WorldWideScience

Sample records for horse dam 1990-2003

  1. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation Implementation Plan, 1990-2003 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    1993-03-10

    In this document the authors present mitigation implementation activities to protect and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan only addresses non-operational actions (mitigation measures that do not affect dam operation) described in the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' (Mitigation Plan) submitted to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in March 1991 and in accordance with subsequent Council action on that Mitigation Plan. Operational mitigation was deferred for consideration under the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR) process. This document represents an implementation plan considered and conditionally approved by the Council in March of 1993.

  2. Hungry Horse Mitigation Plan; Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam, 1990-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.; Marotz, Brian L. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT); DosSantos, Joseph M. (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    In this document we present fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives, and recommendations to protect, mitigate, and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. This plan addresses six separate program measures in the 1987 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. We designed the plan to be closely coordinated in terms of dam operations, funding, and activities with the Kerr Mitigation Plan presently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. This document represents a mitigation plan for consideration by the Northwest Power Planning Council process; it is not an implementation plan. Flathead Lake is one of the cleanest lakes of its size in the world. The exceptional water quality and unique native fisheries make the Flathead Lake/River system extremely valuable to the economy and quality of life in the basin. The recreational fishery in Flathead Lake has an estimated value of nearly eight million dollars annually. This mitigation process represents our best opportunity to reduce the impacts of hydropower in this valuable aquatic system and increase angling opportunity. We based loss estimates and mitigation alternatives on an extensive data base, agency reports, nationally and internationally peer-reviewed scientific articles, and an innovative biological model for Hungry Horse Reservoir and the Flathead River. We conducted an extensive, 14-month scoping and consultation process with agency representatives, representatives of citizen groups, and the general public. This consultation process helped identify issues, areas of agreement, areas of conflict, and advantages and disadvantages of mitigation alternatives. The results of the scoping and consultation process helped shape our mitigation plan. Our recommended plan is based firmly on principles of adaptive management and recognition of biological uncertainty. After we receive direction from the NPPC, we will add more detailed hypotheses and

  3. Hungry Horse mitigation: Aquatic modeling of the selective withdrawal system -- Hungry Horse Dam, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotz, B.L.; Althen, C.; Gustafson, D.

    1994-04-01

    Hungry Horse Dam presently releases frigid water from the bottom of the reservoir all year long. Cold water effects insect production and fish growth downstream. Rapid temperature changes of up to 8.3 C (14 F) have been measured in the Flathead River downstream of the South Fork confluence, controlled by dam discharges. Thermal effects from Hungry Horse Dam are detectable for over 64 Km downstream to Flathead Lake. The installation of a selective withdrawal structure on each of the dam's discharge penstocks was determined to be the most cost-effective means to provide constant, permanent temperature control without impacting power production and flexibility in dam operation. The thermal model presented herein revealed that fish growth potential in the river would increase two to five times through selective withdrawal, temperature control. Temperature control is possible over the entire range of turbine discharge capacity, with very little effect on power production. Findings indicate that angling would improve through higher catch rates and larger fish. Temperature control will solve the most serious impact to river health. However, flow fluctuations will continue to effect insect production and usable fishery habitat in the Flathead River. A natural thermal regime combined with moderated flow fluctuation would further enhance riverine food production, trout growth and recreation potential

  4. Movements of dams milked for fermented horse milk production in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Oyun, Tserenpurev; Ito, Takehiko Y; Purevdorj, Yadamjav; Shinoda, Masato; Ishii, Satomi; Buho, Hoshino; Morinaga, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Airag, (Fermented horse milk) is a traditional milk product in Mongolia. Herders separate foals from their dams and tie them at a milking site during the daytime to produce airag. To evaluate the effects of horse management on the movement of dams, we tracked three dams in a herd in camp 1 during summer and camp 2 during autumn of 2013 and analyzed their movements during the milking (daytime) and non-milking (nighttime) periods in an area famous for its high-quality airag. Dams were gathered every 1.7 ± 0.0 h between 07.46 and 15.47 hours at the milking sites and milked 4.6 ± 0.2 times/day during the study period (86 days). Daily cumulative and maximum linear distances from the milking sites were longer (P airag production and sustainable pasture use, our results provide insights useful for evaluating the effects of milking management on vegetation and soil in those pastures, for selecting the appropriate milking times and frequency, and for choosing the right timing to shift milking sites. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. A new view on dam lines in Polish Arabian horses based on mtDNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sell Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polish Arabian horses are one of the oldest and the most important Arab populations in the world. The Polish Arabian Stud Book and the Genealogical Charts by Skorkowski are the main sources of information on the ancestors of Polish Arabs. Both publications were viewed as credible sources of information until the 1990s when the data regarding one of the dam lines was questioned. The aim of the current study was to check the accuracy of the pedigree data of Polish dam lines using mtDNA analysis. The analyses of a 458 bp mtDNA D-loop fragment from representatives of 15 Polish Arabian dam lines revealed 14 distinct haplotypes. The results were inconsistent with pedigree data in the case of two lines. A detailed analysis of the historical sources was performed to explain these discrepancies. Our study revealed that representatives of different lines shared the same haplotypes. We also noted a genetic identity between some lines founded by Polish mares of unknown origin and lines established by desert-bred mares.

  6. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1991-04-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program identified mitigation goals for Hungry Horse and Libby dams (1987). Specific programs goals included: (1) protect and/or enhance 4565 acres of wetland habitat in the Flathead Valley; (2) protect 2462 acres of prairie habitat within the vicinity of the Tobacco Plains Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; (3) protect 8590 acres riparian habitat in northwest Montana for grizzly and black bears; and (4) protect 11,500 acres of terrestrial furbearer habitat through cooperative agreements with state and federal agencies and private landowners. The purpose of this project is to continue to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and implement specific wildlife habitat protection actions in northwestern Montana. This report summarizes project work completed between May 1, 1990, and December 31, 1990. There were three primary project objectives during this time: obtain specific information necessary to develop the mitigation program for Columbian sharp-tailed grouse; continue efforts necessary to develop, refine, and coordinate the mitigation programs for waterfowl/wetlands and grizzly/black bears; determine the opportunity and appropriate strategies for protecting terrestrial furbearer habitat by lease or management agreements on state, federal and private lands. 19 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  8. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1983 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1983-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This annual report covers the 1982-1983 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance, migration, spawning, egg incubation and fry emergence in the Flathead River system. This report also addresses the expected recovery of the mainstem kokanee population under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in 1982.

  9. Hungry Horse Dam fisheries mitigation program: Fish passage and habitat improvement in the Upper Flathead River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, W.L.; Deleray, M.; Marotz, B.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects

  10. Large Dam Development: From Trojan Horse to Pandora’s Box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Zwarteveen, M.; Bakker, K.; Flyvbjerg, B.

    This chapter argues that there are important distinctions between large dam development in the twentieth century and the twenty-first century by conceptually framing dams not as mere objects in space but also as agents in dynamic and contested spatial strategies. This is illustrated by two examples:

  11. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children or people with very little riding experience who are living in the household. Research how to properly care for your horse before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, ...

  12. Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, Patrick

    1986-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

  13. Epidemiology of subway-related fatalities in New York City, 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Nandi, Vijay; Vlahov, David; Bucciarelli-Prann, Angela; Tracy, Melissa; Tardiff, Kenneth; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Subway transit is a relatively safe mode of transportation, yet compared to all other forms of mass transit in the United States (U.S.), subways have the highest fatality rate. The aim of this paper is to characterize subway-related fatalities in order to identify opportunities for risk reduction. Medical examiner records for all New York City (NYC) subway-related deaths (1990-2003) were reviewed. Data were abstracted on decedents' demographics and autopsy findings, including laboratory findings. There were 668 subway-related fatalities, of these, 10 (1.5%) were homicides, 343 (51.3%) were determined to be suicides, and 315 (47.2%) were accidental. Although decedent characteristics varied between fatality categories, they were not particularly informative with regard to prevention. Prevention strategies that focus on structural controls are likely to be most efficacious in improving the overall safety of the NYC subway systems. These findings suggest that structural rather than individual-level interventions would be most successful in preventing subway fatalities.

  14. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  15. Dam! Dam! Dam!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCully, P.

    1997-01-01

    The author of ''Silenced Rivers'' a book questioning the desirability of dam building and hydroelectric power generation argues the main themes of his book in this paper. Despite being hailed by politicians as good solutions to power generation problems, and enthusiastically pursued in China, the U.S.A., the former Soviet Union, India and Japan, dams have far-reaching ecological and human consequences. The ecosystems lost to flooding, and the agricultural land use lost, the human cost in terms of homes and employment lost to reservoirs, disease from water-borne infections such as malaria, and the hazards of dams overflowing or breaking are all factors which are against the case for dam construction. The author argues the hydroelectric power may be renewable, but the social, agricultural and ecological costs are too high to justify it as a method of first choice. (UK)

  16. Effects of the Operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1984 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraley, John J.

    1984-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. This report covers the 1983-84 field season concerning the effects of Hungry Horse operations on kokanee abundance and reproductive success in the upper Flathead River system. This report also addresses the projected recovery of the main stem kokanee run under the flow regime recommended by the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks and implemented by the Bureau of Reclamation and Bonneville Power Administration in 1982. An estimated 58,775 kokanee reached spawning grounds in the Flathead River System in 1983. The 1983 spawning run was composed of 92% age III + fish, as compared to an average of 80% from 1972-1983. A total of 6883 kokanee redds were enumerated in the main stem Flathead River in 1983. A total of 2366 man-days of angling pressure was estimated during the 1983 kokanee lure fishery in the Flathead River system. Estimated numbers of fry emigrating from McDonald Creek, the Whitefish River and Brenneman's Slough were 13,100,000, 66,254 and 37,198, yielding egg to fry survival rates of 76%, 10.4% and 19.2%.

  17. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Zubik, Raymond; Clancey, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    Studies of kokanee reproductive success in the Flathead system from 1981 to 1987 have assessed the losses in fish production attributable to hydroelectric operations. We estimated that the Flathead Lake shoreline spawning stock has lost at least 50,000 fish annually, since Kerr Dam was completed in 1938. The Flathead River spawning stock has lost 95,000 spawners annually because of the operations of Hungry Horse Dam. Lakeshore spawning has been adversely affected because Flathead Lake has been drafted to minimum pool during the winter when kokanee eggs are incubating in shallow shoreline redds. Egg mortality from exposure and desiccation of kokanee redds has increased since the mid 1970's. When the lake was drafted more quickly and held longer at minimum pool. Escapement surveys in the early 1950's, and a creel survey in the early 1960's have provided a baseline to which the present escapement levels can be compared, and loss estimated. Main stem Flathead River spawning has also declined since the mid 1970's when fluctuating discharge from Hungry Horse Dam during the spawning and incubation season exposed redds at the river margin and increased mortality. This decline followed an increase in main stem spawning in the late 1950's through the mid 1960's attributable to higher winter water temperature and relatively stable discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Spawning escapement in the main stem exceeded 300,000 kokanee in the early 1970's as a result. Spawning in spring-influenced sites has comprised 35 percent of the main stem escapement from 1979 to 1986. We took that proportion of the early 1970's escapement (105,000) as the baseline against which to measure historic loss. Agricultural and suburban development has contributed less significantly to degradation of kokanee spawning habitat in the river system and on the Flathead Lake shoreline. Their influence on groundwater quality and substrate composition has limited

  18. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproductive Success of Kokanee in the Flathead System; Technical Addendum to the Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Tohtz, Joel

    1990-03-01

    This addendum to the Final Report presents results of research on the zooplankton and fish communities of Flathead Lade. The intent of the Study has been to identify the impacts of hydroelectric operations at Kerr and Hungry Horse Dam on the reproductive success of kokanee an to propose mitigation for these impacts. Recent changes in the trophic ecology of the lake, have reduced the survival of kokanee. In the last three year the Study has been redirected to identify, if possible, the biological mechanisms which now limit kokanee survival, and to test methods of enhancing the kokanee fishery by artificial supplementation. These studies were necessary to the formulation of mitigation plans. The possibility of successfully rehabilitating the kokanee population, is the doubt because of change in the trophic ecology of the system. This report first presents the results of studies of the population dynamics of crustacean zooplankton, upon which planktivorous fish depend. A modest effort was directed to measuring the spawning escapement of kokanee in 1988. Because of its relevance to the study, we also report assessments of 1989 kokanee spawning escapement. Hydroacoustic assessment of the abundance of all fish species in Flathead Lake was conducted in November, 1988. Summary of the continued efforts to document the growth rates and food habits of kokanee and lake whitefish are included in this report. Revised kokanee spawning and harvest estimates, and management implications of the altered ecology of Flathead Lake comprise the final sections of this addendum. 83 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. A retrospective survey of human hydatidosis based on hospital records during the period 1990-2003 in Ngorongoro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, E; Nonga, H E; Kynsieri, N; Cleaveland, S

    2010-12-01

    A 13-year (1990-2003) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in patients at Wasso hospital in Ngorongoro district, Tanzania. Hospitalization records were reviewed and confirmed cases of CE were classified according to ward of residence, age, sex, cyst location and type. A total of 171 hydatidosis patients were diagnosed and operated giving an average of 13 cases per year, equivalent to approximately 10 cases per 100,000 people per year. Cystic echinococcosis affected more females (59.1%) than males (40.9%). A significantly higher number of CE cases were recorded in individuals 30 years of age (2.3-9.4%) (P Ngorongoro district and female and youths are those most affected. These findings merit for more extensive epidemiological investigations of CE in human to better determine the prevalence, economic impact and risk factors for the disease in this district and other areas of Tanzania. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    Flathead Lake. Our results show that egg survival in the river has improved in response to stabilized discharge from Hungry Horse Dam. Drawdown exposure continues to limit egg survival in lakeshore redds. Study of the variability in growth and survival of young-of-the-year fish in Flathead Lake will further the understanding of factors which cause fluctuation in the kokanee population.

  1. Direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils, 1990 - 2003. Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoek, K.W.; Van Schijndel, M.W.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2005 the Dutch method to calculate the nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils has fully complied with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidelines. In order to meet the commitments of the Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, nitrous oxide emissions have to be reported annually in the Dutch National Inventory Report (NIR). Countries are encouraged to use country-specific data rather than the default values provided by the IPCC. This report describes the calculation schemes and data sources used for nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils in the Netherlands. The nitrous oxide emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, occur due to nitrification and denitrification processes. They include direct emissions from agricultural soils due to the application of animal manure and fertilizer nitrogen and the manure production in the meadow. Also included are indirect emissions resulting from the subsequent leaching of nitrate to ground water and surface waters, and from deposition of ammonia that had volatilized as a result of agricultural activities. Before 2005 indirect emissions in the Netherlands were calculated using a method that did not compare well with IPCC definitions and categories. The elaborate explanation here should facilitate reviewing by experts. Finally, the report also presents an overview of the nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils and the underlying data used in the 1990 - 2003 period

  2. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  3. Inter-annual variability in the thermal structure of an oceanic time series station off Ecuador (1990-2003) associated with El Niño events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Vargas, José; Schneider, Wolfgang; Abarca del Río, Rodrigo; Martínez, Rodney; Zambrano, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    Previously unpublished data (1990-2003) from a marine station located 20 km off the coast of Ecuador (Station La Libertad, 02°12'S, 080°55'W) are employed to investigate oceanic inter-annual variability in the far eastern equatorial Pacific, and its relation to the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. La Libertad is the only time series station between the Galapagos Islands and the South American coast, the region most affected by El Niño events (El Niño 2 region, 0-5°S, 90°W-80°W). Although configured and serviced differently, station La Libertad can be looked at as an eastern extension of the TAO/TRITON monitoring system, whose easternmost mooring is located at 95°W, 1550 km offshore. This study of El Niño's impact on the thermocline and its relationship to sea surface temperature revealed anomalies in the thermocline at station La Libertad some 2-4 months before their appearance at the sea surface. Inter-annual variability, namely quasi-biennial and quasi-quadrennial oscillations, accounts for roughly 80% of the total variance in temperature anomalies observed in the water column at station La Libertad. The coincidence in both phase and amplitude of these inter-annual oscillations explains the strength of El Niño events in the water column off La Libertad. We further show that anomalies in heat content appear 8-9 weeks earlier at 140°W in the equatorial Pacific (6550 km away from the coast) than at the coast itself. The arrival of El Niño, which has important regional social consequences as well as those for local fisheries, could therefore be predicted in the sub-surface waters off Ecuador by using these anomalies as a complementary index. In addition, the speed of the eastward propagation of these El Niño-associated anomalies' suggests the possible participation of higher-order baroclinic mode Kelvin waves and associated interaction processes in the eastern Pacific, which should be further investigated.

  4. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  5. NRC inventory of dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information

  6. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  7. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  8. Alpine dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Marnezy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Les barrages-réservoirs de montagne ont été réalisés initialement dans les Alpes pour répondre à la demande d’énergie en période hivernale. Une certaine diversification des usages de l’eau s’est ensuite progressivement développée, en relation avec le développement touristique des collectivités locales. Aujourd’hui, la participation des ouvrages d’Électricité De France à la production de neige de culture représente une nouvelle étape. Dans les régions où les aménagements hydroélectriques sont nombreux, les besoins en eau pour la production de neige peuvent être résolus par prélèvements à partir des adductions EDF. Les gestionnaires de stations échappent ainsi aux inconvénients liés à la construction et à la gestion des « retenues collinaires ». Cette évolution, qui concerne déjà quelques régions alpines comme la haute Maurienne ou le Beaufortin, apparaît comme une forme renouvelée d’intégration territoriale de la ressource en eau.Mountain reservoirs were initially built in the Alps to meet energy needs in the winter. A certain diversification in the uses of water then gradually developed, related to tourism development in the local communities. Today, the use of facilities belonging to EDF (French Electricity Authority to provide water for winter resorts to make artificial snow represents a new phase. By taking water from EDF resources to supply snow-making equipment, resort managers are thus able to avoid the problems related to the construction and management of small headwater dams. This new orientation in the use of mountain water resources already affects a number of alpine regions such as the Upper Maurienne valley and Beaufortain massif and represents a renewed form of the territorial integration of water resources.

  9. Construction of anhydrite dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, L; Francois, G

    1977-05-01

    To construct a ventilation dam, the road is closed with a fibreglass sheet onto which 3 or 4 cm of anhydrite paste is sprayed. The equipment necessary is described, and the cost is compared with that of an aggregate dam.

  10. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, M. M.; Bellmore, J. R.; O'Connor, J. E.; Duda, J. J.; East, A. E.; Grant, G. E.; Anderson, C. W.; Bountry, J. A.; Collins, M. J.; Connolly, P. J.; Craig, L. S.; Evans, J. E.; Greene, S. L.; Magilligan, F. J.; Magirl, C. S.; Major, J. J.; Pess, G. R.; Randle, T. J.; Shafroth, P. B.; Torgersen, C. E.; Tullos, D.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2017-07-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  11. Dams designed to fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penman, A. [Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Harpenden (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    New developments in geotechnical engineering have led to methods for designing and constructing safe embankment dams. Failed dams can be categorized as those designed to fail, and those that have failed unexpectedly. This presentation outlined 3 dam failures: the 61 m high Malpasset Dam in France in 1959 which killed 421; the 71 m high Baldwin Hills Dam in the United States in 1963 which killed 5; and, the Vajont Dam in Italy in 1963 which killed 2,600 people. Following these incidents, the International Commission for Large Dams (ICOLD) reviewed regulations on reservoir safety. The 3 dams were found to have inadequate spillways and their failures were due to faults in their design. Fuse plug spillways, which address this problem, are designed to fail if an existing spillway proves inadequate. They allow additional discharge to prevent overtopping of the embankment dam. This solution can only be used if there is an adjacent valley to take the additional discharge. Examples of fuse gates were presented along with their effect on dam safety. A research program is currently underway in Norway in which high embankment dams are being studied for overtopping failure and failure due to internal erosion. Internal erosion has been the main reason why dams have failed unexpectedly. To prevent failures, designers suggested the use of a clay blanket placed under the upstream shoulder. However, for dams with soft clay cores, these underblankets could provide a route for a slip surface and that could lead to failure of the upstream shoulder. It was concluded that a safe arrangement for embankment dams includes the use of tipping gates or overturning gates which always fail at a required flood water level. Many have been installed in old and new dams around the world. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  12. Mechanics of slide dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.

    1970-01-01

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  13. Mechanics of slide dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, G A [Engineering, Agbabian-Jacobsen Associates, Los Angeles (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Studies which promote the use of nuclear energy for peaceful projects in engineering are sponsored by the Atomic Energy Commission under the Plowshare program. Specific projects being considered include the construction of harbors, canals, and dams. Of these projects, perhaps the most difficult to accomplish will be the latter. This paper which is in two parts considers the problems which are associated with the construction of slide dams with nuclear explosives. It examines first the characteristics of conventional earth and rock-fill dams which are based upon proven techniques developed after many years of experience. The characteristics of natural landslide dams are also briefly considered to identify potential problems that must be overcome by slide dam construction techniques. Second, the mechanics of slide dams as determined from small-scale laboratory studies are presented. It is concluded that slide dams can be constructed and that small-scale field tests and additional laboratory studies are justified. (author)

  14. Tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, M.B.

    1999-01-01

    A guideline intended for conventional dams such as hydroelectric, water supply, flood control, or irrigation is used sometimes for evaluating the safety of a tailings dam. Differences between tailings dams and conventional dams are often substantial and, as such, should not be overlooked when applying the techniques or safety requirements of conventional dam engineering to tailings dams. Having a dam safety evaluation program developed specifically for tailings dams is essential, if only to reduce the chance of potential errors or omissions that might occur when relying on conventional dam engineering practice. This is not to deny the merits of using the Canadian Dam Safety Association Guidelines (CDSA) and similar conventional dam guidelines for evaluating the safety of tailings dams. Rather it is intended as a warning, and as a rationale underlying basic requirement of tailings dam emgineering: specific experience in tailings dams is essential when applying conventional dam engineering practice. A discussion is included that focuses on the more remarkable tailings dam safety practics. It is not addressed to a technical publications intended for such dams, or significantly different so that the use of conventional dam engineering practice would not be appropriate. The CDSA Guidelines were recently revised to include tailings dams. But incorporating tailings dams into the 1999 revision of the CDSA Guidelines is a first step only - further revision is necessary with respect to tailings dams. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  16. Public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Fourty public dams are managed on a real-time basis by the Centre d'expertise hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ). This presentation described the public dams owned by the CEHQ and discussed the public safety measures at the dams. The dams serve various purposes, including protection against floods; industrial or drinking water supply; resort or recreational activities; hydroelectric development; and wildlife conservation. Trigger events were also discussed, such as the complaint at Rapides-des-Cedres dam and deaths that occurred in 2004 when water from a dam was released without warning. Several photographs were presented to illustrate that people were unaware of the danger. Initiatives aimed at raising awareness and studying public safety issues were discussed. A pilot project was launched and a permanent committee was created to evaluate all aspects of public safety at the dams owned by CEHQ. The first tasks of the committee were to establish requirements for waterway safety barriers, both upstream and downstream, for all public dams; to establish requirements for safety signage for all public dams; and to develop criteria to decide on safety signage at each dam. figs.

  17. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. Spruce Lake Dam reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, G. [SGE Acres Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Barnard, J. [SGE Acres Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada); Vriezen, C. [City of Saint John, NF (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    Spruce Lake Dam was constructed in 1898 as part of the water supply system for Saint John, New Brunswick. The original dam was a 6 meter high, 140 meter long concrete gravity dam with an intake structure at its mid point and an overflow spillway at the left abutment. A rehabilitation project was launched in 2001 to bring the deteriorated dam into conformance with the dam safety guidelines of the Canadian Dam Association. The project criteria included minimal disruption to normal operation of water supply facilities and no negative effect on water quality. The project involved installation of a new low level outlet, removal of a gate house and water intake pipes, replacement of an access road culvert in the spillway channel, and raising the earth dam section by 1.8 meters to allow for increased water storage. The new raised section has an impervious core. The project also involved site and geotechnical investigations as well as hydrotechnical and environmental studies. This presentation described the final design of the remedial work and the environmental permitting procedures. Raising the operating level of the system proved successful as demonstrated by the fewer number of pumping days required after dam rehabilitation. The dam safety assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act began in April 2001, and the rehabilitation was completed by the end of 2002. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  20. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  1. Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  2. Dam safety operating guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, E.; Leung, T.; Kirkham, A.; Lum, D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of Ontario Hydro's dam structure assessment program, the hydraulic design review of several river systems has revealed that many existing dam sites, under current operating procedures, would not have sufficient discharge capacity to pass the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) without compromising the integrity of the associated structures. Typical mitigative measures usually considered in dealing with these dam sites include structural alterations, emergency action plans and/or special operating procedures designed for extreme floods. A pilot study was carried out for the Madawaska River system in eastern Ontario, which has seven Ontario Hydro dam sites in series, to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of the Dam Safety Operating Guidelines (DSOG). The DSOG consist of two components: the flood routing schedules and the minimum discharge schedules, the former of which would apply in the case of severe spring flood conditions when the maximum observed snowpack water content and the forecast rainfall depth exceed threshold values. The flood routing schedules would identify to the operator the optimal timing and/or extent of utilizing the discharge facilities at each dam site to minimize the potential for dam failures cased by overtopping anywhere in the system. It was found that the DSOG reduced the number of structures overtopped during probable maximum flood from thirteen to four, while the number of structures that could fail would be reduced from seven to two. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  4. Teton Dam failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snorteland, N. [United States Dept. of the Interior, Washington, DC (United States). Bureau of Reclamation

    2009-07-01

    This case summary discussed an internal erosion failure that occurred at the embankment foundation of Teton Dam. The project was designed as a run-of-the-river power generation facility and to provide irrigation, flood protection, and power generation to the lower Teton region of southern Idaho. The dam site was located next to the eastern Snake River plain, a volcanic filled depression. The foundation's cutoff trench was excavated into the bedrock along the length of the dam. The dam was designed as a zoned earthfill with a height of 305 feet. A trench made of low plasticity windblown silt was designed to connect the embankment core to the rock foundation. Seeps were noted in 1976, and a leak was observed near the toe of the dam. A wet spot appeared on the downstream face of the dam at elevation 5200. A sinkhole then developed. The embankment crest collapsed, and the dam breached. Peak outflow was estimated at 1,000,000 cfs. The failure was attributed to a lack of communication between designers, a failure to understand geologic information about the region, and an insufficient review of designs and specifications by designers and field personnel. No monitoring instrumentation was installed in the embankment. Approximately 300 square miles were inundated, and 25,000 people were displaced. Eleven people were killed. A review group noted that the rock surface was not adequately sealed, and that the dam failed as a result of inadequate protection of the impervious core material from internal erosion. 42 figs.

  5. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  6. Dams and Intergovernmental Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X.

    2012-12-01

    Gainers and Losers are always associated with large scale hydrological infrastructure construction, such as dams, canals and water treatment facilities. Since most of these projects are public services and public goods, Some of these uneven impacts cannot fully be solved by markets. This paper tried to explore whether the governments are paying any effort to balance the uneven distributional impacts caused by dam construction or not. It showed that dam construction brought an average 2% decrease in per capita tax revenue in the upstream counties, a 30% increase in the dam-location counties and an insignificant increase in downstream counties. Similar distributional impacts were observed for other outcome variables. like rural income and agricultural crop yields, though the impacts differ across different crops. The paper also found some balancing efforts from inter-governmental transfers to reduce the unevenly distributed impacts caused by dam construction. However, overall the inter-governmental fiscal transfer efforts were not large enough to fully correct those uneven distributions, reflected from a 2% decrease of per capita GDP in upstream counties and increase of per capita GDP in local and downstream counties. This paper may shed some lights on the governmental considerations in the decision making process for large hydrological infrastructures.

  7. Polyuria and polydipsia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C

    2007-12-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

  8. Small dams need better management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-03-01

    Many small dams around the world are poorly maintained and represent a safety hazard, according to Pisaniello et al. Better oversight of small dams is needed, the authors argue. The researchers reviewed literature, conducted case studies in four states in Australia, and developed policy benchmarks and best practices for small-dam management. Small dams, often just several meters high and typically privately owned by individual farmers, have historically caused major damage when they fail. For instance, in China in 1975, 230,000 people died when two large dams failed because of the cumulative failure of 60 smaller upstream dams. In the United States, in 1977 the 8-meter-high Kelly Barnes Lake dam failed, killing 39 people. Many other small-dam failures around the world have resulted in casualties and severe ecological and economic damage.

  9. Wynoochee Dam Foundation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    schists and in propylitized andesite volcanic rocks. Tests on chlorite-bearing graywackes (Lumni Island and Robe Quarry, Seattle District) and... propylitized chlorite-bearing andesites (Blue River and Lookout Point Dams, Portland District) have shown these rocks to be durable materials with only minor

  10. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  11. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  12. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  13. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dam spills and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.)

  15. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  16. Health impacts of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerer, L.B.

    1999-01-01

    Large dams have been criticized because of their negative environmental and social impacts. Public health interest largely has focused on vector-borne diseases, such as schistosomiasis, associated with reservoirs and irrigation projects. Large dams also influence health through changes in water and food security, increases in communicable diseases, and the social disruption caused by construction and involuntary resettlement. Communities living in close proximity to large dams often do not benefit from water transfer and electricity generation revenues. A comprehensive health component is required in environmental and social impact assessments for large dam projects

  17. Dam Break Analysis of Embankment Dams Considering Breach Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Shamsaei

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of dam's break, needs the definition of various parameters such as the break cause, its type, its dimension and the duration of breach development. The precise forecast for different aspects of the breach is one of the most important factors for analyzing it in embankment dam. The characteristics of the breach and determination of their vulnerability has the most effect on the waves resulting from dam break. Investigating, about the parameters of the breach in "Silveh" earth dam have been determined using the suitable model. In Silve dam a trapezoid breach with side slope z=0.01m and the average base line b=80m was computed. The duration of the breaches development is 1.9 hour. Regarding the above results and the application of DAM Break software the consequences of the probable break of the dam was determined. The analysis of the results of water covering of the city of Piranshahr located 12km from silve dam confirms that in 3 hours the water will reach the height (level of 1425 meters.

  18. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  19. The mathematics of dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmann, R. [Osterreichische Gesellschaft fuer Geomechanik, Salzburg (Austria)

    1997-05-01

    The safety of a dam is determined by its design, construction and supervision during operation. High arch dam failures have dropped dramatically since the early part of this century. An essential part of the success story relates to improved measurement techniques that can detect earlier unexpected behaviour that may lead to failure. (UK)

  20. Evaluatie Dam tot Damloop 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom-Baart de la Faille, Marije

    In het weekend van 20 en 21 september 2014 vond de 30ste editie van de Dam tot Damloop plaats. Onderzoekers van de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en Hogeschool Inholland hebben bij de Dam tot Damloop een evaluatieonderzoek uitgevoerd met als doel het vinden van aanknopingspunten voor het structureel

  1. War damages and reconstruction of Peruca dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonveiller, E.; Sever, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the heavy damages caused by blasting in the Peruca rockfill dam in Croatia in January 1993. Complete collapse of the dam by overtopping was prevented through quick action of the dam owner by dumping clayey gravel on the lowest sections of the dam crest and opening the bottom outlet of the reservoir, thus efficiently lowering the water level. After the damages were sufficiently established and alternatives for restoration of the dam were evaluated, it was decided to construct a diaphragm wall through the damaged core in the central dam part as the impermeable dam element and to rebuild the central clay core at the dam abutments. Reconstruction works are described

  2. AHP 47: RAG DRUG: A FAITHFUL HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  3. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  4. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pasquini; S. Rizzi; A. Falaschini

    2011-01-01

    The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994)...

  5. Damming evidence : Canada and the World Commission on Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.; Parkinson, B.

    2003-06-01

    Large hydroelectric projects have been met with strong resistance from affected communities, particularly indigenous groups who have been displaced from their flooded communities following the damming of a river. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formed in 1998 to review the effectiveness of large dams and develop internationally acceptable guidelines and standards for large dams or hydro energy projects. The Canadian government, through the Canadian International Development Agency, was one of many governments to fund the WCD. However, the authors argue that despite the financial support, the Canadian government was absent from any effort to follow-up on the recommendations of the WCD. The seven strategic priorities in the decision making process include: (1) gaining public acceptance, (2) comprehensive option assessment of water, energy, food and development needs, (3) addressing existing dams to improve the benefits that can be derived from them, (4) sustaining livelihoods, (5) recognizing the entitlements and sharing benefits, (6) ensuring compliance, and (7) sharing rivers for peace, development and security. This report offers a means to assess planned or existing dams and presents a set of guidelines for good practices linked to the seven strategic priorities. Ten case studies from around the world were presented, including the Three Gorges Dam in China. 154 refs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  6. Renewable energy policy in the UK 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Catherine; Connor, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The UK's renewable energy policy has been characterised by opportunism, cost-limiting caps and continuous adjustments resulting from a lack of clarity of goals. Renewable electricity has had a specific delivery mechanism in place since 1990. The Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) did not deliver deployment; did not create mentors; did not promote diversity; was focussed on electricity and was generally beneficial only to large companies. A new support mechanism, the Renewable Obligation, began in April 2002. This may result in more deployment than the NFFO, but is also beneficial to electricity-generating technologies and large, established companies only. The UK Government published a visionary energy policy in early 2003 placing the UK on a path to cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 60% in 2050. This paper argues that unless the Government 'learns' from it's past results, mistakes and difficulties, clarifies the reasons for supporting renewable energy and then follows through with a focussed policy aimed at delivery, diversity and the creation of mentors, it is likely to be no more successful than the previous 13 years of renewable policy

  7. A review of renewable energy in Canada, 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Rivers, N.; Muncaster, K.; Bennett, M.; Bennett, S.

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive database of renewable energy facilities in Canada by province and by resource type. It considers technologies used for power generation or cogeneration, renewable energy heating systems, hydrogen generation and transportation fuels. Renewable energy technologies convert naturally regenerating resources into useful energy such as electricity, thermal energy, hydrogen or bio-fuels. The database contains information on renewable power operations in Canada over a scale of 100 kilowatts of rated capacity. Smaller applications have been included for run-of-river, hydro, earth, wind and solar power. There are 753 records for renewable energy facilities in Canada, including wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 753 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. Canada currently has an installed electrical capacity of 115 GW, of which renewable energy sources constitute 76 per cent with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy in its installed electrical capacity. Approximately 40 per cent Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 15 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Most of the installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities and a small percentage is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, aluminium companies, pulp and paper companies or diversified electricity generators. It is expected that interest in renewable energy will grow with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Olympic Dam Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold-silver deposit in South Australia was discovered in 1975. The Mine is located 520 kilometres NNW of Adelaide, in South Australia. Following a six year period of intensive investigation and assessment of all the aspects required for the development of the deposit, the Joint Venturers decided in December, 1985, to proceed with the project. Milling of ore commenced in June 1988 and final products are cathode copper, uranium ore concentrate (yellow cake), and refined gold and silver. Anticipated production, from treating approximately 1.5 million tonnes of ore, in normal production years, is expected to be 45,000 tonnes of copper, 1,600 tonnes of yellow cake (1350 tonnes of Uranium), 25,000 ounces of gold and 500,000 ounces of silver. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Rehabilitation at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.; Middleton, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rehabilitation work on areas denuded of vegetation during the exploration phase of the Olympic Dam project was used to test various methods for regeneration of vegetation cover in the arid zone. The test work carried out on drill pads and access tracks has indicated that, with adequate site preparation, natural regeneration is the most economical and effective method to ensure post-operational stability of the affected land-forms. An on-going monitoring regime, utilising a computer data base, has been set up to allow year-to-year comparison of rehabilitation effectiveness. The database also provides a catalogue of initial colonising plants and a measure of variations in species diversity with time

  10. Deformation performance of Waba Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salloum, T.; Bhardwaj, V.; Hassan, P. [Ontario Power Generation, Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON (Canada); Cragg, C. [Cragg Consulting Services, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described the performance of the Waba Dam which is being monitored as part of Ontario Power Generation's Dam Safety Program. It described the deformations that have been observed in this 3600 ft long earthfill dam which lies on marine clay in eastern Ontario. An extensive instrumentation program, including foundation settlement gauges, surface monuments, slope inclinometers, load cells and piezometers has been in effect since the construction of the dam in 1975. Significant settlement has occurred at Waba Dam since its construction. Wide berms were provided upstream and downstream beyond the slopes of the main fill to ensure stability of the dyke on the soft clay foundation and the crest elevations were designed to allow for the expected settlement in the foundation which would be overstressed by the dam loading. Based on current settlements, future settlements are predicted based on Asaoka's method. Inclinometer measurements have shown a foundation lateral spreading of 12 in. The lateral versus vertical deformations were found to be comparable to well behaving embankments reported in the literature. These analyses indicate that Waba Dam is performing well and should continue to perform well into the future. 8 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  11. Public safety around dams guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, T [Canadian Dam Association, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed Canadian and international initiatives for improving dam safety and described some of the drivers for the development of new Canadian Dam Association (CDA) public safety guidelines for dams. The CDA guidelines were divided into the following 3 principal sections: (1) managed system elements, (2) risk assessment and management, and (3) technical bulletins. Public and media responses to the drownings have called for improved safety guidelines. While the public remains unaware of the hazards of dams, public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. Guidelines are needed for dam owners in order to provide due diligence. Various organizations in Canada are preparing technical and public safety dam guidelines. CDA guidelines have also been prepared for signage, booms and buoys, and audible and visual alerts bulletins. Working groups are also discussing recommended practices for spill procedures, spillways and the role of professional engineers in ensuring public safety. Methods of assessing risk were also reviewed. Managed system elements for risk assessment and public interactions were also discussed, and stepped control measures were presented. tabs., figs.

  12. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2009-08-06

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  13. Hungry Horse Mitigation : Flathead Lake : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les [Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    2008-12-22

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the 'Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research

  14. Proceedings of the Canadian Dam Association's 2006 annual conference: dams: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed particular technical challenges regarding the operation of dams with particular focus on best practices for improving dam management and safety. It featured 4 workshops and a technical program led by experts on dams and tailings facilities that addressed topics such as dam construction, design and rehabilitation; dam management in a hydrological uncertainty context; monitoring, instrumentation and maintenance; dam behaviour; dam safety, dam failure and practical approaches to emergency preparedness planning for dam owners; historical aspects and environmental issues and conflicting water use. Recent developments in dam construction were reviewed along with discharge and debris management, tailings dam issues, asset management, seismic issues, public safety, seepage monitoring, flow control, dam rehabilitation, concrete testing, hydrotechnical issues, risk assessment methodology, and dam safety guidelines for extreme flood analyses and their applications. All 80 presentations from this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  16. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented

  17. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines, is...

  18. Perspectives on dam safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian dam safety issues were reviewed from the perspective of a water resources engineer who is not a dam safety practitioner. Several external factors affecting dam safety were identified along with perceived problems in dam safety administration. The author claims that the main weakness in safety practices can be attributed to provincial oversights and lack of federal engagement. Some additions to the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines were proposed to address these weaknesses. Canada has hundreds of large dams and high hazard dams whose failure would result in severe downstream consequences. The safety of dams built on boundary waters shared with the United States have gained particular attention from the International Joint Commission. This paper also examined safety criteria for concerns such as aging dams, sabotage and global climate change that may compromise the safety of a dam. 26 refs

  19. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  20. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  1. Dams and Levees: Safety Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, N. T.

    2017-12-01

    The nation's flood risk is increasing. The condition of U.S. dams and levees contributes to that risk. Dams and levee owners are responsible for the safety, maintenance, and rehabilitation of their facilities. Dams-Of the more than 90,000 dams in the United States, about 4% are federally owned and operated; 96% are owned by state and local governments, public utilities, or private companies. States regulate dams that are not federally owned. The number of high-hazard dams (i.e., dams whose failure would likely result in the loss of human life) has increased in the past decade. Roughly 1,780 state-regulated, high-hazard facilities with structural ratings of poor or unsatisfactory need rehabilitation. Levees-There are approximately 100,000 miles of levees in the nation; most levees are owned and maintained by municipalities and agricultural districts. Few states have levee safety programs. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) inspects 15,000 miles of levees, including levees that it owns and local levees participating in a federal program to assist with certain post-flood repairs. Information is limited on how regularly other levees are inspected. The consequence of a breach or failure is another aspect of risk. State and local governments have significant authority over land use and development, which can shape the social and economic impacts of a breach or failure; they also lead on emergency planning and related outreach. To date, federal dam and levee safety efforts have consisted primarily of (1) support for state dam safety standards and programs, (2) investments at federally owned dams and levees, and (3) since 2007, creation of a national levee database and enhanced efforts and procedures for Corps levee inspections and assessments. In Public Law 113-121, enacted in 2014, Congress (1) directed the Corps to develop voluntary guidelines for levee safety and an associated hazard potential classification system for levees, and (2) authorized support for the

  2. Grouting Applications in Cindere Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devrim ALKAYA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is one of the most popular method to control the water leakage in fill dam constructions. With this regard this method is widely used in all the world. Geological and geotechnical properties of rock are important parameters affect the design of grouting. In this study, geotechnical properties of Cindere Dam's base rock and the grouting prosedure have been investigated with grouting pressure.

  3. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  4. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  5. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  6. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  7. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, J.P.; Barber, S.M.; Bailey, J.V.; Fretz, P.B.; Pharr, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  8. The immune response of horses to tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, B C; Knoetze, P C

    1979-12-01

    An intramuscular injection of 8-16 Lf tetanus toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion protected adult horses against tetanus for at least 128 weeks. A booster dose of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution protected them for a further period of at least 3 1/2 years. Colostral immunity protected foals for at least 10 weeks. An intramuscular injection of 8 Lf toxoid in water-in-oil emulsion given to foals from immune dams when they were 10-18 weeks old did not elicit any antibody response. They did respond, however, to a booster injection of 8 Lf toxoid in aqueous solution given 12 weeks after the first dose. New-born foals were shown to be inherently unable to respond to an injection of tetanus toxoid.

  9. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  10. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  11. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W

    2011-11-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  12. Dams and Obstructions along Iowa's Canoe Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This dataset represents obstruction to canoe and boat users of the canoe routes of Iowa. This may represent actual dams, rock dams (natural or man made), large...

  13. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  14. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  15. Technical bulletin : structural considerations for dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This technical bulletin discussed issues related to the safety assessment of concrete water-retaining structures and timber dams. Structures reviewed in the paper included gravity dams; buttress dams; arch dams; spillway structures; intake structures; power plants; roller compacted concrete dams; and timber dams. A variety of issues related to the loss of cohesive bond and discontinuities in bedrock foundations were reviewed with reference to issues related to compressive strength, tensile strength, and shear strength. Static failure modes and failure mechanisms related to dam failures were also described. Visual indicators for potential failures include abutment and foundation movement, seepage, and structure movements. Loading combinations were discussed, and performance indicators for gravity dams were provided. Methods of analysis for considering load characteristics, structure types and geological conditions were also discussed. Modelling techniques for finite element analysis were also included. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  17. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Bar Dams AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority. ACTION: Issuance of Record of Decision. SUMMARY: This... the dam safety modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams. The notice of... Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams was published in the Federal Register on May 31, 2013. This...

  18. WinDAM C earthen embankment internal erosion analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two primary causes of dam failure are overtopping and internal erosion. For the purpose of evaluating dam safety for existing earthen embankment dams and proposed earthen embankment dams, Windows Dam Analysis Modules C (WinDAM C) software will simulate either internal erosion or erosion resulting f...

  19. EVALUASI KEAMANAN DAM JATILUHUR BERBASIS INDEKS RESIKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazbek Ishbaev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dams have very important roles to agricultural activities. Especially, West Java with 240,000 hectares of agricultural land, needs a good dam structure that can be used sustainably. Jatiluhur dam in Purwakarta, West Java is one of big dams in Indonesia which has important rules not only for Purwakarta but also for Jakarta, Karawang and Bekasi residents. A study and observation about safety and dam stability is needed to prevent any damage. The purpose of this research were to identify parameters that influenced dam safety and to evaluate dam reliability based on index tools. Analysis was done using risk index tools. The result showed that the condition of the dam of Jatiluhur is still satisfied with indicators, "Idam"-750. The total index risk was 127.22 and the safety factor was 83.04 out of 100. Therefore, Jatiluhur dam could be classified as safe and no need for particular treatments. Jatiluhur dam can be operated in normal condition or abnormal condition with periodic monitoring. Keywords: dam safety, evaluation, Jatiluhur Dam, risk index tools

  20. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  1. 78 FR 62627 - Sam Rayburn Dam Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ..., Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative, Inc. (Contract No... Schedule SRD-08, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative... ADMINISTRATION RATE SCHEDULE SRD-13 \\1\\ WHOLESALE RATES FOR HYDRO POWER AND ENERGY SOLD TO SAM RAYBURN DAM...

  2. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  3. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  4. Morphological evolution of Bardigiano horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bardigiano horse is a local breed of the province of Parma. Since the institution of the Stud Book in 1977, the breed has improved its diffusion and is currently present with 110 stallions and over 1700 mares in 43 provinces in Italy and beyond that in Germany, Switzerland and Hungary.

  5. Dam's design continues throughout construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara E, R; Wulff, J G

    1979-11-01

    In spite of adverse site conditions, Arenal dam in Costa Rica was completed a year ahead of schedule. Historical data on local earthquake activity which was available in unusual detail reduced some uncertainties in design information. Other uncertainties regarding the complex foundation conditions were resolved as excavation and construction progressed.

  6. Large dams and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazelais, N.

    2003-01-01

    In July 1996, Quebec's Saguenay region was subjected to intensive rainfall which caused severe floods and uncontrolled release of several reservoirs, resulting in extensive damage to dam structures and reservoirs. The probability of occurrence for that disaster was 1:10,000. Following the disaster, the Quebec government established a dam management body entitled the Commission scientifique et technique sur la gestion des barrages, which pointed out several safety shortcomings of existing dams. Many were either very old or had undergone significant function change without being subsequently re-evaluated. A report by the Commission stated that damage following the floods could have been limited if the design and operating standards of the dams had been more stringent. A Dam Safety Act was adopted by the Quebec National Assembly on May 30, 2000 following recommendations to retain safer structures. The Act demands regular reporting of operating procedures. Seismic activity was noted as being a topic that requires in-depth examination since Quebec's St. Lawrence Valley, particularly the Charlevoix region, is one of Canada's largest seismic zones. The other is on the west coast in British Columbia. Earthquakes in Quebec are less intense than the ones in British Columbia, but they have higher frequency content which exerts a quasi-resonance wave effect which impacts roads, bridges, buildings and hydroelectric generating facilities. Hydro-Quebec is a public utility which owns 563 retaining structures, of which 228 are ranked as large dams that measure more than 15 metres high, 400 metres long and with a reservoir capacity of more than 1 million cubic metres of water. Hydro-Quebec addresses hydrological, seismic, technological and human risks through a dam safety procedure that includes structured plans for choosing best alternatives through staged exercises. Hazard levels are minimized through the adoption of emergency, prevention and alleviation measures. The utility

  7. Assessing Risks of Mine Tailing Dam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    The consequences of tailings dam failures can be catastrophic for communities and ecosystems in the vicinity of the dams. The failure of the Fundão tailings dam at the Samarco mine in 2015 killed 19 people with severe consequences for the environment. The financial and legal consequences of a tailings dam failure can also be significant for the mining companies. For the Fundão tailings dam, the company had to pay 6 billion dollars in fines and twenty-one executives were charged with qualified murder. There are tenths of thousands of active, inactive, and abandoned tailings dams in the world and there is a need to better understand the hazards posed by these structures to downstream populations and ecosystems. A challenge to assess the risks of tailings dams in a large scale is that many of them are not registered in publicly available databases and there is little information about their current physical state. Additionally, hazard classifications of tailings dams - common in many countries- tend to be subjective, include vague parameter definitions, and are not always updated over time. Here we present a simple methodology to assess and rank the exposure to tailings dams using ArcGIS that removes subjective interpretations. The method uses basic information such as current dam height, storage volume, topography, population, land use, and hydrological data. A hazard rating risk was developed to compare the potential extent of the damage across dams. This assessment provides a general overview of what in the vicinity of the tailings dams could be affected in case of a failure and a way to rank tailings dams that is directly linked to the exposure at any given time. One hundred tailings dams in Minas Gerais, Brazil were used for the test case. This ranking approach could inform the risk management strategy of the tailings dams within a company, and when disclosed, it could enable shareholders and the communities to make decisions on the risks they are taking.

  8. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  9. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  10. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  13. Dynamic tests at the Outardes 3 dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, J.; Paultre, P.; Duron, Z.; Tai Mai Phat; Im, O.

    1992-01-01

    At the Outardes 3 gravity dam, part of the Manicouagan-Outardes hydroelectric complex in northeastern Quebec, forced vibration tests were carried out using an eccentric mass shaker attached to the dam crest at three different locations. Accelerations were measured along the crest and in the inspection galleries, and hydrodynamic pressures were measured along the upstream dam face and at various locations in the reservoir. The tests were designed to analyze the effects of gravity dam-reservoir interactions and to generate a data base for calibrating finite element models used in studying the dynamic behavior of gravity dams. Experimental results are presented in order to demonstrate the quality of the data obtained and the effectiveness of the experimental procedures. Modes of vibration were observed which corresponded to those obtained by finite element analysis. It is shown that techniques recently developed for dynamic tests on large dams can be successfully used on gravity dams. 3 refs., 6 figs

  14. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  15. [Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

    1991-08-01

    Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased.

  16. Proceedings of the 2010 Canadian Dam Association's public safety around dams workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Nearly 30 people have drowned in dam-related incidents over the last 10 years in Canada. The Canadian public is now calling for improved safety guidelines. Public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. However, many members of the public are not aware of the dangers posed by dams. This workshop provided a forum to discuss proposals for a draft publication of the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines for public safety and security around dams. Issues related to current legislation and liability were discussed. Methods of increasing public awareness of the hazards posed by dams included increased signage in dam locations, the use of audible and visual alert systems, and the use of booms and buoys. The responsibilities of dam owners in ensuring the safety of dams were also discussed. The conference featured 5 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  17. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  18. Management of dams for the next Millennium: proceedings of the 1999 Canadian Dam Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The meeting featured seven sessions with 18 papers abstracted/indexed therein as follows: keynote address: tailings dams safety - implications for the dam safety community; 1 - design and performance: performance monitoring of dams: are we doing what we should be doing?; tailings dams from the perspective of conventional dam engineering; and design overview of Syncrude's Mildred Lake east toe berm; 2 - design and modelling: use of a 2D model for a dam break study on the ALCAN hydroelectric complex in Quebec; and spillway design implications resulting from changes in rainfall extremes; 3 - risk and dam safety I: closing the gaps in the dam safety guidelines; the reality of life safety consequence classification; and surveillance practices for the next millenium; 4 - risk and dam safety II: quantitative risk-assessment using the capacity-demand analysis; and new guidelines for dam safety classification; 5 - millenium issues: expectations of immortality, dam safety management into the next millenium; 6 - rehabilitation techniques: the unconventional application of conventional materials; nondestructive testing technology to characterize concrete dam/bedrock interface; method and instrument for detecting crack in concrete; and grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 - Daniel Johnson Dam; and 7 - case studies: rehabilitation of an 80 year old Ambursen type dam; and debris booms for the protection of spillways.

  19. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  20. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  1. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  2. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  3. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  4. Crotch Lake dam rehabilitation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, G.; Dobrowolski, E.

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the existing wood crib dam structure on Crotch Lake on the Mississippi River in eastern Ontario that provided water storage for the power production at High Falls Generating Station, became necessary when it was determined that the dam did not meet Ontario-Hydro's safety standards. This paper describes the project of replacing the existing structure with a PVC coated gabion wall with waterproofing. The entire structure was covered with three layers of wire mesh, laced together, and criss-crossed for superior strength and rigidity. The work was completed in 28 days with no environmental impact . Life expectancy of the new structure is in excess of 40 years. With periodic maintenance of the gabion mat cover, life span could be extended an additional 20 to 40 years. 5 figs

  5. Coupled models in dam engineering

    OpenAIRE

    González Gutiérrez, María De Los Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Rock ll dams are certainly one of the most important engineering structures due to their economic advantages and exible design. Unfortunately their vulnerability to overtopping still remains their weakest point. For that reason, several research groups are interested in both the numerical and experimental analysis of this phenomenon. In this work we focused on the numerical analysis. The previous work developed in CIMNE on a coupled PFEM-Eulerian free surface Compu- tational...

  6. Environmental monitoring at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The environmental management and protection program at the Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project, Roxby Downs, South Australia, monitors eight major environmental parameters - meteorology, vegetation, mine site rehabilitation, fauna, terrain, soil salinity, hydrogeology and well fields. It came into effect with the approval of the South Australian Government in March 1987. The Great Artesian Basin, one of the world's greatest artesian basins, is the source of the water supply for the project

  7. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  8. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  10. Discospondylitis in an adult horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillyer, M.H.; Innes, J.F.; Patteson, M.W.; Barr, A.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Discospondylitis, of presumed bacterial origin, was diagnosed in an adult thoroughbred racehorse. The clinical signs were vague and associated with abnormal mobility of the neck and forelimbs. Clinical pathology showed only a non-specific inflammatory response. A scintigraphic examination revealed the site of the lesion and the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of radiographic changes affecting two thoracic vertebrae. A prolonged course of antimicrobial agents produced a complete recovery and the horse returned to full athletic use

  11. Mitigating Dam Impacts Using Environmental Flow Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B. D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most ecologically disruptive impacts of dams is their alteration of natural river flow variability. Opportunities exist for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. This presentation will highlight a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the suggested strategies for dam re-operation are predicated on changes in the end-use of the water, such as reductions in urban or agricultural water use during droughts, a systemic perspective of entire water management systems will be required to attain the fullest possible

  12. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  13. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  14. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  15. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  16. The changing hydrology of a dammed Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Kelsie; Kaplan, David

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries around the world are expanding hydropower to meet growing energy demand. In the Brazilian Amazon, >200 dams are planned over the next 30 years, and questions about the impacts of current and future hydropower in this globally important watershed remain unanswered. In this context, we applied a hydrologic indicator method to quantify how existing Amazon dams have altered the natural flow regime and to identify predictors of alteration. The type and magnitude of hydrologic alteration varied widely by dam, but the largest changes were to critical characteristics of the flood pulse. Impacts were largest for low-elevation, large-reservoir dams; however, small dams had enormous impacts relative to electricity production. Finally, the “cumulative” effect of multiple dams was significant but only for some aspects of the flow regime. This analysis is a first step toward the development of environmental flows plans and policies relevant to the Amazon and other megadiverse river basins. PMID:29109972

  17. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  18. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  19. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  20. Dam safety management in Victoria (Australia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adem, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Victoria state government's decision to make dam owners accountable for safety and upkeep of their dams was reported. To give effect to this decision a series of guidelines have been developed which outline the required activities and skills to ensure that dams are properly managed within a framework of 'light-handed' regulation. The guidelines are also intended to ensure that dam management becomes an integral part of the business decision making process, not just a set of prescribed technical procedures. Details of the direction being taken and the proposed controls to ensure compliance with national and international standards were described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Numerical modelling for stability of tailings dams

    OpenAIRE

    Auchar, Muhammad; Mattsson, Hans; Knutsson, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A tailings dam is a large embankment structure that is constructed to store the waste from the mining industry. Stability problems may occur in a tailings dam due to factors such as quick rate of raising, internal erosion and liquefaction. The failure of a tailings dam may cause loss of human life and environmental degradation. Tailings Dams must not only be stable during the time the tailings storage facility is in operation, but also long time after the mine is closed. In Sweden, the licens...

  2. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Loss of forest to flooding is one, the Balbina and Tucuruí Dams being examples (each 3000 km2). If the Babaquara/Altamira Dam is built it will flood as much forest as both of these combined. Some planned dams imply loss of forest in protected areas, for example on the Tapajós River. Aquatic and riparian ecosystems are lost, including unique biodiversity. Endemic fish species in rapids on the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers are examples. Fish migrations are blocked, such as the commercially important "giant catfish" of the Madeira River. Dams emit greenhouse gases, including CO2 from the trees killed and CH4 from decay under anoxic conditions at the bottom of reservoirs. Emissions can exceed those from fossil-fuel generation, particularly over the 20-year period during which global emissions must be greatly reduced to meet 1.5-2°C limit agreed in Paris. Carbon credit for dams under the Climate Convention causes further net emission because the dams are not truly "additional." Anoxic environments in stratified reservoirs cause methylation of mercury present in Amazonian soils, which concentrates in fish, posing a health risk to human consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be

  3. Japan`s largest composition dam, aiming for harmony with nature. Chubetsu dam; Shizen tono chowa wo mezasu, Nippon ichi no fukugo dam. Chubetsu dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizushima, T. [Hokkaido Development Bureau, Hokkaido Development Agency, Sapporo (Japan)

    1994-08-15

    This paper introduces Chubetsu Dam planned with a large-scale embankment having a river bed width of 600 m. Chubetsu Dam is being constructed with such objectives as flood control of Ishikari River, river flow rate maintenance, drinking water supply, irrigation water supply and power generation. The dam site is a gravel bed having a river bed width of 600 m and a maximum foundation rock thickness of 40 m, requiring evaluations as a dam foundation and discussions of water shielding methods. As a result of discussions at the Chubetsu Dam technical discussion committee, the dam type is decided to be a composition dam consisting of a gravity type concrete dam on the left river side and a central core type fill dam using a part of the gravel bed as the foundation on the right river side. A continuous underground wall system is planned to be used for shielding water in the gravel foundation. In discussing the anti-seismic properties, analyses for bank construction and water filling to derive stress and deformation conditions prior to an earthquake and a time-history response analysis to derive conditional changes during the earthquake are performed. According to the results thereof, evaluations are given on the safety by compounding the stress and the acceleration. In plans to improve the surrounding areas, an area will be provided upstream the reservoir where the water level is kept constant to serve as a bird sanctuary. 7 figs.

  4. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  5. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.J.; Allhands, R.V.; Baker, G.J.; Boero, M.J.; Foreman, J.H.; Hyyppa, T.; Huhn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  6. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  7. Olympic Dam - the first decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, A.W.; Wilson, M.A.; Harris, J.

    1988-01-01

    Most aspects of the pre-production phase of the Olympic Dam Project, from commencement of exploration in May 1975 through to commitment to development in December 1985 are documented here. The discovery by Western Mining Corporation Ltd of copper mineralisation on Roxby Downs Station in July 1975 has led to one of the more intensive base-metal exploration programmes undertaken in Australia. Comprehensive exploration, evaluation and feasibility studies between 1975 and 1985 have delineated a probable 450 million tonnes of higher grade ore containing 2.5% copper, 0.8 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 6.0 g/t silver. The total resource is estimated at 2 billion tonnes containing 1.6% copper, 0.6 kg/t uranium oxide, 0.6 g/t gold and 3.5 g/t silver. At 31 December 1985, over 540 km of surface and underground drilling had been completed, comprising over 700 surface drillholes totalling 234 km of core and 218 km of open-hole drilling, and about 900 underground diamond-drillholes totalling 90 km. The Whenan Shaft had been sunk to 500 m and driving on three levels totalled almost 10 km. More than one million tonnes of ore and mullock were raised during development. A pilot treatment plant commissioned on site produced concentrates, matte and blister copper, and ammonium diuranate. Following a technical study of the Olympic Dam Project, completed in March 1985, and a subsequent economic feasibility study, it was announced on 11 June 1985 that the initial project was considered to be commercially viable. On 8 December 1985, the joint venturers, Western Mining Corporation Holdings Ltd (51%) and the BP Group (49%), announced their commitment to the Project. An appendix lists the important events that occurred between January 1986 and December 1987 in bringing Olympic Dam to the production state. 26 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs., ills

  8. National dam inventory provides data for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spragens, L.

    1992-01-01

    The Association of State Dam Safety Officials completed a dam inventory this fall. Information on approximately 90,000 state-regulated dams in the US collected during the four-year inventory is being used to build a database managed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. In addition to ASDSO's work, the federal government conducted an inventory of federal dams. This data will be added to the state information to form one national database. The database will feature 35 data fields for each entry, including the name of the dam, its size, the name of the nearest downstream community, maximum discharge and storage volume, the date of the last inspection, and details about the emergency action plan. The program is an update of the nation's first dam inventory, required by the Dam Safety Act of 1972. The US Army Corps of Engineers completed the original inventory in 1981. The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 authorized appropriations of $2.5 million for the Corps to update the inventory. FEMA and the Corps entered into an agreement for FEMA to undertake the task for the Corps and to coordinate work on both the federal and state inventories. ASDSO compiles existing information on state-regulated dams into a common format for the database, added missing information, and established a process for continually updating data. ASDSO plans to analyze the information collected for the database. It will look at statistics for the number of dams regulated, communities that could be affected, and the number of high-hazard dams. FEMA is preparing reports for Congress on the project. The reports, which are expected to be ready by May 1993, will include information on the methodology used and facts about regulated dams under state jurisdiction

  9. Fragility Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekie, Paulos B.; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2002-09-01

    Concrete gravity dams are an important part ofthe nation's infrastructure. Many dams have been in service for over 50 years, during which time important advances in the methodologies for evaluation of natural phenomena hazards have caused the design-basis events to be revised upwards, in some cases significantly. Many existing dams fail to meet these revised safety criteria and structural rehabilitation to meet newly revised criteria may be costly and difficult. A probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) provides a rational safety assessment and decision-making tool managing the various sources of uncertainty that may impact dam performance. Fragility analysis, which depicts fl%e uncertainty in the safety margin above specified hazard levels, is a fundamental tool in a PSA. This study presents a methodology for developing fragilities of concrete gravity dams to assess their performance against hydrologic and seismic hazards. Models of varying degree of complexity and sophistication were considered and compared. The methodology is illustrated using the Bluestone Dam on the New River in West Virginia, which was designed in the late 1930's. The hydrologic fragilities showed that the Eluestone Dam is unlikely to become unstable at the revised probable maximum flood (PMF), but it is likely that there will be significant cracking at the heel ofthe dam. On the other hand, the seismic fragility analysis indicated that sliding is likely, if the dam were to be subjected to a maximum credible earthquake (MCE). Moreover, there will likely be tensile cracking at the neck of the dam at this level of seismic excitation. Probabilities of relatively severe limit states appear to be only marginally affected by extremely rare events (e.g. the PMF and MCE). Moreover, the risks posed by the extreme floods and earthquakes were not balanced for the Bluestone Dam, with seismic hazard posing a relatively higher risk.

  10. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  11. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  13. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  14. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  15. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  16. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  17. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  18. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P. Rene

    Objective - To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. Animals - 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. Procedure - The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  20. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The minor injuries categorized as 1-2 counted for 99% of the total...

  1. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  3. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Nowak, M.; Kaufels, N.; Tambur, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  4. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnas, C.M.; O'Brien, T.R.; Linford, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  5. Measuring and managing safety at Wahleach Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G. M.; Cattanach, J. D.; Hartford, D. N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Safety improvements recently implemented at the Wahleach Dam were described as one of the first instances in international dam safety practice where risk concepts have been used in conjunction with acceptable risk criteria to evaluate safety of a dam relative to required level of safety. Erosion was identified as the greatest threat to the safety of the dam. In addressing the deficiencies B.C. Hydro formulated a process which advocates a balanced level of safety,i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the consequences of failure, integrated over a range of initiators. If the risk posed by the dam is lower than a 'tolerable' risk, the dam is considered to be safe enough. In the case of the Wahleach Dam, the inflow design flood (IDF) was selected to be about one half of the probable maximum flow (PMF), hence it was more likely than not that the spillway could pass floods up to and including the PMF. By accepting the determined level of risk, expenditures of several million dollars for design and construction of dam safety improvements were made redundant. Another byproduct of this new concept of risk assessment was the establishment of improved life safety protection by means of an early warning system for severe floods through the downstream community and emergency authorities. 3 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Descriptive characteristics of the large Italian dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Vicario, E.; Petaccia, A.; Savanella, V.

    1999-01-01

    In the present note the characteristics of the Italian dams are examined, underlining, in a statistical view, story, geographical location, types and use of the most important works. Such a review can be useful for a more detailed analysis, both for the dams characterization and for further studies relevant to water resources utilization [it

  7. The Impact of Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Interaction on Nonlinear Response of Concrete Gravity Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Ali Reza; Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaemian, Mohsen

    2008-01-01

    To study the impact of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams, a two-dimensional finite element model of a concrete gravity dam including the dam body, a part of its foundation and a part of the reservoir was made. In addition, the proper boundary conditions were used in both reservoir and foundation in order to absorb the energy of outgoing waves at the far end boundaries. Using the finite element method and smeared crack approach, some different seismic nonlinear analyses were done and finally, we came to a conclusion that the consideration of dam-reservoir-foundation interaction in nonlinear analysis of concrete dams is of great importance, because from the performance point of view, this interaction significantly improves the nonlinear response of concrete dams

  8. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Richter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  9. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  10. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong; Bao, Kai; Zhang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Seismic response of uplifting concrete gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, P.; Sauve, G.; Bhattacharjee, S.

    1992-01-01

    The foundation interaction effects on the seismic response of dam-foundation systems have generally been studied using the linear elastic finite element models. In reality, the foundation can not develop effective tensile stresses to a significant degree along the interface. A two-dimensional finite element model, in which nonlinear gap elements are used at the dam-foundation interface to determine the uplift response of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic loads, is presented. Time domain analyses were performed for a wide range of modelling assumptions such as dam height, interface uplift pressure, interface mesh density, and earthquake input motions, that were systematically varied to find their influence on the seismic response. The nonlinear interface behavior generally reduces the seismic response of dam-foundation systems acting as a seismic isolation mechanism, and may increase the safety against sliding by reducing the base shear transmitted to the foundation. 4 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  14. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  15. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation implementation. Although no waterfowl/wetland projects were implemented using mitigation funds, 1,550 acres were protected based on work done under this project.

  16. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Josip Ljubešić; Tomo Rastija; Živko Bošnjak

    2000-01-01

    Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to en...

  17. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  18. The role of dams in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, C.

    2001-01-01

    Although the amounts of water resources are enough for the entire world, the distribution of them in time and space shows uneven pattern. The water need is increasing with heavy industrial and agricultural requirements, while available water in the world remains as a fixed source. Economic growth, socio-cultural, and environmental developments are being realized following these changes. In order to achieve sustainable management of water resources, these changes have to be taken into consideration in water-related development projects. Demand for water is steadily increasing through out the world, even though the fresh water resources are limited and unevenly distributed, during the past three centuries, the amount of water withdrawn from fresh water resources has increased by a factor of 35, whereas world population by a factor 8. The engineering of dams, which provides regular water from reservoirs of dams to be used in case of demand pattern, is a vital part of the civilization. Dams have played a key rote in the development since the third millennium B C when the first great civilizations evolved on major rivers, such as Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile and the Indus. From these early times dams were built for flood control, water supply, irrigation and navigation. Dams also had been built to produce motive power and electricity since the industrial revolution. Development priorities changed, experience accumulated with the construction and operation of dams. Although the importance of water is well known in the human life and civilization around the world, still various groups argue that expected economic benefits are not being produced and that major environmental, economic and social costs are not being taken into account. By the end of 20th century, there were 45000 large dams in over 150 countries. According to the same classification there are 625 large dams in Turkey. All over the world, 50 % of the large dams were built mainly for irrigation. It is estimated

  19. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    .13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  20. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  1. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  2. Dam construction in salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmann, N.; Beinlich, A.; Flach, D.; Jockwer, N.; Klarr, K.; Krogmann, P.; Miehe, R.; Schmidt, M.W.; Schwaegermann, H.F.; Walter, F.; Yaramanci, U.

    1991-11-01

    Barriers are a major component of the satefy concept for the Gorleben repository. The construction and performance of dams are currently tested within the framework of a project carried out in the Asse salt mine. A measuring programme has been established to give evidence of the sealing capacities of a barrier consisting of an abatement, long-term sealing material, and a hydraulic sealing system. Tests are to be made to verify the barrier's performance for shorter of long time periods (up to about 500 years). The tests are assisted by computed models established for the project. The long-term safety aspects to be studied include such conditions as permeability changes due to mechanical impacts, circulation conditions at the roadside, and the serviceable life and efficiency of the sealing components. (DG) [de

  3. The Manantali dam. Synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickmann, M.; Sieburger, Dr; Ficatier, M.; Naudet, M.; Schmidt, M.; Seve, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report proposes an ex-post assessment of the Manantali dam on the Senegal river and of the related investments in Senegal, in Mauritania and in Mali. After a presentation of the methodology adopted for this assessment study performed by several organisms, the report describes the context and the concerned sectors: project costs and funding, framework for irrigated agriculture, and framework for energy. It discusses the relevance of the project with respect to irrigated agriculture and to energy. It assesses the project performance in terms of efficiency and of viability, and with respect to environmental aspects. It presents an overview of the different direct and indirect sector-based partners which are involved in energy or rural development. The next part proposes an assessment of the global impact of the project on development as far as irrigated agriculture, the energy sector, and regional cooperation and integration are concerned. A set of lessons learned and recommendations are then formulated

  4. TYPOLOGY OF LARGE DAMS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dams represent hydrotechnical constructions meant to ensure a judicious use of water resources. The international literature is extremely rich in data regarding the large dams on Earth. In this context, a hierarchy of the main dams is attempted and the role they play in the economic development of the regions they were built in is underlined. The largest dams are built on the big rivers in Asia, North America, South America and Africa. The reservoirs have multiple roles: electricity production, drinking or industrial water supply, irrigations, recreation, etc. High costs and land fragility do not allow the construction of dams in the places most affected by drought or flood. This is why they are usually built in mountainous areas, at great distance from the populated centres. On the Romanian territory, there are 246 large dams, built in the hydrographical basins of Siret, Olt, Arges, Somes, etc. The largest rivers on Earth, by discharge, (Amazon and Zair do not also include the largest dams because the landform and the type of flow have not allowed such constructions.

  5. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  8. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  9. The Dams and Monitoring Systems and Case Study: Ataturk and Karakaya Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Gülnerman, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. Especially after the Second World War, developments on the construction technology, increase the construction of larger capacity dams. There are more than 150.000 dams in the world and almost 1000 dams in Turkey, according to international criteria. Although dams provide benefits to humans, they possess structural risks too. To determine the performance of dams on structural safety, assessing the spatial data is very important. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some general information on dams and their different monitoring systems by taking into account two different dams and their structural specifications with the required information. The case study in this paper depends on a comparison of the monitoring surveys on Atatürk Dam and Karakaya Dam, which are constructed on Firat River with two different structural

  10. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  11. Investigating leaks in dams and reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Millions of people throughout the world depend on dams and reservoirs for electricity, water and flood protection. Dams require significant investment to build and maintain, and yet their usefulness and integrity are constantly threatened by leakage and sedimentation. Isotope hydrology techniques, combined with conventional analytical methods, are a cost-effective tool to reduce such threats. The International Atomic Energy Agency is promoting their use to protect these investments and improve management, particularly by supporting specialized teams of scientists and engineers to investigate dam leakage in African countries on request. (IAEA)

  12. Developing an integrated dam safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N. M.; Lampa, J.

    1996-01-01

    An effort has been made to demonstrate that dam safety is an integral part of asset management which, when properly done, ensures that all objectives relating to safety and compliance, profitability, stakeholders' expectations and customer satisfaction, are achieved. The means to achieving this integration of the dam safety program and the level of effort required for each core function have been identified using the risk management approach to pinpoint vulnerabilities, and subsequently to focus priorities. The process is considered appropriate for any combination of numbers, sizes and uses of dams, and is designed to prevent exposure to unacceptable risks. 5 refs., 1 tab

  13. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail: davydov-va@yandex.ru; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail: badikek@mail.ru; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail: vitalaa@yandex.ru; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: alex.mal.1986@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  14. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  15. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  17. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed...

  18. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  19. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  20. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  1. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel [Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to

  2. Predictions of total deformations in Jebba main dam by finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the deformations of the Jebba Main Dam, Jebba Nigeria using the finite element method. The study also evaluated the predicted deformations and compared them with the actual deformations in the dam to identify possible causes of the observed longitudinal crack at the dam crest. The Jebba dam is a ...

  3. The geomorphic legacy of small dams — An Austrian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poeppl, R.E.; Keesstra, S.D.; Hein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Dams represent one of the most dominant forms of human impact upon fluvial systems during the Anthropocene, as they disrupt the downstream transfer of water and sediments. Removing dams restores river continuity and channel morphology. Both dam construction and dam removal induce geomorphic channel

  4. Evaluating safety of concrete gravity dam on weak rock: Scott Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.E.; Ahlgren, C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Scott Dam is owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PG and E) as part of the Potter Valley Project. Although it is an unimpressive concrete gravity dam [233 m (765 ft) long with maximum water surface 33.4 m (110 ft) above tail water], the dam has unusually complex and weak foundation rocks; thick condition caused design changes during construction, numerous subsequent special investigations, and several corrections and additions. A main stumbling block to clarification of the dam safety issue for Scott Dam has always been difficulty in characterizing the foundation material. This paper discusses an approach to this problem as well s how the safety of the dam was subsequently confirmed. Following a comprehensive program of research, investigations, and analysis from 1991 to 1997

  5. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  6. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  7. On the response of large dams to incoherent seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, O.; Novak, M.

    1993-01-01

    An intensive parametric study was conducted to investigate the response of concrete gravity dams to horizontal, spatially variable seismic ground motions. Both segmented dams consisting of separate blocks, or monoliths, and continuous monolithic dams are considered. The study includes the effects of various parameters on system natural frequencies, vibration modes, modal displacement ratios, as well as dam displacements and internal stresses due to spatially variable ground motions. The dam analytical model, and dam response to incoherent ground motions are described. The results show that the dam vibrates almost as a rigid body under the fully correlated waves, but bends and twists significantly under the spatially correlated motions. Dam-foundation interaction magnifies the low frequency components of the dam response, more so for a full reservoir, but decreases the high frequency components. For long dams, the effects of spatially incoherent ground motions are qualitatively different and can be much greater than those due to surface travelling waves. 3 refs., 3 figs

  8. Dam break analysis and flood inundation map of Krisak dam for emergency action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki

    2017-11-01

    The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.

  9. 33 CFR 100.1102 - Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). 100.1102 Section... MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1102 Marine Events on the Colorado River, between Davis Dam (Bullhead City, Arizona) and Headgate Dam (Parker, Arizona). (a) General. Sponsors are...

  10. 78 FR 77397 - Flood Control Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Regulations, Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps... Marshall Ford Dam (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Texas. In 1997, the Lower Colorado River... regulations to reflect changes in ownership and responsibilities of flood control management of Marshall Ford...

  11. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  12. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... substantively identical form letters submitted by individuals who commented through an animal welfare advocacy... associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse industry, and the general... Show Report'' at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/hp/hp_pubs_reports.shtml . The list of shows...

  13. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  14. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... prohibiting the showing or selling of sored horses. The regulations in 9 CFR part 11, referred to below as the... substance or device has been used by a person on any limb of a horse or a person has engaged in a practice... the regulations in Sec. 11.2 prohibit the use of devices, methods, and substances that are used to...

  15. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  16. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  17. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  18. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  19. Seismic risks at Elsie Lake Main Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, N.R.; Momenzadeh, M.; Hawson, H.H.; Nielsen, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Elsie Lake dams are located on Vancouver Island in an area of high seismic risk. A safety review in 1986 indicated potential deficiencies in the earthfill main dam with respect to modern earthquake design standards. A detailed field investigation program comprising drilling and penetration tests was carried out and the results used in an assessment of seismic stability. A 0.8 m thick less dense layer in the granular shell of the dam, possibly caused by wet construction conditions, would likely liquefy in a major earthquake but sufficient residual strength would likely remain to prevent catastrophic failure. The dam shell might undergo some distortion, and an assessment was initiated to determine the requirements for reservoir drawdown following an extreme earthquake to ensure the timely lowering of the reservoir for inspection and repair. It was suggested that an adequate evacuation capability would be 25% and 50% drawdown in not more than 30 and 50 days, respectively. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  20. Can Dams and Reservoirs Cause Earthquakes?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    induced earthquakes in that region. Figure 1. A cartoon to illus- trate the spatial relation- ships between dam, reser- ... learning experience for us graduate students. Thus, on that ... infallibility and persuasiveness as in Euclidean geometry. The.

  1. Risk assessment of tailings facility dam failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Mirakovski, Dejan; Stefanova, Violeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the consequences of tailings facility dam failure and therefore the needs for its risk assessment. Tailings are fine-grained wastes of the mining industry, output as slurries, due to mixing with water during mineral processing. Tailings dams vary a lot as it is affected by: tailings characteristics and mill output, site characteristics as: topography, hydrology, geology, groundwater, seismicity and available material and disposal methods. The talings which accumulat...

  2. The environmental impact of large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The campaigns of conservationist groups against dams are generally based on rather emotional issues. This paper puts the situation in a more rational perspective, by analysing the various claims which tend to be put forward concerning the impacts of large dams, examining the validity of the arguments, looking at ways in which any adverse effects can be mitigated, and presenting the complexity of the problems. (author)

  3. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  4. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  5. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  6. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs

  7. Equine peripheral dental caries: An epidemiological survey assessing prevalence and possible risk factors in Western Australian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K; Kelty, E; Tennant, M

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral dental caries is defined as macroscopic destruction of the calcified dental tissues and can cause considerable dental pathology and pain. It appears to occur at a high prevalence in Western Australian horses. At present, risk factors for the condition are poorly understood, making treatment and prevention difficult. To assess the prevalence of and potential risk factors for peripheral caries in Western Australian horses. Cross-sectional, epidemiological study. A survey of 500 Western Australian horses was administered in two sections. The first section was completed by the owner and referred to the horse's signalment, diet and husbandry conditions. The second section was completed by veterinarians and focused on the horse's oral health. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors associated with peripheral caries. Peripheral caries was present in 58.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 54.5-63.1%) of surveyed horses. Breed was significantly associated with peripheral caries, with Warmbloods (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.82; P = 0.009) and Western breeds (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.19-0.78; P = 0.008) being less likely to have peripheral caries than Thoroughbreds. Dietary risk factors included oaten hay (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.87-4.53; P<0.001). A meadow hay-based diet was protective (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.27-0.80; P = 0.005). Horses with access to quality pasture all year were less likely to have peripheral caries than horses without access to grazing (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66; P = 0.002), as were horses on groundwater compared with horses on rainwater (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.65-6.78; P = 0.001), drinking water (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.14-3.62; P = 0.016) or dam water (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.08-11.53; P = 0.037). Peripheral caries was positively correlated with periodontal disease (OR 4.53, 95% CI 2.91-7.06; P<0.001) and feed packing (feed present between the teeth without significant periodontal pocketing) (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.32-2.85; P = 0.001). Not

  8. Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence

  9. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Ransom, Jason I.; Coates-Markle, Linda; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Wild horses (Equus caballus) at Pryor Mountain were studied by direct observation from 1993 through 2007. All horses present were individually identifiable on the basis of coat coloration, head and leg markings, gender, and band associations. Of the 609 horses either present prior to foaling in 1993 or born since, ages were precisely known for 491 (observed as a foal). Ages for 52 horses were estimated through tooth eruption and wear patterns, and for the remaining 66 horses through body size, morphology, and anecdotal evidence concerning when they were present on the range. At varying intensities, never less than 30 days per year, all horses were inventoried and their band associations noted. Foals were paired with dams based on observations of attachment during the early days and weeks of life. Year of death was determined by identification of the carcass where possible. In the absence of finding a carcass, an animal that was not observed for 2 years was considered to have died in the year that it went missing. Animals that were removed from the herd and mares that were part of a contraception study were excluded from calculations of survival and foaling rates, respectively, as appropriate. The average prefoaling population over the 15 years of the study was 148.8 animals (range = 120-187), and the annual foal crop averaged 32.1 (range = 23-40). Large removals (19-60 animals) in four years helped maintain the herd at this level; apparent growth rate (calculated as though removals had not occurred) was 9.6 percent annually (? = 1.096, range = 0.977-1.220). This annual growth rate is relatively low compared to that for many western horse herds, at least in part because of a decline in foal survival. Sex ratio of the foal crop varied widely among years, but pooled across years did not differ from 50:50. Sex ratio in the herd changed mostly as a result of removals. The average age of both males and females in the herd increased during the course of the study. Annual

  11. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena......Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...

  12. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular...... conclude that the prevalence of gastric ulcers was high, and our results suggest different factors affecting ulceration in the glandular versus the nonglandular region of the horse stomach. Obvious external signs (e.g. poor body condition) identifying ulcer horses were absent. Horses with severe glandular...

  13. The Effects of Dams on Downstream Channel Characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland: Assessing the Potential Consequences of Dam Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K. J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Jenkins, P.

    2003-12-01

    The potential downstream effects of dam removal were assessed on fifteen sites of varying dam size and characteristics in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The dams ranged in size from a 30 cm high fish weir to a water supply dam 57 m high. Stream order ranged from 1 to 4. The dams are located in watersheds with varying degrees of human disturbance and urbanization. The dams are also operated differently, with significant consequences for hydraulic residence time and downstream flow variability. Most streams were alluvial, but 6 of the reaches were clearly bedrock channels. We hypothesize that the channel upstream, which is unaffected by the dam, will provide an accurate model for the channel downstream of the dam long after dam removal. Therefore, reaches upstream and downstream of the dam were compared to determine the effects of the dam as well as the condition of the stream that will ultimately develop decades after dam removal. Surprisingly, the dams had no consistent influence on channel morphology. However, the percentage of sand is significantly lower downstream than upstream: the mean % sand downstream is 11.47%, while the mean % sand upstream is 21.39%. The coarser fractions of the bed, as represented by the 84th percentile grain diameter, are unaffected by the presence of the dam. These results imply that decades after dam removal, the percentage of sand on the bed will increase, but the coarse fraction of the bed will remain relatively unchanged.

  14. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  15. the effect of age of dam on weaning mass for ftve dam breed types

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY: The effect of age of dam on adjusted 210 day calf weaning mass was estimated by the Least Squares method for 5 dam types on 2 farms. ... the later maturing breeds would have a low level of productivity because these cows would be eliminated in their potentially prime .... time at 28 (2A) or 3l (28) months old.

  16. The interplay of activists and dam developers : the case of Myanmar’s mega-dams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261487; J. Charles, Katrina; Walton, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars investigating activism against large dam developments in Asia usually focus on those campaigning, but not on those the campaigns are aimed at–the dam developers. Yet the developers’ perspective is crucial to comprehensively understand the dynamics of social and environmental activism in

  17. Dam that social networking: connecting South Africa's major dams to social media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available where four major South African dams are connected to Twitter and Facebook (and other social media such as MXit and Google Chat) in a mechanism which would be easy to replicate for additional dams or rivers. Data is supplied by the South African...

  18. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc......-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain....

  19. Modeling the capacity of riverscapes to support beaver dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Jensen, Martha L.; Gilbert, Jordan T.; Hough-Snee, Nate; Shivik, John A.

    2017-01-01

    The construction of beaver dams facilitates a suite of hydrologic, hydraulic, geomorphic, and ecological feedbacks that increase stream complexity and channel-floodplain connectivity that benefit aquatic and terrestrial biota. Depending on where beaver build dams within a drainage network, they impact lateral and longitudinal connectivity by introducing roughness elements that fundamentally change the timing, delivery, and storage of water, sediment, nutrients, and organic matter. While the local effects of beaver dams on streams are well understood, broader coverage network models that predict where beaver dams can be built and highlight their impacts on connectivity across diverse drainage networks are lacking. Here we present a capacity model to assess the limits of riverscapes to support dam-building activities by beaver across physiographically diverse landscapes. We estimated dam capacity with freely and nationally-available inputs to evaluate seven lines of evidence: (1) reliable water source, (2) riparian vegetation conducive to foraging and dam building, (3) vegetation within 100 m of edge of stream to support expansion of dam complexes and maintain large colonies, (4) likelihood that channel-spanning dams could be built during low flows, (5) the likelihood that a beaver dam is likely to withstand typical floods, (6) a suitable stream gradient that is neither too low to limit dam density nor too high to preclude the building or persistence of dams, and (7) a suitable river that is not too large to restrict dam building or persistence. Fuzzy inference systems were used to combine these controlling factors in a framework that explicitly also accounts for model uncertainty. The model was run for 40,561 km of streams in Utah, USA, and portions of surrounding states, predicting an overall network capacity of 356,294 dams at an average capacity of 8.8 dams/km. We validated model performance using 2852 observed dams across 1947 km of streams. The model showed

  20. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of procaterol in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K; Nomura, M; Toju, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minamijima, Y; Yamashita, S; Nagata, S

    2016-06-01

    Procaterol (PCR) is a beta-2-adrenergic bronchodilator widely used in Japanese racehorses for treating lower respiratory disease. The pharmacokinetics of PCR following single intravenous (0.5 μg/kg) and oral (2.0 μg/kg) administrations were investigated in six thoroughbred horses. Plasma and urine concentrations of PCR were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PCR concentration following intravenous administration showed a biphasic elimination pattern. The systemic clearance was 0.47 ± 0.16 L/h/kg, the steady-state volume of the distribution was 1.21 ± 0.23 L/kg, and the elimination half-life was 2.85 ± 1.35 h. Heart rate rapidly increased after intravenous administration and gradually decreased thereafter. A strong correlation between heart rate and plasma concentration of PCR was observed. Plasma concentrations of PCR after oral administration were not quantifiable in all horses. Urine concentrations of PCR following intravenous and oral administrations were quantified in all horses until 32 h after administration. Urine PCR concentrations were not significantly different on and after 24 h between intravenous and oral administrations. These results suggest that the bioavailability of orally administrated PCR in horses is very poor, and the drug was eliminated from the body slowly based on urinary concentrations. This report is the first study to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic character of PCR in thoroughbred horses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  4. Hydrogeophysical investigations at Hidden Dam, Raymond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsley, Burke J.; Burton, Bethany L.; Ikard, Scott; Powers, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Self-potential and direct current resistivity surveys are carried out at the Hidden Dam site in Raymond, California to assess present-day seepage patterns and better understand the hydrogeologic mechanisms that likely influence seepage. Numerical modeling is utilized in conjunction with the geophysical measurements to predict variably-saturated flow through typical two-dimensional dam cross-sections as a function of reservoir elevation. Several different flow scenarios are investigated based on the known hydrogeology, as well as information about typical subsurface structures gained from the resistivity survey. The flow models are also used to simulate the bulk electrical resistivity in the subsurface under varying saturation conditions, as well as the self-potential response using petrophysical relationships and electrokinetic coupling equations.The self-potential survey consists of 512 measurements on the downstream area of the dam, and corroborates known seepage areas on the northwest side of the dam. Two direct-current resistivity profiles, each approximately 2,500 ft (762 m) long, indicate a broad sediment channel under the northwest side of the dam, which may be a significant seepage pathway through the foundation. A focusing of seepage in low-topography areas downstream of the dam is confirmed from the numerical flow simulations, which is also consistent with past observations. Little evidence of seepage is identified from the self-potential data on the southeast side of the dam, also consistent with historical records, though one possible area of focused seepage is identified near the outlet works. Integration of the geophysical surveys, numerical modeling, and observation well data provides a framework for better understanding seepage at the site through a combined hydrogeophysical approach.

  5. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  6. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  7. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  8. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  9. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  10. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  11. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  12. [Blood serum level of primary bile acids in cattle, horses, swine and dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsai, F; Szaniszló, F; Pethes, G

    1991-02-01

    The levels of the two primary bile acids, cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), were determined by radioimmunoassay in cattle, horse, pig and dog serum. The mean serum cholic acid (SCA) and deoxycholic acid (SCDCA) levels of cows varied with their reproductive status, being 7.8 (+/- 3.3) and 1.5 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l in dry cows, 17.8 (+/- 6.9) and 2.3 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l in freshly calved dams, and 15.8 (+/- 5.7) and 2.3 (+/- 0.8) mumol/l, respectively, in lactating cows. The SCA level found in the immediate prepartal period and also on the day of calving corresponded to those found during the dry period, then, they tended to rise 2 days after calving and attained the peak characteristic for freshly calved dams on day 3 or 4 post partum. Feed consumption had no influence on the serum levels of primary bile acids, and circadian variations of SCA and SCDCA were also negligible. Suckling calves had much lower SCA levels (2.3 (+/- 1.0) mumol/l before feeding than cows. This initial concentration rose to 10.3 (+/- 2.9) mumol/l 1 h after feeding and returned to 5.0 (+/- 2.1) mumol/l 3 h later. Like cows, horses showed no appreciate difference between pre- and post-feeding levels of SCA (2.2 (+/- 1.2) mumol/l) and SCDCA (1.1 (+/- 0.3) mumol/l). Unlike bovines, pigs and dogs showed a considerable increase in the serum levels of the primary bile acids after feeding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  14. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, S.A.G.; Graca, D.L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L.S.S. de; Lopes, S.T.D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia

  15. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialho, S. A.G.; Graca, D. L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L. S.S. de; Lopes, S. T.D.A.

    1989-08-15

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia.

  16. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  17. Ice interactions at a dam face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, B.; Morse, J.; Beaulieu, P.; Pratt, Y. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Stander, E. [State Univ. of New York, Cobleskill College, Cobleskill, NY (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Cote, A.; Tarras, A.; Noel, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a joint research project between Laval University and Hydro-Quebec to study ice forces on dams in an effort to harmonize design criteria and develop mitigation strategies. This paper introduced the project and explored some of the preliminary results of the 2007-2008 field season. Ice displacement, ice stresses and ice forces on the LaGabelle dam were measured at several locations. The paper identified and discussed the complex relationships between data sets and discussed the spatial-temporal variability of the ice forces and its impact on design criteria. The project objective was to develop design criteria for ice forces on dams and to provide a scientific basis for interpreting and harmonizing existing recommended criteria. The methodology and site description were presented. It was concluded that the ice processes in a reservoir near a dam face subject to water fluctuations are quite complex. Therefore, in order to know the real average pressure on the dam, a significant amount of panels are required, having important implications for determining safe design values. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Grouting of karstic arch dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.; Rigbey, S. [Acres International, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A 200 m high arch dam and a 2000 MW underground power house complex is under development in the Middle East. The project is located in a highly seismic area in rugged, mountainous terrain. The arch dam is constructed on good quality limestone and dolomitic limestone rock mass, but it contains several zones of disturbed or sheared rock. The basement rock is slightly karstic with hydraulic conductivities in the order of 100 Lugeons. In order to get a satisfactory foundation surface for the dam, it will be necessary to excavate extensively and backfill with concrete. Because of the presence of many clay infilled cavities and fractures, geotechnicians are considering the installation of a multiple row grout curtain to a depth of 150 m below the dam foundation to ensure adequate seepage and uplift parameters when the reservoir is impounded. Initial grouting water pressure test results suggested that the grouting and drainage curtain should be extended to the left abutment beyond the current design. However, when horizontal slide models of the dam abutment were developed using the finite element program SEEPW, it was shown that there is no benefit to extending the length of grout curtains unless they are tied to an area of much lower hydraulic conductivity much deeper in the abutment. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  19. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import...

  20. Los protagonistas de las películas colombianas 1990-2003.The stars of the Colombian films 1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo León Rivera Betancur

    Full Text Available ResumenEl cine colombiano es el objeto de estudio de este artículo, que parte de los resultados de la investigación “Personajes, acciones y escenarios en el cine colombiano de 1970-2005”, realizada en la Universidad de Medellín (Colombia entre 2005 y 2007. Se trata de un artículo de revisión en el que se hace un análisis narrativo de la representación de personajes protagónicos en las películas colombianas de la década de 1990 hasta 2003 (año de la puesta en marcha de la ley del cine en Colombia. Se abordan algunas películas de la muestra y en cada una se hace un análisis de los personajes más representativos.AbstractThe Colombian cinema is the object of study of this article, which departs from the results of the research "Prominent figures, actions and scenes in the Colombian cinema of 1970-2005 ", realized in the University of Medellin (Colombia from 2005 to 2007. It is an article of review a narrative analysis of the representation of leading prominent figures in the Colombian movies of the decade of 1990 until 2003 (year of the putting in march of the law of the cinema in Colombia. Some movies of the sample are approached and in each one there is done an analysis of the most representative prominent figures.

  1. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Glucocorticoids and laminitis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Slight, Simon H; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Kreeger, John M

    2002-08-01

    The administration of exogenously administered GCs and syndromes associated with GC excess are both attended by increased risk for the development of laminitis in adult horses. However, there exists substantial controversy as to whether excess GCs cause laminitis de novo. If true, the pathogenesis of laminitis arising from the effects of GC excess is probably different from that associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endotoxemia. Although a satisfactory explanation for the development of laminitis as a consequence of GC action is currently lacking, numerous possible and plausible theoretical mechanisms do exist. Veterinarians must exert caution with respect to the use of GCs in adult horses. The extent to which individual horses are predisposed to laminitis as a result of GC effect cannot be predicted based on current information. However, the administration of systemic GCs to horses that have been previously affected by laminitis should be used only with extreme caution, and should be accompanied by careful monitoring for further signs of laminitis. The risk of laminitis appears to be greater during treatment using some GCs (especially dexamethasone and triamcinalone) compared with others (prednisone and prednisolone). Whenever possible, to reduce the risk of laminitis, GCs should be administered locally. For example, the risk of GC-associated laminitis is evidently considerably reduced in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if GC treatment is administered via inhalation. We have hypothesized that structural changes in the equine hoof that resemble laminitis may arise as a consequence of excess GC effect. Although these changes are not painful per se, and are not associated with inflammation, they could likely predispose affected horses to the development of bona fide laminitis for other reasons. Moreover, the gross morphological appearance of the chronically GC-affected hoof resembles that of a chronically

  3. Horse keeping in peri-urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Elgåker, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The number of horses in Sweden has increased from 70 000 to almost 300 000 in 30 years. Today these horses are to a large extent kept for the purpose of hobby and leisure and create a substantial land use but link a diverse and a large amount of activities in peri-urban areas in Sweden. The sector contributes with new economic, social and physical possibilities, but also with conflicts between various stakeholders and interests. The overall aim of this work was to contribute to increased unde...

  4. Water homeostasis and diabetes insipidus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Harold C

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder of horses characterized by profound polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which can be caused by loss of production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This condition is termed neurogenic or central DI. DI may also develop with absence or loss of AVP receptors or activity on the basolateral membrane of collecting-duct epithelial cells. This condition is termed nephrogenic DI. Equine clinicians may differentiate true DI from more common causes of PU/PD by a systematic diagnostic approach. DI may not be a correctable disorder, and supportive care of affected horses requires an adequate water source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dams, Hydrology and Risk in Future River Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Across America there are over 80,000 large to medium dams and globally the number is in excess of 800,000. Currently there are over 1,400 dams and diversion structures being planned or under construction globally. In addition to these documented dams there are thousands of small dams populating watersheds. Governments, agencies, native tribes, private owners and regulators all have a common interest in safe dams. Often dam safety is characterized as reducing structural risk while providing for maximum operational flexibility. In the 1970's there were a number of large and small dam failures in the United States. These failures prompted the federal government to issue voluntary dam safety guidelines. These guidelines were based on historic information incorporated into a risk assessment process to analyze, evaluate and manage risk with the goal to improve the quality of and support of dam management and safety decisions. We conclude that historic and new risks need to be integrated into dam management to insure adequate safety and operational flexibility. A recent assessment of the future role of dams in the United States premises that future costs such as maintenance or removal beyond the economic design life have not been factored into the long-term operations or relicensing of dams. The converging risks associated with aging water storage infrastructure, multiple dams within watersheds and uncertainty in demands policy revisions and an updated strategic approach to dam safety. Decisions regarding the future of dams in the United States may, in turn, influence regional water planning and management. Leaders in Congress and in the states need to implement a comprehensive national water assessment and a formal analysis of the role dams play in our water future. A research and national policy agenda is proposed to assess future impacts and the design, operation, and management of watersheds and dams.

  6. Dominance and Leadership: Useful Concepts in Human–Horse Interactions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Christensen, Janne Winther; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    of management scenarios, ranging from taking a horse out of its social group to the prospect of humans mimicking the horse's social system by taking a putative leadership role and seeking after an alpha position in the dominance hierarchy to achieve compliance. Yet, there is considerable debate about whether...... the roles horses attain in their social group are of any relevance in their reactions to humans. This article reviews the empirical data on social dynamics in horses, focusing on dominance and leadership theories and the merits of incorporating those concepts into the human–horse context. This will provide...

  7. The role of the horse in Europe. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, D.; Davidson, N.

    1999-01-01

    The horse has a unique place in European society. Historically, it has played a major part in shaping political and agricultural advances. Today, the horse has diverse roles ranging from the companion and leisure horse, to the sporting athlete. The horse continues to work on the land in many European countries, it serves in the police and the armed forces, and in some regions is a source of food. This has resulted in a vast range of horse-human interactions and relationships. Despite the l...

  8. The big issue: environment and large dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Some of the environmental issues associated with large dams are discussed. Prior to commencement of construction of the Three Gorges dam in China in 1993, 50 years of planning and 20 years of environmental argument had taken place. The Chinese were conscious of the need to consider the environmental issues as a factor in attracting foreign investment for the world's biggest and most expensive dam. While the resettlement issues (1.2 M people were resettled) have dominated the current arguments, the other important issues are environment, economics and safety. Despite criticism from environmentalists, both at home and abroad, the Chinese went ahead with the project. With regard to resettlement, the Chinese appear to be much more considerate than some other countries in providing housing and agricultural land. Perhaps the main losses were suffered by cultural heritage sites and aquatic systems, rather than by the resettled population. (UK)

  9. The big issue: environment and large dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Peter [Harvard Univ. (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Some of the environmental issues associated with large dams are discussed. Prior to commencement of construction of the Three Gorges dam in China in 1993, 50 years of planning and 20 years of environmental argument had taken place. The Chinese were conscious of the need to consider the environmental issues as a factor in attracting foreign investment for the world's biggest and most expensive dam. While the resettlement issues (1.2 M people were resettled) have dominated the current arguments, the other important issues are environment, economics and safety. Despite criticism from environmentalists, both at home and abroad, the Chinese went ahead with the project. With regard to resettlement, the Chinese appear to be much more considerate than some other countries in providing housing and agricultural land. Perhaps the main losses were suffered by cultural heritage sites and aquatic systems, rather than by the resettled population. (UK)

  10. Cleveland Dam East Abutment : seepage control project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, F.; Siu, D. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ahlfield, S.; Singh, N. [Klohn Crippen Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    North Vancouver's 91 meter high Cleveland Dam was built in the 1950s in a deep bedrock canyon to provide a reservoir for potable water to 18 municipalities. Flow in the concrete gravity dam is controlled by a gated spillway, 2 mid-level outlets and intakes and 2 low-level outlets. This paper describes the seepage control measures that were taken at the time of construction as well as the additional measures that were taken post construction to control piezometric levels, seepage and piping and slope instability in the East Abutment. At the time of construction, a till blanket was used to cover the upstream reservoir slope for 200 meters upstream of the dam. A single line grout curtain was used through the overburden from ground surface to bedrock for a distance of 166 meters from the dam to the East Abutment. Since construction, the safety of the dam has been compromised through changes in piezometric pressure, seepage and soil loss. Klohn Crippen Consultants designed a unique seepage control measure to address the instability risk. The project involved excavating 300,000 cubic meters of soil to form a stable slope and construction bench. A vertical wall was constructed to block seepage. The existing seepage control blanket was also extended by 260 meters. The social, environmental and technical issues that were encountered during the rehabilitation project are also discussed. The blanket extension construction has met design requirements and the abutment materials that are most susceptible to internal erosion have been covered by non-erodible blanket materials such as plastic and roller-compacted concrete (RCC). The project was completed on schedule and within budget and has greatly improved the long-term stability of the dam and public safety. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  13. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty...... after each regrouping (2 × 20 min/group/day). Injuries were scored by the end of the experimental period. The level of aggression shown by horses in Unstable groups immediately after regrouping was not affected by week (F5,35 = 0.42, P = 0.83), indicating that horses neither habituated, nor sensitized...... injuries were registered and there was no treatment effect (U = 184; P = 0.11). We conclude that the behaviour of young horses is affected by group management, and that horses appear not to adapt to weekly regroupings....

  14. Hydroelectric dams need billions for rehab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, F.H.; Soast, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the Corps of Engineers older hydroelectric dams will require major rehabilitation over the next ten years. Preventive maintenance, repair work, and major rehabilitation of the Corp's hydro dams in inadequate because the revenue generated by sales of electricity, by law, is returned to the Treasury. Most multimillion dollar rehabilitation projects require specific approval for funding by Congress and securing it is a long and difficult process. It is hoped the funding problem will soon be addressed by the Clinton administration. Already, nearly one-sixth of the 2,154 Mw of hydro is unavailable because with hydro units are either out of service or operating at less than full capacity

  15. Official opening of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parbo, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the text of an address given on November 5, 1988 to mark the commencement of production of copper, uranium, gold and silver from the first stage of the Olympic Dam project at Roxby Downs, South Australia. The huge deposit was discovered in 1975 and years of exploration, underground development, metallurgical testing, planning and establishing the infrastructure followed, at a cost of $750 million. 740 people are now employed at Olympic Dam. The first shipment of copper and uranium oxide left for Sweden at the end of November 1988. The deposit is able to support a much higher production rate as the market for the products, particularly uranium, improves

  16. Dam safety at Seven Sisters Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R. W.; Gupta, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A safety surveillance program for all hydraulic structures in Manitoba was first implemented in 1979, and updated in 1988. This contribution describes the current status of the program, and the nature of the issues that the program was designed to address. The Seven Sisters Station's dam on the Winnipeg River, about 90 km northeast of the City of Winnipeg, was used as an example. Extensive reviews of flood risks and downstream inundation potential at Seven Sisters' revealed a number of deficiencies; these findings will be incorporated into a corporate plan of overall remediation. Updating the program will also include efforts to ensure adherence to national dam safety guidelines. 5 figs

  17. User's Guide: Arch Dam Stress Analysis System (ADSAS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... ADSAS assumes linear elastic behavior for the entire dam, i.e. the dam is assumed to support the computed tensile stresses within the concrete mass and across the monolith joints without cracking or opening the joints...

  18. Inventory of Dams in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Permitted dams in Iowa and associated attributes, as recorded by the Floodplain Section of the DNR. The dams regulated are those with the parameters listed below: a....

  19. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  20. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  1. Dam-Break Flood Analysis Upper Hurricane Reservoir, Hartford, Vermont

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acone, Scott

    1995-01-01

    .... Various dam break flood conditions were modeled and inundation maps developed. Based on this analysis the dam is rated a Class 2 or significant hazard category in terms of its potential to cause downstream damage...

  2. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  3. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  4. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiea Arianna Goyen

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162 of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214 currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1 perceived low risk (compared to high of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2 perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3 horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4 horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5 handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only and 6 perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination. Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  5. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  6. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Design and Construction of Dams, Reservoirs, and Balancing Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemperiere, F.

    2003-01-01

    The general data presented in sections two and three gives an idea of the extreme diversity of the millions of very large or very small dams worldwide. Dam design and construction methods for the most usual types of large dams are presented and justified in section four. The possibility and usefulness of building as many dams in the 21. century as have been built in the 20. is analyzed in section six. (author)

  9. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  10. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  11. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-from distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due to the high projectile energy. (author)

  12. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Baur, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross-section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross-sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two- and three-body cross-sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail

  13. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments

  14. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each

  15. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  16. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  17. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  18. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  19. General anesthesia for horses with specific problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.

    1990-01-01

    We have discussed anesthetic techniques, special considerations, and expected complications involved in anesthetizing horses for abdominal, orthopedic, and head and neck surgery, and myelography and have described expected physiologic dysfunction that may require changes in anesthetic technique or supportive measures. The objective is high-quality patient care and reduction in anesthesia-related morbidity and death

  20. Recent Studies on Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear reactions that are important for the understanding of astrophysical problems received an increasing attention over the last decades. The Trojan Horse Method was proposed as a tool to overcome some of the problems connected with the measurement of cross-sections between charged particles at astrophysical energies. Here we present some recent studies on this method. (authors)

  1. Seismic performance assessment of latyan concrete buttress dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to design earthquake resistant dams and evaluate the safety of existing dams that will be exposed to future earthquakes, it is essential to have accurate and reliable analysis procedures to predict the stresses and deformations in dams subjected to earthquake ground motion. For a damwater- foundation system, the ...

  2. The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and Ethiopia's Succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse Kassa Woldetsadik

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Dam concessions engendered detrimental impacts on Ethiopia's riparian rights ... control works on the Aswan High and the Roseires dams. Disturbed by the ... hegemonic control that would inevitably ensue from construction of the Dam ...... Projects Implementation Division AAAID, Sudan, p.1. 39 Ibid.

  3. Tenaga Nasional Berhad dam safety and surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen Luis; Zulkhairi Abd Talib

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the current practice of dam surveillance, which includes dam monitoring which is a process of visual inspections, measuring, processing, compiling and analyzing dam instrumentation data to determine the performance of a dam. The prime objective of the dam surveillance system is to ensure that any occurrence and development of safety deficiencies and problems are quickly detected, identified, analyzed and the required remedial actions are determined and consequently carried out in due time. In brief, the section is responsible to ensure that the dam monitoring and surveillance works are implemented as per scheduled and in accordance with the requirement and guidelines prepared by the dam designers and in accordance with international commission on large dams, ICOLD. The paper also illustrates and recommends an alternative approach for dam surveillance program using risk management approach, which is currently being actively adopted by some countries like USA, Canada, Australia and etc, towards improving the dam safety management and the decision making process. The approach provides a wider area of opportunity, improvements and benefits particular in the evaluation and modifications to the dam performance and safety. The process provides an effective and efficient tool for the decision makers and engineers through a comprehensive evaluation and a good understanding of the hazards, risks and consequences in relation to dam safety investigations. (Author)

  4. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam safety is a significant issue being taken seriously worldwide. However, in Australia, although much attention is being devoted to the medium- to large-scale dams, minimal attention is being paid to the serious potential problems associated with smaller dams, particularly the potential cumulative safety threats they pose ...

  5. Factors influencing hysteresis characteristics of concrete dam deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-he Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal deformation of a concrete dam changes periodically, and its variation lags behind the air temperature variation. The lag, known as the hysteresis time, is generally attributed to the low velocity of heat conduction in concrete, but this explanation is not entirely sufficient. In this paper, analytical solutions of displacement hysteresis time for a cantilever beam and an arch ring are derived. The influence of different factors on the displacement hysteresis time was examined. A finite element model was used to verify the reliability of the theoretical analytical solutions. The following conclusions are reached: (1 the hysteresis time of the mean temperature is longer than that of the linearly distributed temperature difference; (2 the dam type has a large impact on the displacement hysteresis time, and the hysteresis time of the horizontal displacement of an arch dam is longer than that of a gravity dam; (3 the reservoir water temperature variation lags behind of the air temperature variation, which intensifies the differences in the horizontal displacement hysteresis time between the gravity dam and the arch dam; (4 with a decrease in elevation, the horizontal displacement hysteresis time of a gravity dam tends to increase, whereas the horizontal displacement hysteresis time of an arch dam is likely to increase initially, and then decrease; and (5 along the width of the dam, the horizontal displacement hysteresis time of a gravity dam decreases as a whole, while the horizontal displacement hysteresis time of an arch dam is shorter near the center and longer near dam surfaces.

  6. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  7. Major dams of the United States, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2006) [dams00x020_USGS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  8. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  9. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  10. Investigation of geophysical methods for assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams : a study of through-dam seismic testing at WAC Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffran, P.; Jeffries, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Crosshole tomography is used to establish the distribution of seismic velocity between drill holes. The through-dam mode takes advantage of the triangular cross-section of earth embankments, obviating the need for drill holes. Seismic energy, generated on one face of the dam, passes underneath the crest and is detected by sensors arrayed on the opposite face. The sinkholes discovered at WAC Bennett Dam in 1996 provided an opportunity to test the procedure. Using p-wave energy, two series of measurements were conducted, notably one immediately before remediation of one sinkhole, and a second one shortly after the sinkhole was repaired. The known defect was successfully imaged by the first round of measurements. This report presented the results of an investigation of the through-dam seismic method using propagation of seismic waves through a dam from upstream to downstream, or vice-versa. The purpose of the study was to determine if this procedure could characterize the distribution of seismic velocity within a dam in an accurate and cost effective manner. The report presented the methods of velocity testing such as crosshole and downhole, and tomography; and through-dam measurements. Background to the Bennett Dam studies was also provided, with particular reference to the Bennett Dam sinkholes; sinkhole investigations; working hypothesis for sinkhole development; sinkhole number one characterization; and sinkhole remediation. An analysis of compression wave testing at Bennett Dam and shear wave testing was then offered. Other topics that were discussed included field test procedures; methodologies for data processing; p-waves versus s-waves; applicability of the research; and costs of through-dam surveys. It was concluded that under the right circumstances, through-dam seismic testing was capable of detecting changed conditions in an embankment dam. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 41 figs., 1 appendix.

  11. Primary Productivity of the Cengklik Dam Boyolali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRYANTO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary productivity dynamic of the water ecosystem was conducted faster in the last decades. This study was intended to find out the primary productivity of Cengklik dam Boyolali, Central Java to explain the ecosystem dynamic and to lead the maintenance of dam. This study used quantitative methods in completely randomized group design (CRD, and the data was analized by Analysis of Variance (ANAVA. Samples were taken horizontally in four sampling point, respectively in the riparian zone, around of the floating net (“karamba”, in the center of dam water and around of the ex-paddy fields. There were taken vertically in three-depth point in each of the sampling point, respectively 0.5 meter, 1.5 meter, and 2.5 meter. The results showed that the gross primary productivity of the dam was 11.122.500-22.545.600 mgC/m3/days, and the primary productivity differences in each of the point sampling caused by light intensity, nutrient supply, and abundance of the chlorophyll organisms.

  12. The blues of 'Petit Saut' dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nougaret, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Great works of equipping get some bad consequences. It is the case of the hydro-electric dam of 'Petit-Saut' in french Guyana. Even if it is a case of renewable energy some questions appear about the destruction among the fauna and the flora

  13. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A

  14. Modelling approach for gravity dam break analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussekine Mourad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can provide considerable benefits such as the supply of drinking and irrigation water; however the consequences which would result in the event of their failure could be catastrophic. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk.

  15. Assessment of changes at Glen Canyon Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, D.; McCoy, J.; Crandall, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the complexity associated with the assessment of financial impacts of proposed and actual short-term restrictions at Glen Canyon Dam. The reasons for these restrictions are discussed as well as the methods used to measure their financial impact to Western Area Power Administration

  16. Dam tot damloop : economische en maatschappelijke waarde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, Michiel; Horsselenberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Ruim 36.757 lopers (op de hoofdafstand!) en 115.000 bezoekers langs het parcours van het centrum van Amsterdam naar het centrum van Zaanstad, maakt de Dam tot damloop een groot evenement (het grootste hardloop evenement van Nederland) met een flinke impact op de (lokale) samenleving en economie. Dit

  17. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of undrainable water dams utilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH, electro-conductivity and total dissoved solutes (TDS) were measured in-situ from three reservoirs (Gathathini, Lusoi and Kianda dams) differing in their habitat characteristics. Water samples were collected for determination of the ionic concentartions of the reservoirs. Water quality status differed markedly between sites, ...

  19. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... internal water pressures. Pressures beyond a certain level would lead to structural instability. In the 18... foundation and embankment material strengths, and stability analyses to verify that the slopes of the dam..., rationales, benefits to miners, technological and economic feasibility, impact on small mines, and supporting...

  20. Expectations of immortality: dam safety management into the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, M.D. [Tonkin and Taylor International Ltd., Auckland, (New Zealand)

    1999-07-01

    Topics concerning the problems associated with older and aging dams are considered including: what can be done to extent the lifetime of an old dam, the decision to decommission a dam based on a value judgment that the risk of maintaining the dam is too great for society's acceptance, the possibility of change in the level of risk tolerance with time in a technological environment, traditional surveillance methods used by dam owners in the Y2K situation, and the unreality of dam immortality. Trends and means for preserving older dams for their owner's purposes are outlined, as well as their lifetime compared to that of the downstream systems they serve. Despite the fact that we live in a throwaway society, dam owners cannot just leave their dam asset when they are through with using it. Someone has to maintain the dam, or ensure that it is safely decommissioned when the owner is finished with it. On a worldwide scale the available pool of experienced dam engineers is shrinking. This problem needs to be addressed by a shift towards operating and dam safety management skills based on a firm awareness of dam design principles. A shift in society's expectations has occurred such that dam designers and owners must now recognize the impact a dam can have both on its natural and social environments. Because of the increasing emphasis on paying attention to the impacts of people's activities on the planet, engineers more than anyone else must have a significant influence in that direction. 9 refs.

  1. Dam risk reduction study for a number of large tailings dams in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, N. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Small, A. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Fredericton, NB (Canada); Martin, T. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Cacciotti, D. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada); Ross, T. [Vale Inco Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a risk reduction study conducted for 10 large tailings dams located at a central tailings facility in Ontario. Located near large industrial and urban developments, the tailings dams were built using an upstream method of construction that did not involve beach compaction or the provision of under-drainage. The study provided a historical background for the dam and presented results from investigations and instrumentation data. The methods used to develop the dam configurations were discussed, and remedial measures and risk assessment measures used on the dams were reviewed. The aim of the study was to address key sources of risk, which include the presence of high pore pressures and hydraulic gradients; the potential for liquefaction; slope instability; and the potential for overtopping. A borehole investigation was conducted and piezocone probes were used to obtain continuous data and determine soil and groundwater conditions. The study identified that the lower portion of the dam slopes were of concern. Erosion gullies could lead to larger scale failures, and elevated pore pressures could lead to the risk of seepage breakouts. It was concluded that remedial measures are now being conducted to ensure slope stability. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The negative effects of fireworks on companion animals have been reported, but little has been documented on the impact on horses. Horse anxiety was commonly associated with fireworks, and 26% of owners reported horse injuries as a result of fireworks. Many management strategies were seen as ineffective. The majority of horse owners were in favour of a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. Abstract Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765) “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765) rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  3. Proceeding of the public safety around dams conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Canadian Dam Association hosted the Public Safety Around Dams workshop in which presentations were given in the morning to describe the different measures and methods implemented by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Power Generation and others to improve safety around dams. In the afternoon, the participants toured the Auburn and Lakefield dams and facilities to view the infrastructures and equipment. A roundtable discussion concluded the day. Following this workshop, a Public Safety Around Dams group was created on the social network site, LinkedIn. This conference featured 6 presentations, 3 of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  4. Dam failure analysis for the Lago El Guineo Dam, Orocovis, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta; Heriberto Torres-Sierra,

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, completed hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to assess the potential hazard to human life and property associated with the hypothetical failure of the Lago El Guineo Dam. The Lago El Guineo Dam is within the headwaters of the Río Grande de Manatí and impounds a drainage area of about 4.25 square kilometers.The hydrologic assessment was designed to determine the outflow hydrographs and peak discharges for Lago El Guineo and other subbasins in the Río Grande de Manatí hydrographic basin for three extreme rainfall events: (1) a 6-hour probable maximum precipitation event, (2) a 24-hour probable maximum precipitation event, and (3) a 24-hour, 100-year recurrence rainfall event. The hydraulic study simulated a dam failure of Lago El Guineo Dam using flood hydrographs generated from the hydrologic study. The simulated dam failure generated a hydrograph that was routed downstream from Lago El Guineo Dam through the lower reaches of the Río Toro Negro and the Río Grande de Manatí to determine water-surface profiles developed from the event-based hydrologic scenarios and “sunny day” conditions. The Hydrologic Engineering Center’s Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC–HMS) and Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System (HEC–RAS) computer programs, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were used for the hydrologic and hydraulic modeling, respectively. The flow routing in the hydraulic analyses was completed using the unsteady flow module available in the HEC–RAS model.Above the Lago El Guineo Dam, the simulated inflow peak discharges from HEC–HMS resulted in about 550 and 414 cubic meters per second for the 6- and 24-hour probable maximum precipitation events, respectively. The 24-hour, 100-year recurrence storm simulation resulted in a peak discharge of about 216 cubic meters per second. For the hydrologic analysis, no dam failure conditions are

  5. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  6. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  7. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  8. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  9. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  10. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  12. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    of colic horses in a referral hospital have not been reported earlier. Objectives Evaluation of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in horses with colic. Methods Blood and PF samples were collected from 75 colic horses at admission to a referral hospital and from...... 19 healthy control horses. SAA and haptoglobin were measured in both serum and PF. Colic cases were classified according to diagnosis, treatment and outcome based on the clinical records. Protein concentrations were compared between groups with student´s t-test and ANOVA. Results Colic horses had...... significantly higher mean concentrations of serum SAA, PF SAA and PF haptoglobin compared to controls. PF SAA was significantly higher in horses with infectious conditions compared to both simple and strangulating obstructions, where as PF haptoglobin was higher in both strangulating and infectious conditions...

  13. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  14. Earthquake Hazard for Aswan High Dam Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Awad

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake activity and seismic hazard analysis are important components of the seismic aspects for very essential structures such as major dams. The Aswan High Dam (AHD) created the second man-made reservoir in the world (Lake Nasser) and is constructed near urban areas pose a high-risk potential for downstream life and property. The Dam area is one of the seismically active regions in Egypt and is occupied with several cross faults, which are dominant in the east-west and north-south. Epicenters were found to cluster around active faults in the northern part of Lake and AHD location. The space-time distribution and the relation of the seismicity with the lake water level fluctuations were studied. The Aswan seismicity separates into shallow and deep seismic zones, between 0 and 14 and 14 and 30 km, respectively. These two seismic zones behave differently over time, as indicated by the seismicity rate, lateral extent, b-value, and spatial clustering. It is characterized by earthquake swarm sequences showing activation of the clustering-events over time and space. The effect of the North African drought (1982 to present) is clearly seen in the reservoir water level. As it decreased and left the most active fault segments uncovered, the shallow activity was found to be more sensitive to rapid discharging than to the filling. This study indicates that geology, topography, lineations in seismicity, offsets in the faults, changes in fault trends and focal mechanisms are closely related. No relation was found between earthquake activity and both-ground water table fluctuations and water temperatures measured in wells located around the Kalabsha area. The peak ground acceleration is estimated in the dam site based on strong ground motion simulation. This seismic hazard analyses have indicated that AHD is stable with the present seismicity. The earthquake epicenters have recently took place approximately 5 km west of the AHD structure. This suggests that AHD dam must be

  15. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Shiraigol, W.; Li, B.; Bai, D. Y.; Ye, W. X.; Daidiikhuu, D.; Yang, L. H.; Jin, Brqqg; Zhao, Q. A.; Gao, Y. H.; Wu, J.; Bao, Wydl; Li, A. A.; Zhang, Y. H. Percival

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  17. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  18. A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2011-01-01

    The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity o...

  19. Effect of a dam on epilithic algal communities of a mountain stream: before-after dam construction comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cibils Martina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the effect of a dam on epilithic algal communities by analyzing community response after dam construction and by comparing community composition, structure and biomass upstream and downstream of the dam. Samples of epilithic algae and environmental data were collected at each site during high and low water periods before and after dam construction in Achiras Stream (Córdoba, Argentina. Ordinations showed modifications in algal assemblages after dam construction and downstream of the dam. Ordinations also suggested a loss of seasonality at the downstream site since the assemblages were similar between hydrological periods after dam construction. Indicator species, obtained by the Indicator Value method, showed that, after dam construction, there could have been an increase in nutrient concentration and a release of plankton from the impoundment. Abundance, richness and diversity were altered after dam construction as assessed by ANOVAs derived from a modified BACI Design. Proportion of early-successional species was higher at the upstream site while late-successional species were dominant at the downstream site, as predicted. Lower fluctuations in discharge downstream of the dam may have helped succession advance, whereas at the upstream site, mainly during the high water period, floods could have caused sloughing of life forms from the outer layers of the biofilm, resetting the algal community to early successional stages. It may be concluded that the dam affected algal community and favored succession advance mainly by reducing current velocity and flow fluctuations.

  20. Dynamic decision making for dam-break emergency management - Part 2: Application to Tangjiashan landslide dam failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, M.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-02-01

    Tangjiashan landslide dam, which was triggered by the Ms = 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in China, threatened 1.2 million people downstream of the dam. All people in Beichuan Town 3.5 km downstream of the dam and 197 thousand people in Mianyang City 85 km downstream of the dam were evacuated 10 days before the breaching of the dam. Making such an important decision under uncertainty was difficult. This paper applied a dynamic decision-making framework for dam-break emergency management (DYDEM) to help rational decision in the emergency management of the Tangjiashan landslide dam. Three stages are identified with different levels of hydrological, geological and social-economic information along the timeline of the landslide dam failure event. The probability of dam failure is taken as a time series. The dam breaching parameters are predicted with a set of empirical models in stage 1 when no soil property information is known, and a physical model in stages 2 and 3 when knowledge of soil properties has been obtained. The flood routing downstream of the dam in these three stages is analyzed to evaluate the population at risk (PAR). The flood consequences, including evacuation costs, flood damage and monetized loss of life, are evaluated as functions of warning time using a human risk analysis model based on Bayesian networks. Finally, dynamic decision analysis is conducted to find the optimal time to evacuate the population at risk with minimum total loss in each of these three stages.

  1. Chronic pulmonary disease - a multifacted disease complex in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews chronic pulmonary disease (CPD) as an insidiously developing disease capable of being manifest in many degrees. Horses may suffer mild, sub-clinical degrees of lower respiratory tract inflammation or small airway disease withouth showing symptoms at rest. This form of disease becomes manifest as poor performance when these horses take part in athletic competition. Factors relating to the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of all degrees of small airway disease of horses are discussed. 30 refs

  2. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  3. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  4. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those fo...

  5. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  6. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  7. An ethological study of young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šišková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  8. The Trojan horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliotta, M.; Rolfs, C.; Lattuada, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Miljanic, Dj.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the Coulomb barrier, reaction cross sections in astrophysics cannot be accessed directly at the relevant Gamow energies, unless very favourable conditions are met (e.g. LUNA--underground experiments). Theoretical extrapolations of available data are then needed to derive the astrophysical S(0)-factor. Various indirect processes have been used in order to obtain additional information on the parameters entering these extrapolations. The Trojan Horse Method is an indirect method which might help to bypass some of the problems typically encountered in direct measurements, namely the presence of the Coulomb barrier and the effect of the electron screening. However, a comparison with direct data in an appropriate energy region (e.g. around the Coulomb barrier) is crucial before extending the method to the relevant Gamow energy. Additionally, experimental and theoretical tests are needed to validate the assumptions underlying the method. The application of the Trojan Horse Method to some cases of interest is discussed

  9. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  10. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  12. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  13. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  14. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  17. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  18. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  19. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  20. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  1. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peritoneal fluid (PF) analysis is a valuable diagnostic tool in equine medicine. Markers such as serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) could facilitate the diagnosis of inflammatory abdominal conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) establish reference intervals (RI......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...... enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0...

  2. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Cognata, M. La; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2 H(d,p) 3 H, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He, 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6 Li and 3 He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He reactions and considering the 2 H and 3 He break-up for 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies. (author)

  3. An ethological study of young horses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Šišková; Iva Jiskrová; Vladimír Mikule

    2006-01-01

    In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia), defecation and micturition, comfortable behavi...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younkin, T J; Davis, E G; Kukanich, B

    2017-08-01

    The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this crossover study. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.38 and 10.76 h, for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentrations were 0.291 μg/mL at 1.54 h and 0.418 μg/mL at 1.28 h for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. Terbinafine with cimetidine had an average C MAX 44% higher and the relative F was 153% compared p.o. terbinafine alone, but was not statistically different (P > 0.05). Terbinafine was infrequently detected when administered per rectum in two different suspensions (water or olive oil). Minor adverse effects included oral irritation, fever, and colic. All resolved spontaneously. More pharmacokinetic studies are indicated assessing drug-drug interactions and using multiple dosing intervals to improve our knowledge of effective oral dosing, the potential for drug accumulation, and systemic adverse effect of terbinafine in horses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  6. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  7. Innovative reregulation weirs for dam releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, G.E.; Shane, R.M.; Niznik, J.A.; Brock, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper two different reregulation weir designs for dam release improvement are discussed. A porous timber crib is favored for applications where increased minimum flow is needed, and a labyrinth with vertical walls is favored where both minimum flow and aeration are needed. Weirs constructed below hydropower dams can improve minimum flows between generating periods and increase tailwater dissolved oxygen (DO) content during generation. TVA has developed two distinct functional designs: a timber crib weir for minimum flow and a labyrinth weir for minimum flow and aeration. A target minimum flow is sustained by slow drainage of the weir pool between periodic refills. With the labyrinth weir, aeration occurs during generation via overtopping. Both weirs are designed to maximize the value of the tailwater while minimizing backwater on the upstream turbine, unsafe hydraulic conditions, and environmental disturbance

  8. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  9. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  10. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  11. Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, C; Morales, N; Uberti, B; Henriquez, C; Sarmiento, J; Ortloff, A; Folch, H; Moran, G

    2018-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early apoptosis of blood and BALF neutrophils, reduction of BALF neutrophils, and improvement in animals' clinical status. The aim of this study was to describe if TX induces in vitro efferocytosis of neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Efferocytosis assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) detection and translocation phosphatidylserine (PS) were performed on neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood samples from five healthy horses. In in vitro samples from heathy horses, TX treatment increases the phenomenon of efferocytosis of peripheral neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Similar increases in supernatant MPO concentration and PS translocation were observed in TX-treated neutrophils, compared to control cells. In conclusion, these results confirm that tamoxifen has a direct effect on equine peripheral blood neutrophils, through stimulation of the engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.

  12. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  14. Perencanaan Check Dam Sungai Dawe Kudus

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaanah, Adibatul; Pinandoyo, Nur; Sugiyanto, Sugiyanto; Wahyuni, Sri Eko

    2013-01-01

    Juana river's located in two administrative regions Kudus and Pati had superficial. This is because the slope of the river is quite gentle and the level of environmental degradation in the watershed (DAS) Juana river's have increased. Based on these conditions, it is necessary to plan the construction of sediment control (check dams) to reduce sedimentation along the river and optimize the function of the Juana river's. Planning is performed on Dawe river's ,the branch of Juana river's. From ...

  15. Excavation of the Surikamigawa dam diversion tunnel. Surikamigawa dam karihaisui tunnel kantsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T.; Konno, T. (Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    A bypass tunnel construction has been completed at the Surikamigawa dam (Japan). This paper describes the summary of the construction. The full-swing dam construction work is scheduled to begin in 1995. The soils distributed near the dam site consist of lapillus tuff containing andesite-based light stones and tuff-based conglomerates containing large gravels. Excavation of the dam diversion tunnel has used a blasting method, and the tunnel construction has adopted an automatic tunnel cross section marking system and a non-electric explosion method. This marking system is a system to irradiate a laser beam onto the facing to depict excavation lines that realizes labor saving and high-accuracy excavation. The error at the tunnel completion was found 20 mm. The non-electric explosion method ignites a coated explosive layer with an impact wave, which is electrostatically safe, and reduces blasting vibration. Electric detonators have also been used because of using ANFO explosives. The result obtained from measurements of inner space displacement necessary for the blasting process has indicated that the area near the dam site consists of stable mountains. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Trailović Ružica; Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Jovanović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific co...

  17. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio‐Martínez, L. M.; Redding, W. R.; Bladon, B.; Wilderjans, H.; Payne, R. J.; Tessier, C.; Geffroy, O.; Parker, R.; Bell, C.; Collingwood, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. Objectives To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Study design Multicentre retrospective case series. Methods Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow‐up informatio...

  18. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: an investigation of several outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Moleman, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Multem, J; Troelstra, A; Fluit, A C; van Wamel, W J B; Houwers, D J; de Neeling, A J; Wagenaar, J A

    2010-02-24

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2006/2007, MRSA isolates of spa-type t2123 were cultured from 7 horses and 4/61 personnel which indicated zoonotic transmission. After intervention the outbreak stopped. However, another outbreak occurred in 2008, where 17 equine MRSA isolates of spa-type t011 (n=12), t2123 (n=4), and t064 (n=1) were found. This time, 16/170 personnel were positive for MRSA with spa-type t011 (n=11) and t2123 (n=5). Personnel in close contact with horses were more often MRSA-positive (15/106) than those without (1/64). Screening of horses upon admission showed that 9.3% were MRSA-positive predominantly with spa-type t011. Weekly cross-sectional sampling of all hospitalized horses for 5 weeks showed that 42% of the horses were MRSA-positive at least once, again predominantly with spa-type t011, which suggests that nosocomial transmission took place. Fifty-three percent of the environmental samples were MRSA-positive, including samples from students' and staff members' rooms, and all were spa-type t011. This indicates that humans contribute to spreading the organism. Culturing of samples employing high-salt pre-enrichment performed better than a comparable method without pre-enrichment. Our results show that nosocomial transmission occurs in equine clinics and suggests that personnel play a role in the transmission. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Three Sisters Dam: Investigations and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.; Courage, L.J.R.; Keys, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The geotechnical investigations, monitoring and interpretation of data associated with the evaluation of the Three Sisters Dam, which has been suffering from excessive seepage and is in need of enhancement, are outlined. The Three Sisters Dam is located in the continental ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, impounding the Spray Reservoir, and is founded on 60 m of interbedded sand, gravel, silt and clay layers. The computer code PC-SEEP was used to evaluate seepage. Details are provided of drilling, ground-penetrating radar surveys, seismic surveys, penstock inspection, sinkhole activity, piezometer monitoring, silt wells, settlement monuments, and tailrace monitoring. The intensive investigations of the foundations showed that they consist of a complex formation of interfingered stratified layers and leases of talus and glaciofluvial deposits. Due to the depth and nature of these materials drill hole penetration was limited to the use of the Becker hammer. This equipment successfully delineated the major soil horizons of the foundation. The continued information attained from inspection, drilling, testing, radar surveys, seismic work, monitoring of piezometers, leakage, silt wells and settlement monuments indicated that there are no large voids within the foundation of the dam. 2 refs., 12 figs

  2. Dam spills and fishes; Eclusees et poissons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This short paper reports the main topics discussed during the two days of the annual colloquium of the Hydro-ecology Committee of EdF. The first day was devoted to the presentation of the joint works carried out by EdF, the Paul-Sabatier University (Toulouse), the Provence St-Charles University (Marseille), the ENSAT (Toulouse) and the CEMAGREF (Lyon and Aix-en-Provence) about the environmental impact of dam spills on the aquatic flora and fauna downstream. A synthesis and recommendations were presented for the selection and characterization of future sites. The second day was devoted to the hydro-ecology study of the dam reservoir of Petit-Saut (French Guyana): water reoxygenation, quality evolution, organic matter, plankton, invertebrates and fishes. The 134 French dams concerned by water spills have been classified according to the frequency of spills, the variations of flow rates created, and their impacts on fishing, walking, irrigation, industry, drinking water, navigation, bathing. Particular studies on different sites have demonstrated the complexity of the phenomena involved concerning the impact on the ecosystems and the water quality. (J.S.).

  3. Sediment Transport Over Run-of-River Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Renshaw, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Dams have numerous documented effects that can degrade river habitat downstream. One significant effect of large dams is their ability to trap sediment delivered from upstream. This trapping can alter sediment transport and grain size downstream - effects that often motivate dam removal decisions. However, recent indirect observations and modeling studies indicate that small, run-of-river (ROR) dams, which do not impede discharge, may actually leak sediment downstream. However, there are no direct measurements of sediment flux over ROR dams. This study investigates flow and sediment transport over four to six different New England ROR dams over a summer-fall field season. Sediment flux was measured using turbidity meters and tracer (RFID) cobbles. Sediment transport was also monitored through an undammed control site and through a river where two ROR dams were recently removed. These data were used to predict the conditions that contribute to sediment transport and trapping. Year 1 data show that tracer rocks of up to 61 mm were transported over a 3 m ROR dam in peak flows of 84% of bankfull stage. These tracer rocks were transported over and 10 m beyond the dam and continue to move downstream. During the same event, comparable suspended sediment fluxes of up to 81 g/s were recorded both upstream and downstream of the dam at near-synchronous timestamps. These results demonstrate the potential for sediment transport through dammed rivers, even in discharge events that do not exceed bankfull. This research elucidates the effects of ROR dams and the controls on sediment transport and trapping, contributions that may aid in dam management decisions.

  4. Langbjorn dam : adaptation for safe discharge of extreme floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Vattenfall Research and Development, Alvkarleby (Sweden); Ericsson, H.; Gustafsson, A. [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden); Stenmark, M. [Vattenfall Power Consultant, Ludvika (Sweden); Mikaelsson, J. [Vattenfall Nordic Generation, Bispgarden (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    The Langbjorn hydropower scheme, composed of an embankment dam with an impervious core of compacted moraine, a spillway section and a powerhouse, is located on the Angermanalven River in north Sweden. The scheme was commissioned in 1959 and is owned by Vattenfall. As part of its dam safety program, Vattenfall plans to adapt and refurbish many of its dams to the updated design-flood and dam-safety guidelines. Langbjorn is classified as a high hazard dam, as its updated design flood is 30 per cent higher than the existing spillway capacity. Safety evaluations were conducted for the Langbjorn dam, and, as required by the higher safety standard, there was a need to rebuild the dam, so that the design flood could be safely released without causing failure of the dam. This paper provided information on the Langbjorn hydropower scheme and discussed the planned rebuilding measures. For example, the design flood was accommodated by allowing a temporary raise of the water level by 1.3 metres above the legal retention reservoir level, which required heightening and reinforcement of the dam. Specifically, the paper discussed measures to increase the discharge capacity; handling and control of floating debris; improvement and heightening of impervious core in left and right connecting dam and abutment; measures to increase the stability of the left steep riverbank; and measures to increase stability of the spillway monoliths and the left guide wall. In addition, the paper discussed measures to ensure stability of the downstream stretch of the river bank and increase instrumentation. The paper also presented the results of hydraulic investigations to investigate the risk of erosion downstream of the dam. It was concluded that the dam could discharge the design flood and that the stability of the dam was improved and judged to be satisfactory during all foreseeable conditions. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  6. Automatic dam concrete placing system; Dam concrete dasetsu sagyo no jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneda, Y; Hori, Y; Nakayama, T; Yoshihara, K; Hironaka, T [Okumura Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-11-15

    An automatic concrete placing system was developed for concrete dam construction. This system consists of the following five subsystems: a wireless data transmission system, an automatic dam concrete mixing system, a consistency determination system, an automatic dam concrete loading and transporting system, and a remote concrete bucket opening and closing system. The system includes the following features: mixing amount by mixing ratio and mixing intervals can be instructed from a concrete placing site by using a wireless handy terminal; concrete is mixed automatically in a batcher plant; a transfer car is started, and concrete is charged into a bucket automatically; the mixed concrete is determined of its properties automatically; labor cost can be reduced, the work efficiency improved, and the safety enhanced; and the system introduction has resulted in unattended operation from the aggregate draw-out to a bunker line, manpower saving of five persons, and reduction in cycle time by 10%. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Dam failure analysis/calibration using NWS models on dam failure in Alton, New Hampshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The State of New Hampshire Water Resources Board, the United States Geological Service, and private concerns have compiled data on the cause of a catastrophic failure of the Bergeron Dam in Alton, New Hampshire in March of 1996. Data collected related to the cause of the breach, the breach parameters, the soil characteristics of the failed section, and the limits of downstream flooding. Dam break modeling software was used to calibrate and verify the simulated flood-wave caused by the Bergeron Dam breach. Several scenarios were modeled, using different degrees of detail concerning the topography/channel-geometry of the affected areas. A sensitivity analysis of the important output parameters was completed. The relative importance of model parameters on the results was assessed against the background of observed historical events

  8. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How big of an effect do small dams have? Using geomorphological footprints to quantify spatial impact of low-head dams and identify patterns of across-dam variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fencl, Jane S.; Mather, Martha E.; Costigan, Katie H.; Daniels, Melinda D.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0–15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136–437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach that has been applied to larger dams.

  10. Characterization of landslide dams in the San Juan province (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna; Longchamp, Celine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    River blockages caused by landslide deposition are common phenomena in active mountain chains, influencing erosion-sedimentation patterns and acting as primary and secondary hazards. Regional scale analyses regarding their spatial distribution and morphometry allow establishing boundary conditions for their occurrence and stability, and determine differences among regions with different landscape and climatic conditions. Owing to the combination of endogenous and exogenous factors, landslide dams are frequent phenomena in the Andes. In the Argentinean NW and the Patagonian Andes, previous studies showed that stability of landslide dams determined by morphometric parameters generally matched satisfactorily with dam behavior, with some exceptions in which climatic component played an important role in dam longevity. Aiming to expand the knowledge of landslide dams in the Argentinean Andes, in this work we analyzed the stability of rock avalanche dams in the Pampeam flat slab subduction zone. In the study area, mountain dynamics creates suitable conditions for the occurrence of 34 rock avalanches with volumes up to 0.3 km3. They developed in deeply carved valleys (Cordillera) and Inter-thrust valleys (Precordillera). 22 impoundments of rivers resulted from channelized rock avalanches with long runouts (4-10 km) that blocked tributaries rivers, but most of them by rock avalanches that filled the valley bottom, with run up in the opposite slope and limited movement parallel to the valley axis. Most of the dams breached in unknown times, except for the last event that occurred on November 12th 2005. The quantification of morphometric parameters and contributing areas indicates the existence of dams with dimensionless blockage index above 2.75 (stable domain) and below 3.08 (instable domain). The Los Erizos dam in our study area and the Barrancas dam in the Patagonian Andes show that besides morphometric parameters, climatic conditions are decisive. Stable landslide dams

  11. Towards a dams safety management system for Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo, V.; Silva, A.; Costa, R.; Barateiro, J.; Portela, E. A.; Fonseca, J.

    2015-01-01

    Dams have contributed to the human development and have brought many benefits, such as delivering hydropower, irrigating agricultural fields, supplying drinking water, or just for navigational and recreational purposes. Nevertheless, dams are critical structures that raise multiple concerns and risks associated with the ecological, social and economic impact. Angola has a rich and complex network of water basins and dams that serves different strategic purposes as defined in it...

  12. Pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to Emergency Departments, United States 1990-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Knox, Christy L; Smith, Gary A; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Although an estimated 6.5 million United States (US) children aged 6-17 practiced a martial art in 2004, there have been no nationally representative studies comparing pediatric injuries among the three most popular disciplines, karate, taekwondo, and judo. Describe pediatric martial arts injuries presenting to a representative sample of US Emergency Departments (EDs) from 1990 to 2003. We reviewed all martial arts injuries captured by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission's (CPSC), National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). An estimated 128,400 children injuries from 1990 to 2003. Injured tended to be male (73.0%) and had a mean age of 12.1 years. Most injuries were attributed to karate (79.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was being kicked (25.6%), followed by falling (20.6%) and kicking (18.0%). The majority of injuries occurred to the lower leg/foot/ankle (30.1%) and hand/wrist (24.5%). The most common injury diagnoses were sprains/strains (29.3%), contusions/abrasions (27.8%), and fractures (24.6%). Participants in judo sustained significantly higher proportions of shoulder/upper arm injuries than karate (IPR=4.31, 95% CI: 2.84-6.55) or taekwondo (IPR=9.75, 95% CI: 3.53-26.91) participants. There were also higher proportions of neck injuries sustained by judo participants compared to karate (IPR=4.73, 95% CI: 1.91-11.70) or taekwondo (IPR=4.17, 95% CI: 1.02-17.06) participants. Pediatric martial arts injuries differ by discipline. Understanding these injury patterns can assist with the development of discipline-specific preventive interventions.

  13. Los Imaginarios Sociales de la Reforma de la Salud en Chile (1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Quiero Flory

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación transdisciplinar, tiene como objetivo descubrir cuáles son los imaginarios sociales de la Reforma de la Salud en Chile, desde la mirada de tres sectores (Estado, Colegio Médico y Federación Nacional de Profesionales Universitarios de los Servicios de Salud, en una trayectoria espacio-temporal de 13 años y su relación con la construcción de la realidad social en ese ámbito. Se utilizó metodología cualitativa, y el software ATLAS.ti 4.2 para el análisis crítico del discurso. Los resultados indican que se logra visualizar la dimensión simbólica de máximo consenso para los tres sectores o imaginario social institucionalizado y la dimensión simbólica de máximo disenso para los tres sectores o imaginarios permanentes no compartidos. Se describen conclusiones en términos teóricometodológico- aplicados.

  14. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  15. Energy-related taxation as an environmental policy tool--the Finnish experience 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, Jarmo

    2005-01-01

    Finland has over 10 years experience of environment-based energy taxation. The design and level of the CO 2 and energy tax scheme has been changed several times on an ad hoc basis. In recent years, Finland has introduced more and more tax 'departures', i.e. deviations and exceptions from an 'ideal' type of environmental tax. Examples of this include fuel-specific and user-specific exemptions or lowered tax levels taxes on electricity production from non-fossil energy sources, plus refund systems for fossil fuel and electricity users. Thus, it is apparent that Finnish energy taxation aimed at improving the environment has developed ineffectively. Increases in the level of CO 2 tax on fossil fuels have served mostly fiscal purposes with reduced CO 2 emissions being only a side benefit. No systematic follow-up or ex post analysis on the impacts of the CO 2 and energy taxes has been carried out. From the perspective of greenhouse gas mitigation, the discussion on economic instruments has shifted from CO 2 taxation towards emissions trading in the international context of the European Union and the Kyoto Protocol

  16. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  17. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  18. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  19. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  20. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van

    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary

  1. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  2. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglish, Jodie; Mama, Khursheed R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief overview of pain physiology and its relevance to equine patients. Objective and subjective techniques for assessing pain in the horse are described in depth. Pharmacologic and interventional pain modulation treatments are discussed with a focus on the rehabilitating horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vacuum phenomenon in the metatarsophalangeal joint of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, T.E.; Poulos, P.W.; Metcalf, M.R.; Robertson, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Vacuum phenomenon was induced inadvertently during radiographic examination of a metatarsophalangeal joint of a lame horse. The phenomenon was recreated in a sound horse when a metacarpophalangeal joint was radiographed in a stress-flexed position. Distraction of apposing articular surfaces may induce the vacuum phenomenon, which could result in misdiagnosis of an osteochondral defect or fracture

  4. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  5. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...

  6. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  7. Skidding with horses to thin young stands in western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington

    1957-01-01

    Increased use of commercial thinning to provide an additional source of needed raw material and to boost overall yields from forest lands has again brought horses into the northwest woods. They are particularly well adapted to skidding small logs under the light, frequent cuts typical of a thinning operation. Horses can, moreover, work at close quarters in a young...

  8. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  9. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  10. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  11. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  12. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  13. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  14. Environmental exposures and airway inflammation in young thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, K M; Couëtil, L L; Moore, G E; Zimmerman, N J; Raskin, R E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in horses is a widespread, performance-limiting syndrome believed to develop in response to inhaled irritants in the barn environment. To evaluate changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and exposure to particulates, endotoxin, and ammonia during horses' first month in training. Forty-nine client-owned 12- to 36-month-old Thoroughbred horses entering race training. In this prospective cohort study, a convenience sample of horses was assigned to be fed hay from a net (n = 16), whereas the remaining horses were fed hay from the ground (n = 33). BALF was collected at enrollment and after 14 and 28 days in training. Respirable particulate, inhalable particulate, respirable endotoxin, and ammonia concentrations were measured at the breathing zone of each horse weekly. Median respirable particulates were significantly higher when horses were fed from hay nets than when fed hay from the ground (hay net 0.28 mg/m(3) , no hay net 0.055 mg/m(3) , P horses were fed from hay nets. Feeding hay from a net resulted in significantly higher BALF eosinophil proportions over time (P Thoroughbreds, indicating a potential hypersensitivity to inhaled particulate allergens. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  16. Isotope technique in JPS dam surveillance: its potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Controlling seepage is one of the most important requirements for safe dams. Any leakage at an earth embankment may be potentially dangerous since rapid internal erosion may quickly enlarge an initially minor defect. Thus dam owners need to have thorough surveillance programs that can forewarn of impending problems from seepage or other factors influencing the safety of dams. In carrying out dam surveillance works, all possible efforts should be considered and foreseeing the potential of isotope technique, JPS (Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Malaysia) and MINT (Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research) participated actively in the UNDP/RCA/IAEA program under RAS/8/093 project sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Through these activities, it was noted that the technique demonstrated very promising potentials such as in assisting dam site selections, site investigations, watershed studies, dam and reservoir design, leakage investigations and sediments related issues, the two latter ones being relatively critical during the operational life of the dam. Establishment of baseline isotopic characteristics (or fingerprint), hydrochemistry, electrical conductivity and temperature profiles is underway for all JPS dams to be later utilized in diagnosing seepage related issues it is suggested that application of this technique be extended to other dam owners nationwide. (Author)

  17. Fish Passage Through Dams on the Upper Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilcox, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    .... I identified UMR migratory fish species, estimated current velocities through gate openings on UMR dams, compiled information on migration behavior, and estimated the swimming for north performance...

  18. Engineers find climbing techniques work well for dam inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shea, M.; Graves, A. [Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Climbing techniques adopted by the Bureau of Reclamation to inspect previously inaccessible or difficult to reach features at dams are described. Following the failure of the steel radial-arm gate at Folsom Dam, engineers mounted an effort to reach and inspect the dam`s seven other spillway gates. This close-up examination was performed to: (1) determine the condition of these gates; and (2) gather clues about the failure of the one gate. The access techniques described involved mountaineering techniques, as opposed to high scaling techniques, performed with dynamic and static nylon kermantle ropes.

  19. Detection of Water Leaks in Beni-Haroun Dam (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocini, N.; Mami, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to detect water leakage origin combining conventional, tracing and isotope techniques. The investigation was performed by a research team from the 'Algiers Nuclear Research Centre' in collaboration with engineers from the 'National Agency for Dams'. The chemical and isotopic results have shown no influence of dam water on the water sampled at the piezometers and drains that are present in the close neighbourhood of the dam. However, the water flowing at drain D15 has exhibited the nearest quality to that dam. Dye tracing has shown a water circulation through complex pathways for the left bank. (author)

  20. MNR's role in public safety around dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Jennifer [Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is the largest dam owner in Ontario with around 400 dams located all across the province. MNR works to exercise stewardship of Ontario's water resources in a context of public safety, employee safety and environmental awarenes. This presentation shows the different measures MNR implemented to reduce risks. Warning signs, safety booms, barrel buoys and pedestrian fencing have been installed around dams to alert the public to possible dangers. In addition, MNR employees receive training in how to inspect dams for safety concerns, how to identify problems which could result in hazards to the public and how to work safely.

  1. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  3. Model Development to Establish Integrated Operational Rule Curves for Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs - Montana, 1996 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotz, Brian; Althen, Craig; Gustafson, Daniel

    1996-01-01

    Hungry Horse and Libby dams have profoundly affected the aquatic ecosystems in two major tributaries of the Columbia River by altering habitat and water quality, and by imposing barriers to fish migration. In 1980, the U.S. Congress passed the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act, designed in part to balance hydropower development with other natural resources in the Columbia System. The Act formed the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) who developed a program to protect, mitigate and enhance fish and wildlife on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Pursuant to the Council`s Fish and Wildlife Program for the Columbia River System (1987), we constructed computer models to simulate the trophic dynamics of the reservoir biota as related to dam operation. Results were used to develop strategies to minimize impacts and enhance the reservoir and riverine fisheries, following program measures 903(a)(1-4) and 903(b)(1-5). Two FORTRAN simulation models were developed for Hungry Horse and Libby reservoirs located in northwestern Montana. The models were designed to generate accurate, short-term predictions specific to two reservoirs and are not directly applicable to other waters. The modeling strategy, however, is portable to other reservoir systems where sufficient data are available. Reservoir operation guidelines were developed to balance fisheries concerns in the headwaters with anadromous species recovery actions in the lower Columbia (Biological Rule Curves). These BRCs were then integrated with power production and flood control to reduce the economic impact of basin-wide fisheries recovery actions. These Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) were developed simultaneously in the Columbia Basin System Operation Review (SOR), the Council`s phase IV amendment process and recovery actions associated with endangered Columbia Basin fish species.

  4. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, N.; Shahmim, M.A.; Elahi, A.; Khan, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  5. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  6. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  7. Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Ko, R L W; So, R T Y; Ng, B C Y; Chan, S M S; Chu, S; Alnaeem, A A; Alhammadi, M A; Webby, R J; Poon, L L M; Balasuriya, U B R; Peiris, M

    2017-12-01

    Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  9. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  10. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  11. Monitoring health in African dams : the Kamburu dam (Kenya) as a test case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.V. Oomen

    1981-01-01

    textabstractDams are among the obvious efforts to improve the economic situation in a developing country. They aim at using locally available natural resources. At present they are among the most popular means for promoting socio-economic development. A significant number of these programmes have

  12. Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

    1990-01-01

    Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics.

  13. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  14. Bioavailability of pivampicillin and ampicillin trihydrate administered as an oral paste in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, JM; Mol, A; Vulto, AG; Tukker, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Pivampicillin was administered as an oral paste to five healthy adult horses, and an oral paste with ampicillin trihydrate was administered to three horses, Pivampicillin was administered to both starved and fed horses, ampicillin trihydrate was administered to fed horses only, The dose of

  15. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are introduced...

  16. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions of...

  17. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period special...

  18. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...

  19. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Canada, the importer or his or her agent...

  20. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  1. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  2. Dam Design can Impede Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: A Case Study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, JoAnna; Murray Hicks, D.; Snelder, Ton H.; Arscott, David B.; Larned, Scott T.; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M.

    2013-02-01

    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m3 s-1 only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m3 s-1 (compared to 19 times >100 m3 s-1 and 6 times >203 m3 s-1 in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  3. Environmental design of the Olympic Dam operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental Design of The Olympic Dam Operations has been required to take into account the Environmental Management Programme as approved by the South Australian Government and radiological protection standards as determined by the Commonwealth of Australia's Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores 1987. The article describes the natural environment, project assessment and infrastructure relating to the environmental design. The radiological standards refer to the control of exposure to radiation above naturally occurring background levels both for employees and for members of the public. 2 tabs., maps

  4. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia

  5. Cryptogamous plants lining the dam encircling Szeged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, L

    1973-01-01

    Szeged, S. Hungary, is surrounded by an 8 km long dam covered with bricks, its surface 50,000 sq. m., the angle of inclination 45/sup 0/. On the brick surface there live 36 lichen species belonging to four lichen associations, nine moss and one algal species. The paper deals with the enumeration of cryptogamous coenoses, the growth form of the plants, the degree of annual growth of 5 various lichen species and the effect of the pollution of town air. The extent of coverage and the fructification of the single species are of lower degree in the coenoses in regions of more polluted air. 6 references, 2 tables.

  6. The environment of the Olympic Dam project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Olympic Dam uranium/copper/gold project at Roxby Downs, South Australia, has a harsh environment with high summer temperatures, low rainfall and poor quality soils. There are no natural water courses. The vegetation is dominated by annual grasses in summer and wildflowers in winter. Red kangaroos are the most commonly sighted native mammals. The Fat-tailed Dunnart a nocturnal carniverous marsupial, is found. Eighty three bird species have been recorded. Reptiles are numerous and one amphibian occurs. A vermin eradication program aimed at rabbit control is conducted. ills

  7. The World Commission on Dams + 10: Revisiting the Large Dam Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD was an experiment in multi-stakeholder dialogue and global governance concerned with a subject area – large dams – that was fraught with conflict and controversy. The WCD Report, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, was published in 2000 and accompanied by hopes that broad-based agreements would be forged on how to better manage water and energy development. Ten years later, this special issue of Water Alternatives revisits the WCD and its impacts, exploring the question: Is the WCD still relevant? The editorial team and the Guest Editors of this special issue of Water Alternatives have selected a range of 20 papers, 6 viewpoints, and 4 book reviews that help to illustrate the evolution in the dams debate. The goal of this special issue is to examine the influence and the impacts of the WCD on the dam enterprise, in general, and on the policies and practices of key stakeholders and institutions, and on the development outcomes for affected communities and environments, in particular. In this introduction, the Guest Editors provide an overview of the special issue, exploring the new drivers of dam development that have emerged during the last decade, including climate change and new financiers of dams, and describing the themes emerging from this diverse set of papers and viewpoints. This special issue demonstrates the need for a renewed multi-stakeholder dialogue at multiple levels. This would not be a redo of the WCD, but rather a rekindling and redesigning of processes and forums where mutual understanding, information-sharing, and norm-setting can occur. One of the most promising developments of the last decade is the further demonstration, in case studies described here, that true partnership amongst key stakeholders can produce transformative resource-sharing agreements, showing that many of the WCD recommendations around negotiated decision making are working in practice. We hope

  8. Negative contrast peritoneography in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, K.C.K.; Kerr, L.Y.; Meagher, D.M.; Baker, T.W.; Kurpershoek, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of negative contrast peritoneography using CO 2 peritoneal insufflation technique was investigated in adult horses. Radiographic visualization of anatomic structures in the dorsal abdomen, including the kidneys, portions of the spleen and liver, dorsal stomach and mesenteric root region, was enhanced. Visualization of ventral abdominal structures was not enhanced. Negative contrast peritoneography allowed reduction in the radiographic technique from 140 kVp and 40 mAs before insufflation to 100 kVp and 5–10 mAs following insufflation. The technique was easily and safely performed with minimal patient discomfort and risk

  9. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Cognata, M. La [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  10. Congenital hypotrichosis in a Percheron draught horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Hedstrom, O R; Miller, W H; Scott, D W; Mathies, S

    2001-08-01

    A blue roan Percheron foal was born with poorly circumscribed patchy alopecia of the trunk and legs. Teeth and hoof development were normal. Alopecia was progressive, becoming almost complete by 1 year of age. Histopathological findings in a skin biopsy obtained at 7 months of age were consistent with severe follicular hypoplasia. Sebaceous glands, epitrichial sweat glands and arrector pilae muscles were normal. The horse is alive and otherwise well at 6 years of age, although adult stature is considered small for this breed. The clinical history and histopathological findings are most consistent with a form of congenital hypotrichosis.

  11. Osteoma of paranasal sinuses of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, J.; Smith, B.L.; Morgan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was examined for torticollis, facial protuberances over the frontal and maxillary sinuses, and persistent nasal discharge unresponsive to antibiotics. Radiograph revealed an osseous mass in the right paranasal sinuses. Histologic examination of the biopsied mass led to a diagnosis of osteoma. The mass was removed surgically in sections from the right frontal and maxillary sinuses through separate bone flaps, and sinuses were irrigated with saline solution for 8 days after surgery. Two weeks after surgery, radiography revealed small osseous opacities in the right paranasal sinuses. These opacities remained unchanged in radiographs obtained up to 23 months after surgery

  12. Costa Rica's Presentation to the 1st Workshop on Problems of Leakage in Dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Calderon, C.F.

    1994-03-01

    This paper includes information about the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE); the project T racer Application to Leakage in Dams; the description of the Cachi's Dam and the description of the Arenal's Dam. (S. Grainger)

  13. Thermal monitoring of leakage through Karkheh embankment dam, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghasemi, A.A.; Bagheri, S.M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Heidarzadeh, M. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering]|[Mahab Ghodss Consulting Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    A newly developed and simple method for monitoring seepage in embankment dams was presented. The method of temperature measurement is based on the fact that a change in permeability results in a change in seepage flow, thereby causing a temperature change that can be readily measured in the dam body and foundation. In this study, water leaking through the Karkheh embankment dam was thermally analyzed to determine a pattern and amount of water seepage. With nearly 33 million cubic metres of fill, the Karkheh earth and rock-fill dam is the largest dam in Iran. Construction was completed in 2000. The thermal processes in the embankment were studied due to the dam's complex thermo-hydraulic behaviour. Thermal data was collected and analyzed during construction and operation of the dam. This paper presented the temperature variations for the different dam zones, including core, upstream shell, downstream shell, upstream filter, downstream filter and the plastic concrete cut-off wall. It was determined that the clay core works very well as an impermeable curtain. It was also shown that temperature variations of the Karkheh reservoir water is seasonal, and decrease as water depth increases. The reservoir water temperature remains constant beyond depths of 60 metres. The thermal behaviour of the core is not similar to that of the reservoir, indicating a very low value of seepage through the core. The pattern of temperature variations in the upstream shell in the left abutment is harmonic, while in the right abutment it is not harmonic. A harmonic pattern of temperature variation exists in some aquifers of the dam foundation, indicating high seepage through these aquifers. The Karkheh dam cut-off wall performs satisfactorily. It was determined that one dimensional equations for estimating seepage cannot be applied for the Karkheh dam. 17 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Clinicopathologic findings following intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic placentally derived equine mesenchymal stem cells in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrade, Danielle D; Owens, Sean D; Galuppo, Larry D; Vidal, Martin A; Ferraro, Gregory L; Librach, Fred; Buerchler, Sabine; Friedman, Michael S; Walker, Naomi J; Borjesson, Dori L

    2011-04-01

    The development of an allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) product to treat equine disorders would be useful; however, there are limited in vivo safety data for horses. We hypothesized that the injection of self (autologous) and non-self (related allogeneic or allogeneic) MSC would not elicit significant alterations in physical examination, gait or synovial fluid parameters when injected into the joints of healthy horses. Sixteen healthy horses were used in this study. Group 1 consisted of foals (n = 6), group 2 consisted of their dams (n = 5) and group 3 consisted of half-siblings (n = 5) to group 1 foals. Prior to injection, MSC were phenotyped. Placentally derived MSC were injected into contralateral joints and MSC diluent was injected into a separate joint (control). An examination, including lameness evaluation and synovial fluid analysis, was performed at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post-injection. MSC were major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I positive, MHC II negative and CD86 negative. Injection of allogeneic MSC did not elicit a systemic response. Local responses such as joint swelling or lameness were minimal and variable. Intra-articular MSC injection elicited marked inflammation within the synovial fluid (as measured by nucleated cell count, neutrophil number and total protein concentration). However, there were no significant differences between the degree and type of inflammation elicited by self and non-self-MSC. The healthy equine joint responds similarly to a single intra-articular injection of autologous and allogeneic MSC. This pre-clinical safety study is an important first step in the development of equine allogeneic stem cell therapies.

  15. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  16. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  17. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  18. Community involvement in dam breach exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, J.D.; Macdonald, E.G.; Mulligan, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986 British Columbia Hydro made a commitment to perform annual dam failure simulations based on the Emergency Preparedness Plans. Over the last 7 years nine such exercises have been completed. Each year the level of complexity of the exercises has increased, and along with it, the number of organizations outside of B.C. Hydro that participate in the exercise events has also increased. There has been a shift in attitudes, both internally and externally, towards these exercises. It is described how British Columbia Hydro was able to involve the communities downstream of its dams and encourage their participation in emergency planning and coordination. B.C. Hydro's process for involving a community in its emergency exercises starts with an invitation to the emergency coordinator in each affected community to attend an exercise planning meeting. Communities have occasionally declined to participate, the most common reasons being insufficiently developed emergency plans, budget prohibiting the cost of the exercise, or for political reasons. 2 refs., 1 tab

  19. Battle looms over hydroelectric dam relicensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental groups, buoyed by support from influential lawmakers, are vowing to change the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) hydroelectric relicensing procedures. For too long, the groups say, the hydroelectric industry has benefitted from a cozy relationship with the FERC, which has emphasized economic over environmental considerations. The success or failure of the environmentalists agenda will likely prove critical to the hydroelectric industry. With 237 hydroelectric licenses up for renewal this year - the most ever considered by the FERC in one year - and four vacant seats at the Commission, FERC hydro policy appears poised for upheaval. The groups have proposed a multipoint program to address perceived shortcomings in the FERC's hydroelectric relicensing procedures. The program includes recommendations to: Shorten dam licenses (which currently stretch 30 to 50 years) and require the FERC to periodically reevaluate the terms of hydropower licenses; Increase Congressional oversight of the FERC to assure adherence to environmental laws, including the National Environmental Policy Act, which mandates the preparation of environmental impact statements where appropriate; Mandate facilities for upstream and downstream fish passage; Establish a mitigation fund, collectable from dam owners, for river conservation and restoration programs; Promote all alternatives to relicensing projects, including denial of project licenses; and Reassign the FERC's hydropower jurisdiction to another federal agency, such as the Environmental Protection Agency or the Department of the Interior

  20. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  1. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with...

  2. Characterisation of gold tailings dams of the Witwatersrand Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-10-04

    Oct 4, 2006 ... bentonite layer between the 9th and 10th meter level to minimise vertical air flow from the bottom of the tailings dams. ... m depth with bentonite. Due to the age of the dams, and the fact that they ...... from Cyanide-Rich Gold Mine. Tailings. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, The University of New Bruns- wick, USA.

  3. Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dam by Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaina Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on linear seismic analysis of Sg. Kinta Concrete Dam. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the performance and behaviour of the dam under seismic excitation. The dam was modelled as two-dimensional and developed based on the design drawing that is obtained from Angkasa Consulting Services Sdn. Bhd. The seismic analysis of the dam is conducted using finite element analysis software package LUSAS 14.3 and the dam has been analyse as a plain stress problem with a linear consideration. A set of historic data, with E1 Centro earthquake acceleration of about 0.50g is used as an earthquake excitation. The natural frequency and mode shape up to fifth mode of the dam has been obtained from the analysis to show the differences of the stress and deformation between each mode. The maximum horizontal and vertical stress of Sg. Kinta dam was found and the distribution of them was discussed in form of contours. The deformation of the dam were also been discussed by comparing the maximum displacement for each mode shaped.

  4. Revisiting the homogenization of dammed rivers in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. McManamay; Donald J. Orth; Charles A. Dolloff

    2012-01-01

    For some time, ecologists have attempted to make generalizations concerning how disturbances influence natural ecosystems, especially river systems. The existing literature suggests that dams homogenize the hydrologic variability of rivers. However, this might insinuate that dams affect river systems similarly despite a large gradient in natural hydrologic character....

  5. Grouting design for slope stability of kedung uling earthfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kedung Uling earthfill dam locates at Wonogiri Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The dam encountered sliding and settlement at the embankment wall. To minimize sliding and settlement and to optimize the dam, both field investigation and laboratory tests have been proceeded for slope stability analysis and remedial embankment wall. Soil and rock investigation around the dam, which is followed by 10 core drillings, have been conducted. Laboratory tests such as direct shear and index properties have also been carried on. The results were further used for dam slope stability model using slide 6.0 and were used to analyzed factor of safety (FS of Kedunguling dam. 10 conditions of dam were simulated and strengthening body of dam with grouting was designed. The results showed two conditions, which are condition of maximum water level with and without earthquake at downstream, were unsatisfy Indonesia National Standard (SNI for building and infrastructure. These conditions can be managed by using grouting for increasing stabilization of embankment wall. By setting up grouting, factor of safety increases and meet the SNI standard requirement.

  6. Walden North Dam overtopping : emergency response and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, S. [FortisBC Inc., South Slocan, BC (Canada); McCreanor, J. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Cronin, D.L.R.; Daw, D. [Acres International Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper described the events that led to the overtopping of the Walden North Dam during a heavy rainfall in June 2002, resulting in a breach around an abutment wall. The dam is part of a run-of-river hydro development on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet, British Columbia. The Walden North Dam was a low, 46 meter wide concrete dam with a single radial gate. The dam overtopping was attributed to failure of the radial gate hoist. Prior to this event, the dam had been classified by the British Columbia Dam Safety Authorities as a high and then a low consequence category of failure. As facility managers, Aquila Networks Canada Ltd. established an immediate action plan to stabilize the situation and resume normal power production by applying the following priorities: (1) ensure safety of workers and the public, (2) limit further damage to the dam and other facilities, (3) ensure environmental protection, and (4) continue to operate the generation units. Local authorities were informed to evacuate a downstream campsite and environmental agencies were contacted along with safety regulators. Repairs included demolition of the damaged portion of the structure and construction a new two-bay gate/stoplog spillway and bridge. Construction was completed by September 2003 according to the requirements of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for minimum flow, accurate control of fish flows and environmental monitoring of the stream area. 10 figs.

  7. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of the...

  8. Dam break flood wave under different reservoir's capacities and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Farhad Hooshyaripor

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... Dam failure has been the subject of many hydraulic engineering studies due to its ... the role of the side slopes on dam break flood wave, such that lower side slope ... improve the inputs and advance our knowledge about the.

  9. Measures of struggle against appearance of cracks in earth dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method calculation of the basic parameters of the transverse rows of pile of simple printed or precast dam. As well, in this article have been shown all the necessary formulas for this calculation and have been proposed solutions to prevent cracking in the dams.

  10. Evaluation of flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism Centre, Ibadan, Nigeria. Complete enumeration of trees (>10cm diameter at breast height (dbh)), saplings, and small trees growing within 50m radius of the Awba dam was carried out. The percentage canopy cover of tree species (to the nearest 5%) ...

  11. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  12. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  13. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  15. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  16. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernislav GÁLIK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings. The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Higher digestibility of calcium (Ca (71.11% vs. 69.09% and phosphorus (P (52.74% vs. 47.55% was determined in horses fed the phytogenic additives (P>0.05. In this group of horses we found significantly (P<0.05 higher digestibility of magnesium (Mg, 64.32% in comparison with the control group (43.55%. Insignificantly differences in sodium (Na digestibility we found (75.98% in control group vs. 76.58% in experimental group. Significantly (P<0.05 higher potassium (K digestibility we found in horses fed with phytoadditives (57.11%. In horses fed without phytoadditives we detected significantly (P<0.05 lower digestibility of K (30.55%. In conclusion, we found positive effects of a phytogenic additive on macroelements faecal digestibility in sport horses.

  17. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  18. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martínez, L M; Redding, W R; Bladon, B; Wilderjans, H; Payne, R J; Tessier, C; Geffroy, O; Parker, R; Bell, C; Collingwood, F A

    2018-01-01

    Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Multicentre retrospective case series. Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained from re-examination visits and/or owners. Twenty-one cases were identified at 9 equine hospitals between 2004 and 2016. A history of trauma and acute onset of lameness was reported in 12 horses. All cases underwent fracture removal via arthroscopy of the medial femorotibial joint. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in 6 horses and damaged in 15 horses (damage was ≤25% [n = 9], 25-50% [n = 4] or ≥50% [n = 2] of the cross-sectional area). The cranial ligament of the medial meniscus was damaged in 11 horses (≤25% [n = 8], 25-50% [n = 3]). The medial meniscus was damaged in 5 horses and articular cartilage damage was identified in 14 horses (mild [n = 8], moderate [n = 6]). Follow-up information (median 14 months; 4 months-6 years) was available for 20 cases; 2 horses were sound but convalescing; 13 horses were sound and returned to their previous or expected use. Of the 4 horses with the most severe changes to the articular soft tissue structures, 2 remained lame and 2 were subjected to euthanasia because of persistent lameness. The retrospective, multicentre nature of this study and the limited number of horses are the main limitations. Fractures of the MICET are commonly associated with a traumatic event. Prompt diagnosis and early arthroscopic removal of the fracture are recommended. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  19. A progressive methodology for seismic safety evaluation of gravity dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, F.; Leger, P.; Tinawi, R.; Lupien, R.; Veilleux, M.

    1995-01-01

    A progressive methodology for the seismic safety evaluation of existing concrete gravity dams was described. The methodology was based on five structural analysis levels with increasing complexity to represent inertia forces, dam-foundation and dam-interaction mechanisms, as well as concrete cracking. The five levels were (1) preliminary screening, (2) pseudo-static method, (3) pseudo-dynamic method, (4) linear time history analysis, and (5) non-linear history analysis. The first four levels of analysis were applied for the seismic safety evaluation of Paugan gravity dam (Quebec). Results showed that internal forces from pseudo-dynamic, response spectra and transient finite element analyses could be used to interpret the dynamic stability of dams from familiar strength-based criteria. However, as soon as the base was cracked, the seismically induced forces were modified, and level IV analyses proved more suitable to handle rationally these complexities. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Sinkhole investigated at B.C. Hydro's Bennett Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The cause of a sinkhole which appeared in a roadway crossing an earth filled dam in B. C., was discussed. The hole measured 6 ft. across and 20 ft. deep, and occurred in B.C. Hydro's W.A.C. Bennett Dam which measures 600 ft. high, 2,600 ft. wide at the base and 35 ft. wide at the crest. The cause of the sinkhole is not known, but it is believed that a weakness in the dam may have found its way to the surface via a pipe connected to a bedrock settlement gauge buried within the dam. Sonar and ground penetrating radar were used to examine the area. The hole has been filled with gravel and monitoring continues. Experts do not anticipate immediate risk of dam failure. 1 fig

  1. Seepage problem in Papan dam and the treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The Papan dam in the Krygyz Republic is 97 metres high. It is located in the Osh Oblast, within a narrow and steep sided gorge on the Ak-Bura River, approximately 20 kilometres south of the City of Osh. The impoundment of the dam revealed large inflows of water to the downstream dam through the upper half of the dam and through the joints in the right abutment. A number of options were considered before a treatment method was selected. The causes of the leakage were poor grouting, and joints and fissures in the abutment. The remedial process involved the use of a plastic concrete cutoff wall extended from the crest of the dam to a depth of approximately 70 metres, in addition to the use of a grouting curtain in the right abutment. 2 figs.

  2. Determining The Water Quality of Maruf Dam (Boyabat–Sinop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem MUTLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preliminary findings obtained from 3 sampling points, which represent the whole, on Maruf Irrigation Dam, which is located in Boyabat district of Sinop province, for 12 months between September 2015 and August 2016 were examined. The parameters monitored are temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, total alkalinity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, and dissolved anions and cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, sulfate, and sulfite. Because of its low dissolved ionic matter content, Maruf Dam was characterized as an alkali dam with mid-hard water and low electrical conductivity. In terms of parameters A and B of Surface Water Quality Management Regulation, the dam is considered “high-quality” and “unpolluted”. Besides the irrigation purposes, for which the barrage was constructed, the dam can also be used for aquaculture, animal breeding, and farming needs.

  3. Some aspects in the legal regulation of the dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancev, Ljubomir

    1996-01-01

    In order to ensure high quality and low cost design and building of dams and appurtenant structures, as well as safe exploitation, it is obvious to have appropriate legislation. Keeping in mind that the dams are unique structures, for the design stage the legislation should be less strong. For the next phases - building, maintenance and exploitation - detail and rigorous legislation is recommended. It is emphasised that the engineers should have more freedom designing the dams, but they should be obvious to apply the most recent achievement in the field of the dam design and construction. For illustration, some aspects of three important questions are discussed - 1) the choice of maximum flood discharge, 2) the application of new materials and construction methods and 3) the application of modern methods for static and dynamic analysis of dams. (Author)

  4. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Technique-associated outcomes in horses following large colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzanite, Lynn M; Hackett, Eileen S

    2017-11-01

    To compare survival and complications in horses undergoing large colon resection with either sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses. Retrospective cohort study. Twenty-six client-owned horses with gastrointestinal disease. Retrospective data were retrieved from the medical records of 26 horses undergoing colectomy, including 14 horses with sutured end-to-end and 12 horses with stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses, between 2003 and 2016. Records were evaluated for signalment, medical and surgical treatments, and survival to hospital discharge. Long-term follow-up was obtained through owner contact. Continuous variables were compared with Mann-Whitney tests. Fisher's exact testing was used to compare survival to hospital discharge. Survival time was compared by constructing Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performing log-rank curve comparison testing. Mean age of horses undergoing colectomy was 13 years. Reason for colectomy was prophylaxis (12) or salvage (14). Mean surgical time was 169 minutes. Mean hospitalization time was 9 days, which did not differ with anastomosis type (P = .62). Nine of 12 horses undergoing stapled functional end-to-end anastomosis and 12 of 14 horses undergoing sutured end-to-end anastomosis survived to hospital discharge (P = .63). Survival time did not differ with anastomosis technique (P = .35). Short- and long-term survival outcomes are not different between sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses in horses undergoing colectomy. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Alteration of stream temperature by natural and artificial beaver dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicholas; Bouwes, Nicolaas; Pollock, Michael M; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M; Wathen, Gus; Wirtz, Jacob; Jordan, Chris E

    2017-01-01

    Beaver are an integral component of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes within North American stream systems, and their propensity to build dams alters stream and riparian structure and function to the benefit of many aquatic and terrestrial species. Recognizing this, beaver relocation efforts and/or application of structures designed to mimic the function of beaver dams are increasingly being utilized as effective and cost-efficient stream and riparian restoration approaches. Despite these verities, the notion that beaver dams negatively impact stream habitat remains common, specifically the assumption that beaver dams increase stream temperatures during summer to the detriment of sensitive biota such as salmonids. In this study, we tracked beaver dam distributions and monitored water temperature throughout 34 km of stream for an eight-year period between 2007 and 2014. During this time the number of natural beaver dams within the study area increased by an order of magnitude, and an additional 4 km of stream were subject to a restoration manipulation that included installing a high-density of Beaver Dam Analog (BDA) structures designed to mimic the function of natural beaver dams. Our observations reveal several mechanisms by which beaver dam development may influence stream temperature regimes; including longitudinal buffering of diel summer temperature extrema at the reach scale due to increased surface water storage, and creation of cool-water channel scale temperature refugia through enhanced groundwater-surface water connectivity. Our results suggest that creation of natural and/or artificial beaver dams could be used to mitigate the impact of human induced thermal degradation that may threaten sensitive species.

  7. The socio-economics dynamics of Dam on Rural Communities: A case study of Oyan Dam, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Amidu; Ojifo, Lawrence

    2018-06-01

    Dams construction and operations have many benefits, nevertheless, they have also led to lots of negative social, health and human impacts. It is based on this that this study assesses the potential and socio-economics dynamics of Oyan dam between 1980 and 2016. The data used for this study include water level and discharge records of the dam between 2007 and 2016, Landsat imageries of 1984 and 2016 and socio-economic datasets for the period. Analysis of the dam potentials (water supply, agriculture and hydropower) and socio-economic impacts of the dam were carried out using basic statistical tools, land use change anaysis and field survey using questionnaire, structured interview with major stakeholders and personal observation. The results revealed that the water level and storage of the Oyan dam had a relative reduction of about 2 % as well as non-stationarity pattern of water abstraction and production for the period. The landuse classes show all classes decreased in extent except the cultivated landuse that acrued an increased of 19.9 % between 1984 and 2016. Furthermore, commercial water supply varied significantly between 2010 and 2016 while irrigation scheme is grossly under-utilized from the inception in 1983 to 2016. Finally, the result of socio-economic impacts revealed that majority of the selected communities' members are actually not benefiting from the dam and their livelihoods are not from the dam.

  8. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  9. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  10. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabareiner, R.M.; White, N.A.; Sullins, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. AR horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a

  11. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Behavior and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, Oregon, March 2011 - February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, John W.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Amy C.; Haner, Philip V.; Sprando, Jamie M.; Smith, Collin D.; Evans, Scott D.; Hatton, Tyson W.

    2013-01-01

    The movements and dam passage of juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponder tags were studied at Cougar Reservoir and Dam, near Springfield, Oregon. The purpose of the study was to provide information to aid with decisions about potential alternatives for improving downstream passage conditions for juvenile salmonids in this flood-control reservoir. In 2011, a total of 411 hatchery fish and 26 wild fish were tagged and released during a 3-month period in the spring, and another 356 hatchery fish and 117 wild fish were released during a 3-month period in the fall. A series of 16 autonomous hydrophones throughout the reservoir and 12 hydrophones in a collective system near the dam outlet were used to determine general movements and dam passage of the fish over the life of the acoustic transmitter, which was expected to be about 3 months. Movements within the reservoir were directional, and it was common for fish to migrate repeatedly from the head of the reservoir downstream to the dam outlet and back to the head of the reservoir. Most fish were detected near the temperature control tower at least once. The median time from release near the head of the reservoir to detection within about 100 meters of the dam outlet at the temperature control tower was between 5.7 and 10.8 days, depending on season and fish origin. Dam passage events occurred over a wider range of dates in the spring and summer than in the fall and winter, but dam passage numbers were greatest during the fall and winter. A total of 10.5 percent (43 of 411) of the hatchery fish and 15.4 percent (4 of 26) of the wild fish released in the spring are assumed to have passed the dam, whereas a total of 25.3 percent (90 of 356) of the hatchery fish and 16.9 percent (30 of 117) of the wild fish released in the fall are assumed to have passed the dam. A small number of fish passed the dam after their transmitters had stopped working and were detected at

  13. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  14. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Ascione, Frank R.; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues. PMID:29466458

  15. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Griffiths, Mark D; Ascione, Frank R; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  16. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533 to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  17. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  18. Fosfortab fra det dyrkede areal til Stevning Dam, Hindemaj og Haderslev Dam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Estrup; Heckrath, Goswin; Thodsen, Hans

    Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P-indeks-kortlægni......Størrelsen af dyrkningsbidraget til søerne i Haderslev Dam-systemet er vurderet med to forskellige metoder til at udgøre ca. 42 % af den samlede tilførsel. En risikokortlægning med det nye, danske P-indeks viser, at i alt 15 % af det dyrkede areal er i højrisiko mht. fosfortab. P...

  19. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  20. Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Safety Program. Round Valley South Dam, Hunterdon County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    defined by the Recommended Guidelines for Safety Inspection of Dams. .M • wwM •^^^nmifgnmmmm’m •PH J.I.I MPU C. Hazard Classification - The...Conservation and Economic Development, August 1958. 3) Contract RV-1, State of New Jersey Department of Conservation and Economic Development...FIGURE 4 iymmmmr STATE OF NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND ECONOMIC DEVFl OtVNKM OF WATNt FOUCY «MO mm 1 ROUND VALLEY RESERVOIR