Mangalarga Marchador Chemical composition of black versus non-pigmented hooves from Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Faria

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se eventuais diferenças na composição da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, cinzas, cálcio, fósforo, cobre, zinco, perfil de aminoácidos e biotina entre cascos pretos e claros, de eqüinos das raças Pantaneira e Mangalarga Marchador, criados na região do Pantanal, MS, e no município de Caeté, MG, respectivamente. De cada raça foram coletadas amostras de 10 éguas vazias, não lactantes, com idade entre 5 e 10 anos, sendo que, em um mesmo animal, foram retiradas amostras das duas colorações de casco nas regiões da pinça, ombro, quarto e talão. Na raça Pantaneira, os cascos claros apresentaram maior teor de fósforo que os pretos, e os demais elementos avaliados não foram diferentes segundo a cor. Na Mangalarga Marchador, não houve diferença entre os cascos claros e pretos, quanto a todas as características estudadas.Chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, copper and zinc and amino acid profile in black and non-pigmented hooves from non-lactating five-to ten-year-old Pantaneira and Mangalarga Marchador mares raised in central and southeastern Brazil was studied. In the Pantaneira breed, phosphorus concentration was higher in non-pigmented than in black hooves, but hoof color did not affect any other composition variables. Likewise, black versus non-pigmented hooves did not differ for any composition variable in the Mangalarga Marchador mares.

  9. Moderate dose of watercress and red radish does not reduce oxygen consumption during graded exhaustive exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Meamarbashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale and red radish (Raphanus sativus compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer. Materials and Methods: Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day, and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day for seven days, and control group (n=14 was prohibited from high nitrate intake. Results: During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER (p

  10. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant......Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF...... for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K-OA....

  11. REMOVAL OF GLUCORAPHENIN FROM THE EXTRACT OF RADISH PIGMENT BY ANION EXCHANGE RESIN 201×7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouXiaohua; ChenQi

    1998-01-01

    A method for removimg glucoraphenin from the extract of Radish pigment by anion exchange resin 201×7 was studied.The adsorption capacity of 201×7 resin for glucoraphenin was 72.8mg/ml resin,the equilibrium time 55 minutes,and the optinum pH5.5.All glucoraphenin that had been adsorbed on 201×7 resin was eluted by 1.5BV.hr-1, eluent in whinc concentration of NaOH was 0.05mol·L-1 at the flow rate of 1.5BV/h.Extracting solution of deglucoraphenin was enriched by vacuum and spray drying.A powder product of Radish pigment was obtained and E1cm1%=4.30.

  12. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Sulphur Compounds in White Radish During the First Three Days of Sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Glucosinolates (GLs and S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCSO are natural sulphur containing phytochemicals. They are two of the most important bioactive compounds found in brassica vegetables, which are highly regarded for their health-promoting activity. In this study we have analysed the content of GLs and SMCSO in white radish, by an HPLC-MS method, in order to illustrate their biosynthesis and accumulation during the first 72 hours of sprouting. Total GLs content ranged between  54.17 and 126.86 µmol/g DW. There were eight GLs identified, in radish sprouts and around 94 % of them were aliphatic. Obvious differences, during the 72 hours of sprouting, were noticed in glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin. S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide content ranged between 0.21 and 35.95 µmol/g DW. Our results revealed a negative strong correlation between GLs and SMCSO.

  13. Effects of sulfur fertilization on the accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in radish sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-08-07

    The effects of sulfur fertilization on the growth profile, the contents of glucosinolates, anthocyanins, vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophylls, total phenolics, and the FRAP value in radish seeds and sprouts were investigated. The concentrations of glucosinolates and antioxidants in sprouts were strongly influenced by the process of germination. Sulfur fertilization induced significant increases in the contents of individual glucosinolates, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and total phenolics. The phenolic contents in sprouts cultivated using 20, 60, or 100 mg/L sulfate were 20.7%, 40.4%, and 40.8% higher, respectively, than those of 7-day-old control sprouts. No detectable effects were observed on the contents of 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin and vitamin C. In addition, the accumulation of anthocyanins in 7-day-old sprouts decreased by 14.8-39.3% upon sulfur fertilization. These findings indicated that the application of sulfur fertilization has the potential to enhance the levels of health-promoting compounds in radish sprouts.

  14. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree.

  15. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish), Lactuca sativa L (lettuce) and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato). The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the ...

  16. Diversity of the arthropod fauna in organically grown garlic intercropped with fodder radish.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, André Wagner Barata; Haro, Marcelo Mendes; Silveira, Luís Cláudio Paterno

    2012-01-01

    The cultivation of garlic faces several problems, which include pest attack, and the diversification of habitat through intercropping with attractive plants comes up as a method to pest management. The objective of this research was to verify the effect of the association of garlic with fodder radish on richness, abundance and diversity of arthropods under organic production system in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The treatments were composed of garlic in monoculture and garlic in association with fodd...

  17. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus)

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Ha Park; Thanislas Bastin Baskar; Soo-Yun Park; Sun-Ju Kim; Mariadhas Valan Arasu; Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi; Jae Kwang Kim; Sang Un Park

    2016-01-01

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in th...

  18. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Baskar, Thanislas Bastin; Park, Soo-Yun; Kim, Sun-Ju; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Kim, Jae Kwang; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-28

    A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS)-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g), phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g). Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), Pearson's correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87%) at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%), followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might provide

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Boron-Polysaccharide Complex from Radish Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Toru, MATOH; Ken-ichi, Ishigaki; Kaori, Ohno; Jun-ichi, Azuma; Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University:(Present)International Research Institute, Ciba Geigy Japan Ltd.; Chemical Processing of Wood Laboratory, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University

    1993-01-01

    A boron-polysaccharide complex was purified from a Driselase digest of cell walls of radish roots. The complex had a molecular weight of 7.5 KDa and contained boron (0.232%, w/w), uronic acid (52.3%, w/w) and neutral sugars (32.4%). ^B-NMR spectroscopic analysis suggested that the boron was present as a tetravalent 1 : 2 borate-diol complex.

  20. 78 FR 27001 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 RIN 0579-AD43 Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations... Federal Register on June 7, 2012, and effective on July 9, 2012, we amended the horse protection regulations to require horse industry organizations or associations that license Designated Qualified...

  1. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  2. Expression profiling of genes involved in ascorbate biosynthesis and recycling during fleshy root development in radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zhu, Xianwen; Chen, Yinglong; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2013-09-01

    Ascorbate is a primary antioxidant and an essential enzyme cofactor in plants, which has an important effect on the development of plant root system. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of ascorbate accumulation during root development and reveal the key genes of the ascorbate biosynthesis and recycling pathways, the expression of 16 related genes together with ascorbate abundance were analyzed in the flesh and skin of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) fleshy root. The content of ascorbate decreased with root growth in both the flesh and skin. Expression of GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase, GDP-d-mannose-3',5'-epimerase and d-galacturonate reductase were also decreased and correlated with ascorbate levels in the flesh. In the skin, the expression of GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase and l-galactose dehydrogenase was correlated with ascorbate levels. These results suggested that ascorbate accumulation is affected mainly by biosynthesis rather than recycling in radish root, and the l-galactose pathway may be the major biosynthetic route of ascorbate, and moreover, the salvage pathway may also contribute to ascorbate accumulation. The data suggested that GDP-d-mannose pyrophosphorylase could play an important role in the regulation of ascorbate accumulation during radish fleshy taproot development.

  3. Adaptive differentiation of quantitative traits in the globally distributed weed, wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Heather F; Conner, Jeffrey K; Shaw, Frank H; Howe, Stephen; Lale, Allison

    2008-10-01

    Weedy species with wide geographical distributions may face strong selection to adapt to new environments, which can lead to adaptive genetic differentiation among populations. However, genetic drift, particularly due to founder effects, will also commonly result in differentiation in colonizing species. To test whether selection has contributed to trait divergence, we compared differentiation at eight microsatellite loci (measured as F(ST)) to differentiation of quantitative floral and phenological traits (measured as Q(ST)) of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum) across populations from three continents. We sampled eight populations: seven naturalized populations and one from its native range. By comparing estimates of Q(ST) and F(ST), we found that petal size was the only floral trait that may have diverged more than expected due to drift alone, but inflorescence height, flowering time, and rosette formation have greatly diverged between the native and nonnative populations. Our results suggest the loss of a rosette and the evolution of early flowering time may have been the key adaptations enabling wild radish to become a major agricultural weed. Floral adaptation to different pollinators does not seem to have been as necessary for the success of wild radish in new environments.

  4. Analysis of differential gene expression during floral bud abortion in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Sun, X L; Zhang, L G; Hui, M X; Zhang, M K

    2013-07-24

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA occurs frequently, its mechanism remains unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying FBA, we detected gene expression differences between aborted and normal buds of radish using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). A total of 221 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were detected by 256 cDNA-AFLP primer combinations, of which 114 were upregulated and 107 were downregulated in the aborted buds. A total of 54 TDFs were cloned and sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that all TDFs have homologous sequences and 29 of these corresponded to known genes, whose functions were mainly related to metabolism, stimulus response, transcriptional regulation, and transportation. Expressions of 6 TDFs with different functions were further analyzed by real-time PCR yielding expression profiling results consistent with the cDNA-AFLP analysis. Our results indicated that radish FBA is related to abnormalities in various physiological and biochemical plant processes.

  5. Analysis on the genetic properties of Guizhou black horse-like goats with intersex, hornlessness, submaxillary beard and neck wattle%贵州黑马羊间性、无角、颌下髯及颈部肉垂遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德荣; 范俊杰; 张琼娣; 周大荣; 杨思维; 彭华; 吴萍; 吴蕊汝

    2013-01-01

    通过实际观察、杂交试验、考察育种记录、遗传分析和适合性检验,对贵州黑马羊间性、无角、颌下髯以及颈部肉垂特征遗传规律进行了研究,同时分析和探讨了黑马羊相关遗传特征表现的基因表达方式和遗传关系.结果表明:①“无角×无角”繁殖的F1代无角羊占72.41%,有角羊占24.14%,无角间性羊占3.45%;②“有角×有角”繁殖的F1代有角羊为100%.③“有角×无角”、“无角×有角”的正反交试验,F1代无角羊占52.20%、有角羊占47.80%.④对166只19个群体的黑马羊统计,颌下有髯率为80.72%,颈部有肉垂率为19.28%;无角(P)对有角(p)呈显性,无间性(I)对间性(f)呈显性,颌下有髯对无髯呈显性,颈部有肉垂对无肉垂呈完全显性;有角山羊基因型为ppH,正常无角羊基因型为PPII、PPIi和PpII、PpIi,间性羊基因型为PPii、Ppii,且山羊间性与无角存在连锁关系.%Guizhou black horse-like goats' genetic properties such as intersex,hornlessness,submaxillary beard and neck wattle were researched by observation,cross experiment,breeding,genetic analysis and adaptability test,and the gene expression and genetic relation of some genetic properties were also analyzed and discussed.The results showed that 1)in the F1 of mating hornless goats with hornless goats,the hornless,horned,and hornless intersexual goats were 72.41%,24.14% and 3.45 % respectively;2) All the F1 of mating between horned goats were horned; 3)In the horned ‘hornless' and ‘hornless horned' reciprocal cross experiments,F1 hornlesss and horned goats were 52.20% and 47.80% respectively;4)In the 166 black horse-like goats of 16 populations,the goats with submaxillary beard was 80.72% and those with neck wattle were 19.28% ;The hornless(P)was dominant to the horned(p) ;The non-intersex(I) was dominant to the intersex(i) ;The submaxillary beard was dominant to the beardless;The neck wattle was

  6. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  7. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  8. Combination treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Nei, D; Enomoto, K; Todoriki, S; Kawamoto, S

    2009-03-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of prolonged dry-heat treatment (50 degrees C) alone or in combination with chemical treatments (1% oxalic acid, 0.03% phytic acid, 50% ethanol, electrolyzed acidic water, and electrolyzed alkaline water) in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, broccoli, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. Dry-heat treatment for 17 or 24 h alone could reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers to below detectable levels in radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, but was unable to reduce the pathogen numbers to below the detectable level in mung bean seeds. In addition, dry-heat treatment for 17 h plus sanitizer treatments were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish, broccoli, and alfalfa seeds, without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not eliminate the pathogen from radish and alfalfa seeds. Seventeen hours of dry heat followed by a 1.0-kGy dose of irradiation completely eliminated E. coli O157:H7 from radish and mung bean seeds, whereas only a minimum radiation dose of 0.25 kGy was required to completely eliminate the pathogen from broccoli and alfalfa seeds. Dry heat in combination with radiation doses of up to 1.0 kGy did not negatively impact the seed germination rate or length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish seeds or the length of alfalfa, broccoli, and radish sprouts, but did decrease the length of mung bean sprouts.

  9. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). It was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.

  10. Osteomyelitis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Laurie R

    2006-08-01

    Much has been learned in the past decade about osteomyelitis. The inhibitory mechanisms of the "biofilm slime" layer that is formed by bacterial extracapsular exopolysaccharides and binds to bone, joints, and implants are now better understood than in the past. The surface colonization of bacteria that occurs within these biofilms is a biologic phenomenon that is somewhat unique to orthopedic infections. This survival strategy of bacteria is effective, and it is important for veterinarians who treat osteomyelitis to be aware of current diagnostic and therapeutic treatment modalities. The practitioner should be aware of the most common bacteria associated with osteomyelitis and the traditional treatments that are still used. Current therapeutic treatment modalities, such as antibiotic- impregnated polymethylmethacrylate, antibiotic-impregnated plaster of Paris, and regional perfusion, have become routine, however, and have been responsible for improving the prevention and outcome of osteomyelitis in the horse. It is the intent of this article to make equine veterinarians aware of current information as well as the future treatments of osteomyelitis.

  11. Wound care in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caston, Stephanie S

    2012-04-01

    Care of equine wounds in the field can be a challenging endeavor. Many times, wound care is complicated by chronicity or by prior inappropriate care in addition to the great degree of tissue trauma that occurred when the horse was wounded. Recognizing involvement of synovial structures, loss of skin, and damage to bone are critical in the initial examination of wounds and will guide future care. Education of clients is also important in that preparing them for possible outcomes during healing may help improve compliance and proper treatment of wound. Owners and trainers often perform much of the daily care and monitoring of equine wounds and thus can greatly assist or impede the progress. Bandaging is important to management of equine wounds-especially on the limbs-and is sometimes overlooked because of its labor-intensive nature and the desire for a spray, ointment, or salve that will heal the wound. The practitioner that improves and utilizes his or her understanding of the wound-healing process in concert with his or her knowledge of local anatomy will be the one who is best equipped to care for wounds in ambulatory practice.

  12. Influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates on radish yield, nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin LIAO; Xiangmin RONG; Shengxian ZHENG; Qiang LIU; Meirong FAN; Jianwei PENG; Guixian XIE

    2009-01-01

    Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) were grown in plastic pots in a screenhouse to investigate the influences of nitrogen fertilizer application rates (NFAR) on yield, nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity (NR), nutrition quality, and nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE) at commercial mature stage. Five N-rate treatments, 0.644, 0.819, 0.995, 1.170, and 1.346 g·por-1, were set up in the screenhouse pot experiments, and nitrogen fertilizer (unlabeled N and l5N-labeled fertilizer) was applied as basal dressing and topdressing, respectively. The results indicated that the fresh and dry weight yields of radish increased with the increase of NFAR at the range of 0.099 to 0.180g N-kg-1 soil, decreased at 0.207 g N-kg-1 soil, and accordingly there was a significant quadratic relationship between the fresh and dry weight yields of radish and the NFAR. At the high addition of urea-N fertilizer, the nitrate content accumulated in the fleshy roots and leaves due to the decline in NR activity. From 0.644 to 0.819 g N-por1 NR increased most rapidly, the highest NR activity occurred at 0.819 g N-por-1, and the lowest NR activity happened at 1.346 g N-por-1. Soluble sugar and ascorbic acid initially increased to the highest value and then decreased, and, contrarily, crude fiber rapidly decreased with the increase of NFAR. Total N uptake (TNU), N derived from fertilizer (Ndff), and N derived from soil (Ndfs) in radish increased, except that Ndfs relatively and slightly decreased at the rate of 0.207 g N-kg'soil. The ratio of Ndff to TNU increased, but the ratio of Ndfs to TNU as well as NRE of N fertilizer decreased with the increase of NFAR. Therefore, the appropriate NFAR should be preferably recommended for improving the yields and nutrition qualities of radish and NRE of N fertilizer.

  13. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis.

  14. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  15. Transient Fanconi syndrome in Quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmes, Cameon M; Davis, Elizabeth G; Beard, Laurie A; Vander Werf, Karie A; Bianco, Alex W; Giger, Urs

    2014-02-01

    Two Quarter horses with weight loss had glucosuria, euglycemia, and a mild metabolic acidosis suggesting a proximal renal tubular defect. Further testing revealed transient generalized aminoaciduria, lactic aciduria, and glucosuria, indicating Fanconi syndrome. Both horses recovered with supportive therapy. This is the first report of acquired Fanconi syndrome in horses.

  16. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the

  17. The biomechanical interaction between horse and rider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cocq, de P.

    2012-01-01

    The forces exerted by a rider on a horse have a direct influence on the mechanical load experienced by the horse and consequently on its motion pattern. The aim of this thesis is to explore the biomechanical interaction between rider, saddle and horse in order to get insight in the loading of the ho

  18. Biology and interactions of two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and betasatellites associated with radish leaf curl disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh AK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging whitefly transmitted begomoviruses are major pathogens of vegetable and fibre crops throughout the world, particularly in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mutation, pseudorecombination and recombination are driving forces for the emergence and evolution of new crop-infecting begomoviruses. Leaf curl disease of field grown radish plants was noticed in Varanasi and Pataudi region of northern India. We have identified and characterized two distinct monopartite begomoviruses and associated beta satellite DNA causing leaf curl disease of radish (Raphanus sativus in India. Results We demonstrate that RaLCD is caused by a complex of two Old World begomoviruses and their associated betasatellites. Radish leaf curl virus-Varanasi is identified as a new recombinant species, Radish leaf curl virus (RaLCV sharing maximum nucleotide identity of 87.7% with Tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus-[Bangladesh:2] (Accession number AF188481 while the virus causing radish leaf curl disease-Pataudi is an isolate of Croton yellow vein mosaic virus-[India] (CYVMV-IN (Accession number AJ507777 sharing 95.8% nucleotide identity. Further, RDP analysis revealed that the RaLCV has a hybrid genome, a putative recombinant between Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Papaya leaf curl virus. Cloned DNA of either RaLCV or CYVMV induced mild leaf curl symptoms in radish plants. However, when these clones (RaLCV or CYVMV were individually co-inoculated with their associated cloned DNA betasatellite, symptom severity and viral DNA levels were increased in radish plants and induced typical RaLCD symptoms. To further extend these studies, we carried out an investigation of the interaction of these radish-infecting begomoviruses and their associated satellite, with two tomato infecting begomoviruses (Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus and Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus. Both of the tomato-infecting begomoviruses showed a contrasting and differential interaction with

  19. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

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    Everlyne M'mbone Muleke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3′H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM. Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS, and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3′H1. Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through

  20. Comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of differentially expressed genes involved in microsporogenesis of radish CMS line and its maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Muleke, Everlyne M; Liu, Liwang

    2016-09-01

    Microsporogenesis is an indispensable period for investigating microspore development and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) occurrence. Radish CMS line plays a critical role in elite F1 hybrid seed production and heterosis utilization. However, the molecular mechanisms of microspore development and CMS occurrence have not been thoroughly uncovered in radish. In this study, a comparative analysis of radish floral buds from a CMS line (NAU-WA) and its maintainer (NAU-WB) was conducted using next generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Digital gene expression (DGE) profiling revealed that 3504 genes were significantly differentially expressed between NAU-WA and NAU-WB library, among which 1910 were upregulated and 1594 were downregulated. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly enriched in extracellular region, catalytic activity, and response to stimulus. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs were predominantly associated with flavonoid biosynthesis, glycolysis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression profiles of 13 randomly selected DEGs were in high agreement with results from Illumina sequencing. Several candidate genes encoding ATP synthase, auxin response factor (ARF), transcription factors (TFs), chalcone synthase (CHS), and male sterility (MS) were responsible for microsporogenesis. Furthermore, a schematic diagram for functional interaction of DEGs from NAU-WA vs. NAU-WB library in radish plants was proposed. These results could provide new information on the dissection of the molecular mechanisms underlying microspore development and CMS occurrence in radish.

  1. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  2. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

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    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  3. Increased plasma fructosamine concentrations in laminitic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Withers, J M; Mair, T S

    2012-03-01

    The use of plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) as a marker of abnormal glucose homeostasis in laminitic horses has not been investigated. Plasma fructosamine concentration may be higher amongst laminitic horses than normal horses; this might relate to underlying insulin resistance. 1) To compare [fructosamine] between laminitic and normal horses. 2) To investigate associations between [fructosamine] at presentation in laminitic horses with a) single sample markers of insulin resistance and b) outcome. Plasma fructosamine concentration, fasting serum insulin concentration (insulin) and fasting plasma glucose concentration (glucose) were measured in 30 horses that presented with laminitis. Clinical details and follow-up data were recorded. Plasma fructosamine concentration was also measured in 19 nonlaminitic control horses. Laminitic horses had significantly higher mean [fructosamine] than normal horses (P<0.001). Thirteen of 30 laminitic horses had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, 2/30 had fasting hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant univariable correlations were identified between [fructosamine] and [glucose], [insulin] and the proxies RISQI and MIRG. Trends for association between [fructosamine] and negative outcome did not reach statistical significance. Increased mean [fructosamine] in laminitic horses may represent abnormal glycaemic control and [fructosamine] may become a clinically useful marker. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Kleingrass-associated hepatotoxicosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, J L; Carter, G K; Bridges, C H

    1988-10-15

    Chronic hepatic disease was diagnosed in 6 horses with history of anorexia and weight loss. These horses consistently had abnormally high serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities, total and direct bilirubin and blood ammonia values, and sulfobromophthalein clearance times, whereas serum iditol dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were variable. In the 6 horses, histologic examination of the liver revealed lesions of chronic hepatitis with varying degrees of fibrosis. All 6 horses had ingested kleingrass (Panicum coloratum) for variable periods. Three healthy horses fed kleingrass hay for 90 days developed hepatic lesions and increases in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase activities similar to those in the 6 horses with chronic hepatitis. Characteristic hepatic lesions in both groups of horses included bridging hepatic fibrosis, cholangitis, and hepatocellular regeneration.

  5. Septic arthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in 12 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnas, C M; Welch, R D; Ford, T S; Vacek, J R; Watkins, J P

    1992-01-01

    The medical records of 12 horses with septic arthritis of a distal interphalangeal joint were reviewed to determine clinical features and response to treatment. Sepsis was caused by trauma or an injection that resulted in an open or contaminated distal interphalangeal joint. All horses were severely lame. Treatment included broad-spectrum parenterally administered antimicrobial drugs (ten horses), percutaneous through-and-through joint lavage (eight horses), indwelling drains (three horses), immobilization of the limb in a cast (three horses), intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate (one horse), intraarticular injection of antimicrobial drugs (five horses), curettage of the distal phalanx (one horse), and cancellous bone grafting to promote fusion (one horse). Five horses were euthanatized. Ankylosis of the affected joint developed in five horses, four of which are pasture sound. Two horses treated medically are sound although one underwent subsequent palmar digital neurectomy for treatment of navicular syndrome.

  6. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Cl...

  7. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  8. Visual Disability and Horse Riding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Diana

    2005-01-01

    It is now commonplace for horse riding to be included in the extra-curricular activities of students with physical disabilities. In this article an account is given of how visually impaired people can derive physical, mental, and emotional benefits from this supervised activity. It is argued that the rider, in learning to exercise self-control and…

  9. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  10. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

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    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus L on albino rats

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    Mohammed Habibuddin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigated hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of extracted anthocyanins fraction of red radish for the first time. Methods: Anthocyanins fraction of red radish (Raphanus sativus; AFRS was selectively extracted by employment of polymeric ion-exchange resin. AFRS was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The animals were divided into seven groups of six animals each. Group I (control received vehicle. Group II (drug control received AFRS. Group III (toxicant received CCl4. Group IV, V and VI received AFRS at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg po, respectively. Group VII (standard received silymarin. Various biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin (TB and direct bilirubin (DB levels in serum as well as the glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in the liver were determined. Histopathological changes in the liver were also studied. The activity of AFRS was compared with the reference drug silymarin. Results: The yield of AFRS was found to be 0.084% (w/w. AFRS treated group did not show any significant change in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, DB, MDA and GSH level compared to control group. CCl4 significantly raised the serum level of all biochemical parameters (except GSH in the toxicant group. The pre-treatment of AFRS for seven days had reversed the alteration of biochemical parameters towards normal, and the effects were comparable to standard drug (silymarin 100 mg/kg. The animals received pre-treatment of AFRS showed amelioration in necrotic zones and hepatocellular degeneration. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of anthocyanins fraction isolated from Raphanus sativus and thus scientifically supports the usage of it as food colorant and also justifies the use of the crude extracts

  12. The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

  13. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Chemical and irradiation treatments for killing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Nazuka, E; Sabina, Y; Todoriki, S; Isshiki, K

    2003-05-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of dry-heat treatment in combination with chemical treatments (electrolyzed oxidizing [EO] water, califresh-S, 200 ppm of active chlorinated water) with and without sonication in eliminating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds was compared with that of dry-heat treatment in combination with irradiation treatment. The treatment of mung bean seeds with EO water in combination with sonication followed by a rinse with sterile distilled water resulted in reductions of approximately 4.0 log10 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 per g. whereas reductions of ca. 1.52 and 2.64 log10 CFU/g were obtained for radish and alfalfa seeds. The maximum reduction (3.70 log10 CFU/g) for mung bean seeds was achieved by treatment with califresh-S and chlorinated water (200 ppm) in combination with sonication and a rinse. The combination of dry heat, hot EO water treatment, and sonication was able to eliminate pathogen populations on mung bean seeds but was unable to eliminate the pathogen on radish and alfalfa seeds. Other chemical treatments used were effective in greatly reducing pathogen populations on radish and alfalfa seeds without compromising the quality of the sprouts, but these treatments did not result in the elimination of pathogens from radish and alfalfa seeds. Moreover, a combination of dry-heat and irradiation treatments was effective in eliminating E. coli O157:H7 on laboratory-inoculated alfalfa, radish, and mung bean seeds. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy in combination with dry heat eliminated E. coli O157:H7 completely from alfalfa and mung bean seeds, whereas a 2.5-kGy dose of irradiation was required to eliminate the pathogen completely from radish seeds. Dry heat in combination with irradiation doses of up to 2.0 kGy did not unacceptably decrease the germination percentage for alfalfa seeds or the length of alfalfa sprouts but did decrease the lengths of radish and mung bean sprouts.

  15. Influence of Horse and Rider on Stress during Horse-riding Lesson Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ok-Deuk; Yun, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to confirm the influence of a horse-riding lesson program (HRLP) on the stress level of horses and riders by respectively analyzing their salivary cortisol concentration. Twenty-four healthy horses and 23 riders participated in this study. The horses were randomly classified into two groups for the horse riding lesson program: Class 1 (for the beginner lesson) and Class 2 (for the intermediate lesson). The Class 1 group consisted of 12 horses and 12 riders, while the Class 2 group consisted of 12 horses and 11 riders. Salivettes cotton wool swabs were used for saliva collection and the saliva analyses were conducted using a two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with SAS version 8. As for the results, the average salivary cortisol concentration of all horses before HRLP significantly increased compared to the baseline (priders were similar to the horses' results. However, there was no difference during the HRLP between Class 1 and Class 2 in the horse or rider groups. The results suggest that the HRLP did not influence the stress level of the horses or riders. Thus, this study provides the necessary information and guidelines for future studies on stress in horses during riding and gives insight into better horse welfare and management options.

  16. Functional and Integrative Analysis of the Proteomic Profile of Radish Root under Pb Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Tang, Mingjia; Jiang, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ronghua; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most abundant heavy metal (HM) pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots respectively upon Pb(NO3)2 at 500 mg L−1(Pb500) and 1000 mg L−1(Pb1000), were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification). A total of 3898 protein species were successfully detected and 2141 were quantified. Among them, a subset of 721 protein species were differentially accumulated upon at least one Pb treatment, and 135 ones showed significantly abundance changes under both two Pb-stressed conditions. Many critical protein species related to protein translation, processing, and degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, photosynthesis, and respiration and carbon metabolism were successfully identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of the 135 differential abundance protein species (DAPS) revealed that the overrepresented GO terms included “cell wall,” “apoplast,” “response to metal ion,” “vacuole,” and “peroxidase activity,” and the critical enriched pathways were involved in “citric acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory electron transport,” “pyruvate metabolism,” “phenylalanine metabolism,” “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis,” and “carbon metabolism.” Furthermore, the integrative analysis of transcriptomic, miRNA, degradome, metabolomics and proteomic data provided a strengthened understanding of radish response to Pb stress at multiple levels. Under Pb stress, many key enzymes (i.e., ATP citrate lyase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and malate dehydrogenase) involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle were severely affected, which ultimately cause alteration of some

  17. Uptake of the veterinary antibiotics chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and sulphathiazole from soil by radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Han Sol; Kabir, Md Humayun; Kim, Sung Woo; Park, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jang-Eok; Hacımüftüoğlu, Fazil; Nahar, Nilufar; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2017-12-15

    Veterinary antibiotics are available for uptake by the plants through sources such as manure, irrigation, and atmospheric interaction. The present study was conducted to estimate the half-lives of three veterinary antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC), enrofloxacin (ENR), and sulphathiazole (STZ), in soil and experimentally explore their uptake from contaminated soil to radish roots and leaves. Samples were extracted using a modified citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" method followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric analysis (LC-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode. Good linearity was observed for the three tested antibiotics in soil and plants (roots and leaves) with high coefficients of determination (R(2)≥0.9922). The average recovery rates at two spiking levels with three replicates per level ranged between 77.1 and 114.8%, with a relative standard deviation (RSD)≤19.9% for all tested drugs. In a batch incubation experiment (in vitro study), the half-lives of CTC, ENR, and STZ ranged from 2.0-6.1, 2.2-4.5, and 1.1-2.2days, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, the half-lives of the three target antibiotics in soil with and without radishes were 2.5-6.9 and 2.7-7.4; 4.7-16.7 and 10.3-14.6; and 4.4-4.9 and 2.5-2.8days, respectively. Trace amounts of the target antibiotics (CTC, ENR, and STZ) were taken up from soil via roots and entered the leaves of radishes. The concentration of CTC was lower than 2.73%, ENR was 0.08-3.90%, and <1.64% STZ was uptaken. In conclusion, the concentrations of the tested antibiotics decreased with time and consequently lower residues were observed in the radishes. The rapid degradation of the tested antibiotics in the present study might have only little impact on soil microorganisms, fauna, and plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolic Profiling and Antioxidant Assay of Metabolites from Three Radish Cultivars (Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ha Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 13 anthocyanins and 33 metabolites; including organic acids, phenolic acids, amino acids, organic compounds, sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and sugars, were profiled in three radish cultivars by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling. Total phenolics and flavonoids and their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed. Pelargonidins were found to be the major anthocyanin in the cultivars studied. The cultivar Man Tang Hong showed the highest level of anthocyanins (1.89 ± 0.07 mg/g, phenolics (0.0664 ± 0.0033 mg/g and flavonoids (0.0096 ± 0.0004 mg/g. Here; the variation of secondary metabolites in the radishes is described, as well as their association with primary metabolites. The low-molecular-weight hydrophilic metabolite profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA, Pearson’s correlation analysis. PCA fully distinguished the three radish cultivars tested. The polar metabolites were strongly correlated between metabolites that participate in the TCA cycle. The chemometrics results revealed that TCA cycle intermediates and free phenolic acids as well as anthocyanins were higher in the cultivar Man Tang Hong than in the others. Furthermore; superoxide radical scavenging activities and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging were investigated to elucidate the antioxidant activity of secondary metabolites in the cultivars. Man Tang Hong showed the highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (68.87% at 1000 μg/mL, and DPPH activity (20.78%, followed by Seo Ho and then Hong Feng No. 1. The results demonstrate that GC-TOFMS-based metabolite profiling, integrated with chemometrics, is an applicable method for distinguishing phenotypic variation and determining biochemical reactions connecting primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore; this study might

  19. Functional and integrative analysis of the proteomic profile of radish root under Pb exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is one of the most abundant heavy metal pollutants, which can penetrate the plant through the root and then enter the food chain causing in potential health risks for human beings. Radish is an important root vegetable crop worldwide. To investigate the mechanism underlying plant response to Pb stress in radish, the protein profile changes of radish roots were comprehensively analyzed using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification respectively upon Pb(NO32 at 500 mg L-1(Pb500 and Pb(NO32 at 1000 mg L-1(Pb1000 exposure. A total of 3, 898 protein species were successfully detected and 2,141 were quantified. Among them, a subset of 721 protein species were differentially accumulated upon at least one Pb treatment, and 135 ones showed significantly abundance changes during both two Pb-stressed conditions. Many critical protein species related to protein translation, processing, and degradation, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging, photosynthesis and respiration and carbon metabolism were successfully identified. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the 135 differential abundance protein species revealed that the overrepresented GO terms were include in ‘cell wall’, ‘apoplast’, ‘response to metal ion’, ‘vacuole’ and ‘peroxidase activity’, and the critical enriched pathways were involved in ‘citric acid (TCA cycle and respiratory electron transport’, ‘pyruvate metabolism’, ‘phenylalanine metabolism’, ‘phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’ and ‘carbon metabolism’. Furthermore, the integrative analysis of transcriptomic, miRNA, degradome, metabolomic and proteomic data provided a strengthened understanding of radish response to Pb stress at multiple levels. Under Pb stress, many key enzymes (i.e. ATP citrate lyase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and malate dehydrogenase involved in the glycolysis and TCA cycle were severely affected, which ultimately cause

  20. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of fibre in Icelandic and Danish Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2010-01-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats...

  1. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  2. Starry sky hepatic ultrasonographic pattern in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Corapi, Wayne V; Snowden, Karen F; Schmitz, David G

    2011-01-01

    The starry sky hepatic pattern is an unusual ultrasonographic appearance of equine liver characterized by numerous small, hyperechoic foci, some of which cast an acoustic shadow, distributed randomly throughout the hepatic parenchyma. Our objectives were to describe the signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, primary disease process, and ultrasonographic findings of horses with this ultrasonographic pattern, as well as determine the associated gross and histologic changes. The starry sky pattern was identified in 18 adult horses of mixed gender and breed. The horses had various clinical signs, with weight loss and anorexia reported most commonly. Liver size and parenchymal echogenicity were normal in most horses. The hyperechoic foci frequently caused acoustic shadowing. Biliary dilation was noted rarely. The ultrasonographic pattern was the result of numerous fibrosing hepatic granulomas in all horses evaluated histologically. γ-Glutamyltransferase was the most commonly elevated hepatic enzyme, though it was increased in fewer than half the horses. Fifteen horses had an additional disease that was identified as the apparent cause of clinical signs. Three horses had primary hepatic disease while 12 had diseases of other body systems. Therefore, the starry sky ultrasonographic pattern is likely incidental in most horses and not clinically significant. Improved recognition of this pattern and further investigation of affected horses may help refine the etiology and clinical significance of the granulomas.

  3. Protection of horse ears against Simulid parasitism: Efficacy of a mammal semiochemical solution over 10hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creton, Benjamin; Pageat, Patrick; Robejean, Myriam; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2016-08-30

    Hematophagous insects can be vectors of pathogens and cause significant economic loss in zootechnical production. Among biting insects, many dipteran species feed on horse blood. The black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) group, is responsible for several disorders in horses and inflicts painful bites that lead to undesirable behaviours in horses, particularly when bites occur in sensitive areas such as the inner ear. A field study was conducted in a French equestrian center during which a semiochemical was applied on horses' ears to assess repellent efficacy against simulid infestation. During the first phase of the study, efficacy was evaluated over a one hour period. Then, during the second phase of the study, persistency of the effect was tested at 8, 9 and 10h after application. The results of the study's first phase showed 90% efficacy over one hour, with 121.5 insects found in control ears and 12 insects in treated ears (p=0.001). In the second phase of the study, a total amount of 411 insects were observed on control ears whereas only 2 insects were observed on treated ears (p<0.0001); the treatment remained over 98% effective up to 10hours after application. When using a slow release excipient, this semiochemical may offer at least 10h of protection against simulids. This safe, efficient, and long lasting protection could help horses and their owners to manage simulid parasitism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  5. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... penalties for infractions of the Horse Protection Act; Enhancing the reputation and integrity of the walking... regional economies; and Improving the value of the walking horse breeds. Under these circumstances, the...

  6. Genetic predictions of racing performance in quarter horses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willham, R. L; Wilson, D. E

    1991-01-01

    .... Research on the racing performance of quarter horses has been used to develop genetic prediction summaries on all horses with at least one start on record at the American Quarter Horse Association...

  7. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  8. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  9. A CRITICAL SITUATION WITH POSAVIAN HORSE IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sukalić, Miroslav; Gegec, Ivo; Stanković, B.; Ljubešić, Josip

    1994-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia there is a need for making an attempt to save Posavian horse. Croatian coldblooded horse is not endangered breed, as it is noticed in World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity (p.243). The Posavian horse in croatian scientific literature is described as an autochton breed from the Sava river valley. Its origin begins with crossings of autochton horses with Illyrian, Celtic, Roman, Avarian and other horse still the middle of our century. Posavian horse is a Prze...

  10. Effect of body weight on the pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine in miniature horses and quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C D; Maxwell, L K

    2014-02-01

    In most species, large variations in body size necessitate dose adjustments based on an allometric function of body weight. Despite the substantial disparity in body size between miniature horses and light-breed horses, there are no studies investigating appropriate dosing of any veterinary drug in miniature horses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether miniature horses should receive a different dosage of flunixin meglumine than that used typically in light-breed horses. A standard dose of flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously to eight horses of each breed, and three-compartmental analysis was used to compare pharmacokinetic parameters between breed groups. The total body clearance of flunixin was 0.97 ± 0.30 mL/min/kg in miniature horses and 1.04 ± 0.27 mL/min/kg in quarter horses. There were no significant differences between miniature horses and quarter horses in total body clearance, the terminal elimination rate, area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, apparent volume of distribution at steady-state or the volume of the central compartment for flunixin (P > 0.05). Therefore, flunixin meglumine may be administered to miniature horses at the same dosage as is used in light-breed horses.

  11. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  12. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  13. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-10-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  14. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qiuxia; HUANG Qunce; CAO Gangqiang; YING Fangqing; LIU Yanbo; HUANG Wen

    2008-01-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7×1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5×1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  15. Plant productivity and characterization of zeoponic substrates after three successive crops of radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Ming, Doug; Galindo, C., Jr.; Henderson, K. E.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed advanced life support (ALS) systems for long duration space missions that incorporate plants to regenerate the atmosphere (CO2 to O2), recycle water (via evapotranspiration), and produce food. NASA has also developed a zeolite-based synthetic substrate consisting of clinoptilolite and synthetic apatite to support plant growth for ALS systems (Ming et al., 1995). The substrate is called zeoponics and has been designed to slowly release all plant essential elements into "soil" solution. The substrate consists of K- and NH4-exchanged clinoptilolite and a synthetic hydroxyapatite that has Mg, S, and the plant-essential micronutrients incorporated into its structure in addition to Ca and P. Plant performance in zeoponic substrates has been improved by the addition of dolomite pH buffers, nitrifying bacteria, and other calcium-bearing minerals (Henderson et al., 2000; Gruener et al., 2003). Wheat was used as the test crop for all of these studies. The objectives of this study were to expand upon the previous studies to determine the growth and nutrient uptake of radish in zeoponic substrates and to determine the nutrient availability of the zeoponic substrate after three successive radish crops.

  16. Chromium phytotoxicity in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects on metabolism and nutrient uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Rai, U N

    2013-09-01

    In the present investigation, chromium (VI) induced toxicity on metabolic activity and translocations of nutrients in radish were evaluated under controlled glass house conditions. Chromium was found to induce toxicity and significantly affect plant growth and metabolic activity. Excess of chromium (0.4 mM) caused a decrease in the concentration of iron in leaves (from 134.3 to 71.9 μg g(-1) dw) and significant translocation of sulphur, phosphorus and zinc. Translocation of manganese, copper and boron were less affected from root to stem. After 15 days of Cr exposure, maximum accumulation of Cr was found in roots (327.6 μg g(-1) dw) followed by stems (186.8 μg g(-1) dw) and leaves (116.7 μg g(-1) dw) at 0.4 mM Cr concentration. Therefore, Cr may affect negatively not only production, but also the nutritive quality of the radish; likewise, higher Cr content may cause health hazards for humans.

  17. Growth enhancement effects of radish sprouts: atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation vs. heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarinont, T.; Amano, T.; Kitazaki, S.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Shiratani, M.; Hayashi, N.

    2014-06-01

    We compare growth enhancement effects due to atmospheric air dielectric barrier discharge plasma irradiation and heat shock to seeds of radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus L.). Interactions between radicals and seeds in a short duration of 3 min. lead to the growth enhancement of radish sprouts in a long term of 7 days and the maximum average length is 3.7 times as long as that of control. The growth enhancement effects become gradually weak with time, and hence the ratio of the average length for plasma irradiation to that for control decreases from 3.7 for the first day to 1.3 for 7 day. The average length for heat shock of 60°C for 10 min. and 100°C for 3 min. is longer than that for control, and the maximum average length is 1.3 times as long as that of control. Heat shock has little contribution to the growth enhancement due to plasma irradiation, because the maximum temperature due to plasma irradiation is less than 60°C.

  18. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  19. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yu Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (<.05 lower and the growth better in pots applied with ADS (100 and 200 mg NH+4-N kg−1 than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS. ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH+4-N ha−1 in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH+4-N ha−1 soil in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  20. Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Nana; Wu, Qi; Cui, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of nitrogen (N) deficiency and sucrose (Suc) addition on regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis and their relationship were investigated in this study. Radish sprouts subjected to N deficiency had 50% higher anthocyanin accumulation than when grown in Hoagland solution (a nutrient medium with all macronutrients). The contents of endogenous soluble sugars (Suc, fructose, and glucose) in the hypocotyls were also markedly increased by N limitation, with Suc showing the highest increase. Inhibition of carbohydrate biosynthesis by addition of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) also eliminated N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation. The latter was further supported by the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis related genes and decreased activities of nitrate reductase in the presence of Suc. Together our results indicate that N deficiency-induced anthocyanin accumulation was, at least partly, dependent on the increase of the soluble sugar, especially Suc. This work is the first comprehensive study on relationship between N deficiency and sugar content on anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts. PMID:28083009

  1. Study of Biological Effects of Low Energy Ion Implantation on Tomato and Radish Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiuxia; Huang, Qunce; Cao, Gangqiang; Ying, Fangqing; Liu, Yanbo; Huang, Wen

    2008-04-01

    Biological effects of 30 keV low energy nitrogen ion implantation on the seeds of five types of tomato and one type of radish were investigated. Results showed that low energy ions have different effects on different vegetables. The whole dose-response curve of the germination ratio did not take on "the shape of saddle", but was a rising and falling waveform with the increase or decrease in ion implantation. In the vegetable of Solanaceae, two outstanding aberrant plants were selected from M1 of Henan No.4 tomato at a dose of 7 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, which had thin-leaves, long-petal and nipple tip fruit stably inherited to M7. Furthermore the analysis of the isozyme showed that the activity of the mutant tomato seedling was distinct in quantity and color. In Raphanus sativus L., the aberrances were obvious in the mutant of radish 791 at a dose of 5 × 1017 nitrogen ions/cm2, and the weight of succulent root and the volume of growth were over twice the control's. At present, many species for breeding have been identified in the field and only stable species have been selected for the experiment of production. It is evident that the low energy ion implantation technology has clear effects on vegetables' genetic improvement.

  2. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  3. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estonba Andone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds.

  4. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot®

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phenotype for most of the breeds from this region, it is important to have a fast and reliable method to detect alleles causing chestnut coat color in horses. Findings In order to assess coat color genotype in reproductive animals with a view to avoiding those bearing chestnut alleles, we have developed a reliable, fast and cost-effective screening device which involves Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) detection based on SNaPshot® (Applied Biosystems) methodology. We have applied this method to four native breeds from the Iberian Cantabrian Coast: Pottoka and Jaca Navarra pony breeds, in which only black or bay coats are acceptable, and Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia and Burguete heavy breeds, in which chestnut coats are acceptable. The frequency of the chestnut alleles ranged between f = 0.156-0.322 in pony breeds and between f = 0.604-0.716 in heavy breeds. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of the DNA methodology reported herein as a device for identifying chestnut alleles; the methodology constitutes a valuable tool for breeders to decrease the incidence of chestnut animals among Cantabrian Coast pony breeds. PMID:20015355

  5. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  6. Changes in chemical composition related to fungal infection and induced resistance in carnation and radish investigated by pyrolysis mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijl, Harko; Niemann, G.J.; Boon, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens WCR 417r induces systemic resistance in radish roots challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani and, incidentally, in carnation stems challenged by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi. The induced systemic resistance is not associated with accumulation of pathogenesis-rela

  7. De novo sequencing of root transcriptome reveals complex cadmium-responsive regulatory networks in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Xianwen; Zhang, Keyun; Yu, Rugang; Wang, Ronghua; Xie, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential metallic trace element that poses potential chronic toxicity to living organisms. To date, little is known about the Cd-responsive regulatory network in root vegetable crops including radish. In this study, 31,015 unigenes representing 66,552 assembled unique transcripts were isolated from radish root under Cd stress based on de novo transcriptome assembly. In all, 1496 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) consisted of 3579 transcripts were identified from Cd-free (CK) and Cd-treated (Cd200) libraries. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the up- and down-regulated DEGs were predominately involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis as well as cysteine and methionine-related pathways, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that the expression profiles of DEGs were in consistent with results from RNA-Seq analysis. Several candidate genes encoding phytochelatin synthase (PCS), metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH), zinc iron permease (ZIPs) and ABC transporter were responsible for Cd uptake, accumulation, translocation and detoxification in radish. The schematic model of DEGs and microRNAs-involved in Cd-responsive regulatory network was proposed. This study represents a first comprehensive transcriptome-based characterization of Cd-responsive DEGs in radish. These results could provide fundamental insight into complex Cd-responsive regulatory networks and facilitate further genetic manipulation of Cd accumulation in root vegetable crops.

  8. First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

  9. Managing scab diseases of potato and radish caused by Streptomyces spp. using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BAC03 and other biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces spp. cause scab disease in plants like potato and radish. To seek effective control methods of this disease, biologically based materials were examined on their efficacies for disease control. In greenhouse or growth chamber tests, potting soil was infested with Streptomyces scabies (10...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet-Melou, A; Bernard, S; Schneider, M; Toutain, P L

    2002-07-01

    Marbofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic expected to be effective in the treatment of infections involving gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria in horses. In order to design a rational dosage regimen for the substance in horses, the pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin were investigated in 6 horses after i.v., subcutaneous and oral administration of a single dose of 2 mg/kg bwt and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) assessed for bacteria isolated from equine infectious pathologies. The clearance of marbofloxacin was mean +/- s.d. 0.25 +/- 0.05 l/kg/h and the terminal half-life 756 +/- 1.99 h. The marbofloxacin absolute bioavailabilities after subcutaneous and oral administration were 98 +/- 11% and 62 +/- 8%, respectively. The MIC required to inhibit 90% of isolates (MIC90) was 0.027 microg/ml for enterobacteriaceae and 0.21 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus. The values of surrogate markers of antimicrobial efficacy (AUIC, Cmax/MIC ratio, time above MIC90) were calculated and the marbofloxacin concentration profiles simulated for repeated administrations. These data were used to determine rational dosage regimens for target bacteria. Considering the breakpoint values of efficacy indices for fluoroquinolones, a marbofloxacin dosage regimen of 2 mg/kg bwt/24 h by i.v., subcutaneous or oral routes was more appropriate for enterobacteriaceae than for S. aureus.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Mei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs, are

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  13. The Horse in Arabia and the Arabian Horse: Origins, Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Schiettecatte, Jérémie; Zouache, Abbès

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Publishing an issue devoted to the horse in Arabia and in Arabian culture stems from the discovery of equid statues on the Neolithic site of al‑Maqar (Saudi Arabia) in 2010. This discovery was prematurely presented as the earliest testimony of horse breeding and horse riding. It was dated to 7,300–6,700 BC —i.e. 3,500 years before the first evidence of horse domestication known so far. It has stirred up controversy about the ongoing issue of horse domestication, agains...

  14. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits inedible peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS-NL, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in radish; a second application from the company Syngenta AGRO S.A.S to modify the existing MRL for the active substance cyprodinil in cucurbits, inedible peel was submitted to France (EMS-FR. In order to accommodate the intended uses of cyprodinil, EMSs proposed to raise the existing MRLs from the limit of quantification to 0.07 mg/kg for radish and to 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits inedible peel. EMS-NL and EMS-FR drafted two evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals of 0.08 mg/kg for radish and of 0.6 mg/kg for cucurbits, inedible peel. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of cyprodinil in radishes and cucurbits at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of cyprodinil on radish and cucurbits inedible peel under consideration will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  15. Identification of Flowering-Related Genes Responsible for Differences in Bolting Time between Two Radish Inbred Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won Yong; Park, Hyun Ji; Lee, Areum; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Youn-Sung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2016-01-01

    Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L.), an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting) and NH-JS2 (early bolting). In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft) genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs. NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although, the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis. PMID:28018383

  16. Identification of flowering-related genes responsible for differences in bolting time between two radish inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Late bolting after cold exposure is an economically important characteristic of radish (Raphanus sativus L., an important Brassicaceae root vegetable crop. However, little information is available regarding the genes and pathways that govern flowering time in this species. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine the differences in flowering times between two radish lines, NH-JS1 (late bolting and NH-JS2 (early bolting. In total, 71,188 unigenes were identified by reference-guided assembly, of which 309, 788, and 980 genes were differentially expressed between the two inbred lines after 0, 15, and 35 days of vernalization, respectively. Among these genes, 218 homologs of Arabidopsis flowering-time (Ft genes were identified in the radish, and 49 of these genes were differentially expressed between the two radish lines in the presence or absence of vernalization treatment. Most of the Ft genes up-regulated in NH-JS1 vs NH-JS2 were repressors of flowering, such as RsFLC, consistent with the late-bolting phenotype of NH-JS1. Although the functions of genes down-regulated in NH-JS1 were less consistent with late-bolting characteristics than the up-regulated Ft genes, several Ft enhancer genes, including RsSOC1, a key floral integrator, showed an appropriate expression to the late-bolting phenotype. In addition, the patterns of gene expression related to the vernalization pathway closely corresponded with the different bolting times of the two inbred lines. These results suggest that the vernalization pathway is conserved between radish and Arabidopsis.

  17. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Leppälä

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  18. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindgren Gabriella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11. Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype, whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype. It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber

  19. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  20. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken;

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  1. Retrospective analysis of exploratory laparotomies in 192 Andalusian horses and 276 horses of other breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, E; Argüelles, D; Areste, L; Miguel, L San; Prades, M

    2008-03-08

    The medical records of 468 horses that underwent 490 exploratory laparotomies for the correction of gastrointestinal diseases were reviewed to search for differences between Andalusian horses and other breeds. The seasonal distribution of surgical colics and their outcome and complications were also investigated. Bivariant analysis was used to compare the horses' age, gender and breed with the type of surgery, the bowel affected and the type of colic, and all these variables were compared in relation to euthanasia during surgery, complications, short-term survival and seasonal distribution. A total of 405 horses survived the surgery and 329 were discharged from the hospital. Horses less than one year old had better short-term survival than older horses. Andalusian horses suffered more inguinal hernias than the other breeds and were more prone to suffer laminitis as a complication. Colic surgery and inguinal hernias were also more common in the summer.

  2. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Young horse results of conformation and gaits were studied for their heritability and genetic correlation to future dressage competition results, to assess their value as young horse indicator traits. The young horse gait- and conformation scores generally had higher heritabilities (0.......13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  3. A missense mutation in PMEL17 is associated with the Silver coat color in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cothran Gus

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Silver coat color, also called Silver dapple, in the horse is characterized by dilution of the black pigment in the hair. This phenotype shows an autosomal dominant inheritance. The effect of the mutation is most visible in the long hairs of the mane and tail, which are diluted to a mixture of white and gray hairs. Herein we describe the identification of the responsible gene and a missense mutation associated with the Silver phenotype. Results Segregation data on the Silver locus (Z were obtained within one half-sib family that consisted of a heterozygous Silver colored stallion with 34 offspring and their 29 non-Silver dams. We typed 41 genetic markers well spread over the horse genome, including one single microsatellite marker (TKY284 close to the candidate gene PMEL17 on horse chromosome 6 (ECA6q23. Significant linkage was found between the Silver phenotype and TKY284 (θ = 0, z = 9.0. DNA sequencing of PMEL17 in Silver and non-Silver horses revealed a missense mutation in exon 11 changing the second amino acid in the cytoplasmic region from arginine to cysteine (Arg618Cys. This mutation showed complete association with the Silver phenotype across multiple horse breeds, and was not found among non-Silver horses with one clear exception; a chestnut colored individual that had several Silver offspring when mated to different non-Silver stallions also carried the exon 11 mutation. In total, 64 Silver horses from six breeds and 85 non-Silver horses from 14 breeds were tested for the exon 11 mutation. One additional mutation located in intron 9, only 759 bases from the missense mutation, also showed complete association with the Silver phenotype. However, as one could expect to find several non-causative mutations completely associated with the Silver mutation, we argue that the missense mutation is more likely to be causative. Conclusion The present study shows that PMEL17 causes the Silver coat color in the horse and

  4. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF COAT COLOR IN OLD KLADRUBER BLACK HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Hofmanová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  5. The importance of social relationships in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, M.C. van

    2006-01-01

    Feral horses are social animals, which have to rely on survival strategies centered on the formation of cohesive social bonds within their bands. Many problems in the husbandry of social animals such as horses, are due to the fact that the limits of their adaptive abilities are exceeded. Evidence su

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries in nonracing quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mike

    2008-04-01

    Quarter horses used for western performance competitions commonly sustain a variety of musculoskeletal injuries. It is important for the veterinarian to have an understanding of some of the breed characteristics and the nature of the competitions in which individual horses are being used so as to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury as effectively as possible.

  7. Corneal sensitivity in five horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Santos de Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine and compare corneal sensitivity values in different regions of the cornea in five horse breeds. One hundred and forty five healthy horses, adults of both sexes, of the following breeds - Arabian horse (AH; n=20, Mangalarga Marchador (MM; n=50, Pure Blood Lusitano (PBL; n=35, Quarter Horse (QH; n=20, Brazilian Sport Horse (BSH; n=20-were investigated. Corneal touch threshold (CTT was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer in five different corneal regions. Measurements of the median central CTT were: 4.50±0.50cm (AH, 3.50±0.56cm (MM, 3.00±0.25cm (PBL, 2.50±0.44cm (QH and 2.50±0.00cm (BSH. The central region was the most sensitive and the dorsal region the least sensitive corneal region for all breeds. CTT values differed for corneal regions and horse breeds. The CTT values were different among the corneal regions and the horse breeds. Arabian horses presented higher sensitivity values being the most sensitive in all of the corneal regions.

  8. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  9. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  10. International Competition Yeongcheon Horse Park in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grigorieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The international project competition for the design of a Horse Park in Yeongcheon, Korea was organized by the Korean Racing Authority (KRA and approved by the UIA. The jury awarded three prizes and eight honourable mentions for projects that successfully integrated the themes of horses and nature with the local history and culture.

  11. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  12. The Transvaal Horse Artillery History Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Neil D. Open

    2012-01-01

    The Transvaal Horse Artillery History Fund has kindly sent me a copy of R.J. Bouch's review of 'The History of the Transvaal Horse Artillery, 1904-1974', in which the reviewer raises a very interesting point which I think should be clarified.

  13. Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolframm, I.A.; Bosga, J.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The sport of equestrianism is defined through close horse-rider interaction. However, no consistent baseline parameters currently exist describing the coordination dynamics of horse-rider movement across different equine gaits. The study aims to employ accelerometers to investigate and describe

  14. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

      The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male reproduction. The study was performed using existing databases

  15. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  16. Removal of off-flavours from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) anthocyanin-rich pigments using chitosan and its mechanism(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruichang; Jing, Pu; Ruan, Siyu; Zhang, Yifan; Zhao, Shujuan; Cai, Zhan; Qian, Bingjun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we examined the role of chitosan in the removal of off-flavours from radish anthocyanin-rich pigments and studied the mechanisms of the process. Four radish glucosinolates (glucoraphenin, dehydroerucin, glucobrassicin, and glucoerucin) were identified by LC-MSn from root extracts and dehydroerucin was found to be the major glucosinolate in red radish roots. Application of chitosan with 76%, 83% or 89% deacetylation in radish extracts attributed to 26%, 35% or 43% adsorption rate for glucosinolates, and 28%, 26% or 22% for anthocyanins, respectively. HS-SPME/GC-MS analysis demonstrated that the concentration of volatile compounds decreased by 70%, resulting in the loss of odorous compounds. The changes in chitosan spectra before/after adsorption and after desorption at 1590 and 3360cm(-1) and at broad bands from 2600 to 2000cm(-1) suggest that the dominant adsorption mechanisms of glucosinolates on chitosan may be electrostatic attractions, including hydrogen bonds and charge neutralisation.

  17. 27 CFR 9.124 - Wild Horse Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wild Horse Valley. 9.124... Horse Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Wild Horse Valley.” (b) Approved Map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the “Wild Horse...

  18. 9 CFR 93.309 - Horse quarantine facilities; payment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horse quarantine facilities; payment...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.309 Horse quarantine facilities... horses subject to quarantine under the regulations in this part shall arrange for...

  19. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for horses. 93.322 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present...

  20. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be...

  1. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  2. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  3. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other...

  4. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  5. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by...

  6. A review of the human-horse realtionship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  7. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... period. (b) Horses of United States origin that are imported into Canada under an export health... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in...

  8. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect h

  9. A review of the human-horse realtionship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausberger, M.; Roche, H.; Henry, S.; Visser, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a long history of human¿horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers. Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency,

  10. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    control of fertilizer additions led to the maintenance of a relatively low ionic strength in the soil solution, and under such conditions trace metal solubility appeared to be highly influenced by the concentration of DOC. A chemical speciation analysis was performed which showed that, while dissolved Cd......Changes in the properties of soil solution in the rhizosphere of developing radish plants were investigated. Variations in these properties were expected to affect the distribution and speciation of metals in the soil and soil solution. Applications of essential nutrients were linked to plant...... transpiration rates and prevented excess addition of nutrient ions, so that subtle changes in soil solution composition would not be obscured. Soil solution pH, the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the concentrations of major and trace elements in solution were found to vary over time. Strict...

  11. Ecotoxicology evaluation of watery extracts of plants on seeds of radish, lettuce and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edisleidy Águila Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of watery extracts of Nicotiana acuminata, Piper aduncum L. and Crotalaria juncea was evaluated on the germination and the elongación of the roots of seeds of Raphanus sativus (radish, Lactuca sativa L (lettuce and Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato. The extracts were produced at medium scale in the laboratory of formulation of the Faculty of Química- Pharmacy of the “Universidad Central Marta Abreu de las Villas” . It was demonstrated upon concluding the work that the lettuce was the most sensitive species for this type of study. It was concluded that the extracts could be poured to the means to minor concentrations that 0.01% with a margin of security that they are not going to affect the processes of germination and elongacion of the roots. It was determined that one could use the alone rehearsal using the seeds of lettuce like species of rehearsal.

  12. Effects of selenium accumulation on phytotoxicity, herbivory, and pollination ecology in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Tran, Khoa D; Trumble, John T

    2013-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has contaminated areas in the western USA where pollination is critical to the functioning of both agricultural and natural ecosystems, yet we know little about how Se can impact pollinators. In a two-year semi-field study, the weedy plant Raphanus sativus (radish) was exposed to three selenate treatments and two pollination treatments to evaluate the effects on pollinator-plant interactions. Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pollinators were observed to readily forage on R. sativus for both pollen and nectar despite high floral Se concentrations. Se treatment increased both seed abortion (14%) and decreased plant biomass (8-9%). Herbivory by birds and aphids was reduced on Se-treated plants, indicating a potential reproductive advantage for the plant. Our study sheds light on how pollutants such as Se can impact the pollination ecology of a plant that accumulates even moderate amounts of Se.

  13. Induction of primary root curvature in radish seedlings in a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, A; Hidaka, E; Fujiwara, K; Iimoto, M

    2001-04-01

    Primary roots of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to an inhomogeneous static magnetic field generated by a permanent magnet, during continuous rotation on a 0.06 rpm clinostat, thereby reducing the unilateral influence of gravity. The roots responded tropically to the static magnetic field with the tropism appearing to be negative. These roots responded significantly (P magnet. The significant tropic response was found for a magnetic flux density of 13-68 mT, for a field gradient of 1.8-14.7 T/m, and for the product of magnetic field and field gradient of 0.023-1.0 T(2)/m. A small, but insignificant, response of the roots to the north pole has also been found. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Changes in Trace Metal Species and Other Components of the Rhizosphere During Growth of Radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamon, R. E.; Lorenz, S. E.; Holm, Peter Engelund

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the properties of soil solution in the rhizosphere of developing radish plants were investigated. Variations in these properties were expected to affect the distribution and speciation of metals in the soil and soil solution. Applications of essential nutrients were linked to plant...... control of fertilizer additions led to the maintenance of a relatively low ionic strength in the soil solution, and under such conditions trace metal solubility appeared to be highly influenced by the concentration of DOC. A chemical speciation analysis was performed which showed that, while dissolved Cd...... existing in the uncomplexed state. Changes in the concentrations of uncomplexed Cd and Zn with time gave the best correlations with changes in plant uptake of these metals over time, supporting the hypothesis that plants mainly absorb the free metal ion from soil solution....

  15. Study on Generation-adding Technology for Duanye No.13 Radish%短叶13号萝卜加代技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆海波; 李世升; 李德超; 贺从安

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, we treated radish dry seeds, germinated seeds and seedlings in low temperature respectively, in order to screen out suitable generation-adding material for Duanye No.13 radish and find out faster, more convenient generation-adding method for radish. The results showed that, compared with the other two materials, dry radish seeds could not flower after the cold temperature treatment. After being treated in low temperature, germinated radish seeds had higher flowering ratio and it was easier and more simple to take germinated seeds as generation-adding materials for radish. As a result, taking germinated seeds as generation-adding materials for radish could shorten the breeding process and improve the breeding efficiency of radish.%通过低温处理萝卜干种子、萌动种子及幼苗,以期从中筛选出更适合短叶13号萝卜加代研究的材料,寻找更快、更方便的萝卜加代方法。试验结果表明,相比其他两类材料,萝卜干种子不易完成春化而开花;而在萝卜萌动种子及萝卜幼苗两类材料中,前者加代操作相对简便且低温处理定植后开花比例较高。因此,将萌动种子作为萝卜加代材料可缩短育种进程、提高育种效率。

  16. Use of swine wastewater in oilseed radish crop: agronomic and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Pegoraro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent has been applied to soils to promote nutrient cycling and reduce the uncontrolled disposal of effluents into bodies of water. However, the use of these effluents on various crops has raised environmental and public health concerns. Oilseed radish crop (Raphanus sativus L. is a winter crop planted in no-tillage systems as a green fertilizer that also can be used for biodiesel, and it requires high levels of nutrients for its development. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the environmental and agronomic effects of the application of swine wastewater on oilseed radish. The experiment was conducted in a 0.162 ha area with the following treatments: unirrigated (rainfed, irrigated, and fertilized with swine wastewater (370 m3 ha-1 cycle-1. After each rainfall event, analyses were conducted for the main macro and micronutrients in the runoff and percolated material from drainage lysimeters. Changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil were also analyzed, as were the agronomic and nutritional indices of the dry crop phytomass in full blooming stage. Application of swine wastewater at a level of 370 m3 ha-1 produces a crop with better agronomic quality. Over the long term, however, caution should be taken regarding the surface runoff of NO3-, P, K, Mn and total salts and the percolation of NO3-, Na and Cu. Moreover, the rainfall occurred one day after fertigation contributed to the increase of the levels of P, K, Na, Cu, Zn and Mn in the percolated material.

  17. Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Radish Sprouts: Root Growth Reduction and Modifications in the Nutritional Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuverza-Mena, Nubia; Armendariz, Raul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2016-01-01

    Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg) are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus) sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for 5 days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight) was reduced by 1.62, 1.65, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250, and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7 and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901 ± 150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000-2800 cm(-1)), proteins (1550-1530 cm(-1)), and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin, and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  18. Effects of silver nanoparticles on radish sprouts: Root growth reduction and modifications in the nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia eZuverza-Mena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reports indicate that silver nanoparticles (nAg are toxic to vegetation, but little is known about their effects in crop plants. This study examines the impacts of nAg on the physiology and nutritional quality of radish (Raphanus sativus sprouts. Seeds were germinated and grown for five days in nAg suspensions at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg/L. Seed germination and seedling growth were evaluated with traditional methodologies; the uptake of Ag and nutrients was quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES and changes in macromolecules were analyzed by infrared (IR spectroscopy. None of the nAg concentrations reduced seed germination. However, the water content (% of the total weight was reduced by 1.62%, 1.65%, and 2.54% with exposure to 125, 250 and 500 mg/L, respectively, compared with the control. At 500 mg/L, the root and shoot lengths were reduced by 47.7% and 40%, with respect to the control. The seedlings exposed to 500 mg/L had 901±150 mg Ag/kg dry wt and significantly less Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn, compared with the control. The infrared spectroscopy analysis showed changes in the bands corresponding to lipids (3000 – 2800 cm-1, proteins (1550 - 1530, and structural components of plant cells such as lignin, pectin and cellulose. These results suggest that nAg could significantly affect the growth, nutrient content and macromolecule conformation in radish sprouts, with unknown consequences for human health.

  19. Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish Growth in Varying Mediums and Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, P.; Figueroa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the harvest yield and taste of Beta Vulgaris and Easter Egg Radish microgreens in different growing mediums and locations at the Stanford Farm. They are grown in three different mediums: compost, potting mix, and a 50/50 mix of both. We hypothesized that the even mixture of compost and potting mix would have a larger harvest yield and greater nutrient content while being grown in the lath house. The experiment begins with two sets of three planting trays, one in the greenhouse and one in the lath house, filled with the former growing mediums. Next, the seeds of the microgreens are sprinkled evenly in their designated halves of the tray, then covered with a thin layer of their growing medium to allow for germination. The trays in the lath house are watered 1-2 times a day while the greenhouse trays must be watered thrice. The progress of the microgreens are observed everyday and the weight, height, root length and width of the plant is measured. Once harvested, 9-11 days after planting, the microgreens are weighed and tested for taste and consistency. Because each microgreen variety is planted in only half of a tray, the weight of the full tray is calculated to estimate the value and yield of a single species on a larger scale. Upon collecting data from both the lath house and greenhouse, we found that the plants perform better in the 50/50 mixture and potting mix, but grow very poorly in the compost because it requires a lot of water and does not hold the moisture it receives. We also had a higher yield of Easter Egg Radish due to its height and water content. In the greenhouse, both species had a richer flavor. The farm plans to start a microgreen business to provide an added source of income and utilize the results of this experiment in an applied business model focused on efficiency and profit.

  20. Innovative use of an automated horse walker when breaking in young horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    There is an inherent element of risk associated with "backing" and riding the previously unbroken horse. If training proceeds too quickly, conflict behaviors may result from the simultaneous application of too many cues. Automated horse walkers (AHW) facilitate the exercising of several horses concurrently at walk or trot for warm-up, cool-down, fitness programs, and rehabilitation purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate if backing the horse within the AHW was an appropriate training method. Ten horses (3-year-olds) took part in this study. They began training within the AHW with a simple bridle and protective boots. A handler subsequently long-reined the horses within the AHW when they wore rollers, side reins, and a saddle. When considered appropriate, the handler went from jumping beside the horse to lying over the saddle to sitting astride the horse within the AHW. The horses habituated to this innovative approach quickly without evidence of conflict behavior. The handler rode the horses from the AHW after approximately 4 riding episodes of this innovative training system.

  1. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue.

  2. Horses Hotel: Proust a Contrapelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho articula uma crítica da peça Horses Hotel, dirigida por Alex Cassal e Clara Kutner e que esteve em cartaz no Oi Futuro do Flamengo, no Rio de Janeiro, de dezoito de abril a dois de junho de 2013. A partir de uma investigação do projeto estético disposto sobre o palco, percurso ao longo do qual convido Gustave Flaubert e Marcel Proust, discuto em que medida esse projeto constitui uma estética sintomática, cuja base está na defesa de uma arte pela sensação em si.

  3. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  4. Ocular manifestations of a metastatic adenocarcinoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Franziska L; Birkmann, Katharina; Ruetten, Maja; Pot, Simon A; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2013-05-01

    A 10-year-old German Warmblood gelding was referred to the Equine Department of the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland, for an iris mass OD, lethargy, intermittent fever, and coughing. Ophthalmic examination revealed a 7 × 9 mm raised, fleshy, whitish to pinkish, vascularized iris mass at the 2 o`clock position OD. Fundic examination showed multifocal round, brown to black, slightly raised lesions with indistinct margins and a surrounding hyperreflective zone OU. Physical examination revealed a temperature of 39.2 °C, sinus tachycardia, preputial and ventral edema, and an enlarged right mandibular lymph node. Results of a complete blood count and plasma biochemical profile showed mild anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Severe splenopathy, moderate splenomegaly, and severe pulmonary pathology with nodules and large areas of consolidated lung parenchyma were observed on abdominal ultrasound and thoracic radiographs, respectively. Fine needle aspirates of the enlarged mandibular lymph node showed malignant epithelial neoplastic cells. The horse was euthanized because of the poor prognosis and subsequently underwent postmortem examination. Macroscopic necropsy and histopathology revealed an adenocarcinoma of suspected pulmonary origin with involvement of eyes, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, diaphragm, skeletal muscles, mandibular, pulmonary, and internal iliac lymph nodes. Metastatic adenocarcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with iris masses, multifocal chorioretinal infiltrates, and clinical signs that conform to a paraneoplastic syndrome. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds by sequential treatments with chlorine dioxide, drying, and dry heat without loss of seed viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-09-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO(2) followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO(2) were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (a(w)) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the a(w) decreased to seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO(2) (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production.

  6. 19 CFR 10.66 - Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. 10.66 Section 10.66 Customs... Exhibition, Etc. § 10.66 Articles exported for temporary exhibition and returned; horses exported for horse racing and returned; procedure on entry. (a) In connection with the entry of articles, including...

  7. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Tereza Petlachová; Eva Sobotková; Iva Jiskrová; Markéta Píšová; Iveta Bihuncová; Hana Černohorská; Martina Kosťuková

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH), American Paint Horse (APH), Appaloosa (Appa), the Lipizzaner horse (LH) and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH). Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa) due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type ...

  8. Chronic methylmercurialism in a horse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seawright, A.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Costigan, P.

    1978-02-01

    Chronic methylmercurialism was produced in a horse given 10 g methylmercury chloride over 10 weeks. Neurological signs, particularly proprioceptive disturbances, were apparent by the final week of dosing and became more severe thereafter. An exudative dermatitis, a reluctance to move, weight loss, reduced appetite and dullness were among the earlier clinical signs, and renal changes characterized by a steadily increasing BUN and glucosuria were detected later. Pathological lesions were confined to the kidneys and the nervous system. There was mild neuronal degeneration in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellar cortex, axonal demyelination in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and extensive degeneration of ganglion cells in the dorsal root ganglia. The blood organic mercury level, which had plateaued in the second month, increased rapidly in the last weeks of dosing with a sharp rise terminally. This pattern was repeated for the much lower inorganic mercury levels except for a terminal decrease. The proportion of inorganic mercury was five times greater in the dorsal root ganglia than elsewhere in the CNS, although total mercury levels were similar. Highest tissue mercury levels were found in the liver and kidneys, over 50% being in the form of inorganic mercury. As dealkylation of the methylmercury appeared to be more efficient in the dorsal root ganglia and the kidneys, inorganic mercury derived therefrom may have been responsible for some of the clinical and pathological features of this intoxication in the horse. 21 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggett, Emily; Magdesian, K Gary; Maas, John; Puschner, Birgit; Higgins, Jamie; Fiack, Ciara

    2010-11-01

    Exercise causes an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, which can result in oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium. Deficiency of antioxidants can further alter this balance in favor of pro-oxidation. Selenium (Se) is one of many antioxidant catalysts, as a component of the glutathione peroxidase enzymes. Soils and forages vary widely in Se concentration and a deficient diet can lead to sub-clinical or clinical deficiency in horses. Endurance horses are prone to oxidative stress during long periods of aerobic exercise and their performance could be affected by Se status. This study investigated the blood Se concentration in a group of endurance horses (n=56) residing and competing in California, a state containing several regions that tend to produce Se-deficient forages. The rate of Se deficiency in this group of horses was low, with only one horse being slightly below the reference range. Higher blood Se concentrations were not associated with improved performance in terms of ride time. There was no significant difference in Se concentration between horses that completed the ride and those that were disqualified, although blood Se concentrations were significantly higher in horses that received oral Se supplementation. An increase in blood Se concentration was observed following exercise and this warrants further study.

  10. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  11. Horse-rider interaction in dressage riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Andreas; Eckardt, Falko; Witte, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In dressage riding the pelvis of the rider interacts with the horse physically. However, there is little information about the influence of riding skill on the interaction of the human pelvis with the horse. Therefore this paper aims to study the interaction between horse and rider in professional riders (PRO) and beginners (BEG). Twenty riders rode in walk, trot, and canter in an indoor riding hall with inertial sensors attached to their pelvis and to the horses' trunk. Statistical analysis of waveform parameters, qualitative interpretation of angle-angle plots, and cross-correlation of horse and rider were applied to the data. Significant differences between PRO and BEG could be found for specific waveform parameters. Over all gaits PRO kept their pelvis closer to the mid-position and further forward whereas BEG tilted their pelvis further to the right and more backwards. The coupling intensity of horse and rider revealed differences between the gaits. Furthermore phase shifts were found between PRO and BEG. This paper describes a sensor-based approach for the investigation of interactions of the human pelvis with the trunk of a horse under in-field conditions. First the results show that the riding level influences the posture of a rider and secondly that differences can be detected with contemporary available sensor technology and methods.

  12. Experimental infection of horses with Hendra virus/Australia/horse/2008/Redlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Glenn A; Haining, Jessica; Hancock, Timothy J; Robinson, Rachel; Foord, Adam J; Barr, Jennifer A; Riddell, Shane; Heine, Hans G; White, John R; Crameri, Gary; Field, Hume E; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah

    2011-12-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus harbored by Australian flying foxes with sporadic spillovers directly to horses. Although the mode and critical control points of HeV spillover to horses from flying foxes, and the risk for transmission from infected horses to other horses and humans, are poorly understood, we successfully established systemic HeV disease in 3 horses exposed to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands by the oronasal route, a plausible route for natural infection. In 2 of the 3 animals, HeV RNA was detected continually in nasal swabs from as early as 2 days postexposure, indicating that systemic spread of the virus may be preceded by local viral replication in the nasal cavity or nasopharynx. Our data suggest that a critical factor for reducing HeV exposure risk to humans includes early consideration of HeV in the differential diagnosis and institution of appropriate infection control procedures.

  13. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  14. RESEARCES REGARDING THE SANGUINE CORTISOL EVOLUTION, AS BIOCHEMICAL INDEX, IN SPORT HORSES IN COMPLETE HORSE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA ŞOVĂREL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the horse for sport activities needs a good training and an optimization ofphysical and psychical qualities, both contributing to achieve the wantedperformances. Physical effort impose to the horse in different competitions is a stresssituation, fact which induce an endocrine answer, materialised through increasingthe sanguine levels of some hormones and decreasing of others. The purpose of thisstudy was to verify if the training and the effort intensity is reflected in the sanguinecortisol behaviour in sport horses.

  15. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  16. Bioremediation of HCH-contaminated soil: elimination of inhibitory effects of the insecticide on radish and green gram seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlan, Rajkumar; Afsar, Mohammed; Manonmani, H K

    2004-08-01

    The effects of technical grade hexachlorocyclohexane (tech-HCH) on the germination of different seeds were tested. Two types of seeds, radish and green gram showed marked reduction in germination percentage and seeding vigour index. The abnormalities and reduction in germination increased with increasing concentration of tech-HCH. At 100 microg HCH level the germination of radish and green gram seeds was inhibited almost completely on moist filter paper and soil. Protease and amylase activities were reduced in seeds grown in soil spiked with tech-HCH. Bioremediation of HCH-spiked soils with a HCH-degrading microbial consortium helped in eliminating the toxic effects of tech-HCH towards seed germination. The degradation of 25 microg tech-HCH g(-1) soil was complete by 120 h. The seed germination and the activities of the assayed enzymes, amylase and protease, were same as before or better in bioremediated soils.

  17. Gastritis, Enteritis, and Colitis in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, Francisco A; Diab, Santiago S

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal system of horses is affected by a large variety of inflammatory infectious and noninfectious conditions. The most prevalent form of gastritis is associated with ulceration of the pars esophagea. Although the diagnostic techniques for alimentary diseases of horses have improved significantly over the past few years, difficulties still exist in establishing the causes of a significant number of enteric diseases in this species. This problem is compounded by several agents of enteric disease also being found in the intestine of clinically normal horses, which questions the validity of the mere detection of these agents in the intestine.

  18. [HYPP: hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in the horse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    1999-03-15

    Hyperkalaemic periodic paralysis(HYPP) is characterized by intermittent episodes of muscular tremor, weakness, and collapse, and is probably caused by abnormal electrolyte transport in the muscle cell membrane. During an episode of HYPP, most animals are severely hyperkalaemic. HYPP is a hereditary disease and occurs only in American Quarter horses or crossbreds. Because these horses are now being imported into the Netherlands, HYPP should be included in the differential diagnosis of horses showing signs of muscle tremor, paresis, or paralysis. The present article reviews the literature on HYPP and describes a case showing typical signs of the disease.

  19. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... the subpopulations of JH and DH horses registered by KWPN. The subpopulations comprised 23,800 JH horses and 18,125 DH horses, born between 1995 and 2009. Genetic similarity (GS), genetic pool in common (GCx) based on the marginal genetic contribution of common ancestors and coefficient of relationship (r) between...

  20. Characterization of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 transcription factor genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X B; Liu, Z; Xu, L; Wang, Y; Zhu, X W; Zhang, W; Chen, W; Zhu, Y L; Su, X J; Everlyne, M; Liu, L W

    2016-09-23

    Glucosinolates (GSLs) are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae plants. Previous studies have mainly focused on GSL contents, types, and biosynthesis-related genes, but the molecular characterization patterns of GSL biosynthesis-related transcription factors remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To isolate transcription factor genes regulating the GSL biosynthesis, genomic DNA and cDNA sequences of RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were isolated in radish. Two R2R3-MYB domains were identified in the deduced amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization and yeast-one hybrid assays indicated that both the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were located in the nucleus and possessed transactivation activity. Reverse transcription quantitative analysis showed that the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes were expressed in seeds, leaves, stems, and roots at the seedling, taproot thickening, and mature stages. Both genes were highly expressed during the seedling and taproot thickening stages. The expression level of RsMYB28 was found to be up-regulated following wounding, glucose, and abscisic acid treatments, whereas RsMYB29 was up-regulated following wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments. These results provide insights into the biological function and characterization of the RsMYB28 and RsMYB29 genes, and facilitate further dissection of the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the GSL biosynthesis in radish.

  1. DIAGNOSTICATION OF HYPERKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS IN HORSES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S.E. GEORGESCU; MARIA ADINA MANEA; ANCA DINISCHIOTU; C.D. TESIO; MARIETA COSTACHE

    2013-01-01

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP) is a muscle disease which has been firstreported in 1985 in the USA, in a group of 4 horses with episodic weaknessassociated with intermittent serum hyperkalemia...

  2. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  3. Immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin genes of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies of the horse were studied intensively by many notable immunologists throughout the past century until the early 1970's. After a large gap of interest in horse immunology, additional basic studies on horse immunoglobulin genes performed during the past 10 years have resulted in new insights into the equine humoral immune system. These include the characterization of the immunoglobulin lambda and kappa light chain genes, the immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (IGHC) gene regions, and initial studies regarding the heavy chain variable genes. Horses express predominately lambda light chains and seem to have a relatively restricted germline repertoire of both lambda and kappa chain variable genes. The IGHC region contains eleven constant heavy chain genes, seven of which are gamma heavy chain genes. It is suggested that all seven genes encoding IgG isotypes are expressed and have distinct functions in equine immune responses.

  4. Intra-articular morphine in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Casper

    Regardless of species, optimal pain management of animals subjected to various painful procedures is of outmost importance for several reasons, including animal welfare considerations, improved convalescence and improved final outcome. One way of improving pain management in horses is through...... and laboratory animals. Recent discovery of opioid receptors in the synovial membrane of horses has made it reasonable to expect IA morphine to be analgesic in horses too. Treatment with IA morphine after arthroscopic surgery, or for other painful joint diseases, might therefore be an important contribution...... to a multimodal analgesia protocol. Despite that no research has investigated this issue in horses so far, IA injection of morphine after arthroscopic surgery has become common practice in several veterinary university teaching hospitals in Europe and USA. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the analgesic...

  5. Radish Harvester Design and Finite Element Analysis of Digging Shovel%白萝卜收获机挖掘铲参数的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周国龙; 张晋国; 王洪伟; 顾旭彪; 杨进; 刘利坤

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,radish China reaped by low efficiency and high cost problem, design a special green radish dig-ging shovel.First step by digging shovel destroy the radish and the contact force of the soil, radish, separating from the soil, the second step by artificial collecting bag and then finish the whole course of radish harvest.By establishing a geo-metric model of the digging shovel capacity determines the angle of alpha,the shovel length L and width of the shovel a and the back face height h.Suspension traction after the mining device adopts the way of mining radish, make green rad-ish harvest efficiency is greatly raised, device has the advantages of simple structure, low cost, has the extremely broad market application scenario.%针对我国白萝卜人工收获效率低、成本高等问题,设计出专用的白萝卜挖掘铲。工作时,第1步通过挖掘铲破坏白萝卜与土壤的接触力,使白萝卜与土壤分离,第2步由人工捡拾装袋进而完成白萝卜收获的全过程。通过建立挖掘铲的几何模型确定了入土角α、铲面长度L、铲面宽度 A和后端面高度 h。该挖掘装置采用后悬挂牵引的方式挖掘白萝卜,使白萝卜的收获效率大大提高,装置结构简易、成本低,具有极其广阔的市场应用场景。

  6. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  7. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  8. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  9. Respiratory Disease: Diagnostic Approaches in the Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, Joanne; Arroyo, Luis G

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of the upper and lower respiratory tract of horses requires strategic selection of possible diagnostic tests based on location of suspected pathologic lesions and purpose of testing and must also include consideration of patient status. This article discusses the various diagnostic modalities that may be applied to the respiratory system of horses under field conditions, indications for use, and aspects of sample collection, handling, and laboratory processing that can impact test results and ultimately a successful diagnosis in cases of respiratory disease.

  10. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  11. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  12. Extension Large Colon Resection in 12 Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arighi, Mimi; Ducharme, Norman G.; Horney, F. Donald.; Livesey, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive resection (50-75%) of the large colon was performed in 12 horses. Indications for resection were: loss of viability due to large colon volvulus (seven), thromboembolic episode (three), impairment of flow of ingesta due to adhesions (one), or congenital abnormalities (one). The time required to correct the primary cause of abdominal pain and complete the resection ranged from 2.5 to 4.75 hours. Three horses had severe musculoskeletal problems postoperatively and were euthanized in the recovery stall. Four other horses were euthanized early in the postoperative period because of: further large colon infarction (two), ileus (one), or small intestinal problems (one). Five horses survived with no apparent nutritional or metabolic problems during two to three weeks of hospitalization. Clinical data were obtained from these horses from nine months to eighteen months postoperatively and revealed no clinical or clinicopathological abnormalities in four of them; the fifth horse exhibited diarrhea and weight loss four months postoperatively but responded to diet change. PMID:17422768

  13. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  14. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  15. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  16. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  17. Heart rate variability after horse trekking in leading and following horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Akihiro; Tanaka, Masaya; Irimajiri, Mami; Yamazaki, Atusi; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Hodate, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Horse trekking (HT) is having a stroll on a horse along a walking trail in a forest, field, and/or sandy beach. Generally in HT, horses exercise in tandem line outside the riding facilities. Because the leading horse will be confronted with stressors in the forefront, we hypothesized that the leading horse shows higher stress responses than the following one. In order to verify the hypothesis, we compared short-term stress responses between each position in six horses. Exercise consisted of 15 min of ground riding and 45 min of HT with walking and trotting. Heart rate variability was analyzed for 5 min at 30, 60, and 90 min after the exercising period. There was no significant difference in heart rate during exercise between leading and following positions. The high frequency / low frequency power band of heart rate variability, an index of sympathetic nervous activity, after exercise, tended to be higher in the leading position than following one (P horse was in a higher stressed state than the following horse after HT.

  18. Neutrophil function in healthy aged horses and horses with pituitary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Dianne; Hill, Kim; Anton, Jason

    2015-06-15

    Immunosuppression leading to opportunist bacterial infection is a well-recognized sequela of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID). The mechanisms responsible for immune dysfunction in PPID however, are as of yet poorly characterized. Horses with PPID have high concentrations of hormones known to impact immune function including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and insulin. α-MSH and related melanocortins have been shown in rodents and people to impair neutrophil function by decreasing superoxide production (known as oxidative burst activity), migration and adhesion. The goal of this study was to determine if neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID and, if so, to determine if plasma α-MSH or insulin concentration correlated with the severity of neutrophil dysfunction. Specifically, neutrophil phagocytosis, oxidative burst activity, chemotaxis and adhesion were assessed. Results of this study indicate that horses with PPID have reduced neutrophil function, characterized by decreased oxidative burst activity and adhesion. In addition, chemotaxis was greater in healthy aged horses than in young horses or aged horses with PPID. Plasma insulin: α-MSH ratio, but not individual hormone concentration was correlated to neutrophil oxidative burst activity. In summary, neutrophil function is impaired in horses with PPID, likely due to altered hormone concentrations and may contribute to increased risk of opportunistic infections. Whether regulation of hormone concentration profiles in horses with PPID using therapeutic intervention improves neutrophil function and reduces infections needs to be explored.

  19. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  20. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  1. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Wijk-Jansen, van E.E.C.

    2012-01-01

    A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation, and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of horse

  2. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...

  3. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Bihuncová; Iva Jiskrová; Martina Kosťuková; Hana Černohorská; Ivana Oravcová; Eva Sobotková

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The datab...

  4. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue LEDs and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.; Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond; Birmele, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-range missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop yield, there is also recent interest in analyzing the subtle effects of additional wavelengths on plant growth. For instance, since plants often look purplish gray under red and blue LEDs, the addition of green light allows easy recognition of disease and the assessment of plant health status. However, it is important to know if wavelengths outside the traditional red and blue wavebands have a direct effect on enhancing or hindering the mechanisms involved in plant growth. In this experiment, a comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of red romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Outredgeous") and radish (Raphanus sativa cv. 'Cherry Bomb'), which were grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red (630 nm) and blue (450 nm) LEDs alone, while the second treatment consisted of daylight tri-phosphor fluorescent lamps (CCT approximately 5000 K) at equal photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). The treatment effects were evaluated by measuring the fresh biomass produced, plant morphology and leaf dimensions, leaf chlorophyll content, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) within plant leaf/storage root tissues.

  5. Reduced Pressure Alone Does Not Affect the Overall Sensory and Antioxidant Values of Radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Bisbee, P.; Yorio, N. C.; Stutte, G. W.; Richards, J. T.; Birmele, M.; Prior, R. L.; Perchonok, M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Dixon, M.

    Use of reduced atmospheric pressures e g 101 kPa for space exploration can offer several advantages during long duration space missions including reduced launch mass for containment vessels reduced gas leakage reduced resupply costs and increased potential for using transparent materials in greenhouses for a bioregenerative life support system on Mars and on the Moon Limited testing with crop plants at reduced atmospheres has been conducted with results focused on whole plant growth and gas exchange but there are no studies regarding the quality of resulting products This question is of importance not only from the standpoint of food palatability but of potential nutritional and health benefits to the crew To study this we grew radish Raphanus sativus L cv Cherry Bomb Hybrid II plants at three atmospheric pressures 33 kPa 66 kPa and 96 kPa nominal ambient while maintaining oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures constant at 21 kPa and 0 12 kPa respectively After 21 days growth chambers were repressurized and ten plants were harvested within the same time frame of the photoperiod for all three pressure treatments The experiment was repeated three times Arial shoots and storage roots were separated immediately upon removal from growth chambers frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 r C until analysis Six of the ten plants were lyophilized ground to pass a 40 mesh screen and used for determination of the total antioxidant capacity and glucosinolate composition while the remaining four plants were used

  6. Mechanisms of differential pollen donor performance in wild radish, Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, D L; Diggle, P K

    2001-02-01

    In order to understand the characters on which sexual selection might operate in plants, it is critical to assess the mechanisms by which pollen competition and mate choice occur. To address this issue we measured a number of postpollination characters, ranging from pollen germination and pollen tube growth to final seed paternity, in wild radish. Crosses were performed using four pollen donors on a total of 16 maternal plants (four each from four families). Maternal plants were grown under two watering treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal tissue on the process of mating. The four pollen donors differed significantly in number of seeds sired and differed overall in the mating characters measured. However, it was difficult to associate particular mechanistic characters with ability to sire seeds, perhaps because of interactions among pollen donors within styles or among pollen donors and maternal plants. The process of pollen tube growth and fertilization differed substantially among maternal watering treatments, with many early events occurring more quickly in stressed plants. Seed paternity, however, was somewhat more even among pollen donors used on stressed maternal plants, suggesting that when maternal tissue is more competent, mating is slowed and is more selective.

  7. Effects of ageing on peroxidase activity and localization in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialabba, A; Bellani, L M; Dell'Aquila, A

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidase activity was assayed in crude extracts of integument, cotyledons and embryo axis of radish seeds, deteriorated under accelerated ageing conditions. Over five days of ageing, in which germination decreased from 100 to 52%, the enzyme activity in integument was higher than that in other seed parts, increasing in the first days of ageing and then decreasing sharply in extremely aged seeds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed four peroxidase isoenzymes with MM of 98, 52.5, 32.8 and 29.5 kDa in the embryo axis of unaged seeds, and only the 32.8 and 29.5 kDa MM isoforms in the integument and cotyledons. In these parts of the seed, only the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme increased in activity in early days of ageing and decreased there-after. In the embryo axis, the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activity increased slowly in the first day of ageing, while the 98 and 52.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activities disappeared. A cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in the various tissues showed that main differences between unaged and extremely aged seeds occurred in the embryo axis.

  8. Effects of ageing on peroxidase activity and localization in radish (Raphanus sativus L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scialabba

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase activity was assayed in crude extracts of integument, cotyledons and embryo axis of radish seeds, deteriorated under accelerated ageing conditions. Over five days of ageing, in which germination decreased from 100 to 52%, the enzyme activity in integument was higher than that in other seed parts, increasing in the first days of ageing and then decreasing sharply in extremely aged seeds. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed four peroxidase isoenzymes with MM of 98, 52.5, 32.8 and 29.5 kDa in the embryo axis of unaged seeds, and only the 32.8 and 29.5 kDa MM isoforms in the integument and cotyledons. In these parts of the seed, only the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme increased in activity in early days of ageing and decreased thereafter. In the embryo axis, the 29.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activity increased slowly in the first day of ageing, while the 98 and 52.5 kDa MM isoenzyme activities disappeared. A cytochemical localization of peroxidase activity in the various tissues showed that main differences between unaged and extremely aged seeds occurred in the embryo axis.

  9. Energetic balance from biodiesel production of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Rubens [Parana Agronomical Institute (IAPAR), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: siqueira@iapar.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Boller, Walter [University of Passo Fundo (UPF), RS (Brazil). Agronomical and Veterinary College

    2008-07-01

    It was evaluated the energetic balance and the energetic efficiency of the oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus L.) crop under the no-tillage system. The energy input totalized 6,718 MJ ha{sup -1} where the industrial processing, the fertilizer and the herbicide had participation of 30.7; 23.0 and 20.2 %, respectively. The energy production was 56,650.94 MJ ha{sup -1} and the produced grains have represented 33.2 % of the total. The energetic demand for the production of one kg of biomass of the aerial part, one kg of oil and one kg of biodiesel were respectively 1,829; 19,000 and 27,422 kJ. There was a return of 8.44 for each energy unit used in the process. The net gain of energy was 49,932 MJ ha{sup -1} which is equivalent in energy to 1,295 L diesel oil. (author)

  10. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  11. The horse-human dyad: can we align horse training and handling activities with the equid social ethogram?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, P D; Oddie, C; Burton, F L; McLean, A N

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the recently completed equid ethogram and shows how analogues of social interactions between horses may occur in various human-horse interactions. It discusses how some specific horse-horse interactions have a corresponding horse-human interaction - some of which may be directly beneficial for the horse while others may be unusual or even abnormal. It also shows how correspondent behaviours sometimes become inappropriate because of their duration, consistency or context. One analogue is unlikely to hold true for all horse-human contexts, so when applying any model from horse-horse interactions to human-horse interactions, the limitations of the model may eclipse the intended outcome of the intervention. These limitations are especially likely when the horse is being ridden. Such analyses may help to determine the validity of extrapolating intra-specific interactions to the inter-specific setting, as is advocated by some popular horse-training methods, and highlight the subsequent limitations where humans play the role of the 'alpha mare' or leader in horse handling and training. This examination provides a constructive framework for further informed debate and empirical investigation of the critical features of successful intra-specific interactions.

  12. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was ri

  13. The influence of challenging objects and horse-rider matching on heart rate, heart rate variability and behavioural score in riding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    A good horse-rider 'match' is important in the context of equine welfare. To quantify the influence of repetition and horse-rider matching on the stress of horses encountering challenging objects, 16 Warmblood horses were ridden in a test-setting on three occasions. On each occasion the horse was

  14. Trypanosoma evansi control and horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidl AF

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of three treatment strategies for Trypanosoma evansi control on horse mortality in the Brazilian Pantanal based on four size categories of cattle ranches is explored. The region's 49,000 horses are indispensable to traditional extensive cattle ranching and T. evansi kills horses. About 13% of these horses would be lost, annually, due to T. evansi if no control were undertaken. One preventive and two curative treatment strategies are financially justifiable in the Pantanal. The best available technology for the treatment of T. evansi from a horse mortality perspective is the preventive strategy, which spares 6,462 horses, annually. The year-round cure spares 5,783 horses, and the seasonal cure saves 5,204 horses on a regional basis relative to no control strategy. Regardless of the strategy adopted, 39% of the costs or benefits fall to the largest ranches, while 18% fall to the smallest ranches.

  15. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annette

    horses referred to as Friesians, was during mediaeval times, when the knights in armour mostly used Friesian ..... example, in the selection of horses for riding under the saddle, the emphasis will be on a shorter ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC,.

  16. The Effects of EDTA and H2SO4 on Phyto-extraction of Pb from contaminated Soils by Radish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mansouri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most important environmental concerns in many parts of the world. The remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals is necessary to prevent the entry of these metals into the human food chain. Phyto-extraction is an effective, cheap and environmental friendly method which uses plants for cleaning contaminated soils. The plants are used for phytoremediation should have high potential for heavy metals uptake and produce enormous amount of biomass. A major problem facing phyto-extraction method is the immobility of heavy metals in soils. Chemical phyto-extraction is a method in which different acids and chelating substances are used to enhance the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants. The aims of this study were: (a to determine the potential of radish to extract Pb from contaminated soils and (b to assess the effects of different soil amendment (EDTA and H2SO4 to enhance plant uptake of the heavy metal and (c to study the effects of different levels of soil Pb on radish growth and Pb concentrations of above and below ground parts of this plant. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve and analysed for some physico-chemical properties and then artificially contaminated with seven levels of lead (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg using Pb(NO32 salt and then planted radish. During the growth period of radish and after the initiation of root growth, the plants were treated with three levels of sulfuric acid (0, 750 and 1500 mg/kg or three levels of EDTA (0, 10 and 20 mg/kg through irrigation water. At the end of growth period, the above and below ground parts of the plants were harvested, washed, dried and digested using a mixture of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2. The concentrations of Pb, N, P and K in plant extracts were measured. Statistical analysis of data was performed using MSTATC software and comparison of means was

  17. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  18. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  19. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  20. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  1. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  2. Genetic structure of nine horse populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Burócziová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was estimate the genetic diversity and relationships among nine horses breeds in Czech and Slovak Republic.In conclusion, the main objective of study was to show the level of genetic distance among the horse breeds with different history of breeding of each country. Furthermore, it should be clarified whether these populations and subpopulations are distinct enough from each other to justify defining separate breeds. This research concerns the variability of microsatellite markers in genotypes of horse. We compared the genetic diversity and distance among nine horse breeds Czech and Slovak Warmblood both of Czech origin, Slovak Warmblood of Slovak origin, Hucul, Hafling, Furioso, Noriker, Silesian Noriker and Bohemian-Moravian Belgian Horse.In total, 932 animals were genotyped for 17 microsatellites markers (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, VHL20, HTG6, HMS2, HTG7, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3 recommended by the International Society of Animal Genetics.In the different population size, the allele frequencies, observed and expected heterozygosity, test for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and Polymorphism information content have been calculated for each breed. We analyzed genetic distance and diversity among them on the base of the dataset of highly polymorphic set of microsatellites representing all autozomes using set of PowerMar­ker v3.25 analysis tools and Structure 2.2. programme for results comparison.

  3. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  4. Learning performances in young horses using two different learning tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.K.; Reenen, van C.G.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Barneveld, A.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve optimal performance in equine sports as well as in leisure not only the physical abilities of the horse should be considered, but also the horse's personality. Besides temperamental aspects, like emotionality, or the horse's reactivity towards humans in handling situations, the learning a

  5. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  6. 75 FR 26990 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board (Board) will be conducting a public workshop and meeting on the BLM's management of wild horses and burros. This will be a two day event. Monday, June 14, 2010, will...

  7. 76 FR 55107 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory Board will meet...

  8. 76 FR 7231 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board; Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board will conduct a meeting on matters pertaining to management and protection of wild, free-roaming horses and burros on the Nation's public lands. DATES: The Advisory...

  9. 78 FR 46599 - Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Wild Horse and Burro Advisory Board Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) announces that the Wild Horse and..., 2013, Advisory Board meeting can be mailed to National Wild Horse and Burro Program, WO-260,...

  10. The South African Defence Force and Horse Mounted Infantry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques

    2003-03-26

    Mar 26, 2003 ... period, its first mounted troops were deployed to the Border region by ... Sergeant Major, in the eyes of the Defence Force, officially the horse was a ... psychology of training, serving to reinforce identification with the horse. As .... and given to horses in trial and control groups to measure the feed's benefit.

  11. Passive surveillance for ticks on horses in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartz, Gili; Epp, Tasha; Burgess, Hilary J.; Chilton, Neil B.; Armstrong, James S.; Lohmann, Katharina L.

    2015-01-01

    Passive surveillance of ticks on horses in Saskatchewan revealed that the horses were parasitized by 3 species, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, and D. variabilis. The nymphs and adults of D. albipictus occurred on horses earlier in the year than did adults of the 2 other species. PMID:25969582

  12. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P Rene

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at 6 months of age. Subsequently, they were allocated into a control group that was raised conventionally and an experimental group that received 30 months of early training starting at 6 months of age. At 4 years of age, after a period of rest in pasture and a short period of training with a rider, both groups were analyzed kinematically during free jumping. Subsequently, both groups started a 1-year intensive training for jumping, and at 5 years of age, they were again analyzed kinematically during free jumping. In addition, the horses competed in a puissance competition to test maximal performance. Whereas there were no differences in jumping technique between experimental and control horses at 6 months of age, at 4 years, the experimental horses jumped in a more effective manner than the control horses; they raised their center of gravity less yet cleared more fences successfully than the control horses. However, at 5 years of age, these differences were not detected. Furthermore, the experimental horses did not perform better than the control horses in the puissance competition. Specific training for jumping of horses at an early age is unnecessary because the effects on jumping technique and jumping capacity are not permanent.

  13. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software...... available. The results of this analysis accord with other studies on the Prezwalski horse, indicating robustness in the parameter sensitivity for horses....

  14. Horse-Expert: An aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H; Xiao, J; Gao, X; Wang, H

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the rapid development of the horse husbandry in China, the ability of horse veterinarians to diagnose diseases has not been improved and only a few domain experts have considerable expertise. At present, many expert systems have been developed for diseases diagnosis, but few for horse diseases diagnosis have been studied in depth. This paper presents the design and development of a computer-aided expert system for diagnosing horse diseases. We suggest an approach for diagnosis of horse diseases based on the analysis of diagnostic characteristics and the experiential knowledge of domain experts. It is based on using evidence-weighted uncertainty reasoning theory, which is a combination of evidence theory and an uncertainty pass algorithm of confidence factors. It enables drawing of inferences with atypical clinical signs and the uncertainty of the user's subjective understanding. It reduces the influence of subjective factors on diagnostic accuracy. The system utilizes a user friendly interface for users and requests a confidence factor from users when feedback is given to the system. Horse-Expert combines the confidence factors with weight factors assigned to clinical signs by experts during the knowledge acquisition process to make diagnostic conclusions. The system can diagnose 91 common horse diseases, and provides suggestions for appropriate treatment options. In addition, users can check the medical record through statistical charts. The system has been tested in seven demonstration areas of Xinjiang province in northwestern China. By constantly maintaining and updating the knowledge base, the system has potential application in veterinary practice.

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to <0.30 within 24 h. Drying high-aw seeds before exposing them to dry-heat treatment (≥60°C) was essential to preserve seed viability. The germination rate of radish seeds which had been immersed in water for 5 min, dried at 45°C and 23% RH for 24 h, and heated at 70°C for 48 h or at 80°C for 24 h was not significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared to that of untreated radish seeds. Sequential treatments with ClO2 (500 μg/ml, 5 min), drying (45°C, 23% RH, 24 h), and dry heating (70°C, 23% RH, 48 h) eliminated E. coli O157:H7 (5.9 log CFU/g) on radish seeds and, consequently, sprouts produced from them without decreasing the germination rate. These sequential treatments are recommended for application to radish seeds intended for sprout production. PMID:21803896

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Assessment of Its Roles in Flowering and Floral Organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Nie, Shanshan; Chen, Yinglong; Liang, Dongyi; Sun, Xiaochuan; Karanja, Benard K.; Luo, Xiaobo; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF) family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ) and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC∗). Among them, 41 (28.47%) RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops. PMID:27703461

  17. Genome-wide characterization of the MADS-box gene family in radish (Raphanus sativus L. and assessment of its roles in flowering and floral organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box gene family is an important transcription factor (TF family that is involved in various aspects of plant growth and development, especially flowering time and floral organogenesis. Although it has been reported in many plant species, the systematic identification and characterization of MADS-box TF family is still limited in radish (Raphanus sativus L.. In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box genes was performed, and a total of 144 MADS-box family members were identified from the whole radish genome. Meanwhile, a detailed list of MADS-box genes from other 28 plant species was also investigated. Through the phylogenetic analysis between radish and Arabidopsis thaliana, all the RsMADS genes were classified into two groups including 68 type I (31 Mα, 12 Mβ and 25Mγ and 76 type II (70 MIKCC and 6 MIKC*. Among them, 41 (28.47% RsMADS genes were located in nine linkage groups of radish from R1 to R9. Moreover, the homologous MADS-box gene pairs were identified among radish, A. thaliana, Chinese cabbage and rice. Additionally, the expression profiles of RsMADS genes were systematically investigated in different tissues and growth stages. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was employed to validate expression patterns of some crucial RsMADS genes. These results could provide a valuable resource to explore the potential functions of RsMADS genes in radish, and facilitate dissecting MADS-box gene-mediated molecular mechanisms underlying flowering and floral organogenesis in root vegetable crops.

  18. Molecular Characterization and Expression Proifles of Myrosinase Gene (RsMyr2) in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yan; XU Yuan-yuan; ZHU Xian-wen; LIU Zhe; GONG Yi-qin; XU Liang; GONG Mao-yong; LIU Li-wang

    2014-01-01

    Myrosinase is a defense-related enzyme and is capable of hydrolyzing glucosinolates into a variety of compounds, some of which are toxic to pathogens and herbivores. Many studies revealed that a number of important vegetables or oil crops contain the myrosinase-glucosinolate system. However, the related promoter and genomic DNA sequences as well as expression proifles of myrosinase gene remain largely unexplored in radish (Raphanus sativus). In this study, the 2798 bp genomic DNA sequence, designated asRsMyr2, was isolated and analyzed in radish. TheRsMyr2 consisting of 12 exons and 11 introns relfected the common gene structure of myrosinases. Using the genomic DNA walking approach, the 5´-lfanking region upstream ofRsMyr2 with length of 1711 bp was successfully isolated. PLACE and PlantCARE analyses revealed that this upstream region could be the promoter ofRsMyr2,which contained several basiccis-regulatory elements including TATA-box, CAAT-box and regulatory motifs responsive to defense and stresses. Furthermore, recombinant pET-RsMyr2protein separated by SDS-PAGE was identiifed as myrosinase with mass spectrometry. Real-time PCR analysis showed differential expression proifles ofRsMyr2 in leaf, stem and root at different developmental stages (e.g., higher expression in leaf at cotyledon stage and lower in lfesh root at mature stage). Additionally, theRsMyr2geneexhibited up-regulated expression when treated with abscisic acid (ABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), whereas it was down-regulated by wounding (WO) treatment. The ifndings indicated that the expression ofRsMyr2 gene was differentially regulated by these stress treatments. These results could provide new insight into elucidating the molecular characterization and biological function of myrosinase in radish.

  19. Protective Effect of Humic acid and Chitosan on Radish (Raphanus sativus, L. var. sativus Plants Subjected to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. EL-Gahmery

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHumic acid or chitosan has been shown to increase plant growth, yield and improving physiological processes in plant, but its roles on alleviating the harmful effect of cadmium on plant growth and some physiological processes in plants is very rare. Pot experiments were conducted to study the role of 100 and 200 mg/kg dry soil from either humic acid or chitosan on counteracted the harmful effects of cadmium levels (100 and 150 mg/kg dry soil on radish plant growth and some physiological charactersResultsCadmium at 100 and 150 mg kg-1 soil decreased significantly length, fresh and dry weights of shoot and root systems as well as leaf number per plant in both seasons. Chlorophyll, total sugars, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, relative water content, water deficit percentage and soluble proteins as well as total amino acids contents were also decreased. Meanwhile, cadmium concentration in plants was increased. On the other hand, application of chitosan or humic acid as soil addition at the concentration of 100 or 200 mg kg-1 increased all the above mentioned parameters and decreased cadmium concentrations in plant tissues. Chitosan at 200 mg kg-1 was the most effective than humic acid at both concentrations in counteracting the harmful effect of cadmium stress on radish plant growth.ConclusionIn conclusion, both natural chelators, in particular, chitosan at 200 mg/kg dry soil can increase the capacity of radish plant to survive under cadmium stress due to chelating the Cd in the soil, and then reduced Cd bio-availability.

  20. Synergistic effect of chlorine dioxide and drying treatments for inactivating Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Haeyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Studies were done to determine whether calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)(2)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) treatment followed by drying had a synergistic killing effect on microorganisms on radish seeds intended for sprout production. Uninoculated radish seeds and seeds inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 were treated with water, Ca(OCl)(2) (free chlorine concentrations of 50 or 200 microg/ml), or ClO(2) (50 or 200 microg/ml) for 5 min and subsequently dried at 25 degrees C for up to 24 h. Populations of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), molds and yeasts (MY), and E. coli O157:H7 on the seeds treated with Ca(OCl)(2) were not significantly different (P = 0.05) than populations on seeds treated with ClO(2) at the same concentrations. However, populations of microorganisms on seeds treated with ClO(2) decreased more rapidly during drying. Treatment with ClO(2) (200 microg/ml) followed by drying caused reductions in TAB, MY, and E. coli O157:H7 of 3.1, 2.0, and 3.8 log CFU/g, respectively. When seeds were treated with water, Ca(OCl)(2) (50 or 200 microg/ml), and ClO(2) (50 microg/ml) and subsequently dried, reductions in TAB, MY, and E. coli O157:H7 were 0.2 to 2.0, 0.4 to 2.0, and 1.4 to 2.2 log CFU/g, respectively. Results indicate that inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on radish seeds is greater after treatment with ClO(2) followed by drying than after treatment with Ca(OCl)(2) followed by drying, thus providing a synergistic treatment combination for reducing the safety risk associated with sprouts produced from these seeds.

  1. Horse mouth behaviour related to selected kinematic variables representing horse-rider interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Eisersiö, Marie; Roepstorff, Lars; Weishaupt, MA; Egenvall, Agneta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the influence of rein contact and the movement of the rider’s hand on the horse’s behaviour, analysing data on horses ridden in two different head and neck positions. We hypothesized that the rider’s hand movements and rein tension generate behavioural responses from the horse, and more so when ridden on the bit compared to free and unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horses/riders in sitting trot on a high-speed treadmill...

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Radish Seeds by Sequential Treatments with Chlorine Dioxide, Drying, and Dry Heat without Loss of Seed Viability ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R.; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    We developed and validated a treatment to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without decreasing seed viability. Treatments with aqueous ClO2 followed by drying and dry-heat treatments were evaluated for efficacy to inactivate the pathogen. Conditions to dry radish seeds after treatment with water (control) or ClO2 were established. When treated seeds with high water activity (aw) (>0.99) were stored at 45°C and 23% relative humidity (RH), the aw decreased to

  3. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the origin, history, and health status of the horses; the lack of satisfactory information necessary... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine...

  4. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  5. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  6. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  7. Arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint affected with septic arthritis in 8 horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Groom, L J; Gaughan, E M; Lillich, J D; Valentino, L W

    2000-01-01

    Arthrodesis was performed to treat septic arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of 8 horses. Records of the horses were reviewed to determine outcome and possible factors that influenced success or failure. All horses were female. Seven horses had 1 joint treated and 1 horse was treated for bilateral pelvic limb involvement. The duration of sepsis before surgery ranged from 1 to 66 days. Bone lysis and production was radiographically apparent in 7 horses before surgery. Six horses h...

  8. Ozone effects on growth of radish plants as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition and by temperature. [Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Adedipe, N.O.; Hofstra, G.

    1973-10-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (radish) plants were grown in sand culture at two temperatures and fed with nutrient solutions containing relatively low or high levels of either N or P. At the 4-leaf stage, the plants were exposed to ozone at a concentration of 25 pphm for 4 h. Ozone treatments resulted in decreased dry weight of low- and high-N plants at both temperatures and of low and high P plants only at the lower temperature. The study showed that air pollutant growth reduction is not necessarily accentuated by luxuriant growth resulting from high nutritional status. Responses to the nutrition of specific mineral nutrients depend on the modifying affect of temperature.

  9. Optimal sample size for predicting viability of cabbage and radish seeds based on near infrared spectra of single seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Min, Tai-Gi; Gislum, René

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the number of seeds in a training sample set on the ability to predict the viability of cabbage or radish seeds are presented and discussed. The supervised classification method extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA) was used to develop a classification model. Calibration sub...... using all 600 seeds in the calibration set. Thus, the number of seeds in the calibration set can be reduced by up to 67% without significant loss of classification accuracy, which will effectively enhance the cost-effectiveness of NIR spectral analysis. Wavelength regions important...

  10. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  11. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  12. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Brandariz-Fontes

    Full Text Available Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  13. Y-chromosome analysis in Retuertas horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandariz-Fontes, Claudia; Leonard, Jennifer A; Vega-Pla, José Luis; Backström, Niclas; Lindgren, Gabriella; Lippold, Sebastian; Rico, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    Several studies based on a variety of genetic markers have attempted to establish the origins of horse domestication. Thus far a discrepancy between the results of mitochondrial DNA analysis, which show high levels of diversity, and results from the Y-chromosome, with almost no genetic variability, has been identified. Most previous work on the horse Y-chromosome has focused on widespread, popular breeds or local Asian breeds. It is possible that these breeds represent a reduced set of the genetic variation present in the species. Additional genetic variation may be present in local breeds and ancient feral populations, such as the Retuertas horse in Spain. In this study we analyzed the Y-chromosome of the Retuertas horse, a feral horse population on the Iberian Peninsula that is at least several hundred years old, and whose genetic diversity and morphology suggests that it has been reproductively isolated for a long time. Data from the Retuertas horse was compared to another 11 breeds from the region (Portugal, Spain and France) or likely of Iberian origin, and then to data from 15 more breeds from around the globe. We sequenced 31 introns, Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein (ZFY) and anonymous Y-linked fragments and genotyped 6 microsatellite loci found on the Y-chromosome. We found no sequence variation among all individuals and all breeds studied. However, fifteen differences were discovered between our data set and reference sequences in GenBank. We show that these likely represent errors within the deposited sequences, and suggest that they should not be used as comparative data for future projects.

  14. Effects of Acetylcholine, Cytochalasin B and Amiprophos methyl on Phloem Transport in Radish (Raphanus sativas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-Jun Yang; Zhi-Xi Zhai; Yu-Hai Guo; Peng Gao

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the role of the "sieve tube-companion cell complex" lining the tube periphery, particularly the microfilament and microtubule, in assisting the pushing of phloem sap flow. We made a simple phloem transport system with a living radish plant, in which the conducting channel was exposed for local treatment with chemicals that are effective in modulating protoplasmic movement (acetylcholine, (ACh) a neurotransmitter in animals and insects; cytochalasin B, (CB) a specific inhibitor of many cellular responses that are mediated by microfilament systems and amiprophos-methyl, (APM) a specific inhibitor of many cellular responses that are mediated by microtubule systems). Their effects on phloem transport were estimated by two experimental devices: (i) a comparison of changes in the amount of assimilates in terms of carbohydrates and 14C-labeled photosynthetic production that is left in the leaf blade of treated plants; and (ii) distribution patterns of 14C-labeled leaf assimilates in the phloem transport system. The results indicate that CB and APM markedly inhibited the transfer of photosynthetic product from leaf to root via the leaf vein, while ACh enhanced the transfer of photosynthetic product in low concentrations (5.0×10-4 mol/L) but inhibited it in higher concentrations (2.0×10-3 mol/L) from leaf to root via the leaf vein. Autoradiograph imaging clearly reveals that ACh treatment is more effective than the control, and both CB and APM treatments effectively inhibit the passage of radioactive assimilates. All of the results support the postulation that the peripheral protoplasm in the sieve tube serves not only as a passive semi-permeable membrane, but is also directly involved in phloem transport.

  15. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract prevents cadmium-induced immunotoxic and biochemical alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ben Salah-Abbès, Jalila; Abbès, Samir; Zohra, Haous; Oueslati, Ridha

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a known carcinogen and potent immunotoxicant in humans and animals, is dispersed throughout the environment as a result of pollution from a variety of sources. Tunisian radish (Raphanus sativus) extract (TRE) is a known anti-oxidant and free radical scavenger that has been shown to help alleviate immune system disorders, including some induced by environmental toxicants. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential protective effects of TRE against Cd-induced immunotoxicities (and general toxicities) in situ. Cadmium chloride (at 2.5 mg CdCl2/kg BW) and TRE (5, 10, or 15 mg/kg BW) were given (alone or in combination [actually, in sequence of Cd and then TRE]) to rats daily by oral gavage for 2 weeks. Results indicated that treatment with CdCl2 alone resulted in significant decreases in plasma levels of total protein, triglycerides, creatine kinase, creatinine, IgG and IgA, T-lymphocyte sub-types (CD4(+), CD3(+), CD56(+), and CD8(+)), and in thymic and hepatic indices (relative weights). In contrast, CdCl2 treatment caused significant increases in serum LDH, AST, and ALT, in the formation/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and TNFα), and in the relative weights of host spleen and kidneys. Rats treated with TRE alone had no discernable changes compared to the controls with regard to all test parameters. Combined treatment of CdCl2 and TRE-at any dose-resulted in a significant improvement of all test parameters compared to those seen with Cd alone. These results illustrated (and provided further support for a continuing belief in) the beneficial effects of TRE in reducing the harmful outcomes of commonly encountered toxicants (like Cd) on the immune system and on overall host health status.

  16. Properties of lead deposits in cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Tatai, Yuri; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Hayatsu, Manabu; Ono, Manami; Suzuki, Suechika

    2013-01-01

    Various mechanisms are involved in detoxification of heavy metals such as lead (Pb) in plant cells. Most of the Pb taken up by plants accumulates in their roots. However, the detailed properties of Pb complexes in roots remain unclear. We have investigated the properties of Pb deposits in root cell walls of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings grown on glass beads bed containing Pb pellets, which are the source of Pb-contamination in shooting range soils. Pb deposits were tightly bound to cell walls. Cell wall fragments containing about 50,000 ppm Pb were prepared from the roots. After extracting Pb from the cell wall fragments using HCl, Pb ions were recombined with the Pb-extracted cell wall fragments in a solution containing Pb acetate. When the cell wall fragments were treated with pectinase (E.C. 3.2.1.15) and were chemically modified with 1-ethyl-3-dimethylamino-propylcarboimide, the Pb-rebinding ability of the treated cell wall fragments decreased. When acid-treated cell wall fragments were incubated in a solution containing Pb(2+) and excess amounts of a chelating agent, Pb recombined with the cell wall fragments were measured to estimate the affinity between Pb(2+) and the cell wall fragments. Our data show that Pb(2+) binds to carboxyl groups of cell walls. The source of the carboxyl groups is suggested to be pectic compounds. A stability constant of the Pb-cell wall complex was estimated to be about 10(8). The role of root cell walls in the mechanism underlying heavy metal tolerance was discussed.

  17. Effects of nitrogen-deficiency on efficiency of light-harvesting apparatus in radish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetner, M D; Kalaji, H M; Goltsev, V; Aleksandrov, V; Kowalczyk, K; Borucki, W; Jajoo, A

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen starvation has been stated to reduce chlorophyll a and accessory pigments, decrease photosynthetic efficiency, as well as modify chloroplast thylakoid membranes. However, the impact of N-deficiency on light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis has not been well understood. In this study, efficiency and structure of light-harvesting complex under N-deficiency conditions were investigated in two radish cultivars (Raphanus sativus var. sativus 'Fluo HF1' and 'Suntella F1'). Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis were investigated by measuring in vivo chlorophyll a prompt fluorescence signal. Acquired data were utilised in two ways: by plotting fast induction curves and calculating OJIP-test biophysical parameters. Detailed analysis of difference curves as well as OJIP-test results showed that major disturbances were associated with photosystem II and its subunits, including decoupling of light-harvesting complexes, dysfunction of oxygen-evolving complex, and reaction centres inactivation. The maximum quantum yield of photosystem II primary photochemistry was severely restricted, causing an inhibition in electron transport through successive protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane. Structural changes were demonstrated by recording images using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). TEM investigations showed intensive starch accumulation under N-deficiency. Rare thylakoid stacks distributed in tiny layers of stroma around grains and chloroplast periphery were observed in cells of N-deficient plants. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) on OJIP-test results allowed characterizing the dynamics of stress response and separating parameters according to their influence on plants stress response. 'Suntella F1' genotype was found to be more sensitive to nitrogen deficiency as compared to 'Fluo HF1' genotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Retinol, alpha-tocopherol and fatty acid content in Bulgarian black Sea fish species

    OpenAIRE

    Stancheva, M; Galunska, B.; Dobreva, A. D.; Merdzhanova, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure and evaluate the total lipids, fatty acid profile, retinol content and alpha-tocopherol content in the edible tissue of four commercially important fish species from the Bulgarian Black sea: Sprat (Sprattus sprattus), Round Goby (Neogobius rattan), Black Sea Horse Mackerel (Trahurus medditeraneus ponticus) and Shad (Alosa pontica). Fat soluble vitamins were analyzed simultaneously usi...

  19. Cutaneous pythiosis in horses from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, M C; Riet-Correa, F; Fischman, O; Zambrano, A F; Zambrano, M S; Ribeiro, G A

    1993-01-01

    Equine pythiosis was studied in five animals from two farms located in a swampy region of southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul State). Granulomatous lesions exuding necrotic material and containing a central yellow and firm tissue core, the 'kunker', were observed on the top of the nose of one horse, on the abdomen of two horses and on the hind limbs of two other animals. Direct microscopic preparations, histopathological examination of lesion material, and macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the isolates confirmed the diagnosis of pythiosis. Surgical intervention of the inflammatory processes, intravenous potassium iodide and topical application of copper sulphate were used without success.

  20. Cardiac and Respiratory Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Celia M

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory and cardiac diseases are common in older horses. Advancing age is a specific risk factor for cardiac murmurs and these are more likely in males and small horses. Airway inflammation is the most common respiratory diagnosis. Recurrent airway obstruction can lead to irreversible structural change and bronchiectasis; with chronic hypoxia, right heart dysfunction and failure can develop. Valvular heart disease most often affects the aortic and/or the mitral valve. Management of comorbidity is an essential element of the therapeutic approach to cardiac and respiratory disease in older equids.

  1. Staphylococcal septic arthritis in three horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, R J; Love, D N

    1979-04-01

    Three horses were diagnosed as having monarticular septic arthritis due to Staphylococcus aureus on the basis of culture of articular cartilage, synovial membrane and/or synovial fluid. The organisms were all well recognised human phage types and in two cases demonstrated beta-lactamase (penicillinase) activity. Details of case histories are presented and the bacteriological techniques and antibiotic management with cloxacillin, methicillin and penicillin discussed. Following treatment, sterile cultures of synovial fluid were achieved in all cases, but in two horses the infections resulted in degenerative articular changes. This necessitated arthrodesis of the fetlock joint in one case.

  2. Safety in the housing of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Checchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety within an equestrian facility is given also by the sizes of the places in which horses are lodged. The stalls are considered to be the basic modular element of breeding and hosting places, but in Italy there are no specific references about the most appropriate surface related both to different breeds and safety of the workers taking care of them. We sought to determine the size of individual spaces, based on the height at the withers of horses, and to formulate a specific forming and informing course for employees on the likely risks of contact which could generate traumatic events.

  3. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L

    2015-12-01

    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations.

  4. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been comm...

  5. Proximal interphalangeal arthrodesis in 22 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, T P; Bramlage, L R; Embertson, R M; Hance, S

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method of internal fixation technique for pastern arthrodesis. Pastern arthrodeses are performed commonly in horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern joint or, in cases of acute traumatic injury to the pastern, in which the weightbearing bony column must be restored. Chronic osteoarthritis of the pastern is a frequent cause of lameness in the equine athlete and is evidenced by chronic lameness localised to the pastern joint, and supported radiographically by periosteal proliferation and loss of joint space. Nonsurgical and surgical treatments have both been described in the literature. Complications following pastern arthrodesis have been reported on several occasions and appear to focus on excessive periarticular exostoses and increased time in a cast due to prolonged time to bony fusion. The hospital records of horses presenting for pastern arthrodesis to the Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital in Lexington, Kentucky, were reviewed and 22 met criteria for inclusion in the study. Horses with chronic osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint or horses with an acute traumatic injury to the pastern undergoing pastern arthrodesis with one of the following techniques were included in the study. Horses with severe comminution of the middle phalanx were excluded. Three 5.5 mm cortical bone screws placed in lag fashion alone or in combination with a 4 or 3 hole dynamic compression plate affixed with 4.5 mm cortical bone screws were compared. A lower limb fibreglass cast was applied in all cases. Period in cast, time to return to intended use, complications encountered and outcome were evaluated. Seven of the 8 hindlimbs treated with the combination technique became sound. Three out of 6 of the front limbs treated with the combination technique became sound. Four of the 5 horses with hindlimbs, and one of the 2 with front limbs, treated with screws only returned to their intended use. The type of internal

  6. Seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in horses in South of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraveji, M; Hosseini, M H; Amrabadi, O; Rahimian, A; Namazi, F; Namavari, M

    2011-12-01

    Neospora caninum, an apicomplexan protozoan parasite, is recognized as a major cause of abortion in cattle. However, limited information is presently available on the seroprevalence of Neospora antibodies in horses worldwide. The aim of the present study is to determine serological prevalence of Neospora infection in horses in Iran. Blood samples were obtained from 200 horses and tested for serum antibodies against Neospora spp. by the Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT). Antibodies were found in 64 (32%) horses being tested with titers of 1:80. This is the first serological survey for Neospora antibodies performed on horses in Iran.

  7. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez; Susy Mendez; Susana Dunner; Javier Cañón; Óscar Cortés

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds su...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in horses with septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jeremiah T; Brokken, Matthew T; Zubrod, Chad J; Morton, Alison J; Garrett, Katherine S; Holmes, Shannon P

    2011-01-01

    Fourteen horses with septic arthritis underwent high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Septic arthritis was diagnosed based on results from historical and clinical findings, synovial fluid analyses and culture, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, arthroscopic, and histopathologic findings. MR findings included diffuse hyperintensity within bone and extracapsular tissue on fat-suppressed images in 14/14 horses (100%), joint effusion, synovial proliferation, and capsular thickening in 13/14 horses (93%), bone sclerosis in 11/14 horses (79%), and evidence of cartilage and subchondral bone damage in 8/14 horses (57%). Intravenous gadolinium was administered to five of the 14 horses and fibrin deposition was noted in all horses. Other findings after gadolinium administration included synovial enhancement in 4/5 (80%) horses, and bone enhancement in 1/5 (20%) horses. The MR findings of septic arthritis in horses were consistent with those reported in people. MRI may allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of septic arthritis in horses as compared with other imaging modalities, especially when the clinical diagnosis is challenging. It also provides additional information not afforded by other methods that may influence and enhance treatment.

  9. Boots on horses: limb protection or hyperflexion training aids in the showjumping horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Showjumping riders regularly employ various schooling strategies to control the horse's jump stride kinematics (JSK). Strategies include plyometric training regimes with fences of different heights and widths set at specific distances. Gymnastic grids teach the horse to jump cleanly. Rapping, once used almost routinely, is no longer in vogue. However, the use of performance enhancing (PE) boots on the distal hind limbs to alter equine JSK has become popular. There are two broad categories of PE boots: weighted and pressure. Some riders use so-called weighted boots on the horses' hind limbs during training and in competition to improve the jump stride. The application of so-called pressure boots may be little more than an adaptation of this technique. It appears that the PE boots induce hyperflexion of the hind limbs and incline the horse to jump fences cleanly. In the absence of scientific appraisal, it is unclear if such boots are acceptable and innovative training aids within equitation.

  10. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena...... access during 3 min was given after completion of a predetermined number of responses on a panel. Fixed ratios (FR) of 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 responses per arena access were applied in a random order, one per daily test session, within each test week (Monday to Friday), and the number of rewards per daily...

  11. Equine herpes virus 2 infection in horse populations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszczyk, A; Cywinska, A; Banbura, M W

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2) infections in the horse populations in Poland was investigated. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of 139 horses were tested. The animals were divided into four groups: clinically healthy horses, horses suffering from respiratory disorders, mares with a recent abortion and horses with diagnosed ataxia. Thirty-four virus isolates were obtained from leukocytes of the tested animals by cocultivation with equine dermal cells and were identified as EHV-2 by PCR using primers for the gB gene of EHV-2 and/or primers for the sequence located upstream of the gene homologous to the equine interleukin 10 (IL-10) gene. These results indicate that EHV-2 is prevalent in horse populations in Poland. As the virus was most frequently isolated from horses with respiratory disorders its etiological importance may be considered.

  12. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen;

    2011-01-01

    Domestic horses are faced with social challenges throughout their lives due to limitations in social contact, space restrictions and frequent changes in social companionship. This is in contrast to natural conditions where horses live in relatively stable harem bands. Currently, little is known...... about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty......, to repeated regrouping. Compared to horses in Stable groups, more agonistic behaviour was shown by horses in Unstable groups (i.e. non-contact agonistic; F1,65 = 5.60, P = 0.02), whereas there was no treatment effect on other variables. The level of play behaviour appeared, however, to be more variable...

  13. Body conformation comparison of Czech and Polish Hucul horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Matoušová Malbohanová

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 17 body measures and 11 indices of body conformation on 209 breeding individuals of the Hucul horse were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Poland and the Czech Republic, sex (stallions and mares, age (5 classes and sire line (Gurgul, Goral, Oušor, Hroby, Polan, Pietrosu, Prislop. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by the GLM procedure. The main effect was the country of origin. Highly significant differences were found between both Polish and Czech horses in two thirds of measurements and in more than half of indices. The Czech Hucul horses are significantly higher, longer, wider in pelvis and have longer head than Polish horses. On the contrary to the Czech horses are Polish horses more compact, massive and have deeper chest. Their cannon bone in relation to height of wither is wider.

  14. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated.

  15. 哈萨克族舞蹈中的骏马艺术形象%Kazakh Horse Dance Art Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧婷

    2015-01-01

    Kazakhstan steppe culture dance with outstanding color. Horse artistic image is a product of the Kazakh dance. Kara pay Bel (black cursory) in the Kazakh nation has a profound cultural connotations,this original ecological folk dance is also included in the national intangible cultural heritage. I resolve "Horse Art image" from the perspective of sociology and dance to learn,think horses artistic image is characterized by a mirror grassland culture,is a tantalizing Kazakh dance temperament writing is the art of interpretation of the horses.%哈萨克舞蹈具有突出的草原文化色彩。骏马艺术形象是哈萨克舞蹈的产物。卡拉交勒哈(黑走马)在哈萨克民族中有着深刻的文化内涵,这种原生态的民间舞蹈也被列入到国家非物质文化遗产名录。笔者从社会学与舞蹈学的视角解析“骏马艺术形象”,认为骏马艺术形象是草原文化的一个镜像,是对撩人心扉的哈萨克舞蹈的气质书写,是对骏马情怀的艺术阐释。

  16. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Haeger-Eugensson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3. Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution.

  17. Metabolism of cycloate in radish leaf: metabolite identification by packed capillary flow fast atom bombardment tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisko, B C; Barnes, J P; Staub, R E; Walker, F H; Kerlinger, N

    1994-10-01

    The metabolism of cycloate, a thiocarbamate herbicide, was investigated in mature radish leaf. Twelve new metabolites were identified by liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis using fast atom bombardment and packed capillary liquid chromatography columns. Full-scan and tandem mass spectrometric methods were employed. Application of the on-column focusing technique resulted in identifications with injections of as little as 15 ng of metabolite (20 ppb in radish). This injection technique allows the practical use of packed capillary liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in sample-limited applications. Cycloate is oxidized to several ring-hydroxylated isomers that are subsequently glucosylated and esterified with malonic acid. Cycloate is also conjugated with glutathione. Metabolic hydrolysis of the glutathione conjugate formed a cysteine conjugate that is further metabolized by amidation with either malonic or acetic acid. Transamination of the cysteine conjugate gave a thiolactic acid derivative. Metabolites were also identified that were the result of both ring-hydroxylation and conjugation with glutathione. One of these, an N-acetylcysteine conjugate, is the first report of a mercapturic acid in plants. The structures of two of the new metabolites were confirmed by chemical synthesis.

  18. Structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible and resistant radish (Raphanus sativus L., var. oleiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Grymaszewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of syncytia induced by Heterodera schachtii Schmidt in roots of susceptible Raphanus sativus L. cv. "Siletina" and resistant radish cv. "Pegletta" was investigated. In the radish cultivar "Siletina" the syncytia most often appeared in the elongation zone of lateral roots. They were initiated in the procambium and pericycle but also included the parenchyma cells of vascular cylinder. In the susceptible cultivar "Siletina" the cells forming the female's syncytia were subject to hypertrophy. Their cytoplasmic density increased. The cytoplasm contained numerous organella. The proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum took place. Branched cell wall ingrowths were formed next to the vessels. In the male's syncytia the cells were only slightly increased. Their protoplasts contained few organelles. The cell wall ingrowths were poorly developed. In the syncytia of the resistant cultivar "Pegletta" there was only a slight increase of the cell volume. A well developed system of rough endoplasmic reticulum was observed in the protoplast. Distended ER cisterns contained fine fibrillar material. Material of similar structure also appeared in numerous small vacuoles. In resistant plants only some, not numerous, syncytia spreading in procambium fully developed and functioned long enough for the parasite females to mature. At an advanced stage of infection a well developed system of a rough ER was observed also in those syncytia and numerous vacuoles appeared.

  19. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF ECOSSE ENRICHED BIOHUMATES ON THE WORK OF A PHOTOSYNTHETIC COMPLEX OF RADISH PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisenko V. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we show the results of studying the influence of Ecoss enriched biogumat on the photosynthetic complex of radish plants. Seed treatment with humate allows plants to form more powerful root system and develop resistance to various diseases, they are less affected root and basal rot. Plants form a large leaf surface. In leaves we have increased chlorophyll content, they remain longer green, more intense and will accumulate in vegetation greater number of assimilant (carbohydrates, and ultimately increase the yield. More intensive work of the leaves apparatus also contributes to the reduction of nitrates in the production, which is especially important when growing vegetables, melons and potatoes. Humates have a positive impact on yields on soils of different fertility and the different value of the yield. This not only increases the yield of 3 - 5 kg/ha, but also increases the gluten content in grain of winter wheat by 3 - 4%. The application of humates has a high adaptability. Their use can be combined with seed treatment pesticides, spraying crops with pesticides, mineral fertilizers. Therefore, humates are widely spread not only in Russia but all over the world. We have studied the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids at leaf apparatus of radish plants, depending on the methods and doses of the processing with humic preparation

  20. Competition alters life history and increases the relative fecundity of crop-wild radish hybrids (Raphanus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lesley G; Snow, Allison A

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary impact of crop-to-wild gene flow depends on the fitness of hybrids under natural, competitive conditions. Here, we measured the performance of third-generation (F3) radish hybrids (Raphanus raphanistrum x Raphanus sativus) and weedy R. raphanistrum to understand how competitive interactions affect life history and relative fecundity. Three wild and three F1 crop-wild hybrid radish populations were established in semi-natural, agricultural conditions in Michigan, USA. The effects of competition on life-history traits and fecundity of F3 progeny were measured 2 yr later in a common garden experiment. Third-generation hybrid plants generally produced fewer seeds per fruit and set fewer fruits per flower than wild plants, resulting in lower lifetime fecundity. With increasing competition, age at reproduction was delayed, the relative number of seeds per fruit was reduced in wild plants and differences between hybrid and wild fecundity diminished. Competition may enhance the fecundity of advanced-generation hybrids relative to wild plants by reducing differences in life history, potentially promoting the introgression of crop alleles into weed populations.

  1. Genome-wide identification of microRNAs associated with taproot development in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuyan; Qiu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiaohua; Shen, Di; Wang, Haiping; Li, Xixiang

    2015-09-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth and development. To identify the miRNAs associated with taproot development at the whole genome level, we sequenced five RNA libraries constructed from radish taproots at different developmental stages and generated a total of 148M clean reads. Using an integrative bioinformatics analysis, 494 known miRNAs belonging to 434 families and 220 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Combining the differential expression analysis and target prediction, we found that 77 miRNAs were potentially associated with taproot development. Target transcripts generated significant GO terms relating to cell proliferation, root development and hormone-mediated signaling. The KEGG analyses revealed that plant hormone signal transduction, zeatin biosynthesis, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, cell cycle, MAPK signaling and p53 signaling were closely associated with taproot development. These findings will provide valuable information for further functional verification of miRNAs and their targets in radish taproot development.

  2. Pattern of growth and 14C-assimilates distributions in relation to photosynthesis in radish plants treated with growth substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Starck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of radish plants, with very thin hypocotyl and with a normal storage organ, the rates of photosynthesis, photorespiration and dark respiration did not differ. Therefore, the conclusion may be advanced, that translocation to the swollen hypocotyl is not determinated by the photosynthetic productivity, but rather the by storage capacity. To check it this is connected with an unbalanced hormonal content, plants were treated with lanoline paste, with IAA, GA3, zeatin and all three in mixture or with injections of GA3-water solution into the swollen hypocotyl. In young radish plants, with high rate of growth of aerial parts, treatment with the above mentioned substances stimulated 14CO2-assimilation and increased retention of assimilates in 14C-donors, probably owing to retardation of their senescence. It increased the competition for photosynthates between shoot and storage organ. In older plants, in the stage of accumulation of nutrients in the swollen hypocotyl, IAA +GA3+zeatin did not affect 14CO2-assimilation, but in plants treated with growth regulators separately, assimilation decreased; IAA and GA3 stimulated transport and accumulation of labelled substances in the swollen hypocotyl. On the basis of experimental data the conclusion may be advanced that responsiveness of the particular organs and processes to growth regulators depends on the stage of plant development. Phytohormone did not changed quantitatively the pattern of 14C-assimilates distribution. They stimulated processes with preference for particular stages of development.

  3. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  4. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  5. Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds.

  6. It's Time to Get Another Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Josue

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author comments on Peter Roos's article (this issue). The author sees a strong need to clarify whether the horse that is to be remounted is more and better English-as-a-second-language (ESL) programs or the goal of promoting bilingual education as a positive practice in the nation's schools or something else altogether. If the…

  7. Nuclear Astrophysics with the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spartá, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) represents the indirect path to determine the bare nucleus astrophysical S(E) factor for reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. This is done by measuring the quasi free cross section of a suitable three body process. The basic features of the THM will be presented together with some applications to demonstrate its practical use.

  8. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pizzone, R. G.

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach.

  9. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  10. People and Horses: The Risks of Riding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBenedette, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    The article looks at risks and benefits of horseback riding. Several risks can be minimized if riders take lessons, check riding equipment before each ride, wear proper headgear and footgear, and respect the horse's size and will. Medical guidelines for equestrian sports could help reduce injuries. (SM)

  11. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A

    2003-05-19

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U{sub e} was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments.

  12. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Baur, G; Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is of special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due...

  13. Theory of the Trojan-Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Typel, S

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S-factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  15. Horse Training and Management: Program of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Marvin

    This report on Lamar Community College's Horse Training and Management (HTM) program assesses the quality of the educational experience provided by the program, the quality of the faculty and students, institutional financial commitment to the program, contribution of the HTM program to state and local economic development, and external funding…

  16. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  17. Determinação da microflora em rabanetes minimamente processados Determination of microorganisms in fresh-cut radishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S del Aguila

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou comparar dois tratamentos de sanitização e identificar alguns microorganismos associados ao processamento mínimo da raiz de rabanete. Foram avaliados dois métodos de sanitização: 1 sanitização convencional: raízes de rabanete minimamente processadas em retalhos receberam uma única sanitização, por 3 minutos em uma solução de 200 mg L-1 de cloro ativo; 2 sanitização adicional: raízes de rabanete minimamente processadas foram inicialmente sanitizadas na "área suja", numa solução de 200 mg L-1 de cloro ativo por 10 minutos, para posteriormente ingressar na "área limpa", e receber uma segunda sanitização nas mesmas condições do tratamento 1. As análises microbiológicas foram realizadas em duas fases: a após o corte; e b no 10º dia de armazenamento a 5ºC (±1ºC e 90% (±5% UR. Para cada dia de análise foram utilizadas 4 repetições de 130 g de raiz de rabanete minimamente processada. As contagens de bactérias psicrotróficas no tratamento 2 mantiveram-se dentro dos limites aceitáveis. No tratamento 1 obteve-se, no 10º dia de armazenamento, 5,8 x 10(6 UFC g-1, equivalente ao limite máximo recomendado. Não foi detectada presença de coliformes e Salmonella em ambos os tratamentos. Conclui-se que uma primeira sanitização, com 200 mg L-1 de cloro ativo por 10 minutos, é recomendável para a obtenção de raízes de rabanete minimamente processadas de qualidade até o 10º dia de armazenamento a 5ºC, permitindo a comercialização do produto dentro do estabelecido pela legislação vigente de alimentos frescos.The present work was carried out to compare two sanitation treatments and to identify some microorganisms associated with fresh cut radishes. Two sanitation methods were evaluated: 1 conventional sanitation: fresh cut radishes received a single sanitation, for 3 minutes in a solution of 200 mg L-1 of active chlorine; 2 additional sanitation: fresh cut radishes were sanitated

  18. Characterization of radish mitochondrial atpA: influence of nuclear background on transcription of atpA-associated sequences and relationship with male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroff, C A; Apel, I J; Palmer, J D

    1990-11-01

    We have previously shown that the mitochondrial gene atpA, encoding the alpha subunit of F1 ATP synthase, is associated with DNA rearrangements and nuclear-specific transcript patterns in the male-sterile cytoplasm of Ogura radish. Here we present a detailed characterization of this gene from both the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) cytoplasms of radish to determine if it is involved in Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility. The normal and Ogura radish atpA loci are virtually identical for 3.8 kb, including a 507 codon open reading frame whose product is approximately 92% identical to other plant ATPA polypeptides. Rearrangement breakpoints have been identified 613 bp 5' and 1663 bp 3' to the atpA coding region. The 5' rearrangement breakpoint is located within a repeated sequence that has been associated with other rearrangement events in radish mitochondria. The previously identified transcript difference results from transcription originating upstream of this rearrangement site. Although the presence of this transcript is affected by nuclear background, analyses in several different sterile and fertile nuclear backgrounds indicate that the presence of this transcript is not strictly correlated with male sterility. In addition, normal levels of ATPA polypeptide are present in sterile plants containing the Ogura cytoplasm.

  19. THE COMPOSITION OF ALFALFA, WHEAT AND RADISH ROOT EXUDATES AND THEIR IMPACT ON RHODOCOCCUS ERYTHROPOLIS RCM АС-2017D BIOMASS GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Otroshko D. N.; Volchenko N. N.; Samkov A. A.; Khudokormov A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In root exudates of alfalfa, wheat and radish we have found 12 amino acids. As well as 5 organic acids were identified. In the variant with exudates of wheat as the sole source of carbon and energy maximum titer of microorganism Rhodococcus erythropolis RCM Ac-2017D were observed

  20. THE COMPOSITION OF ALFALFA, WHEAT AND RADISH ROOT EXUDATES AND THEIR IMPACT ON RHODOCOCCUS ERYTHROPOLIS RCM АС-2017D BIOMASS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otroshko D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In root exudates of alfalfa, wheat and radish we have found 12 amino acids. As well as 5 organic acids were identified. In the variant with exudates of wheat as the sole source of carbon and energy maximum titer of microorganism Rhodococcus erythropolis RCM Ac-2017D were observed

  1. Effects of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and physiological activities of radish (raphanus sativus L.) and the reduction of ultraviolet-B stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, J. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    The effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on early growth and photosynthesis in radish plant was studied. The seedling height of radish was stimulated in plants grown from seeds irradiated with the low dose of 10 Gy. The O{sub 2} evolution in the 10 Gy irradiation group was 1.2 times greater than in the control. The catalase and peroxidase activity of radish leaves grown from seeds irradiated with {gamma} radiation were increased at 10 Gy irradiation group as the superoxide dismutase activity of leaves was. To investigate the effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on response to UV-B stress, UV-B was given at the intensity of 1 W{center_dot} m{sup -2} to the detached leaves. Pmax was decreased with increasing illumination time by 76% in the control, while decreased by 75% in the 10 Gy irradiation group. The photochemical yield of PSII, estimated as Fv/Fm, was decreased with increasing illumination time by 75% after 4 hours while Fv/Fm in the 10 Gy irradiation group was decreased by 69% of inhibition, indicating that the low dose {gamma} radiation retarded the deteriorative effect of UV-B on PSII. The initial fluorescence (Fo) was slightly increased with increasing illumination time, while the maximal fluorescence (Fm) was decreased. These results showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth and the reduction of the deteriorative effect of UV-B stress on photosynthesis in radish plant.

  2. Selenium biofortification in radish enhances nutritional quality via accumulation of methyl-selenocysteine and promotion of transcripts and metabolites related to glucosinolates, phenolics and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Schiavon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two selenium (Se fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus, as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7d before harvest at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1,200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3 fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots. The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 microM selenate for one week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 microg after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or one week of 5-10 microM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes

  3. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  4. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A H

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5-10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized selenate to

  5. Inheritance of hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia in Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Robert C; White, Stephen D; Famula, Thomas R; Schultheiss, Patricia C; Hamar, Dwayne W; Bannasch, Danika L

    2005-03-01

    To assess heritability and mode of inheritance for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) in Quarter Horses. 1,295 horses with Quarter Horse bloodlines, including 58 horses affected with HERDA. Horses were classified as affected or unaffected or as undetermined when data were insufficient to assess phenotype. Pedigree data were analyzed to determine the probable mode of inheritance. Heritability was estimated by use of Bayesian statistical methods. Heritability (mean+/-SD) of HERDA was estimated to be 0.38+/-0.13, with both sexes having an equal probability of being affected. Results for evaluation of the pedigrees were consistent with a single Mendelian autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. HERDA in Quarter Horses is an inherited disease, and affected horses are more likely to produce affected offspring. An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance should be considered by people making breeding decisions involving Quarter Horses when a first-degree relative has been confirmed with HERDA or has produced affected offspring. In addition, breeders whose horses have produced affected offspring can reduce the likelihood of producing affected horses in the future by avoiding inbreeding.

  6. A web-based survey of horse owners' perceptions and network analysis of horse movements relating to African horse sickness distribution in Namibia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-06-01

    Africa horse sickness (AHS) is the most lethal infectious non-contagious horse disease and has accordingly been declared notifiable by the World Organisation for Animal Health. AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and causes considerable losses to the equestrian industry. The effect of diseases in livestock on socio-economic factors is well researched, but the effect of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of a disease is poorly understood. The purpose of the study was to assess Namibian and South African horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on AHS distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect information from horse owners in Namibia and South Africa. To that end 'Fluid survey' was used for survey development. The survey was launched on Facebook and the link shared to horse related focus groups in Namibia and South Africa. A total of 508 responses were collected during the survey period. Of the 417 completed questionnaires received, 22% were from Namibia and 78% from South Africa. The participants comprised of 71% social and 29% professional riders. The most popular precautionary measures used, in addition to vaccination, were chemical repellents (64%) and stabling of horses during dusk and dawn (59%). A network analysis was performed in Gephi 0.8.2.B to illustrate the movement of horses between countries and districts/provinces. Network analysis results indicate that areas with the highest movement of horses corresponded to the areas with a high occurrence of AHS. Although 93% of the participants were aware that AHS is a notifiable and controlled disease, the process and efficiency of reporting is mostly unknown. With this snapshot of horse owners' perceptions and the effect of horse movement on the distribution of AHS, it is clear that a more holistic approach is needed. To that end, all environmental and social factors must be taken into account in effective management strategies.

  7. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cadmium-responsive microRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Zhai, Lulu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Yu, Rugang; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is highly toxic to living organisms. To date, a number of conserved and non-conserved miRNAs have been identified to be involved in response to Cd stress in some plant species. However, the miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) remain largely unexplored. To dissect Cd-responsive miRNAs and their targets systematically at the global level, two small RNA libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and Cd-free roots of radish seedlings. Using Solexa sequencing technology, 93 conserved and 16 non-conserved miRNAs (representing 26 miRNA families) and 28 novel miRNAs (representing 22 miRNA families) were identified. In all, 15 known and eight novel miRNA families were significantly differently regulated under Cd stress. The expression patterns of a set of Cd-responsive miRNAs were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Based on the radish mRNA transcriptome, 18 and 71 targets for novel and known miRNA families, respectively, were identified by the degradome sequencing approach. Furthermore, a few target transcripts including phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1), iron transporter protein, and ABC transporter protein were involved in plant response to Cd stress. This study represents the first transcriptome-based analysis of miRNAs and their targets responsive to Cd stress in radish roots. These findings could provide valuable information for functional characterization of miRNAs and their targets in regulatory networks responsive to Cd stress in radish.

  8. Transcriptome profiling of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) root and identification of genes involved in response to Lead (Pb) stress with next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yinglong; Shen, Hong; Gong, Yiqin; Limera, Cecilia; Liu, Liwang

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb), one of the most toxic heavy metals, can be absorbed and accumulated by plant roots and then enter the food chain resulting in potential health risks for human beings. The radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important root vegetable crop with fleshy taproots as the edible parts. Little is known about the mechanism by which radishes respond to Pb stress at the molecular level. In this study, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based RNA-seq technology was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of radish roots and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during Pb stress. A total of 68,940 assembled unique transcripts including 33,337 unigenes were obtained from radish root cDNA samples. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 4,614 DEGs were detected between the two libraries of untreated (CK) and Pb-treated (Pb1000) roots. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that upregulated DEGs under Pb stress are predominately involved in defense responses in cell walls and glutathione metabolism-related processes, while downregulated DEGs were mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism-related pathways. The expression patterns of 22 selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR, and the results were highly accordant with the Solexa analysis. Furthermore, many candidate genes, which were involved in defense and detoxification mechanisms including signaling protein kinases, transcription factors, metal transporters and chelate compound biosynthesis related enzymes, were successfully identified in response to heavy metal Pb. Identification of potential DEGs involved in responses to Pb stress significantly reflected alterations in major biological processes and metabolic pathways. The molecular basis of the response to Pb stress in radishes was comprehensively characterized. Useful information and new insights were provided for investigating the molecular regulation mechanism of heavy metal Pb accumulation and

  9. 77 FR 43046 - Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Forest Service Lolo National Forest; Montana; Center Horse Landscape Restoration EIS AGENCY: Forest.... ADDRESSES: Send written comments to: Center Horse Landscape Restoration Project Leader, USDA Forest Service..., Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Purpose and Need for Action The Center Horse...

  10. Isolation and molecular characterization of theFLOWERING LOCUS C gene promoter sequence in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan-yuan; WANG Jing; NIE Shan-shan; HUANG Dan-qiong; WANG Yan; XU Liang; WANG Rong-hua; LUO Xiao-bo; LIU Li-wang

    2016-01-01

    Both bolting and lfowering times inlfuence taproot and seed production in radish.FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays a key role in plant lfowering by functioning as a repressor. Two genomic DNA sequences, a 3046-bp from an early- and a 2959-bp from a late-bolting radish line were isolated and named asRsFLC1 andRsFLC2, respectively, for they share approximately 87.03% sequence identity to the FLC cDNA sequences. The genomic DNA sequences, 1466-bp and 1744-bp, lfanking the 5´-regions ofRsFLC1andRsFLC2, respectively, were characterized. Since both of them harbor the basic promoter elements, the TATA box and CAAT box, they were designated asPRsFLC1 andPRsFLC2. The transcription start site (TSS) was identiifed at 424 and 336 bp upstream of the start codon inPRsFLC1 andPRsFLC2,respectively.cis-regulatory elements including CGTCA (MeJA-responsive) and ABRE (abscisic acid-responsive) motifs were found in both promoters, while some cis-regulatory elements including TCA element and GARE-motif were present only inPRsFLC1. These sequence differences lead to the diversity of promoter core elements, which could partialy result in the difference of bolting and lfowering time in radish line NauDY13 (early-bolting) and Naulu127 (late-bolting). Furthermore, to investigate the activity of these promoters, a series of 5´-deletion fragment-GUS fusions were constructed and transformed into tobacco.GUS activity was detected inPRsFLC1-(1 to 4)-GUS-PS1aG-3 andPRsFLC2-(1 to 4)-GUS-PS1aG-3 transgenic tobacco leaf discs, and this activity progressively decreased fromPRsFLC-1-GUS-PS1aG-3 toPRsFLC-5-GUS-PS1aG-3. Deletion analysis indicated that the cis-regulatory elements located at –395 bp to +1 bp may be critical for specifyingRsFLCgene transcription.

  11. Specific PCR detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani: a causal agent of Fusarium wilt on radish plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Hwang, S-M; Lee, J H; Oh, M; Han, J W; Choi, G J

    2017-08-01

    Fusarium oxysporum, a causal agent of Fusarium wilt, is one of the most important fungal pathogens worldwide, and detection of F. oxysporum DNA at the forma specialis level is crucial for disease diagnosis and control. In this study, two novel F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For)-specific primer sets were designed, FOR1-F/FOR1-R and FOR2-F/FOR2-R, to target FOQG_17868 and FOQG_17869 ORFs, respectively, which were selected based on the genome comparison of other formae speciales of F. oxysporum including conglutinans, cubense, lycopersici, melonis, and pisi. The primer sets FOR1-F/FOR1-R and FOR2-F/FOR2-R that amplified a 610- and 425-bp DNA fragment, respectively, were specific to For isolates which was confirmed using a total of 40 F. oxysporum isolates. From infected plants, the FOR2-F/FOR2-R primer set directly detected the DNA fragment of For isolates even when the radish plants were collected in their early stage of disease development. Although the loci targeted by the For-specific primer sets were not likely involved in the pathogenesis, the primer set FOR2-F/FOR2-R is available for the determination of pathogenicity of radish-infecting F. oxysporum isolates. This study is the first report providing novel primer sets to detect F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani. Because plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum has been classified into special forms based on its host specificity, identification of F. oxysporum usually requires a pathogenicity assay as well as knowledge of the morphological characteristics. For rapid and reliable diagnosis, this study provides PCR primer sets that specifically detect Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani (For) which is a devastating pathogen of radish plants. Because one of the primer sets directly detected the DNA fragment of For isolates from infected plants, the specific PCR method demonstrated in this study will provide a foundation for integrated disease management practices in commodity crops. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. STUDIES CONCERNING SOME TRAINING ASPECTS IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIŞ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Show jumping is a competitive international event, and is one of the world's mostpopular equestrian sports. There are many determining factors involved in theobtained results of a horse-rider couple. Always trainers and riders want to improvejumping performance and ability in horses. As a result the schedules of training aredifferent from horse to horse, from the competition season to the winter season, froma team to another of course all these linked to the level of performance. Thus, in ourcountry, many horse-people have gained knowledge through years of experience andword of mouth, and not through scientific literature. This is where science meets theart, and it’s up to the rider to adapt himself. The purpose of this paper is to analyzeand compare some aspects of the training programs in eight riding locations. Foreach base was registered the specific training program, the afferent training arenas,paddocks, other equestrian facilities and hygiene horse conditions with individual observations.

  13. Antimicrobial resistance in commensal faecal Escherichia coli of hospitalised horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Jill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalisation and antimicrobial drug administration on the prevalence of resistance in commensal faecal E. coli of horses. Faecal samples were collected from ten hospitalised horses treated with antimicrobials, ten hospitalised horses not treated with antimicrobials and nine non-hospitalised horses over a consecutive five day period and susceptibility testing was performed on isolated E. coli. Results revealed that hospitalisation alone was associated with increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multidrug resistance in commensal E. coli of horses. Due to the risk of transfer of resistance between commensal and pathogenic bacteria, veterinarians need to be aware of possible resistance in commensal bacteria when treating hospitalised horses.

  14. Evaluation of an intravenous catheter for use in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, B A; Meagher, D M

    1981-02-01

    A commercially available polyvinyl chloride intravenous catheter was studied in 9 horses for 3 to 10 days to evaluate the catheter's suitability for use in the horse, to develop a new insertion technique, and to establish a protocol for catheter care. Seven of the animals were clinically normal horses receiving parenteral nutrition; one was a horse with hypocalcemia receiving frequent intravenous injections of calcium gluconate, and one was a clinically normal horse receiving no infusions. The catheter dressings were changed every 48 hours, and an aspirate from the catheter and the catheter tip was cultured at the time of catheter removal. One catheter became infected following a break in the protocol. It was concluded that the polyvinyl catheter is suitable for use in the horse and that the proposed protocol for catheter insertion and maintenance may reduce the likelihood of complications such as catheter sepsis, thrombophlebitis, and embolism.

  15. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    Reasons for performing the study Inclusion of objective temperament tests at practical horse breeding evaluations is of increased interest. It has been debated whether such tests may involve human handling, since there may be considerable differences in horses' handling experience. Objectives...... of fearfulness. Known handlers may ‘mask’ behavioural responses of horses in fear tests and thus handling by a known handler during testing may not be appropriate for objective evaluation of fearfulness in a practical situation....... To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...

  16. An outbreak of equine influenza at a harness horse racetrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, M J; Frank, R A; Babish, J B

    1985-04-01

    An outbreak of an influenza-like illness affected approximately 1/3 of the 1050 race horses stabled at a standardbred racetrack and resulted in a 3-day suspension of racing. A/Equi-2 influenza virus was isolated from 1 affected horse and 8 of 10 horses sampled seroconverted. Threshold protective levels of HI antibody against A/Equi-2 influenza virus were not demonstrated in unaffected horses. Resistance in unaffected horses was assumed to result from other factors following previous exposure. Few of the horses had been vaccinated against equine influenza. It was felt that an outbreak of this magnitude might have been prevented if a vaccination program had been followed.

  17. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  18. Horses – A Natural Fit for Camp Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Galloway

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-H Member’s Horse Camp allows horse project members to enjoy their equine partner in a non-competitive, outdoor setting. Campers learn about leave-no-trace outdoor ethics, trail riding, maneuvering trail obstacles, equine emergency first aid, and low impact camping. 4?H has long understood that providing opportunities for youth to learn about things that interest them is just one aspect of the program. Project specific content, in this case horses, helps youth in 4?H programs to develop important life skills. In the positive atmosphere at 4?H horse camp, youth may feel a sense of belonging, and are provided opportunities to develop mastery, independence, and a spirit of generosity? which are all essential elements in high quality youth development programs. Horse camps are a natural extension of opportunities for horse project members, and they can be added to existing camps, or create new camping lessons.

  19. Colombian Creole horse breeds: same origin but different diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Mercedes Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%, followed by haplogroups A (19%, C (8% and F (6%. The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  20. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  2. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular.......2% and non-glandular lesions in 40.6% of the horses. The amount of starch in the feed (P = 0.006) and paternal stallion (P = 0.031) influenced ulceration in the non-glandular region only; it should be noted that our study does not allow for separating hereditary from environmental influences, as offspring...

  3. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  4. INFLUENCE STRES ON THE TRAINING PROCESS OF THE HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Halo; P. Strapák; A Hollý; Mlyneková, E.; E Kovalčík; HORNÝ, M.

    2008-01-01

    Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination) and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress), EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to str...

  5. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to...

  6. Daytime shelter use of individually kept horses during Swedish summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Hopkins, R J; Blomgren, E; Ventorp, M; von Brömssen, C; Dahlborn, K

    2015-02-01

    In Sweden, no provision for summer shelter to protect horses from heat and insects is required, although access to shelter for horses kept outdoors 24 h during winter is a requirement. This study investigated horses' daytime shelter-seeking behavior in relation to weather conditions and insect activity during a 2-wk period in summer. Eight Warmblood riding horses had access to 2 shelters of different design to test which shelter design is preferred by horses. Furthermore, rectal and skin temperatures and insect-defensive behavior were measured to test whether horses would benefit from the provision of shade. The horses were kept alone in paddocks for 4 d. During 2 d, horses had access to 2 shelters: 1) open shelter with roof and uncovered sides and 2) closed shelter with roof, wind nets on 2 sides, and opaque plastic opposite the entrance. Weather conditions (ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed) were recorded every 10 min. The number of insects (flies, mosquitos) was counted from insect traps placed in each shelter and outside. Behavior (shelter use, insect-defensive behavior, locomotion, grazing) was recorded at 5-min intervals between 0900 to 1200 h and 1300 to 1600 h and rectal and skin temperatures were measured at 0800 h, 1200 h, and 1600 h. Data were analyzed with PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX procedure for Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Ambient temperature ranged from 16 to 25°C (average temperature humidity index 65.7 ± 1.4). Five horses preferred the closed shelter and were observed inside up to 2.5 h continuously. Greater wind speed decreased the likelihood of observing horses inside the shelter ( horses were using the closed shelter ( 0.05). Results showed that horses made use of shelters during the summer even when weather conditions were moderate. A shelter with roof and covers on 3 sides was preferred over a shelter with roof only and can reduce insect-defensive behavior.

  7. Culling Rate of Icelandic Horses due to Bone Spavin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árnason Th

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A survival analysis was used to compare the culling rate of Icelandic horses due to the presence of radiographic and clinical signs of bone spavin. A follow-up study of 508 horses from a survey five years earlier was performed. In the original survey 46% of the horses had radiographic signs of bone spavin (RS and/or lameness after flexion test of the tarsus. The horse owners were interviewed by telephone. The owners were asked if the horses were still used for riding and if not, they were regarded as culled. The owners were then asked when and why the horses were culled. During the 5 years, 98 horses had been culled, 151 had been withdrawn (sold or selected for breeding and 259 were still used for riding. Hind limb lameness (HLL was the most common reason for culling (n = 42. The rate of culling was low up to the age of 11 years, when it rose to 0.05 for horses with RS. The risk ratio for culling was twice as high for horses with RS compared with horses without RS and 5.5 times higher for culling because of HLL. The risk of culling (prognostic value was highest for the combination of RS with lameness after flexion test, next highest for RS and lowest for lameness after flexion test as the only finding. It was concluded that bone spavin affects the duration of use of Icelandic horses and is the most common cause of culling due to disease of riding horses in the age range of 7–17 years.

  8. On the origin and spread of horse domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Warmuth, Vera

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, the origin of domestic horses has been the focus of research across multiple disciplines, yet many aspects of the horse domestication process remain poorly understood. One of the reasons for the difficulty in establishing a coherent scenario of horse domestication is that archaeological, mtDNA, and Y chromosome data have yielded ambiguous results, possibly because each class of markers reflects different aspects of the domestication process. In this thesis, I use large au...

  9. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; phorses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the relation of age of the horses and structure of the strongylid communities revealed that foals (horses (>16years old) were significantly less infected by large strongyles as compared to other horses. Species from the

  10. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  11. Fenbendazole pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and potentiation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellar, Q A; Gokbulut, C; Muzandu, K; Benchaoui, H

    2002-11-01

    The present study was designed to describe the pharmacokinetics and fecal excretion of fenbendazole (FBZ) and fenbendazole sulphoxide (FBZSO) and their metabolites in horses, to investigate the effects which concurrent feeding has on the absorption and pharmacokinetics of FBZ, and to determine the effect of coadministration of the metabolic inhibitor piperonyl-butoxide on the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro liver microsomal metabolism of sulfide and sulfoxide benzimidazoles. The effect of piperonyl-butoxide on the enantiomeric genesis of the sulfoxide moiety was also investigated. Following administration of FBZSO and FBZ, the fenbendazole sulphone metabolite predominated in plasma, and the C(max) and area under the plasma curve (AUC) values for each moiety were larger (P 4:1 to 1:1. It is concluded that in horses efficacy of FBZSO and FBZ could be improved by administration to unfed animals and coadministration with piperonyl-butoxide.

  12. Molecular tests for coat colours in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Colour phenotypes may have played a major role during early domestication events and initial selection among domestic animal species. As coat colours mostly follow a relatively simple mode of Mendelian inheritance, they have been among the first traits to be systematically analysed at the molecular level. As a result of the number of genetic tools developed during the past decade, horse coat colour tests have been designed and are now commercially available for some of the basic phenotypes. These tests enable breeders to verify segregation within particular pedigrees, to select specific colour phenotypes according to market demand or studbook policies and to avoid complex inherited diseases associated with some of the colour patterns. This paper reviews the relevance of the topic, describes all currently available tests for coat colours in horses and addresses also ongoing research in this field.

  13. A RACE-HORSE CALLED PHERENIKOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Henderson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aptly-named stallion Pherenikos (Victory-bearer raced and won for Hieron,tyrant of Gela (485 BC and Syracuse (485-467/6 BC. This is the only horse thatis named in the surviving victory odes (epinikia of Pindar and Bacchylides.1 Hemakes his first victorious appearance in the single-horse event, the κέλης, of sixlaps (just over 1 km in the hippodrome at the Pythia in 478, to which Pindar refersin P. 3.72-74, composed sometime after 476.2 This is probably the victory to whichBacchylides (5.41 refers when he states that Pherenikos won at Delphi before hisvictory at Olympia in 476.

  14. [HYPP--hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilmann, M

    1993-12-01

    A literature review of the clinical syndrome HYPP (Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) affecting Quarter Horses is given. HYPP is characterized by sporadic attacks of muscle tremors, weakness and/or collapse, lasting for variable periods of time. Diagnosis is based on physical findings in association with hyperkalemia. In horses with HYPP, the regulation of ion transport through the sodium channels in the muscle cells occasionally fails, causing uncontrollable muscle twitching. Further investigations into molecular genetics reveals a mutation in the gene responsible for sodium and potassium regulation. The identification of this gene mutation is the basis for the blood test used to diagnose HYPP. HYPP is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Treatment of HYPP attacks by intravenous application of calcium gluconate, bicarbonate and glucose results in rapid recovery. Consequent dietary management and daily administration of acetazolamide effectively controls the disease.

  15. Trimming and shoeing the chronically affected horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S; Ferguson, D W; Luikart, R; Ovnicek, G

    1999-08-01

    Several of the technical approaches applied to the foot overlap with regard to intent. Frog or solar support, for example, may be provided either to stabilize the distal phalanx within the hoof capsule or in an effort to unload regional pain arising from the solar surface of the foot. It is likewise obvious that some techniques such as lowering the heels to achieve phalangeal realignment and raising the heels to relieve deep digital flexor tendon tension are contradictory. In these instances, it is not that one technique is always correct but that differences exist among horses. Currently, it is something of an art to define what specific technique is needed or, alternatively, how to best apply a specific technique. As more facts regarding how the normal and foundered foot function, the farrier's role in the rehabilitation of affected horses is likely to increase.

  16. Actinobacillus lignieresii infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Baptiste, K E; Chirino-Trejo, J M

    1999-09-15

    A 10-year-old pregnant Norwegian Fjord horse was examined for gross swelling of the muzzle of 2 years' duration. Examination of biopsy specimens revealed diffuse dermal fibrosis, micropustule formation, and vascular thrombosis; large numbers of Actinobacillus lignieresii were isolated in pure culture. Prolonged treatment with i.v. administration of sodium iodide and oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole caused regression of the swelling and did not induce abortion. A 5-month-old American Paint filly was examined for swelling in the udder region. Bacteriologic culture of purulent material obtained from the left teat revealed A lignieresii. Treatment with oral administration of rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. To the authors' knowledge, these findings represent the first report of mastitis and chronic nasal cellulitis caused by A lignieresii infection in horses.

  17. Putative uremic encephalopathy in horses: five cases (1978-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, M A; Johnson, J S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Savage, C J; Fettman, M J; Gould, D H

    2001-02-15

    To determine historical, physical examination, clinicopathologic, and postmortem findings in horses with putative uremic encephalopathy. Design-Retrospective study. Animals-5 horses with renal failure and neurologic disease not attributable to abnormalities in any other organ system. Medical records from 1978 to 1998 were examined for horses with renal disease and neurologic signs not attributable to primary neurologic, hepatic, or other diseases. Signalment, history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, renal ultrasonographic findings, and postmortem data were reviewed. Of 332 horses with renal disease, 5 met selection criteria. Historical findings, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, ultrasonographic data, and postmortem findings were consistent with chronic renal failure. Swollen astrocytes were detected in all 4 horses examined at necropsy. A single criterion was not determined to be pathognomonic for uremic encephalopathy in horses. Uremic encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with evidence of chronic renal failure and encephalopathic neurologic sign not attributable to other causes. Astrocyte swelling, which was common to all 4 horses examined at necropsy, may serve as a microscopic indicator of uremic encephalopathy in horses.

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. INFLUENCE STRES ON THE TRAINING PROCESS OF THE HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Halo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Etological and physiological tests were realized on 48 horses. There were observed following activities: spontaneous kinetic activity, voice display; the elimination behavior (excretion and urination and motionless standing. The horses were observed in 40 minute periods during the morning hours. The horses were classed into the following groups: EHB+ - crossing more than 220 sq. per 40 min. (high sensitiveness to stress, EHB+/- - crossing 131 - 220 sq. per 40 min. (mean sensitiveness to stress, EHB- - crossing 130 and less sq. per 40 min. (low sensitiveness to stress. After the evaluating of mineral, energetic, lipid, nitrogen, and enzymatic profile of sport horses there were not observed significant differences from the reference values.

  20. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  1. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  2. Veterinary and Equine Science Students' Interpretation of Horse Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica; Martinez, Audrey; Bolwell, Charlotte

    2017-08-15

    Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses' welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students' interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses.

  3. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrickson Larry E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  4. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate.

  5. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  6. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Integumentary Disorders Including Cutaneous Neoplasia in Older Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2016-08-01

    Few skin diseases specifically or exclusively affect older horses and donkeys. Hypertrichosis (hirsutism) associated with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction is probably the most recognized and best understood exception and is the most common age-related skin condition in equids. Many other conditions are known to be more serious in older horses. Horses affected with immune-compromising conditions can be more severely affected by infectious diseases of the skin or heavy and pathologically significant parasitism. Neoplasia of the skin is probably more prevalent and worse in older horses, although many of the more serious skin tumors develop initially at a younger age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...

  9. Transport induced inflammatory responses in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely-Szponder, J; Bełkot, Z; Bobowiec, R; Kosior-Korzecka, U; Wójcik, M

    2015-01-01

    Deleterious response to road transport is an important problem in equine practice. It determines different physiological, immunological and metabolic changes which lead to increased susceptibility to several disorders such as pneumonia, diarrhea, colics, laminitis, injuries and rhabdomyolisis. The aim of our study was to look for possible relationships between transportation of female young and older horses over a long and short distance and an inflammatory state reflected by an increase of acute phase protein concentration, oxidative stress and muscle injury. The study was conducted on 24 cold-blooded female horses divided into four groups. Six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 550 km, six fillies aged 6-18 months and six mares aged 10-12 years were transported over the distance of about 50 km. Plasma and serum were obtained from blood samples taken before transportation (T0), immediately after transportation (T1) and at an abattoir during slaughter (T2). In these samples fibrinogen, MDA, AST and CK were assessed. Fibrinogen increased in all studied groups especially in fillies after long distance transportation, where it reached 205±7.07 mg/dl before transportation, 625±35.35 mg/dl after transportation, and 790±14.14 mg/dl during slaughter. MDA concentrations rose after transportation and reached the maximal level during slaughter. CK activity was more elevated after short transportation in younger horses, whereas initial activity of AST was higher in older horses. We estimated that intensified responses from acute phase, oxidative stress and muscle injury parameters indicated an inflammatory state.

  10. Genetic parameters for earnings in Quarter Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A P A; Curi, R A; Langlois, B; Silva, J A Ii V

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we estimated the heritability (h(2)) of earnings in the Quarter Horse in order to evaluate the inclusion of this trait in breeding programs. Records from 14,754 races of 2443 horses from 1978-2009 were provided by Sorocaba Hippodrome, São Paulo, Brazil. All ancestors of the registered horses were included in the pedigree file until the 4th generation. Log-transformed performance measures (LPM) were analyzed for animals aged 2, 3, and 4 years and during their entire career. The h(2) estimates were obtained using a multi-trait model and Gibbs sampling that included the effects of sex, year of race, and animal in all analyses. Five analyses were performed: 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of prizes, 1 in which LPM was divided by the number of race starts, and 3 analyses that included the number of prizes, number of race starts, and both (LPM_cNPS) as covariates. Analysis was performed with and without inclusion of the maternal effect. Models were compared based on the deviance information criterion and LPM_cNPS including maternal effects was found to be the best model. The h(2) estimates and standard deviation obtained using model LPM_cNPS were 0.19 ± 0.08, 0.21 ± 0.08, 0.22 ± 0.09, and 0.21 ± 0.07 for earnings at 2, 3, and 4 years of age and total career, respectively. Our analyses indicate that earnings are subject to selection and can be included in breeding programs to improve the racing performance of Quarter Horses.

  11. [Flunixin and its use in horses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaussaud, P

    1986-01-01

    Flunixin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, with a potent analgesic activity and a slight toxicity. It is largely used in horses, in the form of meglumine salt, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases or colics, and often identified in dopage cases. Physical and chemical properties of the drug, its pharmacological and toxicological properties, and its use in equine species are depicted.

  12. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-01-01

    A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm), reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their fo...

  13. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhintsev, L. D.; Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A.; Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  14. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spartá, R.

    2014-08-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2H(d,p)3H, 6Li(d, α)4He, 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6Li and 3He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6Li(d, α)4He reactions and considering the 2H and 3He break-up for 6Li(p, α)3He, 7Li(p, α)4He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies.

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Cesare; Lagutina, Irina; Duchi, Roberto; Colleoni, Silvia; Lazzari, Giovanna

    2008-07-01

    The cloning of equids was achieved in 2003, several years after the birth of Dolly the sheep and also after the cloning of numerous other laboratory and farm animal species. The delay was because of the limited development in the horse of more classical-assisted reproductive techniques required for successful cloning, such as oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo production. When these technologies were developed, the application of cloning also became possible and cloned horse offspring were obtained. This review summarizes the main technical procedures that are required for cloning equids and the present status of this technique. The first step is competent oocyte maturation, this is followed by oocyte enucleation and reconstruction, using either zona-enclosed or zona-free oocytes, by efficient activation to allow high cleavage rates and finally by a suitable in vitro embryo culture technique. Cloning of the first equid, a mule, was achieved using an in vivo-matured oocytes and immediate transfer of the reconstructed embryo, i.e. at the one cell stage, to the recipient oviduct. In contrast, the first horse offspring was obtained using a complete in vitro procedure from oocyte maturation to embryo culture to the blastocyst stage, followed by non-surgical transfer. Later studies on equine cloning report high efficiency relative to that for other species. Cloned equid offspring reported to date appear to be normal and those that have reached puberty have been confirmed to be fertile. In summary, horse cloning is now a reproducible technique that offers the opportunity to preserve valuable genetics and notably to generate copies of castrated champions and therefore, offspring from those champions that would be impossible to obtain otherwise.

  16. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  17. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  18. The Horse Doesn't Eat Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任民

    2004-01-01

    One day it is raining (下雨) hard, and a traveller isriding a horse in the rain. He is all wet and cold. Just then he gets to a country inn (乡村小店). The inn is very crowded (拥挤有)with people,so he can not get near the fire.What can he do? After a shorttime, he has a good idea.

  19. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  20. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  1. Effect of MgCl2 on Germination, Growth and Biomass Allocation of the Radish CV. "Cherry Belle"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Brandenburg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To determine the effect of MgCl2 on radish (Raphanus sativus, plants were grown in controlled environmental growth chambers and given one of three watering treatments; 0.01, 0.1 and 0 M (control MgCl2. Approach: At high concentrations (0.1 M, MgCl2 was toxic resulting in very low (44% germination rates and the subsequent death of all but three undersized plants over the 28 day growth period. Results: At lower concentrations (0.01 M, MgCl2 resulted in enhanced germination rates (5.55% and a mass increase (39.54% over the control. Conclusion/Recommendations: While low concentrations of MgCl2 resulted in an increase in total biomass, biomass allocation was shifted largely from roots to shoots (55.88% higher root/shoot ratio in the control.

  2. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  3. A comparison of the moment arms of pelvic limb muscles in horses bred for acceleration (Quarter Horse) and endurance (Arab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, T C; Cruickshank, S E; McGowan, C M; Stubbs, N; Wilson, A M; Hodson-Tole, E; Payne, R C

    2010-07-01

    Selective breeding for performance has resulted in distinct breeds of horse, such as the Quarter Horse (bred for acceleration) and the Arab (bred for endurance). Rapid acceleration, seen during Quarter Horse racing, requires fast powerful muscular contraction and the generation of large joint torques, particularly by the hind limb muscles. This study compared hind limb moment arm lengths in the Quarter Horse and Arab. We hypothesized that Quarter Horse hind limb extensor muscles would have longer moment arms when compared to the Arab, conferring a greater potential for torque generation at the hip, stifle and tarsus during limb extension. Six Quarter Horse and six Arab hind limbs were dissected to determine muscle moment arm lengths for the following muscles: gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius (medialis and lateralis) and tibialis cranialis. The moment arms of biceps femoris (acting at the hip) and gastrocnemius lateralis (acting at the stifle) were significantly longer in the Quarter Horse, although the length of the remaining muscle moment arms were similar in both breeds of horse. All the Quarter Horse muscles were capable of generating greater muscle moments owing to their greater physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and therefore greater isometric force potential, which suggests that PCSA is a better determinant of muscle torque than moment arm length in these two breeds of horse. With the exception of gastrocnemius and tibialis cranialis, the observed muscle fascicle length to moment arm ratio (MFL : MA ratio) was greater for the Arab horse muscles. It appears that the Arab muscles have the potential to operate at slower velocities of contraction and hence generate greater force outputs when compared to the Quarter Horse muscles working over a similar range of joint motion; this would indicate that Arab hind limb muscles are optimized to function at maximum economy rather than maximum power output.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir in the adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, L K; Bentz, B G; Bourne, D W A; Erkert, R S

    2008-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of equine herpes virus type-1 infections have stimulated renewed interest in the use of effective antiherpetic drugs in horses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of valacyclovir (VCV), the prodrug of acyclovir (ACV), in horses. Six adult horses were used in a randomized cross-over design. Treatments consisted of 10 mg/kg ACV infused intravenously, 5 g (7.7-11.7 mg/kg) VCV delivered intragastrically (IG) and 15 g (22.7-34.1 mg/kg) VCV administered IG. Serum samples were obtained at predetermined times for acyclovir assay using high-performance liquid chromatography. Following the administration of 5 g VCV, the mean observed maximum serum ACV concentration (C(max)) was 1.45 +/- 0.38 (SD) microg/mL, at 0.74 +/- 0.43 h. At a dose of 15 g VCV, the mean C(max) was 5.26 +/- 2.82 microg/mL, at 1 +/- 0.27 h. The mean bioavailability of ACV from oral VCV was 60 +/- 12% after 5 g of VCV and 48 +/- 12% after 15 g VCV, and did not differ significantly between dose rates (P > 0.05). Superposition suggested that a loading dose of 27 mg/kg VCV every 8 h for 2 days, followed by a maintenance dose of 18 mg/kg every 12 h, will maintain effective serum ACV concentrations.

  5. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  6. Trojan Horse particle invariance in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleril, C.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.

    2015-01-01

    Trojan Horse method plays an important part for the measurement of several charged particle induced reactions cross sections of astrophysical interest. In order to better understand its cornerstones and the related applications to different astrophysical scenarios several tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance for the binary reactions d(d,p)t, 6,7Li(p,α)3,4He was therefore tested using the appropriate quasi free break- ups, respectively. In the first cases results from 6Li and 3He break up were used, while for the lithium fusion reactions break-ups of 2H and 3He were compared. The astrophysical S(E)-factors for the different processes were then extracted in the framework of the PlaneWave Approximation applied to the different break-up schemes. The obtained results are compared with direct data as well as with previous indirect investigations. The very good agreement between data coming from different break-up schemes confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nucleus also for the present cases. Moreover the astrophysical implications of the results will also be discussed in details.

  7. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  8. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for fludioxonil in celery, celery leaves and radishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France, hereafter referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS-FR, compiled an application to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance fludioxonil in celery (stem and celery leaves. In order to accommodate the intended use of fludioxonil, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs from 0.05* and 1.0 mg/kg at the time of the application, to 1.5 and 3 mg/kg respectively. In addition, The Netherlands herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State, The Netherlands (EMS-NL, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRL in radishes. In order to accommodate the intended use of fludioxonil in the Netherlands, EMS-NL proposed to raise the existing MRL from the limit of quantification of 0.05 mg/kg to 0.08 mg/kg. France and The Netherlands drafted evaluation reports in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which were submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 1.5 mg/kg on celery (stem. In contrast, the intended GAP on celery does not necessitate a change to the recently amended EU MRL of 15 mg/kg set for celery leaves. No proposal is made for radishes as the submitted residue trials were not conducted in compliance with the intended GAP. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of fludioxonil in the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of fludioxonil on celery will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore, is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  9. Effect of GA3 on photosynthate allocation and invertase activity in radish plants grown on different potassium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Niemyska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of GA3 application to the swollen hypocotyl was studied in radish cultivars Saxa and Tetra Iłowiecka, supplied with various amount of K and grown in greenhouse in hydroponic culture. In low-K plants of both compared cultivars, strong depression of 14C02 assimilation preceded diminished export of current photosynthates. In plants with K+-deficit, transfer for 3 days from low- to high-K solution stimulated photosynthesis without effect on 14C-export. Three days after GA3 treatment of the swollen hypocotyl 14C02 assimilation was stimulated while 14C-retention in the blades was diminished, but only in low-K plants. In Tetra low-K plants with poorly developed storage organs, treatment with GA3 caused their better supply with current photosynthates at the expense of the roots. In the Saxa cultivar, the pattern of photosynthate allocation was only slightly affected by GA3 even in K-deficient plants; the swollen hypocotyl was already developed before K depletion from the nutrient solution. Nevertheless, in Saxa plants, GA3 prolonged not only growth of the storage organ, but also enhanced acid invertase which at that time was greatly diminished in low- and high-K plants. In contrast, the relatively high activity of invertase in Tetra cv. was not affected by GA3 treatment in low-K plants and was even depressed in high-K plants. This suggests that growth and accumulation of substances in the storage organ of radish plants and acid invertase activity greatly differ in their response to applied GAY

  10. Horses for courses:China’s equestrian scene——Posh families turn to horses,golf and piano lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Godfrey

    2004-01-01

    <正> Inever expected to ride a retired race horse in Beijing on Saturdays. But in this city of unknown equestrian quantities I have found some of the best horse-riding training and facilities I’ve ever encountered, anywhere. Most of the instructors come from Inner Mongolia, home to most of China’s horse culture. The horses meanwhile have been brought here from stables in Hong Kong and Australia. Many are retired racehorses, mild-mannered, gentle beasts who take students gently around the training pens. Lessons aren’t cheap by any standards but the qual-

  11. Effects of phenylbutazone alone or in combination with flunixin meglumine on blood protein concentrations in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Shannon K; Messer, Nathaniel T; Tessman, Ronald K; Keegan, Kevin G

    2006-03-01

    To assess effects of treatment with phenylbutazone (PBZ) or a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine in horses. 24 adult horses. 13 horses received nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in a crossover design. Eleven control horses were exposed to similar environmental conditions. Treated horses received PBZ (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days) and a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine (PBZ, 2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h, for 5 days; flunixin meglumine, 1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h, for 5 days). Serum samples were obtained on day 0 (first day of treatment) and day 5, and total protein, albumin, and globulin were measured. 1 horse was euthanatized with severe hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and colitis during the combination treatment. Comparisons revealed no significant difference between control horses and horses treated with PBZ alone. There was a significant difference between control and treated horses when administered a combination of PBZ and flunixin meglumine. Correction for horses with values >2 SDs from the mean revealed a significant difference between control horses and horses administered the combination treatment, between control horses and horses administered PBZ alone, and between horses receiving the combination treatment and PBZ alone. Gastroscopy of 4 horses revealed substantial gastric ulcers when receiving the combination NSAID treatment. Analysis of results of the study indicates the need for caution when administering a combination NSAID treatment to horses because the detrimental effects may outweigh any potential benefits.

  12. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inex

  13. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  14. Klossiella equi in the Kidneys of a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, R J; Dies, K H

    1981-01-01

    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  15. Klossiella equi in the kidneys of a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, R J; Dies, K H

    1981-05-01

    The protozoan, Klossiella equi was found in the kidneys of an aged Shetland mare raised in the Fredericton area of New Brunswick. This is the first published report of K. equi in a horse in Canada. The microscopic appearance of the parasite in the kidney is described. A brief discussion of other conditions seen in the horse is also presented.

  16. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc...

  17. The Horse and the Plains Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Raymond

    Produced by the Montana Council for Indian Education as part of its Indian Culture Series, the five short articles in the book explain how the Plains Indians got horses in legend and in fact. The stories describe the behavior codes, rules, cultural and social significance, and eventual cessation of horse raids, and the ceremony and tradition…

  18. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use...

  19. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of...

  20. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.