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Sample records for horse chestnut coat

  1. Identification of horse chestnut coat color genotype using SNaPshot?

    OpenAIRE

    Rendo, Fernando; Iriondo, Mikel; Manzano, Carmen; Estonba, Andone

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cantabrian Coast horse breeds of the Iberian Peninsula have mainly black or bay colored coats, but alleles responsible for a chestnut coat color run in these breeds and occasionally, chestnut horses are born. Chestnut coat color is caused by two recessive alleles, e and ea, of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene, whereas the presence of the dominant, wild-type E allele produces black or bay coat horses. Because black or bay colored coats are considered as the purebred phe...

  2. Residues of diflubenzuron on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) leaves and their efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejmanová, Jana; Cvacka, Josef; Hrdý, Ivan; Kuldová, Jelena; Mertelík, Josef; Muck, Alexander; Nesnerová, Petra; Svatos, Ales

    2006-03-01

    Residues of the insect growth regulator diflubenzuron were quantified on horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) leaves treated with a diflubenzuron 480 g litre(-1) SC, Dimilin. To analyse the samples, an analytical procedure was developed involving a simple extraction step followed by high-performance liquid chromatography on an octadecyl-modified silica column with methanol + 0.01 M ammonium acetate mobile phase. The results showed diflubenzuron to be highly stable on horse chestnut leaves; more than 4 months (127 days) after application, 38% (on average) of the insecticide still remained on/in the leaves. The data confirmed biological observations showing diflubenzuron's long-term efficacy against the horse chestnut leafminer, Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić, which is the most important pest of the horse chestnut in Europe. The hypothesis of possible penetration of diflubenzuron into the leaf mass is explored and discussed.

  3. Improvement of maturation and conversion of horse chestnut androgenic embryos

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    Ćalić-Dragosavac, D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hippocastanaceae is a relict species of the tertiary flora and endemit of Balkan peninsula. It has enormous horticultular and medical important. Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan peninsula, but grow as ornamental trees in parks and avenues throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Because of the slow and difficult reproduction of great importance to be fast and cheap in vitro multiplication. Possible solution is regenerated by androgenesis. Microspore culture has been used in recent years as a tool for producing haploid plants in a varyety of higher plants, but the low frequencies of microspore-derived plants restrict the use of the technique in plant breeding.

  4. Population genetic characteristics of horse chestnut in Serbia

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    Ocokoljić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general population genetic characteristics of cultivated horse chestnut trees excelling in growth, phenotype characteristics, type of inflorescence, productivity and resistance to the leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka and Dimić were analyzed in Serbia. The analyzed population genetic parameters point to fundamental differences in the genetic structure among the cultivated populations in Serbia. The study shows the variability in all properties among the populations and inter-individual variability within the populations. The variability and differential characteristics were assessed using statistical parameters, taking into account the satisfactory reflection of the hereditary potential. The assessed differences in the vitality and evolution potential of different populations can determine the methods of horse chestnut gene pool collection, reconstruction and improvement. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Establishment of Wood Plantations Intended for a forestation of Serbia

  5. EFFECT of hydrocolloids on the quality evaluation of flour based noodles from Horse Chestnut

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    Rafiq Syed Insha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused to investigate the effects of hydrocolloids (guar gum and xanthan gum at additional levels (1%, 2% and 3% on the noodle characteristics prepared from horse chestnut flour. The qualities of noodles prepared from horse chestnut flour were compared with wheat flour based noodles in terms of cooking characteristics, textural and sensory properties. The hydrocolloid addition in noodles resulted in improvement of cooking and textural qualities in consistent to control sample. The incorporation of 3% gum significantly increased cooking properties and the firmness of cooked noodles. The results of the sensory evaluation based on a nine point hedonic scale revealed that apart from the control, noodles with 3% gum were acceptable to the panellists.

  6. Environmental Fate of Emamectin Benzoate After Tree Micro Injection of Horse Chestnut Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic an...

  7. Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissmann, Monika; Musa, Lutfi; Zakizadeh, Sonia; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-11-01

    Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

  8. [Micrococcus sp.--the pathogen of leaf necrosis of horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.) in Kiev].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovleva, L M; Makhinia, L V; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2013-01-01

    A group of phytopathogenic bacteria was isolated from patterns of drying horse-chestnuts (Aesculus L.), which grow in Kyiv. The properties of slowly growing, highly aggressive microorganisms have been described in the paper. They grow up on the 8-10th day after sowing. The investigated microorganisms form very small (0.5-1 mm in diameter) colonies on the potato agar. Bacteria are protuberant, shining, smooth with flat edges, they are pale yellow, yellow, or pink. The bacteria are Gram-positive, spherical, are disposed in smears singly, in pairs, as accumulations, or netting. They are aerobes, do not form spores, are not mobile. They are inert in respect of different sources of carbon. They reduce nitrates, do not dilute gelatin, do not hydrolyze starch, do not release hydrogen sulphide and indole. The bacteria are catalase-positive, oxidase-negative. They do not cause potato and carrot rot. They lose quickly their viability under the laboratory conditions. The saturated acids C 14:0; C 15:0; C16:0; C18:0 have been revealed in the composition of cellular fatty acids. Microorganisms are identified as Micrococcus sp. Under artificial inoculation this highly aggressive pathogen causes drying of the horse-chestnut buds and necrosis, which occupies 1/3-1/2 of the leaf plate. A wide zone of chlorosis, surrounding necrosis, may occupy the whole leaf surface. The infected leaves use to twist up from the top (apex) or along a midrib and to dry.

  9. Environmental fate of emamectin benzoate after tree micro injection of horse chestnut trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Rene; Binz, Heinz; Roux, Christian A; Brunner, Matthias; Ruesch, Othmar; Wyss, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Emamectin benzoate, an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, has a unique translocation behavior in trees when applied by tree micro injection (TMI), which can result in protection from insect pests (foliar and borers) for several years. Active ingredient imported into leaves was measured at the end of season in the fallen leaves of treated horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) trees. The dissipation of emamectin benzoate in these leaves seems to be biphasic and depends on the decomposition of the leaf. In compost piles, where decomposition of leaves was fastest, a cumulative emamectin benzoate degradation half-life time of 20 d was measured. In leaves immersed in water, where decomposition was much slower, the degradation half-life time was 94 d, and in leaves left on the ground in contact with soil, where decomposition was slowest, the degradation half-life time was 212 d. The biphasic decline and the correlation with leaf decomposition might be attributed to an extensive sorption of emamectin benzoate residues to leaf macromolecules. This may also explain why earthworms ingesting leaves from injected trees take up very little emamectin benzoate and excrete it with the feces. Furthermore, no emamectin benzoate was found in water containing decomposing leaves from injected trees. It is concluded, that emamectin benzoate present in abscised leaves from horse chestnut trees injected with the insecticide is not available to nontarget organisms present in soil or water bodies. Published 2014 SETAC.

  10. Horse Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

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  11. THE PESTS OF HORSE CHESTNUT TREE – AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM L. IN ROMANIA

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    T PERJU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 the presence of the horse chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella Deschka-Dimic was reported in Cluj- Napoca. During 2000 – 2003 research concerning the extent, biology, ecology at this micro-lepidopteron, a new pest in our country, was performed. Signaled for the fi rst time in Western area of our country (1998, then in Central (1998, Southern (1999, and Eastern (2003 part of the country, the spread year by year conquering new territories. In the clime conditions of our country, the insect had 4 generations in 2000, and 3 during 2001 – 2003, remaining in hiemal diapauses during pupae stage, inside of the silk cocoons from the galleries of larvae feeding. The fl ight of the butterfl ies from the IIIrd generation (hiemal is recorded in the beginning of May. The Ist generation has a developmental stage during 15 May – 30 June, the IInd during 1 July – 15 August, and the IIIrd during 15 August – 15 May.

  12. [The validity of radioimmunologic determination of bioavailability of beta-escin in horse chestnut extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödter, A; Loew, D; Schwankl, W; Rietbrock, N

    1998-09-01

    The bioavailability under steady state conditions of a standard, slow-release horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE)-containing product was compared with that of an analogous, fast-release test preparation (Noricaven novo) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study in a double cross-over design. The serum concentration of beta-escin (CAS 6805-41-0) was measured by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the biopharmaceutical properties of the HCSEs present in the products were investigated, the amount and composition of the active ingredient, escin, being analysed with a validated HPLC method. The pharmacokinetics of this study were compared with the corresponding data of a similar investigation carried out under analogous conditions concerning study design, analytical methods and reference preparation. Comparison of the similar studies revealed differences in characteristic pharmakokinetic values of beta-escin in terms of a shift of the concentration time curves as could be demonstrated for the reference product. The total amounts of escin in the two products investigated did not differ significantly. However, quantitative and qualitative differences were detected in the constituents of the two different extract preparations. It is concluded that the high specificity of the validated beta-escin radioimmunoassay leads to analytical imprecision due to the variable constituents of the extract preparations used. It is necessary to test whether this problem can be solved using an analytical approach, which is specific for each extract.

  13. Micromorphology of the floral nectary of red horse chestnut (Aesculus ×carnea Hayne

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    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In Europe Aesculus ×carnea Hayne is planted in cities as an avenue tree. Compared to A. hippocastanum L., it is more drought resistant, but less resistant to low temperatures. A. ×carnea is a lower tree than A. hippocastanum and develops a smaller corolla. It produces dark green, shiny and crinkled leaves. Its flowers have different colours, from bright pink to carmine red. The nectary glands secrete nectar abundantly. Due to the long corolla tube, nectar is difficult to reach for bees. The aim of this study was to investigate the topography and micromorphology of the nectaries of A. ×carnea using scanning electron microscopy. The study shows that the nectary gland of red horse chestnut forms an incomplete ring around the base of the staminal filaments, surrounding only four stamens out of the seven that occur in the flower. Three stamens are outside the nectary. In its widest place, the nectary diameter reaches 2.7 mm. Three expanded portions of the gland can bee seen in the marginal part of the nectary, adjoining the petals. The part of the nectary adjacent to the filaments forms a convex protrusion with a wavy appearance (shape, which results from the vicinity of the filaments. Nectar is secreted through numerous stomata located beneath the convex part of the nectary. The stoma length is 21.7 μm, while the width 23.3 μm. In the material examined, most stomata had open pores. Secretion was observed in many places. The stomata were surrounded by 6-7 guard cells; this allows them to be classified as the cyclocytic type. The cells of the stomatal complex were raised above the surface of the other epidermal cells. The walls of the guard cells and of the adjacent epidermal cells were covered by a cuticle with irregular striation.

  14. The MC1R and ASIP Coat Color Loci May Impact Behavior in the Horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lauren N.; Staiger, Elizabeth A.; Albright, Julia D.

    2016-01-01

    Shared signaling pathways utilized by melanocytes and neurons result in pleiotropic traits of coat color and behavior in many mammalian species. For example, in humans polymorphisms at MC1R cause red hair, increased heat sensitivity, and lower pain tolerance. In deer mice, rats, and foxes, ASIP polymorphisms causing black coat color lead to more docile demeanors and reduced activity. Horse (Equus caballus) base coat color is primarily determined by polymorphisms at the Melanocortin-1 Receptor (MC1R) and Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) loci, creating a black, bay, or chestnut coat. Our goal was to investigate correlations between genetic loci for coat color and temperament traits in the horse. We genotyped a total of 215 North American Tennessee Walking Horses for the 2 most common alleles at the MC1R (E/e) and ASIP (A/a) loci using previously published PCR and RFLP methods. The horses had a mean age of 10.5 years and comprised 83 geldings, 25 stallions, and 107 mares. To assess behavior, we adapted a previously published survey for handlers to score horses from 1 to 9 on 20 questions related to specific aspects of temperament. We utilized principle component analysis to combine the individual survey scores into 4 factors of variation in temperament phenotype. A factor component detailing self-reliance correlated with genotypes at the ASIP locus; black mares (aa) were more independent than bay mares (A_) (P = 0.0063). These findings illuminate a promising and novel animal model for future study of neuroendocrine mechanisms in complex behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26884605

  15. Evaluating the potential roles of the Gray and Extension loci in the coat coloration of Thoroughbred racing horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takahiro; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Innan, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Horses have substantial variation in coat color, and the genetic loci responsible for the coat color variations have been well investigated. It has been believed that some color variations should follow a single-locus Mendelian law. Examples include the Gray locus that causes the gray phenotype and the Extension locus that specifies the chestnut phenotype. We reevaluated the roles of the Gray and Extension loci by using a large number of mating records of Thoroughbred racing horses. We showed that the data indeed fits the Mendelian law extremely well for the two loci. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Extension and Agouti loci might have an additional role in determining the degree of melanin that should distinguish bay, dark bay, and brown.

  16. Rational therapy of chronic venous insufficiency – chances and limits of the therapeutic use of horse-chestnut seeds extract

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    Greeske Karin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and methods We report two clinical studies, one already published, performed in patients with early and advanced chronic venous insufficiency (CVI. In both, compression therapy and oral therapy with horse-chestnut seeds extracts (HCSE were compared to placebo. Results The published study in early CVI (Grade I showed HCSE and compression to be superior to placebo and to be equivalent to each other in reducing lower leg volume, a measure for oedema. In the study, in advanced CVI (Grade II and IIIa, compression appeared to be superior to placebo, whereas HCSE was not. HCSE fared better in Grade II than in Grade IIIa patients. These results are discussed in the light of data from an in vitro model, where HCSE has been able to close the intercellular gaps in the venular endothelium. Not fully specified factors lead to an opening of these gaps, resulting in oedema as well as in local coagulation and thrombosis. The subsequent inflammation keeps these gaps open and initiates and maintains a chronic disease process, which may be the starting point of CVI. Conclusion Due to its ability to close the venular endothelial gaps, HCSE seems to be a suitable and protecting therapy during the early stages of CVI. In later more severe stages compression therapy is indicated. Taking into account the observed negative impact of compression on quality of life, pharmacological CVI therapy should start early to avoid progress and to spare patients compression therapy.

  17. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  18. Effect of the supplementation linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut into a high fat diet on the fatty acid profile of pigs

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    Matej Brestenský

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the present study it was evaluated the effect of the addition of linseed oil, inulin and horse chestnut added to a high fat (HF diet on the content of fatty acids (FAs in musculuss longissimus dorsi (MLD of pigs. A 5d with adaptation period was followed by a 70 d experimental period, during which the pigs were fed with a HF basal diet. The HF basal diet which served as a control (group CG was supplemented either with linseed oil (group LG or with inulin and horse chestnut (group IG. All of the pigs were slaughtered at the end of the experiment and samples of MLD were taken for FA analysis. The concentration of α-linolenic acid in MLD of the LG group was 58 % and 61 % higher (P˂0.05 compared to CG and IG groups, respectively. The content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was 0.03 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 0.07 in LG treatment. These FAs were not detected in CG and IG. The ratio of MUFA and PUFA n-6/n-3 in the MLD was the lowest (P˂0.05 in the LG (8.84 compared to CG (14.07 or IG (14.74 groups, representing a difference of 31.2%. The n-3/saturated FA ratio was highest (P˂0.05 in LG group (0.04 when compared to CG and IG groups (0.02. The supplementation of linseed oil, into the HF diet resulted in a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, EPA, DHA and lower ratio of n-6/n-3 FA in MLD. Inulin and horse chestnut had no effect on FA profile of MLD.

  19. Life-threatening rupture of a renal angiomyolipoma in a patient taking over-the-counter horse chestnut seed extract.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snow, Aisling

    2011-02-09

    BACKGROUND: Alternative medical therapies are increasingly being prescribed due to their good safety profile and perceived limited side effects. They are often unregulated and prescribed over the counter. One such medication is horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), which is used for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency and is known to affect blood coagulation. Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a benign fat-containing mesenchymal tumor of the kidney. It is often found incidentally and in most cases can be managed conservatively. Rupture of the kidney with hemorrhage is a well-known complication that may be serious and life-threatening. Known risk factors for hemorrhage include anticoagulation as well as pregnancy, increased size of the lesion, high lesion vascularity, and aneurysm formation within the tumor. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to raise awareness of potential HCSE-induced anticoagulation, including, as in the case presented, acute renal AML hemorrhage. CASE REPORT: The case of a patient taking HCSE for venous insufficiency is presented. The patient suffered a life-threatening rupture of the kidney in the presence of known renal AML. She underwent emergency embolization with a successful outcome. Because HCSE-containing products are thought to be generally safe in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, it is important to be mindful of their potential anticoagulant properties and, therefore, their relative contraindication both in patients taking other anticoagulants and those with known renal AML. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate a potentially life-threatening association between HSCE-containing products and renal AML, highlighting the risk associated with HSCE-induced anticoagulation.

  20. Pedigree analysis in the Austrian Noriker draught horse: genetic diversity and the impact of breeding for coat colour on population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druml, T; Baumung, R; Sölkner, J

    2009-10-01

    The pedigree of the current Austrian Noriker draught horse population comprising 2808 horses was traced back to the animals considered as founders of this breed. In total, the number of founders was 1991, the maximum pedigree length was 31 generations, with an average of 12.3 complete generations. Population structure in this autochthonous Austrian draught horse breed is defined by seven breeding regions (Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria and Vorarlberg) or through six coat colour groups (Bay, Black, Chestnut, Roan, Leopard, Tobiano). Average inbreeding coefficients within the breeding regions ranged from 4.5% to 5.5%; for the colour groups, the coefficients varied from 3.5% to 5.9%. Other measures of genetic variability like the effective number of founders, ancestors and founder genomes revealed a slightly different genetic background of the subpopulations. Average co-ancestries between and within breeding areas showed that the Salzburg population may be considered as the nucleus or original stock whereas all other subpopulations showed high relationship to horses from Salzburg. The target of draught horse breeding in the 21st century does not meet the breeding concept of maximizing genetic gains any more. Stabilizing selection takes place. In this study, we show that demographic factors as well as structure given by different coat colours helped to maintain genetic diversity in this endangered horse breed.

  1. The success of the horse-chestnut leaf-miner, Cameraria ohridella, in the UK revealed with hypothesis-led citizen science.

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    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular way of undertaking research and simultaneously engaging people with science. However, most emphasis of citizen science in environmental science is on long-term monitoring. Here, we demonstrate the opportunities provided by short-term hypothesis-led citizen science. In 2010, we ran the 'Conker Tree Science' project, in which over 3500 people in Great Britain provided data at a national scale of an insect (horse-chestnut leaf-mining moth, Cameraria ohridella undergoing rapid range-expansion. We addressed two hypotheses, and found that (1 the levels of damage caused to leaves of the horse-chestnut tree, Aesculus hippocastanum, and (2 the level of attack by parasitoids of C. ohridella larvae were both greatest where C. ohridella had been present the longest. Specifically there was a rapid rise in leaf damage during the first three years that C. ohridella was present and only a slight rise thereafter, while estimated rates of parasitism (an index of true rates of parasitism increased from 1.6 to 5.9% when the time C. ohridella had been present in a location increased from 3 to 6 years. We suggest that this increase is due to recruitment of native generalist parasitoids, rather than the adaptation or host-tracking of more specialized parasitoids, as appears to have occurred elsewhere in Europe. Most data collected by participants were accurate, but the counts of parasitoids from participants showed lower concordance with the counts from experts. We statistically modeled this bias and propagated this through our analyses. Bias-corrected estimates of parasitism were lower than those from the raw data, but the trends were similar in magnitude and significance. With appropriate checks for data quality, and statistically correcting for biases where necessary, hypothesis-led citizen science is a potentially powerful tool for carrying out scientific research across large spatial scales while simultaneously engaging

  2. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    urpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized ex...

  3. An epistatic effect of KRT25 on SP6 is involved in curly coat in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomer, Annika; Gottschalk, Maren; Christmann, Anna; Naccache, Fanny; Jung, Klaus; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Distl, Ottmar; Metzger, Julia

    2018-04-23

    Curly coat represents an extraordinary type of coat in horses, particularly seen in American Bashkir Curly Horses and Missouri Foxtrotters. In some horses with curly coat, a hypotrichosis of variable extent was observed, making the phenotype appear more complex. In our study, we aimed at investigating the genetic background of curly coat with and without hypotrichosis using high density bead chip genotype and next generation sequencing data. Genome-wide association analysis detected significant signals (p = 1.412 × 10 -05 -1.102 × 10 -08 ) on horse chromosome 11 at 22-35 Mb. In this significantly associated region, six missense variants were filtered out from whole-genome sequencing data of three curly coated horses of which two variants within KRT25 and SP6 could explain all hair phenotypes. Horses heterozygous or homozygous only for KRT25 variant showed curly coat and hypotrichosis, whereas horses with SP6 variant only, exhibited curly coat without hypotrichosis. Horses with mutant alleles in both variants developed curly hair and hypotrichosis. Thus, mutant KRT25 allele is masking SP6 allele effect, indicative for epistasis of KRT25 variant over SP6 variant. In summary, genetic variants in two different genes, KRT25 and SP6, are responsible for curly hair. All horses with KRT25 variant are additionally hypotrichotic due to the KRT25 epistatic effect on SP6.

  4. Seasonal variations of trace element contents in leaves and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. in urban and industrial regions in Serbia

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    Pavlović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the ability of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. to capture heavy metals, and whether its capacity to absorb metals from soil is associated with surrounding ecological characteristics and sources of pollution. We studied the seasonal accumulation of B, Cu, Sr and Zn in leaves and bark, and the chlorophyll content in the common deciduous tree Aesculus hippocastanum L. in four urban parks in Pančevo, Smederevo, Obrenovac and Belgrade (Serbia affected by different anthropogenic activities. The research included plants from a control site located within the zone of a former oak forest. Our findings suggest that there are potential ecological risks around Smederevo, Belgrade and Obrenovac due to elevated concentrations of B and Zn relative to the average concentrations described for worldwide soils, as well as national regulations. Substantial and toxic foliar accumulation of B was observed in Smederevo and Belgrade, and of Sr in both plant tissues at all sites. However, the Cu and Zn contents in leaves were not enough to meet the physiological needs of plants. Chlorophyll a and the total carotenoid content peaked in August under the most unfavorable conditions of the year, which may be considered as an adaptive mechanism. The obtained results showed the remarkable complexity of environmental conditions and the difficulties A. hippocastanum, as a species, has to overcome. Under conditions of different types of urban and industrial pollution, A. hippocastanum showed great element accumulation potential and could be regarded as both an accumulator and a response indicator, since its leaves are quite susceptible to damage. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173018

  5. An Intronic MBTPS2 Variant Results in a Splicing Defect in Horses with Brindle Coat Texture.

    OpenAIRE

    Murgiano Leonardo; Dominik P. Waluk; Rachel Towers; Natalie Wiedemar; Joëlle Dietrich; Vidhya Jagannathan; Michaela Drögemüller; Pierre Balmer; Tom Druet; Arnaud Galichet; M. Cecilia Penedo; Eliane J. Müller; Petra Roosje; Welle Monika; Tosso Leeb

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a family of horses exhibiting irregular vertical stripes in their hair coat texture along the neck, back, hindquarters, and upper legs. This phenotype is termed "brindle" by horse breeders. We propose the term "brindle 1 (BR1)" for this specific form of brindle. In some BR1 horses, the stripes were also differentially pigmented. Pedigree analyses were suggestive of a monogenic X-chromosomal semidominant mode of inheritance. Haplotype analyses identified a 5 Mb candidate region...

  6. A mutation in the MATP gene causes the cream coat colour in the horse

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    Guérin Gérard

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In horses, basic colours such as bay or chestnut may be partially diluted to buckskin and palomino, or extremely diluted to cream, a nearly white colour with pink skin and blue eyes. This dilution is expected to be controlled by one gene and we used both candidate gene and positional cloning strategies to identify the "cream mutation". A horse panel including reference colours was established and typed for different markers within or in the neighbourhood of two candidate genes. Our data suggest that the causal mutation, a G to A transition, is localised in exon 2 of the MATP gene leading to an aspartic acid to asparagine substitution in the encoded protein. This conserved mutation was also described in mice and humans, but not in medaka.

  7. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-11-01

    To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min(-1) at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants.

  8. Preliminary study on antioxidant properties, phenolic contents, and effects of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed shell extract on in vitro cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Makino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human skin exposure to solar UV radiation induces cells to produce reactive oxygen species that directly cause DNA damage via the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, which are the primary UVB-induced DNA lesions. CPDs are responsible for cell death, mutation, and neoplastic transformation. Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut seed extract has traditionally been used for venotonic treatments and also as a raw material for cosmetics. This study aimed to characterize the antioxidant properties of the phenolic contents of extracts from A. hippocastanum seed shell and endosperm and to investigate their effects on CPD repair in UVB-exposed human dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Crude 60% aqueous ethanol extracts (v/v were prepared, and their total polyphenol contents, antioxidant activities, and ORAC values were measured by Folin–Ciocalteu, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, and ORAC assays, respectively. The levels of CPDs induced by UVB irradiation were measured by cell-based immunoassays after 6-h treatment with the extract of A. hippocastanum seed shell at a concentration of 100-μg/ml and 9-h treatment with it at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200- μg/ml. Result: A. hippocastanum seed shell extract had 602 ± 1.6-mg gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract and exhibited 4990 ± 70.9 and 7140 ± 835 μmol Trolox equivalents per gram of extract as DPPH radical-scavenging activity and ORAC value, respectively; these values were comparable to those of extracts from green tea and Mallotus japonicus leaves. However, these values of the seed endosperm extract were relatively low. A 9-h treatment of cells with seed shell extracts at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200-μg/ml after UVB exposure significantly reduced CPD levels compared with those in UVB-exposed cells without treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated that A. hippocastanum seed shell extract possesses a potential to

  9. Hair coat properties of donkeys, mules and horses in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthaus, B; Proops, L; Long, S; Bell, N; Hayday, K; Burden, F

    2018-05-01

    There are clear differences between donkeys and horses in their evolutionary history, physiology, behaviour and husbandry needs. Donkeys are often kept in climates that they are not adapted to and as such may suffer impaired welfare unless protection from the elements is provided. To compare some of the hair coat properties of donkeys, mules and horses living outside, throughout the year, in the temperate climate of the UK. Longitudinal study. Hair samples were taken from 42 animals: 18 donkeys (4 females, 14 males), 16 horses (6 females, 10 males) and eight mules (5 females, 3 males), in March, June, September and December. The weight, length and width of hair were measured, across the four seasons, as indicators of the hair coat insulation properties. Donkeys' hair coats do not significantly differ across the seasons. All three measurements of the insulation properties of the hair samples indicate that donkeys do not grow a winter coat and that their hair coat was significantly lighter, shorter and thinner than that of horses and mules in winter. In contrast, the hair coats of horses changed significantly between seasons, growing thicker in winter. The measurements cover only a limited range of features that contribute to the thermoregulation of an animal. Further research is needed to assess shelter preferences by behavioural measures, and absolute heat loss via thermoimaging. Donkeys, and to a lesser extent mules, appear not to be as adapted to colder, wet climates as horses, and may therefore require additional protection from the elements, such as access to a wind and waterproof shelter, in order for their welfare needs to be met. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  10. Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children or people with very little riding experience who are living in the household. Research how to properly care for your horse before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, ...

  11. Modelling chestnut biogeography for American chestnut restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Songlin; Liang, Liang; Paillet, Frederick L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Chestnuts (Castanea spp.) are ecologically and economically important species. We studied the general biology, distribution and climatic limits of seven chestnut species from around the world. We provided climatic matching of Asiatic species to North America to assist the range-wide restoration...... American chestnut appears feasible if a sufficiently diverse array of Chinese chestnut germplasm is used as a source of blight resistance. Our study provided a between-continent climate matching approach to facilitate the range-wide species restoration, which can be readily applied in planning...... the restoration of other threatened or endangered species....

  12. Changes of coat cover in primitive horses living on a reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachurska, A; Robovský, J; Bocian, K; Janczarek, I

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the coat cover are important for mammalian thermoregulation. This is especially true where variable environmental conditions exist throughout the seasons. Coat cover shedding is the replacement of old coat hair with new hair. The process differs in various equids. The aim of the study was to examine the changes in the coat of primitive Polish Konik horses living on a reserve in southeast Poland (50.6319° N). The reserve is located in a temperate climate. The mean temperature is below 0°C in winter (December 8 to March 9) and over 15°C in summer (June 8 to September 8). Five adult mares were included in the study. The study used a specific methodical approach to quantitatively assess coat cover changes. Photos were taken once every 2 wk throughout the whole year to document the state of the mares' coat. MultiScanBase software was used to analyze 260 photos. The percentage of the skin surface covered with short hair in relation to the surface of the body (without the head, neck, and limbs; short hair body [SHB]) was determined. To assess the topography of coat changes, surface parts covered with short hair within 6 regions of the body (shoulder, back, chest, loins, belly, and hindquarters; short hair part [SHP]) were considered separately. The regression coefficient was calculated for the SHB and the air temperature. Correlations in SHP and SHB between the left and right sides of the body were determined. The correlations within the right side of the body concerned particular SHP. As the results show, the coat changes take place at the same time on both sides of the horse's body. In spring, the winter hair is shed, and in the fall, the winter hair grows in longer. High regression (0.901; coat changes. The most important increase of SHB occurs in April and the first half of May, whereas the main decrease of SHB takes place in September. Changes between SHP are highly correlated (0.967-0.994; coat changes demonstrate that the shoulders, back, and loins

  13. Biotechnology of trees: Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Nelson; W.A. Powell; S.A. Merkle; J.E. Carlson; F.V. Hebard; N Islam-Faridi; M.E. Staton; L. Georgi

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology has been practiced on chestnuts (Castanea spp.) for many decades, including vegetative propagation, controlled crossing followed by testing and selection, genetic and cytogenetic mapping, genetic modifi cation, and gene and genome sequencing. Vegetative propagation methods have ranged from grafting and rooting to somatic embryogenesis, often in...

  14. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  15. Distribution of nutrients and antinutrients in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: seed coat phenolics and their distinct modes of enzyme inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Neelam, Dennis A; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2010-04-14

    Milled fractions of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) and horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum L. Verdc.) were evaluated for their nutritional and antinutritional characteristics. Crude protein content of these fractions ranged from 22.6-23.8 g 100(-1) g in cotyledon to 7.3-9.1 g 100(-1) g in seed coat fractions. The fat content of chickpea fractions (1.6-7.8 g 100(-1) g) was higher than that of horse gram fractions (0.6-2.6 g 100(-1) g). Crude fiber content was higher in seed coat fractions of both legumes than embryonic axe and cotyledon fractions. Seed coat fractions had high dietary fiber content (28.2-36.4 g 100(-1) g), made up of mainly insoluble dietary fiber. Most of the phytic acid and oligosaccharides were located in the cotyledon fractions, whereas phenolic compounds in higher concentrations were found in seed coats. Significantly higher concentrations of proteinaceous and phenolic inhibitors of digestive enzymes were found in cotyledon and seed coat fractions, respectively. The kinetic studies, using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk derivations, revealed that seed coat phenolics inhibit alpha-amylase activity by mixed noncompetitive (chickpea) and noncompetitive (horse gram) inhibition mechanisms. In the case of trypsin, chickpea and horse gram seed coat phenolics showed noncompetitive and uncompetitive modes of inhibition, respectively. These results suggest the wide variability in the nutrient and antinutrient composition in different milled fractions of legumes and potential utility of these fractions as ingredients in functional food product development.

  16. Complex inheritance of melanoma and pigmentation of coat and skin in Grey horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    Full Text Available The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h(2, and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h(2 (POLY, heritability due to the Grey (STX17 mutation (h(2 (STX17, and heritability due to agouti (ASIP locus (h(2 (ASIP. A high heritability was found for greying (h(2 = 0.79, vitiligo (h(2 = 0.63, and speckling (h(2 = 0.66, while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h(2 = 0.37. The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h(2 (ASIP = 0.02. STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h(2 (STX17 = 0.18-0.55 and overall heritability (h(2 (STX17/h(2 = 0.28-0.83 for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the

  17. Genetic diversity detection of the domestic horse (Equus caballus by genes associated with coat color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Correa A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the population structure and genetic diversity in populations of domestic horse (Equus caballus in the municipality Cienaga de Oro-Córdoba (Colombia. Materials and methods. Random sampling were conducted between August and October 2013, in adult animals on farms seven districts, which was carried out phenotypic characterization of each animal, based on autosomal markers encoding morphological Extension (E , Agouti (A, Cream (C, White (W, Gray (G, Tobiano (TO, Overo (O and Roan (RN. Population genetic parameters: allele frequency, genetic diversity, gene flow, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and genetic distance were calculated through the program POPGENE 1.31; the genetic structure was assessed using the program FSTAT v. 2.9.3.2. Results. 341 individuals were analyzed in the seven populations studied, where the Extension gene Was the MOST faq frequently as the Overo and Tobiano genes showed the lowest values. Insignificant values of genetic variability and population recorded a global level, likewise, low genetic differentiation among populations, accompanied by a high gene flow was obtained; an excess of heterozygotes at population and global level was observed; to this is added the presence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all populations relative to the markers studied and low genetic distance values were reported. Conclusions. The populations are highly genetically related, a situation that may result from the existing geographical proximity between them, favoring genetic exchange and the establishment of a metapopulation.

  18. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    distribution of meteorological variables and parameters. In particular, more severe conditions during spring and summer are expected, especially in the Mediterranean area, with less precipitation and higher temperatures. All these changes will have impacts on chestnut fruits and wood in Europe. Dinis, L-T. J., Ferreira-Cardoso, J., Peixoto, F., Costa, R. e Gomes-Laranjo, J., 2011: Study of morphological and chemical diversity in chestnut trees (var. 'Judia') as a function of temperature sum. Cyta- Journal of food, 9(3): 192-199 Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2008: Differences in photosynthetic apparatus of leaves from different sides of chestnut canopy, Photosynthetica, 46, 63-72. Heiniger,U. And Conedera, M., 1992: Chestnut forests and chestnut cultivation in Switzerland. Proceedings of the International Chestnut Conference, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 10-14 July 1992, 175-178. Pereira, M.G., Caramelo, L., Gouveia, C., Gomes-Laranjo, J., Magalhães, M., 2011: Assessment of weather-related risk on chestnut productivity. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1-12, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-12-011. Wilczynski, S. And Podlaski, R, 2007: The effect of climate on radial growth of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) in the Swietokrzki National Park in Central Poland, J.For.Res., 12, 24-23.

  19. The War Horse: A Bibliography of Periodical Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    breeding," AMCAVJ, 55:62, Nov 1946. 10. "Artillery, Chestnut Stallion , 16 hands, 7 years old; weight, 1100 lbs.," FAJ, 1:51, Apr 1911. 11. "The...Licart. "The Barb ," CAVJ, 38:559-579, 1929. 142. McClure, Albert N. "Military horses in General and Cavalry Horses in Particular," CAVJ, 24:567-573

  20. Comprehensive preserving technique for Chinese chestnut storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Yang Baoan; Zhang Jianwei; Li Qiufang

    2003-01-01

    Chinese chestnut can be preserved for a long time by using a comprehensive preserving technique, which consists of casing, irradiating, treating with preserving agent and controlling environment conditions. The shelftime of the treated chestnuts reaches 11 months keeping no insects, no germination and good quality for eating with the good fruit ratio of 97.5% and water losing ratio of 3.8%

  1. Horse in the Turkmen Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna BEŞEN DELİCE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Horses have provided speed and mobility for Turkish people in steppes. Through war capability and skil ls of riding horse they were successful against resident communities in different geographies throughout history and when circumstances became difficult they migrated to convenient land riding horses. They benefited from horse's milk and meat as well as it s power and speed. In feast and festivals they compete with each other using horses, even if they played on horseback. This indicates that horses were how important for Turks in the political, civil, economic, social and cultural fields. Horse was located in the center of the lives of Turks throughout history. Such that, robbing a horse conneted was capital offence as well as rebellion, treason, murder, adultery according to the criminal law of the former Turks. Horse still has not lost its importance in t he present Turkish regions, especially Central Asian geography. Horse is so important for Turkmens that horse figure has taken place in the state coat of arms of Turkmenistan and the last sunday in April is celebrated as a feast in Turkmenistan. Ahal - Teke which is most exclusive horse breed of the word is brought up in Turkmenistan. Horse has also an important place in the vocabulary. In this work, it would be determine horse’s important in social and cultural life of Turkmens as following both language and non - language indicators.

  2. Whole genome sequencing reveals a novel deletion variant in the KIT gene in horses with white spotted coat colour phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürig, N; Jude, R; Holl, H; Brooks, S A; Lafayette, C; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T

    2017-08-01

    White spotting phenotypes in horses can range in severity from the common white markings up to completely white horses. EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3 and TRPM1 represent known candidate genes for such phenotypes in horses. For the present study, we re-investigated a large horse family segregating a variable white spotting phenotype, for which conventional Sanger sequencing of the candidate genes' individual exons had failed to reveal the causative variant. We obtained whole genome sequence data from an affected horse and specifically searched for structural variants in the known candidate genes. This analysis revealed a heterozygous ~1.9-kb deletion spanning exons 10-13 of the KIT gene (chr3:77,740,239_77,742,136del1898insTATAT). In continuity with previously named equine KIT variants we propose to designate the newly identified deletion variant W22. We had access to 21 horses carrying the W22 allele. Four of them were compound heterozygous W20/W22 and had a completely white phenotype. Our data suggest that W22 represents a true null allele of the KIT gene, whereas the previously identified W20 leads to a partial loss of function. These findings will enable more precise genetic testing for depigmentation phenotypes in horses. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Assessment of weather risk on chestnut production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M. G.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Caramelo, L.

    2009-04-01

    Meteorological conditions play a fundamental role during entire chestnut tree vegetative cycle. Chestnut trees are well adapted to mean year temperatures of 8-15°C, requires monthly mean temperatures greater than 10°C during 6 months (Gomes-Laranjo et al. 2008) and its pollen only germinates at relatively high temperatures of 27-30°C (Bounous, 2002). Photosynthesis of an adult tree is highly dependent of temperature. Photosynthesis is maximal at 24-28°C but it is inhibited for temperatures greater than 32°C (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). Furthermore, there are significant differences between chestnut trees cultivated in northfaced orchads in relation to those cultivated in the southfaced and between leaves from different sides of the chestnut canopy because they receive different amounts of radiant energy and consequently they grow under different mean daily air temperature. The objective of this work was to assess the role of weather on chestnut production variability. This study was performed for the 28 years period defined between 1980 and 2007 and it was based on annual values of chestnut production and total area of production, at national level, provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal. The meteorological data used was provided by Meteored (http://www.meteored.com/) and includes daily values of precipitation, wind speed, and mean, maximum and minimum air temperature. All meteorological variables were tested as potential predictors by means of a simple correlation analysis. Multiple time intervals were considered in this the analysis, which consist in moving intervals of constant length and forward and backward evolutionary intervals. Results show that some meteorological variables present significant correlation with chestnut productivity particularly in the most relevant periods of the chestnut tree cycle, like the previous winter, the flushing phase and the maturation period. A regression model based on the winter (January

  4. Socioeconomic Perspectives on Household Chestnut Fruit Utilization and Chestnut Blight Prevention Efforts in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Okan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.

  5. Assessment of the chestnut production weather dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mário; Caramelo, Liliana; Gouveia, Célia; Gomes-Laranjo, José

    2010-05-01

    The vegetative cycle of chestnut trees is highly dependent on weather. Photosynthesis and pollen germination are mainly conditioned by the air temperature while heavy precipitation and strong wind have significant impacts during the flushing phase period (Gomes-Laranjo et al., 2005, 2006). In Portugal, chestnut tree orchads are located in mountainous areas of the Northeast region of Trás-os-Montes, between 600 and 1000 m of altitude. Topography controls the atmospheric environment and assures adequate conditions for the chestnut production. In the above mentioned context, remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise vegetation dynamics. A number of studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in Europe to analyse the year-to-year variations in European vegetation greenness as a function of precipitation and temperature (Gouveia et al., 2008). A previous study focusing on the relationship between meteorological variables and chestnut productivity provides indication that simulation models may benefit from the incorporation of such kind of relationships. The aim of the present work is to provide a detailed description of recent developments, in particular of the added value that may be brought by using satellite data. We have relied on regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) dataset, at 8-km resolution, provided by the Global Inventory Monitoring and Modelling System (GIMMS) group. The data are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR), and cover the period from 1982 to 2006. Additionally we have used the chestnut productivity dataset, which includes the annual values of chestnut production and area of production provided by INE, the National Institute of Statistics of Portugal and the meteorological dataset which includes values of several variables from different providers (Meteorod, NCEP/NCAR, ECA&D and national Meteorological Institute). Results show that

  6. Comparison of the transcriptomes of American chestnut (Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima in response to the chestnut blight infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wheeler Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background1471-2229-9-51 American chestnut (Castanea dentata was devastated by an exotic pathogen in the beginning of the twentieth century. This chestnut blight is caused by Cryphonectria parasitica, a fungus that infects stem tissues and kills the trees by girdling them. Because of the great economic and ecological value of this species, significant efforts have been made over the century to combat this disease, but it wasn't until recently that a focused genomics approach was initiated. Prior to the Genomic Tool Development for the Fagaceae project, genomic resources available in public databases for this species were limited to a few hundred ESTs. To identify genes involved in resistance to C. parasitica, we have sequenced the transcriptome from fungal infected and healthy stem tissues collected from blight-sensitive American chestnut and blight-resistant Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima trees using ultra high throughput pyrosequencing. Results We produced over a million 454 reads, totaling over 250 million bp, from which we generated 40,039 and 28,890 unigenes in total from C. mollissima and C. dentata respectively. The functions of the unigenes, from GO annotation, cover a diverse set of molecular functions and biological processes, among which we identified a large number of genes associated with resistance to stresses and response to biotic stimuli. In silico expression analyses showed that many of the stress response unigenes were expressed more in canker tissues versus healthy stem tissues in both American and Chinese chestnut. Comparative analysis also identified genes belonging to different pathways of plant defense against biotic stresses that are differentially expressed in either American or Chinese chestnut canker tissues. Conclusion Our study resulted in the identification of a large set of cDNA unigenes from American chestnut and Chinese chestnut. The ESTs and unigenes from this study constitute an important

  7. Evaluation of the gold leaf thickness in the coating of the imperial horse-drawn carriage emperor D. Pedro II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardes, R.C.; Sanches, F.A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, H.S.; Santos, R.S.; Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Assis, J.T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear; Carvalho, M.L. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Zanatta, E.M. [Museu Imperial, Petropolis, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório de Conservação e Restauração; Cesareo, R., E-mail: rc.nardes@gmail.com [Instituto de Matemática e Física, Universidade de Sassari (Italy)

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the presence of gold in the coatings of the emperor D. Pedro’s II Berlin device, part of the Imperial Museum of Petropolis, Brazil, was verified. Then perform was evaluation of the thickness of the gold leaf, using the technique of X-Ray Fluorescence, measuring peak intensities (Kα / Kβ or Lα / Lβ) of the elements of interest in the layer. It was possible to verify in the XRF spectra the presence of four elements: Ti, Fe, Au and Pb. The Pb was present at all sampling points, which indicates the presence of lead carbonate (lead-white) as preparation layer. The presence of Au at some sampling points indicates that several parts of the Berlin devices were covered with gold leaf. The presence of Ti and Fe is due to the application of golden mica over the entire length of the berlin device during the process of last restoration. The presence of the mica layer on the gold covering was relevant for gold thickness determination. The average value of the gold thickness obtained was 0.62 ± 0.51 μm, with a coefficient of variation of 83% and a confidence interval of 0.49-0.75 μm (α = 0.05). The values are compatible with the thickness of gold foil normally found in the coating of pieces of wood from the same period that the Berlin device was built. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the gold leaf thickness in the coating of the imperial horse-drawn carriage emperor D. Pedro II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardes, R.C.; Sanches, F.A.C.R.A.; Gama Filho, H.S.; Santos, R.S.; Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J.; Assis, J.T.; Lopes, R.T.; Zanatta, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the presence of gold in the coatings of the emperor D. Pedro’s II Berlin device, part of the Imperial Museum of Petropolis, Brazil, was verified. Then perform was evaluation of the thickness of the gold leaf, using the technique of X-Ray Fluorescence, measuring peak intensities (Kα / Kβ or Lα / Lβ) of the elements of interest in the layer. It was possible to verify in the XRF spectra the presence of four elements: Ti, Fe, Au and Pb. The Pb was present at all sampling points, which indicates the presence of lead carbonate (lead-white) as preparation layer. The presence of Au at some sampling points indicates that several parts of the Berlin devices were covered with gold leaf. The presence of Ti and Fe is due to the application of golden mica over the entire length of the berlin device during the process of last restoration. The presence of the mica layer on the gold covering was relevant for gold thickness determination. The average value of the gold thickness obtained was 0.62 ± 0.51 μm, with a coefficient of variation of 83% and a confidence interval of 0.49-0.75 μm (α = 0.05). The values are compatible with the thickness of gold foil normally found in the coating of pieces of wood from the same period that the Berlin device was built. (author)

  9. The American chestnut and fire: 6-year research results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Mike R. Saunders; Ethan P. Belair; Scott J. Torreano; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2014-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentata Marsh. (Borkh.)] is an iconic species with important ecological and utilitarian values, but was decimated by the mid-20th century by exotic fungal species fromAsia. Successful restoration will require sustainable silvicultural methods to maximize survival and afford chestnut a competitive advantage over natural vegetation. The study...

  10. Effect of chestnut extract and chestnut fiber on viability of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains under gastrointestinal tract conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; La Gatta, Barbara; Di Capua, Marika; Di Luccia, Aldo; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The main challenge to probiotics, during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract, are the acidic gastric secretions of the stomach, and the bile salts released into the duodenum. The survival of the strains, in this phase, is strongly influenced by the food used for their delivery. This work is part of a project studying the development of novel food processes, based on the use of chestnuts from cultivar "Castagna di Montella". In detail, the effect of indigestible chestnut fiber and of chestnut extract on the viability of selected lactic acid bacteria strains was evaluated. Among 28 cultures, twelve strains were selected, on the basis of tolerance to low pH values and bile salts, and submitted to exposition to simulated gastric or bile juice in presence of chestnut extract with or without immobilization in chestnut fiber. The presence of chestnut extract proved to play a significant role on the gastric tolerance improvement of lactobacilli. The recorded protective effect could not be simply related to the starch or reducing sugars content. RP-HPLC demonstrated that in the chestnut flour, there are one or more hydrophobic peptides or oligopeptides, which specifically offer a marked resistance to simulated gastric juice, albeit present at low concentration. These beneficial effects proved to be dependent by the cultivar used to produce the flour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knee osteoarthritis in a chestnut farmer – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2017-03-01

    Considering the lack of major individual risk factors for knee OA, it is reasonable to suppose that five decades of exposure to biomechanical overload as a chestnut farmer was a relevant risk factor for the onset of the disease.

  12. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, João C.M.; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Günaydi, Tugba; Alkan, Hasan; Bento, Albino; Luisa Botelho, M.

    2012-01-01

    Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing interesting features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, increasing food products shelf-life. Any conservation methodology should have a wide application range. Hence, and after evaluating Portuguese cultivars, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids (FA) and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 °C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than the irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for FA, tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids were the only FA that underwent some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected either by storage or irradiation. α-Tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, Turkish cultivars showed a compositional profile closely related with Portuguese cultivars, and seemed to confirm that gamma irradiation in the applied doses did not change chestnut chemical and nutritional composition. - Highlights: ► γ-irradiation was applied to Turkish chestnuts as a conservation method. ► Doses till 3 kGy did not affect chestnuts nutritional parameters. ► Storage time influenced chestnuts chemical composition. ► Irradiation might be a suitable

  13. Translocation of radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japanese chestnut and chestnut weevil larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the translocation of radiocesium scattered by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011 to the Japanese chestnut, we investigated the autoradiography and radiocesium concentration in each part of Japanese chestnuts. The Japanese chestnut fruit has a thin skin between the kernel (cotyledons) and shell; the kernel of the fruit is edible. The 137 Cs concentration in each part of the fruit was found to be almost the same at about 1.0 × 10 4 Bq·kg -1 DW, as well as leaves. The radiocesium concentration in chestnut weevil larvae found on the fruit was approximately one-seventh of that in the kernel. (author)

  14. The efficiency of introduced pisolithus tinctorius inoculum on backcrossed chestnut germination and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut was eliminated as a canopy tree from the Appalachian region of North America with the introduction of chestnut blight in the early 1900s. Breeding programs initiated in the 1980s have produced seedling lines that display the pure American morphology with potential resistance to chestnut blight. More work is required to assess their field performance...

  15. Effects of light acclimation on photosynthesis, growth, and biomass allocation in america chestnut seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Geoff Wang; William L. Bauerle; Bryan T. Mudder

    2006-01-01

    American chestnut [Castanea dentate(Marshall) Borkh.] was a widely distributed tree species in the Eastern U.S., comprising an estimated 25 percent of native eastern hardwood forests. Chestnut blight eradicated American chestnut from the forest canopy by the 1950s, and now it only persists as understory sprouts. However, blight-resistant hybrids with...

  16. Cooperative test plots produce some promising Chinese and hybrid chestnut trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse D. Diller; Russell B. Clapper; Richard A. Jaynes

    1964-01-01

    In attempts to find a chestnut tree that is resistant to the blight fungus Endothia parasitica, Asiatic chestnuts have been imported and grown in this country, and tree breeders have worked to produce hybrid trees that might be suitable substitutes for the blight-susceptible American chestnut, Castanea dentate, in timber and nut...

  17. WAR HORSES:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    War Horses: Helhesten and the Danish Avant-Garde During World War II This exhibition is the first to explore the history and significance of the accomplishments of Danish artists working during the Nazi occupation of their country (1940-45), who called themselves Helhesten, such as Ejler Bille......-1951), which they became part of. Cobra greatly influenced the development of European modern art after World War II. The exhibition includes over 100 works and reconstructs for the first time the most important exhibition these artists staged in Denmark during the war, 13 Artists in a Tent (1941). It draws...

  18. Winter Iinjury of American chestnut seedlings grown in a common garden at the species' northern range limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Schaberg; Thomas M. Saielli; Gary J. Hawley; Joshua M. Halman; Kendra M. Gurney

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) with Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima), followed by backcrossing to American chestnut, is conducted to increase the resistance of resulting stock to chestnut blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica (Murr.) Barr. Backcross breeding is...

  19. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  20. Characterization of chestnut (Castanea sativa, mill starch for industrial utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demiate Ivo Mottin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to characterize the chestnut and its starch. Chemical composition of the chestnuts showed high level of starch. Moisture level in the raw nuts was around 50g/100g in wet basis and starch content, around 80g/100g in dry basis; other nut flour components were protein (5.58 g/100g, lipid (5.39 g/100g, crude fiber (2.34 g/100g and ash (2.14 g/100g. Starch fraction was chemically characterized in order to identify the granule quality as compared with those of cassava and corn. This fraction showed more lipids and proteins than the other starches. Chestnut starch granules showed peculiar shape, smaller than the control starches and low amount of damaged units. Chemical composition concerning amylose : amylopectin ratio was intermediate to that presented by cassava and corn starch granules. Water absorption at different temperatures as well as solubility were also intermediate but closer to that presented by cassava granules. The same behavior was observed in the interaction with dimethyl-sulfoxide. Native starch granules and those submitted to enzymatic treatment with commercial alpha-amylase and also with enzymes from germinated wheat were observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Water suspensions of chestnut starch granules were heated to form pastes that were studied comparatively to those obtained with cassava and corn starches. Viscographic pattern of chestnut starch pastes showed a characteristic profile with high initial viscosity but peak absence, high resistance to mechanical stirring under hot conditions and high final viscosity. There was no way to compare it with the paste viscographic profiles obtained with the control starches. Chestnut starch pastes were stable down to pH 4 but unstable at pH 3. The water losses observed in the chestnut starch pastes after freeze-thaw cycles showed more similarity to the pattern observed in corn starch pastes as well as clarity and strength of the gel. In general the results

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A TECHNOLOGY FOR LOW IN GLUTEN CHESTNUT PUREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlina Paraskova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the scientific research related to technologies for processing and implementation of chestnut products are aimed to establish the regimes of preliminary treatment of the nuts, such as devitalization, hydrotherapy, thermo-hydro therapy, refrigeration and freezing with the scope of long term storage of the raw material in disguise of peeled, unpeeled, cooled, chilled and etc. chestnut. Additionally added value products can be designed to designate some specific target group like consumers with food allergies, obese people as well as pupils’ nutrition

  2. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelle, R.H.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  3. Chemometric characterization of gamma irradiated chestnuts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreira, J.C.M.; Guenaydi, T.; Alkan, H.; Botelho, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Chestnut (Castanea sativa Miller) is a valuable natural resource, with high exportation levels. Due to their water content, chestnuts are susceptible to storage problems like dehydration or development of insects and microorganisms. Irradiation has been revealing promising features to be considered as an alternative conservation technology, for Portugese cultivars. Hence, the assessment of irradiation effects in foreign cultivars might act as an important indicator of the versatility of this technology. In this work, the effects of gamma irradiation (0.0, 0.5 and 3.0 kGy) on proximate composition, sugars, fatty acids and tocopherols composition of Turkish chestnuts stored at 4 deg C for different periods (0, 15 and 30 days) was evaluated. Regarding proximate composition, the storage time (ST) had higher influence than irradiation dose (ID), especially on fat, ash, carbohydrates and energetic value. Sucrose exhibited similar behavior in response to the assayed ST and ID. The prevalence of ST influence was also verified for fatty acids (FA), tocopherols and sucrose. Lauric, palmitoleic and linolenic acids, were the only FA that undergone some differences with ID. Saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were not affected neither by storage nor irradiation. α-tocopherol was the only vitamer with significant differences among the assayed ST and ID. Overall, our results confirm that gamma irradiation is a promising conservation methodology, without inducing changes in chestnut chemical and nutritional composition.

  4. Identification of copy number variants in horses

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, R.

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  5. Welfare of Aged Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine McGowan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Horses form a unique and special part of their owners’ lives and aged horses are no exception. This review considers the health and management of aged horses, including the role of the owner and their perceptions of aged horses, potential threats or risks to their welfare and finally, factors affecting quality of life and euthanasia of aged horses. Owners of aged horses are concerned about the health, welfare and quality of life of their aged animals. Yet surveys of management and preventive healthcare reflect that there may be some limitations to what owners are actually achieving in practice. They show declining management as horses age, particularly for the retired horse and insufficient appropriate preventive healthcare via veterinary surgeons. The veterinary surgeon plays an essential and influential role in preventive healthcare, management of diseases and disorders and ultimately in the decision making process for euthanasia of aged horses at the end of their lives. The value of aged horses should not be underestimated by veterinarians and others working with them and the continuing care of aged horses should be regarded with the same importance as the care of younger horses with more obvious monetary value.

  6. Cytogenetic analysis of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) using fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MN Islam Faridi; CD Nelson; PH Sisco; TL Kubisiak; FV Hebard; RL Paris; RL Phillips

    2009-01-01

    The American chestnut (Castanea dentata), once known as ‘The King of the Forest’ in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, has been all but extirpated by chestnut blight disease caused by an Asiatic bark fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. A group of scientists at The American Chestnut Foundation has been working since 1983 to...

  7. Lichenized fungi of a chestnut grove in Livari (Rumija, Montenegro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Helmut; Drescher, Anton; Stešević, Danijela; Bilovitz, Peter O.

    2016-01-01

    Sixty taxa (59 species and 1 variety) of lichenized fungi are reported from a chestnut grove in Livari. The majority of them (55 species and 1 variety) occurred on Castanea sativa. The recently described Xylographa soralifera is new to the Balkan Peninsula. The lichenicolous fungus Monodictys epilepraria growing on Lepraria rigidula is new to Montenegro. The lichen mycota is compared with similar localities in Italy and Switzerland. The species composition in Livari is most similar to the Montieri site in Tuscany. PMID:26869743

  8. Biological control of chestnut blight in Croatia: an interaction between host sweet chestnut, its pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica and the biocontrol agent Cryphonectria hypovirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstin, Ljiljana; Katanić, Zorana; Ježić, Marin; Poljak, Igor; Nuskern, Lucija; Matković, Ivana; Idžojtić, Marilena; Ćurković-Perica, Mirna

    2017-03-01

    Chestnut blight, caused by the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica, is a severe chestnut disease that can be controlled with naturally occurring hypoviruses in many areas of Europe. The aim of this research was to measure the effect of different Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) strains on the growth of the fungal host and select strains that could potentially be used for human-mediated biocontrol in forests and orchards, and to investigate whether and how chestnut-fungus-virus interactions affect the development and growth of the lesion area on cut stems. Two Croatian CHV1 strains (CR23 and M56/1) were selected as potential biocontrol agents. The sequencing of CHV1/ORF-A showed that both of these virus strains belonged to the Italian subtype of CHV1. In vitro transfection of selected virus strains from hypovirulent to genetically diverse virus-free fungal isolates and subsequent inoculation of all virus/fungus combinations on stems of genetically diverse sweet chestnut trees revealed that Croatian virus strain CR23 had an equally hypovirulent effect on the host as the strong French strain CHV1-EP713, while M56/1 had a weaker effect. Furthermore, it was shown that in some cases the same hypovirus/fungus combinations induced various degrees of canker development on different chestnut genotypes. Some CHV1 strains belonging to the Italian subtype have similar hypovirulent effects on C. parasitica to those belonging to the French subtype. Furthermore, chestnut susceptibility and recovery could be influenced by the response of chestnut trees to particular hypovirulent C. parasitica isolates, and virus-fungus-chestnut interactions could have significant implications for the success of chestnut blight biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. THE NAMES AND MARKINGS GIVEN TO THE HORSES ACCORDING THEIR COAT COLORS IN TURKISH CULTURE TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜNDE DONLARINA GÖRE ATLARA VERİLEN ADLAR VE NİŞANLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim KÜÇÜK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the richnesses of the Turkish language is the coat colors and markings of the horses. However, it’s not possible to talk about a similarity while giving names to these coat colors and markings in written sources and this makes it difficult to classify them and also the Works of the researchers. In this study it’s aimed to anayze the coat colors and markings in written sources from the beginning to nowadays by categorizing the coat colors first and then determining the main markings. Not only historical Turkish dialects but also contemporary Turkish dialects have been made use of for a perfect determination of the coat colors and markings to show their historical developments. In the study, it is noticed that horse coat colors and markings have been taken place more in the written works of the Middle Age Turkish rather than the age of Ancient Turkish. Especially Divanü Lûgati’t-Türk is a rich literary work on this subject. The two other dictionaries named Derleme and Tarama in contemporary Turkish are also richer than the ones used in Karahanli period. Turkish used in Turkey today differentiates from both its historical dialects and up-to-date dialects with this aspect. Türkçenin zenginliklerinden biri de at donları ve nişanlarıdır. Ancak yazılı kaynaklarda at donları ve nişanlarının adlandırılmasında tam bir birlikten söz etmek mümkün değildir. Bu durum at donlarının gruplandırılmasını ve araştırmacıların işini güçleştirmektedir. Başlangıçtan günümüze yazılı kaynaklarda yer alan at donları ve nişanlarını incelemeyi amaçlayan bu çalışmada önce at donları gruplandırılmış ardından belli başlı at nişanları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada yalnız tarihî Türk lehçeleriyle yetinilmemiş, bazı at donlarının özelliklerini ve tarihi gelişimlerini tam olarak belirleyebilmek için aynı zamanda çağdaş Türk lehçelerinden de yararlanılmıştır.Çalışmada Eski T

  10. Survey for the presence of Phytophthora cinnamomi on reclaimed mined lands in Ohio chosen for restoration of the American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2013-01-01

    We have been planting blight resistant American chestnut seedlings on reclaimed coal mined areas in Southeastern Ohio, which was once within the natural range of the American chestnut. Towards the goal of restoring the American chestnut, we are testing suitable sites that can aid survival, growth and establishment of planted seedlings pre-inoculated with...

  11. The refractive state of the eye in Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Maria K; Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Lindgren, Gabriella; Ekesten, Björn

    2017-06-02

    The syndrome Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) is a congenital eye disorder in horses. Both the MCOA syndrome and the Silver coat colour in horses are caused by the same missense mutation in the premelanosome protein (PMEL) gene. Horses homozygous for the Silver mutation (TT) are affected by multiple ocular defects causing visual impairment or blindness. Horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation (CT) have less severe clinical signs, usually cysts arising from the ciliary body iris or retina temporally. It is still unknown if the vision is impaired in horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation. A recent study reported that Comtois horses carrying the Silver mutation had significantly deeper anterior chambers of the eye compared to wild-type horses. This could potentially cause refractive errors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation have refractive errors compared to wild-type horses. One hundred and fifty-two Icelandic horses were included in the study, 71 CT horses and five TT horses. All horses were genotyped for the missense mutation in PMEL. Each CT and TT horse was matched by a wild-type (CC) horse of the same age ± 1 year. Skiascopy and a brief ophthalmic examination were performed in all horses. Association between refraction and age, eye, genotype and sex was tested by linear mixed-effect model analysis. TT horses with controls were not included in the statistical analyses as they were too few. The interaction between age and genotype had a significant impact on the refractive state (P = 0.0001). CT horses older than 16 years were on average more myopic than wild-type horses of the same age. No difference in the refractive state could be observed between genotypes (CT and CC) in horses younger than 16 years. TT horses were myopic (-2 D or more) in one or both eyes regardless of age. Our results indicate that an elderly Icelandic horse (older than 16 years) carrying the Silver

  12. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv Hiremath; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate soil subsurface methods that may aid in seedling establishment and encourage root colonization from a diverse group of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi during restoration projects. American chestnut Castanea dentata Marsh. Borkh. and backcrossed chestnuts seedlings were planted on a reclaimed coal mine site...

  13. Silvicultural and logistical considerations associated with the pending reintroduction of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Traditional breeding for blight resistance has led to the potential to restore American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) to Eastern United States forests using a blight resistant hybrid chestnut tree. With prospects of pending wide-scale reintroduction, restoration strategies based on ecological and biological characteristics of the...

  14. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  15. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  17. Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Standards in chestnut coppice system: cultural heritage or coltural requirement? This paper aims at evaluating the role of standards in chestnut coppices from a biological and functional perspective. In addition to a detailed analysis of Italian regulations on the issue, the technical definition of the term is analysed: (i as for the functional role of standards; (ii to assess whether the required functions are technically necessary and are being actually performed. In this contex, the results of an experimental trial are reported. The goal of the trial were to assess the shoots’ parameters, the stand productivity, the dynamics of canopy cover in coppices with or without standards. In 2001, at harvesting operations in a coppice aged 30 with standards managed by the local community, two experimental plots 2500 m2 each were established. The two theses being compared were: simple coppice and coppixce with standards (100 standards per hectare. The released standards were qualified immediately after final harvesting. Sprouting ability, growth pattern and stool vitality were surveyed in March 2004 (at age 2, in May 2008 (at age 6 and in April 2010 (at age 8. First results highlighted the evidence of statistically significant differences between the two thesis. The high number of standards effected negatively both vitality and growth pattern of the stools. Simple coppice recorded a lower shoot mortality, a higher diametrical growth and canopy cover degree as well; the heigth growth was, on the opposite, significantly lower. These results, although referred to a limited lifespan (1/3 of the rotation time and to one site only, underline productive, ecological and environmental benefits and as a consequence suggest the widening of the experimental network and the development of new, more relevant and consistent rules, making acceptable the simple coppice as a possible silvicultural choice to be applied to chestnut coppices.

  18. Morphometric characteristics of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Grygorieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to determine morphometric differences of fruits between selected sweet chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.. The 28 genotypes (referred as CS-01 to CS-28 were introduced by seeds from Czech Republic, Carpathians, Kyrgyzstan. Genotypes of sweet chestnut are grow more than 30 years in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine. They are well adapted to the climatic and soil conditions. The fruits were collected at the period of their full maturity (September. The population differs in weight, shape, size and color of fruits. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 1.70 g (CS-26 to 18.60 g (CS-20, length from 8.07 mm (CS-28 to 33.39 mm (CS-11, width from 16.34 mm (CS-28 to 40.95 mm (CS-11, thickness from 9.02 mm (CS-26 to 28.70 mm (CS-11 and hilum length from 6.62 mm (CS-26 to 31.30 mm (CS-07, hilum width from 6.50 mm (CS-23 to 19.99 mm (CS-07. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.81 (CS-20 to 0.98 (CS-12. The shape index of the hilum was found in the range of 1.48 (CS-04 to 2.03 (CS-23. The outcome of the research point to the fact that the genepool Ukrainian sweet chestnut is a rich source of genetic diversity and might be used in selection for creation a new genotypes and cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Horse trichinellosis, an unresolved puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozio E.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of routine controls to detect Trichinella larvae in horse-meat, human infections due to horse-meat consumption continue to occur in France and Italy, The epidemiology of horse trichinellosis since its discovery in 1975 is outlined, addressing the possible modes of natural transmission to horses, the need to develop more sensitive methods for detecting Trichinella larvae in horses, and the economic impact of horse trichinellosis. Investigations of human outbreaks due to horse-meat consumption have implicated single cases of inadequate veterinary controls on horses imported from non-European Union countries. In particular, most cases of human infection have been attributed to horses imported from Eastern Europe, where pig trichinellosis is re-emerging and the main source of infection in horses.

  19. Tannin analysis of chestnut bark samples (Castanea sativa Mill.) by HPLC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2014-08-15

    In the present investigation, an HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS method for the complete analysis of tannins and other phenolic compounds of different commercial chestnut bark samples was developed. A total of seven compounds (vescalin, castalin, gallic acid, vescalagin, 1-O-galloyl castalagin, castalagin and ellagic acid) were separated and quantified, being 1-O-galloyl castalagin tentatively identified and found for the first time in chestnut bark samples. Thus, this method provided information regarding the composition and quality of chestnut bark samples, which is required since these samples are commercialised due to their biochemical properties as ingredients of food supplements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association analysis of KIT, MITF, and PAX3 variants with white markings in Spanish horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, S; Imsland, F; Valera, M; Molina, A; Solé, M; Andersson, L

    2017-06-01

    Several variants in the KIT, PAX3 and MITF genes have previously been associated with white markings in horses. In this study, we examined eight variants of these genes in 70 Menorca Purebred horses (PRMe, only black solid-coloured horses) and 70 Spanish Purebred horses (PRE, different coat colour patterns) that were scored for the extent of white markings. A maximum-likelihood chi-square test, logistic regression model and ridge regression analyses showed that a missense mutation (p.Arg682His) in KIT was associated with white facial markings (P horses. The relative contribution of this variant to white markings in PRMe horses was estimated at 47.6% (head) and 43.4% (total score). In PRE horses, this variant was also associated with hindlimb scores (P T intronic variant located 29.9 kb downstream from the transcription start site of the MITF gene was associated with less white markings on forelimbs (P horses, with a relative contribution of 63.9%, whereas in PRE horses this variant was associated with white facial markings (P horses, providing breeders with an opportunity to use genetic testing to aid in breeding for their desired level of white markings. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, S.

    2010-01-01

    Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaT Scan and Cluster Seer) and a non spatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana) regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the over story and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp.) but were negatively associated with the abundance of hay scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia). In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  4. Applying Hotspot Detection Methods in Forestry: A Case Study of Chestnut Oak Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Fei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hotspot detection has been widely adopted in health sciences for disease surveillance, but rarely in natural resource disciplines. In this paper, two spatial scan statistics (SaTScan and ClusterSeer and a nonspatial classification and regression trees method were evaluated as techniques for identifying chestnut oak (Quercus Montana regeneration hotspots among 50 mixed-oak stands in the central Appalachian region of the eastern United States. Hotspots defined by the three methods had a moderate level of conformity and revealed similar chestnut oak regeneration site affinity. Chestnut oak regeneration hotspots were positively associated with the abundance of chestnut oak trees in the overstory and a moderate cover of heather species (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia spp. but were negatively associated with the abundance of hayscented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula and mountain laurel (Kalmia latiforia. In general, hotspot detection is a viable tool for assisting natural resource managers with identifying areas possessing significantly high or low tree regeneration.

  5. 137Cs Behaviour in Chestnut Honey From Northwestern Croatia Two Decades After Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozmaric Macefat, M.; Rogic, M.; Nodilo, M.; Barisic, D.; Svecnjak, L.; Bubalo, D.; Popijac, M.; Kezic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Covering the large area in nectar gathering process and searching for food, honey bees yield a unique random composite sample incorporated in honey. Thus, honey represents an excellent media for studying behaviour of bioavailable elements as well as environmental pollutants. Caesium, a product of nuclear weapon testing and Chernobyl nuclear accident, still present in soils, is transferred to plants by plant uptake. It has already been established that chestnut honey can be used as a bioindicator for monitoring 137Cs many years after the Chernobyl accident. The aim of this study was to determine whether the chestnut honey is suitable for monitoring environmental pollution with 137Cs two decades after the contamination event. Chestnut honey from northwest Croatia has been analysed during the period from 2004 to 2008, for activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K. Honey samples were collected mechanically by extracting honey from combs. Based on the pollen analysis (> 85 % of chestnut pollen grains) and measured electrical conductivity of honey (> 0.8 mS cm -1 ), honey has been identified as unifloral chestnut honey (Castanea sativa Mill.). 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations have been determined by gamma spectrometry. Decrease of 137Cs activity in chestnut honey was approximated by linear equation. The activity concentration of 137Cs in chestnut honey decreases very slowly over the time as opposed to the activity concentrations of 40K that are more or less equable. Thus, chestnut honey can be used as a good bioindicator for 137Cs even two decades after the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  6. Host Preference and Performance of the Yellow Peach Moth (Conogethes punctiferalis on Chestnut Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Du

    Full Text Available Suitability of plant tissues as food for insects varies from plant to plant. In lepidopteran insects, fitness is largely dependent on the host-finding ability of the females. Existing studies have suggested that polyphagous lepidopterans preferentially select certain host plant species for oviposition. However, the mechanisms for host recognition and selection have not been fully elucidated. For the polyphagous yellow peach moth Conogethes punctiferalis, we explored the effect of chestnut cultivar on the performance and fitness and addressed the mechanisms of plant-volatile-mediated host recognition. By carrying out laboratory experiments and field investigation on four chestnut Castanea mollissima cultivars (Huaihuang, Huaijiu, Yanhong, and Shisheng, we found that C. punctiferalis females preferentially select Huaijiu for oviposition and infestation, and caterpillars fed on Huaijiu achieved slightly greater fitness than those fed on the other three chestnut cultivars, indicating that Huaijiu was a better suitable host for C. punctiferalis. Plant volatiles played important roles in host recognition by C. punctiferalis. All seven chestnut volatile compounds, α-pinene, camphene, β-thujene, β-pinene, eucalyptol, 3-carene, and nonanal, could trigger EAG responses in C. punctiferalis. The ubiquitous plant terpenoids, α-pinene, camphene and β-pinene, and their specific combination at concentrations and proportions similar to the emissions from the four chestnut cultivars, was sufficient to elicit host recognition behavior of female C. punctiferalis. Nonanal and a mixture containing nonanal, that mimicked the emission of C. punctiferalis infested chestnut fruits, caused avoidance response. The outcome demonstrates the effects of chestnut cultivars on the performance of C. punctiferalis and reveals the preference-performance relationship between C. punctiferalis adults and their offspring. The observed olfactory plasticity in the plant

  7. The use of tannin from chestnut (Castanea vesca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisper, P; Tisler, V; Skubic, V; Rupnik, I; Kobal, S

    1992-01-01

    After mimosa and quebracho extracts, chestnut extract is the third most important vegetable tannin used for leather production. It is produced only in Europe on the northern side of the Mediterranean sea. The extract is prepared by hot water extraction of the bark and timber, followed by spray-drying of the solution. Analysis shows that there are insignificant variations in extract quality between batches, so the extract can be used with modern automated leather production systems. The extract contains approximately 75 percent active tanning substances. The primary component is castalagin, along with smaller amounts of vescalagin, castalin, and vescalin. A castalagin-based pharmaceutical product is currently in use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in pigs and cattle that is caused by changes in diet. The beneficial effect is due to prevention of water losses through mucous membranes. The castalagin may also form chelates with iron, which influences the reabsorption of the metal in the animal digestive tract.

  8. Yeast Communities of Chestnut Soils under Vineyards in Dagestan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullabekova, D. A.; Magomedova, E. S.; Magomedov, G. G.; Aliverdieva, D. A.; Kachalkin, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The study of yeast communities in chestnut soils (Kastanozems) under vineyards in the Republic of Dagestan made it possible to isolate 20 yeast species. Most of the yeasts under vineyards belonged to ascomycetes, among which species of the Saccharomycetaceae family (in particular, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) comprised a significant part. The obtained results indicate that the soils under vineyards keep the pool of microbial diversity and ensure preservation of many species typical for grapes. The method of enrichment culture on grape juice medium proved to be more efficient than other methods of analysis with respect to the number of isolated species and the rate of their detection. However, implementation of different techniques to study yeasts' diversity can give somewhat different results; a set of methods should be used for an integrated analysis.

  9. A pilot study comparing the effect of orally administered esomeprazole and omeprazole on gastric fluid pH in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxford, K E; Dart, A J; Perkins, N R; Bell, R; Jeffcott, L B

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To compare the efficacy of an enteric coated esomeprazole paste with an enteric coated omeprazole paste to increase gastric pH after oral administration in horses. METHODS Nine adult Standardbred horses were randomly assigned to three groups, each containing three horses, for a study comprising three phases of 10 days, with an 18-day washout period between each phase. In each phase, three horses received either 0.5 mg/kg esomeprazole, 1 mg/kg omeprazole or a placebo, as an oral paste, once daily for 10 days (Days 0-9). Over the course of study all horses received all three treatments. Gastric fluid samples were collected using a gastroscope on Days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10, with food and water withheld for 16 hours prior to collection of samples. The pH of all samples was measured immediately after collection. RESULTS Mean pH (3.38; SD 1.75) of the gastric fluid samples in the horses that received the placebo was lower than in the horses that received esomeprazole (6.28; SD 1.75) or omeprazole (6.13; SD 1.75) (phorses receiving esomeprazole and those receiving omeprazole (p=0.56). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Under these study conditions, esomeprazole paste was equally as effective as omeprazole paste in increasing gastric pH in horses. Enteric coated esomeprazole, may be a therapeutic alternative to omeprazole for the prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.

  10. Brainstem auditory evoked responses in an equine patient population: part I--adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, M; Holliday, T A; Nieto, J E; Williams, D C

    2014-01-01

    Brainstem auditory evoked response has been an underused diagnostic modality in horses as evidenced by few reports on the subject. To describe BAER findings, common clinical signs, and causes of hearing loss in adult horses. Study group, 76 horses; control group, 8 horses. Retrospective. BAER records from the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory were reviewed from the years of 1982 to 2013. Peak latencies, amplitudes, and interpeak intervals were measured when visible. Horses were grouped under disease categories. Descriptive statistics and a posthoc Bonferroni test were performed. Fifty-seven of 76 horses had BAER deficits. There was no breed or sex predisposition, with the exception of American Paint horses diagnosed with congenital sensorineural deafness. Eighty-six percent (n = 49/57) of the horses were younger than 16 years of age. The most common causes of BAER abnormalities were temporohyoid osteoarthropathy (THO, n = 20/20; abnormalities/total), congenital sensorineural deafness in Paint horses (17/17), multifocal brain disease (13/16), and otitis media/interna (4/4). Auditory loss was bilateral and unilateral in 74% (n = 42/57) and 26% (n = 15/57) of the horses, respectively. The most common causes of bilateral auditory loss were sensorineural deafness, THO, and multifocal brain disease whereas THO and otitis were the most common causes of unilateral deficits. Auditory deficits should be investigated in horses with altered behavior, THO, multifocal brain disease, otitis, and in horses with certain coat and eye color patterns. BAER testing is an objective and noninvasive diagnostic modality to assess auditory function in horses. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  12. Polyuria and polydipsia in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C

    2007-12-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

  13. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  14. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located ∼800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1

  15. Xenophon on Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cedilnik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on Xenophon’s writings on horses, the paper begins with a partial account of his life prior to his decision to join Cyrus, and continues by outlining his attitude to horses, animals with whom he lived in close contact. Except for the period spent campaigning with Cyrus’ Greek mercenaries (401–400 BC, the life of Xenophon remains largely unknown, raising a number of still unanswered questions. While the final answers are probably going to remain obscure, it may be surmised – on the basis of his horse writings as well – that the author came from an affluent family. As an Athenian of substance, he would have been classified as a knight, and since the representatives of this class fought in the Athenian cavalry, it was this combat arm to which he would have belonged. There is no hard and fast evidence that he took an active part in the last years of the Peloponnesian War. However, his fairly detailed account of the Athenian developments following the peace treaty suggests that Xenophon remained in the city during the rule of the Thirty Tyrants, when many residents were obliged to leave, and, as a cavalry mem- ber, actively supported the regime to the end. In fact, Xenophon’s presentation of the contemporary events highlights the cavalry’s role to the extent that it appears to have played a crucial part in defending the city and regime. But despite the cavalry’s support of the Thirty, its members do not seem to have flocked out of Athens in the uncertain conditions which followed the fall of the Thirty and the restoration of democracy. Thus Xenophon’s decision to join Cyrus the Younger’s expedition may have been influenced not by his recent support of the Thirty alone, but also by reasons unknown today. While there is no solid proof of his closer association with horses prior to Cyrus’ expedition, Xenophon’s writing in the Anabasis leaves no doubt that he spent at least the greater part of the campaign on horseback. The

  16. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  17. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM RESEARCH ON SWEET CHESTNUT FROM THE SEMI-SPONTANEOUS FLORA OF NORTHERN OLTENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecu Anca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. is present into the semi-spontaneous flora of Northern Oltenia, around old monasteries from Vâlcea County (Horezu, Bistrita, and Turnu and Gorj (Tismana and Polovragi or in the forest fund. Present study was conducted in order to improve knowledge about sweet chestnut present in this area and assess its qualities aimed at preserving indigenous genetic resources, away from genetic erosion and promoting valuable genotypes on local market, which can be used for chestnut crop recovery. 70 biotypes from Horezu, Bistrita and Dăeşti (Valcea County and Polovragi (Gorj County were taken into study. Out of these, 16 biotypes were selected. Selections were carried out based on morphological and quality characteristics of fruits from trees with large fruits (8 selections, on those with medium fruits (5 selections and with small fruits (3 selections.

  18. Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema in Belgian Draught Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Peeters, L M; Foqué, N; Gasthuys, F; Oosterlinck, M; Buys, N

    2014-12-01

    Genetic parameters for chronic progressive lymphedema (CPL)-associated traits in Belgian Draught Horses were estimated, using a multitrait animal model. Clinical scores of CPL in the four limbs/horse (CPLclin ), skinfold thickness and hair samples (hair diameter) were studied. Due to CPLclin uncertainty in younger horses (progressive CPL character), a restricted data set (D_3+) was formed, excluding records from horses under 3 years from the complete data set (D_full). Age, gender, coat colour and limb hair pigmentation were included as fixed, permanent environment and date of recording as random effects. Higher CPLclin certainty (D_3+) increased heritability coefficients of, and genetic correlations between traits, with CPLclin heritabilities (SE) for the respective data sets: 0.11 (0.06) and 0.26 (0.05). A large proportion of the CPLclin variance was attributed to the permanent environmental effect in D_full, but less in D_3+. Date of recording explained a proportion of variance from 0.09 ± 0.03 to 0.61 ± 0.08. Additive genetic correlations between CPLclin and both skinfold thickness and hair diameter showed the latter two traits cannot be used as a direct diagnostic aid for CPL. Due to the relatively low heritability of CPLclin , selection should focus on estimated breeding values (from repeated clinical examinations) to reduce CPL occurrence in the Belgian Draught Horse. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  1. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Oil Chestnuts Infected by Blue Mold Using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Feng

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mildew damage is a major reason for chestnut poor quality and yield loss. In this study, a near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system in the 874–1734 nm spectral range was applied to detect the mildew damage to chestnuts caused by blue mold. Principal component analysis (PCA scored images were firstly employed to qualitatively and intuitively distinguish moldy chestnuts from healthy chestnuts. Spectral data were extracted from the hyperspectral images. A successive projections algorithm (SPA was used to select 12 optimal wavelengths. Artificial neural networks, including back propagation neural network (BPNN, evolutionary neural network (ENN, extreme learning machine (ELM, general regression neural network (GRNN and radial basis neural network (RBNN were used to build models using the full spectra and optimal wavelengths to distinguish moldy chestnuts. BPNN and ENN models using full spectra and optimal wavelengths obtained satisfactory performances, with classification accuracies all surpassing 99%. The results indicate the potential for the rapid and non-destructive detection of moldy chestnuts by hyperspectral imaging, which would help to develop online detection system for healthy and blue mold infected chestnuts.

  3. Spatial variability in the level of infestation of the leaves of horse chestnut by the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and in the number of adult moths and parasitoids emerging form leaf litter in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopačka, Michal; Zemek, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, JAN 27 (2017), s. 42-52 E-ISSN 1802-8829 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8G15006 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 063/2013/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Gracillariidae * Aesculus hippocastanum Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2016

  4. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI

  5. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  6. Genetic variation patterns of American chestnut populations at EST-SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver Gailing; C. Dana Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of genetic variation at genic expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) and at chloroplast DNA markers in populations of American chestnut (Castanea dentata Borkh.) to assist in conservation and breeding efforts. Allelic diversity at EST-SSRs decreased significantly from southwest to northeast along...

  7. Facilitation of American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedling establishment by Pinus virginiana in mine restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh.) Borkh.) on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were used to identify...

  8. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  9. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  10. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE ROASTING CHESTNUTS PROCESS BY SUPERHEATED STEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematic modeling for chestnuts roasting process by superheated steam is conducted. Diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients are used for process description. Initial conditions and boundary conditions of the third kind for thermal conductivity and mass transfer equations are set.

  11. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  12. The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, physiology and survival of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on root colonization of native fungi on putatively blight resistant chestnut hybrids (Castanea dentata x C. mollissima) in a reclaimed mine site in central Ohio. The five species were Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor,...

  13. Screening for Phytophthora cinnamomi in reclaimed mined lands targeted for American chestnut restoration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiv Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Annemarie Nagle; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2011-01-01

    We are working toward restoring the American chestnut in southeastern Ohio, which was once part of the tree's natural range. Some of these lands have been severely affected by excessive mining operations for several decades. Therefore, we are planning and testing use of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the restoration efforts. Mycorrhizal fungi may play a vital role in...

  14. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi among seedlings from backcross families of hybrid american chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven N. Jeffers; Inga M. Meadows; Joseph B. James; Paul H. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) once was a primary hardwood species in forests of the eastern United States. Sometime during the late 18th century, it is speculated that Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR) on many woody plant species, was introduced to the southeast region of...

  15. Germplasm conservation for species restoration: Examples from efforts to restore the American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.F. Fitzsimmons; K.M. Collins; J. Westbrook; T.M. Saielli; M.D. Brinckman

    2017-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was once a foundational species in much of its native range, especially in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. Unfortunately, the species was driven to functional extinction by the accidental importation of an exotic fungal pathogen (Cryphonectria parasitica), the causal...

  16. Hydroponic production of Chinese water chestnut corms for potential use as a functional vegetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese water chestnut is used as a canned or raw vegetable worldwide. The accessions in the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit do not produce very many or healthy corms when grown in plastic pots containing flooded sand in Griffin, GA. This study was conducted to use a drip irriga...

  17. Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L. as a biomonitor of air pollution in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIANA VELCHEVA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for application the methods of passive and active phytomonitoring with herbaceous species, trees, mosses and lichens for assessment of the anthropogenic factor in urban conditions. Aesculus hippocastanum L. was studied as a possible biomonitor of air pollution with heavy metals and toxic elements in the town of Plovdiv (Bulgaria. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V and U in leaf samples from urban areas with different anthropogenic impact were compared. Motor transport was found to be the major source of contaminants. It was found the significant contribution of some factors as urban gradient, canyon-street effect and wind rose in forming the urban air quality.

  18. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  19. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  20. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  1. Post-closure permit application for the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Kimbrough, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information related to the closure and post closure of the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin of the Y-12 plant. Information concerning the background of the basin, geology, hydrology, and analysis of the sediments is included

  2. AHP 47: RAG DRUG: A FAITHFUL HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lcags so lhun 'grub ལྕགས་སོ་ལྷུན་འགྲུབ། (Klu sgrub ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had three horses in 2016, but when I was about five years old (2006 we had seven horses. Over time, we sold four horses to people living in other communities. We do not want to sell horses to Chinese and Muslim businessmen because Father says, "They take the horses directly to big slaughterhouses and kill them." Instead, we prefer to sell our livestock, including sheep, yaks, and goats to Tibetans, even though the payment is less. ...

  3. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pasquini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994...

  4. Morphological evolution of the Haflinger horse

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pasquini; S. Rizzi; A. Falaschini

    2011-01-01

    The Haflinger horse has certainly a lot of success, considering its popularity not only in its native region, South Tyrol, but also worldwide. Therefore, for its preservation and mainly for a larger diffusion of these horses, Haflinger horse’ breeders thought it could be useful to change, with an appropriated selection, the functional type, originally a pack-horse and a horse for agricultural work, into a saddle horse for riding purpose (Pagnacco, 1994)...

  5. Regulatory mutations in TBX3 disrupt asymmetric hair pigmentation that underlies Dun camouflage color in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imsland, Freyja; McGowan, Kelly; Rubin, Carl-Johan

    2016-01-01

    Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed primitive markings. Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused by localized expression of the T......-box 3 (TBX3) transcription factor in hair follicles, which in turn determines the distribution of hair follicle melanocytes. Most domestic horses are non-dun, a more intensely pigmented phenotype caused by regulatory mutations impairing TBX3 expression in the hair follicle, resulting in a more...... circumferential distribution of melanocytes and pigment granules in individual hairs. We identified two different alleles (non-dun1 and non-dun2) causing non-dun color. non-dun2 is a recently derived allele, whereas the Dun and non-dun1 alleles are found in ancient horse DNA, demonstrating that this polymorphism...

  6. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  7. Litterfall and litter decomposition in chestnut high forest stands in northern Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricio, M. S.; Nunes, L. F.; Pereira, E. L.

    2012-11-01

    This research aimed to: estimate the inputs of litterfall; model the decomposition process and assess the rates of litter decay and turnover; study the litter decomposition process and dynamics of nutrients in old chestnut high forests. This study aimed to fill a gap in the knowledge of chestnut decomposition process as this type of ecosystems have never been modeled and studied from this point of view in Portugal. The study sites are located in the mountains of Marao, Padrela and Bornes in a west-to-east transect, across northern Portugal, from a more-Atlantic-to-lessmaritime influence. This research was developed on old chestnut high forests for quality timber production submitted to a silviculture management close-to-nature. We collected litterfall using littertraps and studied decomposition of leaf and bur litter by the nylon net bag technique. Simple and double exponential models were used to describe the decomposition of chestnut litterfall incubated in situ during 559 days. The results of the decomposition are discussed in relation to the initial litter quality (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and the decomposition rates. Annually, the mature chestnut high-forest stands (density 360-1,260 tree ha1, age 55-73 years old) restore 4.9 Mg DM ha–1 of litter and 2.6 Mg ha{sup -}1 yr{sup -}1 of carbon to the soil. The two-component litter decay model proved to be more biologically realistic, providing a decay rate for the fast initial stage (46-58 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 38-42 yr{sup -}1for the burs) and a decay rate related to the recalcitrant pool (0.45-0.60 yr{sup -}1for the leaves and 0.22-0.36 yr{sup -}1for the burs). This study pointed to some decay patterns and release of bioelements by the litterfall which can be useful for calibrating existing models and indicators of sustainability to improve both silvicultural and environmental approaches for the management of chestnut forests. (Author) 45 refs.

  8. Temperature regulation in horses during exercise and recovery in a cool environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallsten Hanna

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clipping the winter coat in horses is done to improve heat dissipation during exercise and make grooming easier. It is often combined with blanketing to keep the horse warm. The aims of the present study were to investigate how clipping and the use of blankets affect thermoregulation during exercise and recovery in horses. Methods One Gotland pony, one New Forest pony, and one warm-blooded horse exercised one after the other on a 6450 m long track. The horses walked, trotted and cantered according to a predetermined scheme, which took about 50 minutes including three stops. The scheme was repeated on five consecutive days when horses were: 1 unclipped 2 unclipped + blanket during recovery, 3 left or right side clipped, 4 clipped, and 5 clipped + riding blanket + blanket during recovery. Heart rate (HR was measured with telemetry, respiratory rate (RR by counting flank contractions, skin temperatures by thermistor probes, and rectal temperature with a digital thermometer. Skin wetness (SW was estimated by ocular inspection (dripping = 5, dry = 0. Results Mean outdoor temperature varied from -1.1 to - 8.7°C. HR increased progressively during exercise with no difference between treatments. Maximum RR was 77 ± 30 breaths/min (unclipped and 49 ± 27 breaths/min (clipped. The lowest skin temperature was 17.5 ± 2.7°C in a hind leg during exercise, which increased to 34.5 ± 0.1°C during recovery. Rectal temperature was elevated during recovery in unclipped, but not in clipped horses and skin temperature at base of tail was elevated during recovery except in unclipped horses without blanket. Moisture after exercise scored 3.2 ± 0.8 in unclipped and zero in clipped horses. Discussion and conclusion Leg skin temperature initially dropped at onset of exercise in clipped horses, and then increased after about 30 minutes due to internal heat from the working muscles. These changes were not significant when

  9. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    , extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens......, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find...

  10. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  11. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R.; Rolfs, C.; Typel, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method allows for the measurements of cross sections in nuclear reactions between charged particles at astrophysical energies. The basic features of the method are discussed and recent applications are presented

  12. Chestnut flowers as functionalizing agents to enhance the antioxidant properties of highly appreciated traditional pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocho, Márcio; Barreira, João C M; Bento, Albino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-11-01

    Some studies have proven the antioxidant and antimicrobial potency of chestnut flowers both in the raw matrix and after extraction, and the consumption of their decoctions has been related to beneficial effects towards health. In recent years, due to controversy and ambiguous legislation of chemical conservatives, plant extracts have been successfully used as functionalizing agents in different matrixes by displaying their various beneficial effects towards the foodstuff and/or the consumer. In this paper, decoctions of chestnut flowers as well as the dried flower were added to Portuguese traditional cakes that were then stored for 15 and 30 days, after which they were analysed for their antioxidant potential. The results were analysed by means of a 2 way ANOVA and a linear discriminant analysis, concluding that storage time had a slightly higher influence on alteration of the antioxidant activity. DPPH and TBARS were the most improved parameters, regardless of the concentration added.

  13. Insolubilization of Chestnut Shell Pigment for Cu(II Adsorption from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Yu Yao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shell pigment (CSP is melanin from an agricultural waste. It has potential as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment but cannot be used in its original state because of its solubility in water. We developed a new method to convert CSP to insolubilized chestnut shell pigment (ICSP by heating, and the Cu(II adsorption performance of ICSP was evaluated. The conversion was characterized, and the thermal treatment caused dehydration and loss of carboxyl groups and aliphatic structures in CSP. The kinetic adsorption behavior obeyed the pseudo-second-order rate law, and the equilibrium adsorption data were well described with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. ICSP can be used as a renewable, readily-available, easily-producible, environmentally-friendly, inexpensive and effective adsorbent to remove heavy-metal from aquatic environments.

  14. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  15. The earliest horse harnessing and milking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Alan K; Stear, Natalie A; Bendrey, Robin; Olsen, Sandra; Kasparov, Alexei; Zaibert, Victor; Thorpe, Nick; Evershed, Richard P

    2009-03-06

    Horse domestication revolutionized transport, communications, and warfare in prehistory, yet the identification of early domestication processes has been problematic. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence demonstrating domestication in the Eneolithic Botai Culture of Kazakhstan, dating to about 3500 B.C.E. Metrical analysis of horse metacarpals shows that Botai horses resemble Bronze Age domestic horses rather than Paleolithic wild horses from the same region. Pathological characteristics indicate that some Botai horses were bridled, perhaps ridden. Organic residue analysis, using delta13C and deltaD values of fatty acids, reveals processing of mare's milk and carcass products in ceramics, indicating a developed domestic economy encompassing secondary products.

  16. Mutations in MITF and PAX3 Cause “Splashed White” and Other White Spotting Phenotypes in Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatter, Marlis; Brooks, Samantha A.; Burger, Dominik; Drögemüller, Cord; Gerber, Vincent; Henke, Diana; Janda, Jozef; Jude, Rony; Magdesian, K. Gary; Matthews, Jacqueline M.; Poncet, Pierre-André; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Tozaki, Teruaki; Wilkinson-White, Lorna; Penedo, M. Cecilia T.; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    During fetal development neural-crest-derived melanoblasts migrate across the entire body surface and differentiate into melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells. Alterations in this precisely regulated process can lead to white spotting patterns. White spotting patterns in horses are a complex trait with a large phenotypic variance ranging from minimal white markings up to completely white horses. The “splashed white” pattern is primarily characterized by an extremely large blaze, often accompanied by extended white markings at the distal limbs and blue eyes. Some, but not all, splashed white horses are deaf. We analyzed a Quarter Horse family segregating for the splashed white coat color. Genome-wide linkage analysis in 31 horses gave a positive LOD score of 1.6 in a region on chromosome 6 containing the PAX3 gene. However, the linkage data were not in agreement with a monogenic inheritance of a single fully penetrant mutation. We sequenced the PAX3 gene and identified a missense mutation in some, but not all, splashed white Quarter Horses. Genome-wide association analysis indicated a potential second signal near MITF. We therefore sequenced the MITF gene and found a 10 bp insertion in the melanocyte-specific promoter. The MITF promoter variant was present in some splashed white Quarter Horses from the studied family, but also in splashed white horses from other horse breeds. Finally, we identified two additional non-synonymous mutations in the MITF gene in unrelated horses with white spotting phenotypes. Thus, several independent mutations in MITF and PAX3 together with known variants in the EDNRB and KIT genes explain a large proportion of horses with the more extreme white spotting phenotypes. PMID:22511888

  17. Hydrolyzable Tannins from Sweet Chestnut Fractions Obtained by a Sustainable and Eco-friendly Industrial Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Margherita; Pinelli, Patrizia; Romani, Annalisa

    2016-03-01

    Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99 g/100 g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 µmol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC₅₀ values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 µM. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.

  18. Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Bernardo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host-parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.

  19. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  20. Thickness of Knox Group overburden on Central Chestnut Ridge, Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staub, W.P.; Hopkins, R.A.

    1984-05-01

    The thickness of residual soil overlying the Knox Group along Central Chestnut Ridge was estimated by a conventional seismic refraction survey. The purpose of this survey was to identify sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation where ample overburden exists above the water table for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. The results of the survey suggest that the upper slopes of the higher ridges in the area have a minimum of 16 to 26 m (52 to 85 ft) of overburden and that the crests of these ridges may have more than 30 m (100 ft). Therefore, it is unlikely that sound bedrock would be encountered during trench excavation [maximum of 10 m (32 ft)] along Central Chestnut Ridge. Also, the relatively low seismic wave velocities measured in the overburden suggest that the water table is generally deep. On the basis of these preliminary results, Central Chestnut Ridge appears to be suitable for further site characterization for the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste. 3 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Antioxidant potential of chestnut (Castanea sativa L.) and almond (Prunus dulcis L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Oliveira, M B P P; Pereira, J A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of almond green husks (Cvs. Duro Italiano, Ferraduel, Ferranhês, Ferrastar and Orelha de Mula), chestnut skins and chestnut leaves (Cvs. Aveleira, Boa Ventura, Judia and Longal) were evaluated through several chemical and biochemical assays in order to provide a novel strategy to stimulate the application of waste products as new suppliers of useful bioactive compounds, namely antioxidants. All the assayed by-products revealed good antioxidant properties, with very low EC(50) values (lower than 380 μg/mL), particularly for lipid peroxidation inhibition (lower than 140 μg/mL). The total phenols and flavonoids contents were also determined. The correlation between these bioactive compounds and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in pig brain tissue through formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also obtained. Although, all the assayed by-products proved to have a high potential of application in new antioxidants formulations, chestnut skins and leaves demonstrated better results.

  2. Cytotoxic triterpenoids isolated from sweet chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa) and their health benefits implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2017-11-01

    For centuries wood containers have been used in aging of wines and spirits, due to the pleasant flavors they give to the beverages. Together with oak, sweet chestnut wood (Castanea sativa) have been often used for such purpose. The maturation process involves the transfer of secondary metabolites, mainly phenolics, from the wood to the liquid. At the same time, other metabolites, such as triterpenoids and their glycosides, can also be released. Searching for the extractable triterpenoids from sweet chestnut heartwood (C. sativa), two new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins named chestnoside A (1) and chestnoside B (2), together with two known oleanen-type analogs (3 and 4) were isolated and characterized. The cytotoxicity of isolated compounds was tested against two cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7), and normal lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were more affected by tested compounds than prostate cancer cells (PC3). Chestnoside B (2) exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity with an IC 50 of 12.3 μM against MCF-7 cells, lower than those of positive controls, while it was moderately active against normal lymphocytes (IC 50  = 67.2 μM). These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoid saponins in sweet chestnut heartwood and their potential for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  4. Four Legged Healers: Horse Culture as Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    White Plume, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    For tribal communities to overcome the health disparities that plague them, they need to honor Indigenous healthcare paradigms. The Horse Nation Initiative at Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College embraces the people's historical connection to the horse as an avenue to wellness.

  5. Horse Husbandry and Preventive Health Practices in Australia: An Online Survey of Horse Guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly R; Clarkson, Larissa; Riley, Christopher B; van den Berg, Mariette

    2018-02-08

    Little is known about the horse health management practices of Australian horse caregivers (owners). This article presents findings from a convenience sample of 505 horse owners who participated in an online survey. No large-scale welfare issues were identified, but there were some areas of potential concern, including owners who did not regularly deworm their horses (4%), a lack of strategic parasite control (3.1%), and a lack of regular dental care (11%). Several participants did not have their horse's hooves regularly shod or trimmed (2%), and 14% had an unqualified person maintain their horse's hooves. One in five owners (19%) did not vaccinate their horses against tetanus. The findings are discussed in relation to current Australian horse health guidelines and traditional sources of horse health information, together with recommendations for providing horse owners with relevant information in relevant forms.

  6. Periorbital skull fractures in five horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, J.P.; Barber, S.M.; Bailey, J.V.; Fretz, P.B.; Pharr, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Periorbital skull fractures were diagnosed in 5 horses, and were associated with ophthalmic complications including corneal ulceration, uveitis, and entrapment of the eye by retrobulbar bone fragments. Physical examination was of greater diagnostic use than radiography. Surgical repair was performed on all horses and was associated with a more favorable postoperative appearance in horses treated acutely; however, the cosmetic results were considered acceptable in all horses. Major postoperative complications were not observed

  7. Paediatric horse-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M

    2017-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Esophageal Dysfunction in Friesian Horses: Morphological Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, M.; Grone, A.; Saey, V.; Bruijn, de C.M.; Back, W.; Weeren, van P.R.; Scheideman, W.; Picavet, T.; Ducro, B.J.; Wijnberg, I.; Delesalle, C.

    2015-01-01

    Megaesophagus appears to be more common in Friesian horses than in other breeds. A prevalence of approximately 2% was observed among Friesian horses presented to the Wolvega Equine Clinic and the Utrecht University Equine Clinic. In this study, morphologic changes in the esophagi of Friesian horses

  9. Calendar year 1996 annual groundwater monitoring report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This annual monitoring report contains groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge west of Scarboro Road and east of an unnamed drainage feature southwest of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (unless otherwise noted, directions are in reference to the Y-12 Plant administrative grid). The Chestnut Ridge Regime contains several sites used for management of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes associated with plant operations. Groundwater and surface water quality monitoring associated with these waste management sites is performed under the auspices of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Included in this annual monitoring report are the groundwater monitoring data obtained in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Post-Closure Permit for the Chestnut Ridge Regime (post-closure permit) issued by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in June 1996. Besides the signed certification statement and the RCRA facility information summarized below, condition II.C.6 of the post-closure permit requires annual reporting of groundwater monitoring activities, inclusive of the analytical data and results of applicable data evaluations, performed at three RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units: the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin), the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and Kerr Hollow Quarry

  10. Physico-chemical, morphological and pasting properties of starches extracted from water Chestnuts (Trapa natans from three Lakes of Kashmir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Gani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on physicochemical, morphology and pasting properties of starches extracted from water chestnuts of three Lakes of Kashmir valley (Wular, Anchar and Dal Lakes were conducted to determine their application in different food products. The water chestnut starch from Dal Lake had more oval shaped granules than water chestnut starches from the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.The unique feature of the water chestnut starches were shape of starch granules which looked like horn(s protruding from the surface which did not appear in other starches already studied. Proximate analysis of water chestnut starches showed that average protein content were 0.4%, amylose 29.5 % and ash 0.007 on dry weight basis. Increase in water binding capacity, swelling power and solubility was found over a temperature range of 50-90ºC. Water chestnut starches showed an increase in syneresis during freeze thaw cycles and decline in paste clarity upon storage. Starch extracted from the water chestnuts of the Dal Lake showed higher water binding capacity, swelling, solubility, past clarity, freeze thaw stability, peak viscosity, final viscosity and lower protein content, amylose content, pasting temperature and gel firmness than starches extracted from water chestnuts of the Wular and the Anchar Lakes.

  11. The distribution and biocultural value assessment of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. in the cadastral districts of Stredné Plachtince and Horné Plachtince (Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pástor Michal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The cadastral districts of Stredné Plachtince and Horné Plachtince are situated in the southern part of the Krupinská Planina Mts. in the Carpathian Mts. and about one-third of both the districts is made up of traditional agricultural landscape. Sweet chestnut finds here suitable natural conditions for its growth. The article focuses on the chestnut biocultural value assessment in the given traditional landscape type. Firstly, the field survey concerning chestnuts and old stables identification and positioning was done. Secondly, the data were processed by the geospatial analysis tools in QGIS aiming at the evaluation of chestnuts and old stables spatial distribution in the study area. Thirdly, the chestnut biocultural value was assessed and the modification of current boundary of the given landscape type was proposed. Chestnuts most frequently occurred in the extensively used CLC patches with pastures and heterogeneous agricultural areas - “Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation”, in parallel coinciding with HNV farmlands and habitats of European importance and with local occurrence of the protected bat species. Chestnuts found in the vicinity of old stables partially confirmed their specific function in cattle breading in the past. We can conclude that sweet chestnut supports the value of the traditional landscape type of “pastoral land with meadows” and its current area could be extended correspondingly to our results.

  12. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, M.C. de; Dominguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut) on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA) and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA). With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3), therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products. (Author)

  13. Performance of container-grown seedlings of American chestnut backcross hybrids BC3 F3 generation in central Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Stacy L. Clark; Scott Schlarbaum; Daniel C. Dey; Daniel J. Leduc

    2016-01-01

    Seedlings from two families of the BC3F3 backcross generation of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chinese chestnut (C. mollissima) were cultured in 2013 in Missouri using the Root Production Method®, a container-based system used to avoid disease problems associated with...

  14. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W

    2011-11-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  15. Recovery of bioactive molecules from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) by-products through extraction by different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Filomena Monica; Laratta, Bruna; La Cara, Francesco; Morana, Alessandra

    2018-05-01

    The underutilised forest and industrial biomass of Castanea sativa (Mill.) is generally discarded during post-harvest and food processing, with high impact on environmental quality. The searching on alternative sources of natural antioxidants from low-cost supplies, by methods involving environment-friendly techniques, has become a major goal of numerous researches in recent times. The aim of the present study was the set-up of a biomolecules extraction procedure from chestnut leaves, burs and shells and the assessing of their potential antioxidant activity. Boiling water was the best extraction solvent referring to polyphenols from chestnut shells and burs, whereas the most efficient for leaves resulted 60% ethanol at room temperature. Greatest polyphenol contents were 90.35, 60.01 and 17.68 mg gallic acid equivalents g -1 in leaves, burs and shells, respectively. Moreover, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were assessed on the best extract obtained from each chestnut by-product.

  16. Comparison of body conformation of Moravian warm-blooded horse and Sarvar horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šamková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of 7 body measures and 6 indices of body conformation on 34 breeding individuals of Moravian warm-blooded horse and 19 of Sarvar horse (Leutstettener were used to analyse the effect of country of origin (Czech Republik, Germany, sire lines or breed (Furioso, Przedswit, English thoroughbred, Sarvar, Others and age (4 classes. All horses were measured by one person. Measures and indexes were analysed by GLM procedure. Significant differences were found between both Czech and German population only in index of body frame. Sarvar horses are longer to their height than Moravian warm-blooded horses. The shorter body frame have the horses by English thoroughbred, the longer by Furioso. The younger horses are higher than the older. According to results of Linear Description of Body Conformation we found out, that population of Sarvar horse is more balanced than population of Moravian warm-blooded horse.

  17. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  18. Invisible Trojan-horse attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance...

  19. Morphological evolution of Bardigiano horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Catalano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bardigiano horse is a local breed of the province of Parma. Since the institution of the Stud Book in 1977, the breed has improved its diffusion and is currently present with 110 stallions and over 1700 mares in 43 provinces in Italy and beyond that in Germany, Switzerland and Hungary.

  20. Spectroscopy analysis of phenolic and sugar patterns in a food grade chestnut tannin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Lagel, M-C; Parpinello, G P; Pizzi, A; Kilmartin, P A; Versari, A

    2016-07-15

    Tannin of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood, commonly used in winemaking was characterised with a spectroscopy qualitative approach that revealed its phenolic composition: several vibrational diagnostic bands assigned using the Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared Spectroscopy, and fragmentation patterns obtained using the Laser-Desorption-Ionization Time-of-Flight technique evidenced polygalloylglucose, e.g. castalagin/vescalagin-like structures as the most representative molecules, together with sugar moieties. The implication of these findings on winemaking application and the potential influence of the chemical structure on the sensory properties of wine are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Missense mutation in exon 2 of SLC36A1 responsible for champagne dilution in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cook

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Champagne coat color in horses is controlled by a single, autosomal-dominant gene (CH. The phenotype produced by this gene is valued by many horse breeders, but can be difficult to distinguish from the effect produced by the Cream coat color dilution gene (CR. Three sires and their families segregating for CH were tested by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. The CH gene was mapped within a 6 cM region on horse chromosome 14 (LOD = 11.74 for theta = 0.00. Four candidate genes were identified within the region, namely SPARC [Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin], SLC36A1 (Solute Carrier 36 family A1, SLC36A2 (Solute Carrier 36 family A2, and SLC36A3 (Solute Carrier 36 family A3. SLC36A3 was not expressed in skin tissue and therefore not considered further. The other three genes were sequenced in homozygotes for CH and homozygotes for the absence of the dilution allele (ch. SLC36A1 had a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 for horses with the champagne phenotype, which resulted in a transition from a threonine amino acid to an arginine amino acid (T63R. The association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with the champagne dilution phenotype was complete, as determined by the presence of the nucleotide variant among all 85 horses with the champagne dilution phenotype and its absence among all 97 horses without the champagne phenotype. This is the first description of a phenotype associated with the SLC36A1 gene.

  2. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  3. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Training young horses to social separation: Effect of a companion horse on training efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Christensen, Janne Winther; Keeling, LJ

    2011-01-01

    : To investigate whether the initial presence of a familiar companion horse modifies responses to separation from the group, lowers stress levels (as measured by heart rate) and increases training efficiency. Hypothesis: Habituation to separation proceeds more quickly if the horse is first trained with a companion......Reasons for performing study: The intensity with which a horse responds to separation from its group and subsequently to being alone is relevant for both horse and handler safety. Identification of training methods that may reduce responses to separation would be useful in practice. Objectives......, and heart rate is lower when the horse is subsequently trained alone, compared to control horses trained individually from the start. Methods: Young mares (n = 32), kept in groups of 4 were exposed to social separation: 2 horses of the group were trained singly (S1, n = 16) and the remaining 2 horses (n...

  5. [Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

    1991-08-01

    Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased.

  6. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  7. Male sterility in chestnuts. A tentative plan for the seed propagation of fruit trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya [Fruit Tree Research Station, Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards.

  8. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in Cryphonectria parasitica populations affects natural biological control of chestnut blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ježić, Marin; Mlinarec, Jelena; Vuković, Rosemary; Katanić, Zorana; Krstin, Ljiljana; Nuskern, Lucija; Poljak, Igor; Idžojtić, Marilena; Tkalec, Mirta; Curkovic-Perica, Mirna

    2018-02-14

    Invasive species, especially plant pathogens have a potential to completely eradicate native plant species and remodel landscapes. Tripartite interaction among sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa, chestnut blight-causing invasive fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, and a hyperparasitic virus, Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirus 1 (CHV1) were studied in two populations. The number of different vegetative compatibility (vc) types of C. parasitica more than doubled over the ten years, while the hypovirulence incidence dropped in one population, and slightly increased in the other one. Over the course of our short term, three year monitoring experiment, the prevalence of hypovirulent isolates obtained from monitored cankers increased slowly, i.e. more hypovirulent isolates were being obtained from the same cankers over time. Within studied cankers considerable changes in vc type and CHV1 presence were observed, indicating a highly dynamic system in which virulent and hypovirulent mycelia, sometimes of discordant vc types, often appeared together. The increase in hypovirulence prevalence did not have any observable curative effect on the cankers, and occasionally reactivation of healed cankers by new, virulent C. parasitica isolates was observed. Both, short and long term observations and revalidation of the infected plant populations are necessary to accurately estimate disease progress and formulate an adequate disease management strategy.

  10. Antioxidant activities of chestnut nut of Castanea sativa Mill. (cultivar 'Judia') as function of origin ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Lia-Tânia; Oliveira, Maria Manuela; Almeida, José; Costa, Rita; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Peixoto, Francisco

    2012-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of different ecotypes of chestnut nut (cv. Judia) were studied. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determinated. Total phenolics amount ranged from 9.6mg/g of GAE (hottest ecotype, Murça) to 19.4mg/g of GAE (coldest ecotype, Valpaços). Gallic and ellagic acid were the predominant compounds and Valpaços had the highest values while, Murça had the lowest ones. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extracts were evaluated through several biochemical essays: ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, FRAP (ferric reducing/antioxidant power) and inhibition of oxidative haemolysis in erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of each ecotype, the EC50 values were calculated. Once again Valpaços revealed the best antioxidant properties, presenting much lower EC50 values. Climatic conditions influence seems to be a limiting factor for production of phenolic compounds and consequently for the antioxidant properties of chestnut nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  12. Allozyme and RAPD Analysis of the Genetic Diversity and Geographic Variation in Wild Populations of the American Chestnut (Fagaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwen Huang; Fenny Dane; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variation among 12 populations of the American chestnut (Custanea dentata) was investigated. Population genetic parameters estimated from allozyme variation suggest that C. dentata at both the population and species level has narrow genetic diversity as compared to other species in the genus. Average expected heterozygosity...

  13. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  14. The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process studied by means NMR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haranczyk, H.; Weglarz, W.

    1994-01-01

    The bonded in the chestnut-tree (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) bark water freezing process was studied by means NMR method. The measured relaxation time (as a function of temperature) shows two compounds. First from solid state water (T 2 * 20 μs) and the second one from liquid water (T 2 * = 1 ms). This results are presented and discussed

  15. Saprophytic Activity and Sporulation of Cryphonectria parasitica on Dead Chestnut Wood in Forests with Naturally Established Hypovirulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, S; Conedera, M; Heiniger, U; Rigling, D

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Sustainable biological control of the chestnut blight fungus Crypho-nectria parasitica with hypovirulence depends on the production and dissemination of hypovirus-infected propagules of the pathogen. We investigated the ability of C. parasitica to sporulate and produce hypo-virus-infected spores on recently dead chestnut wood in coppice stands in southern Switzerland where hypovirulence has been naturally established. The number and type (active, inactive, or none) of cankers was assessed on experimentally cut and stacked stems, firewood stacks, and natural dead wood. Hypovirus-free and hypovirus-infected strains readily survived for more than 1 year in the chestnut blight cankers of the stacked stems. Sporulation of C. parasitica was observed on the surface of preexisting inactive and active cankers, as well as on newly colonized bark areas and was significantly more abundant than on comparable cankers on living stems. On all types of dead wood, we observed more stromata with perithecia than with pycnidia; however, a large proportion of the stromata was not differentiated. All perithecia examined yielded only hypovirus-free ascospores. The incidence of pycnidia that produced hypovirus-infected conidia ranged from 5% on natural dead wood to 41% on the experimental stacks. The mean virus transmission rate into conidia was 69%. Our study demonstrates a considerable saprophytic activity of C. parasitica on recently dead chestnut wood and supports the hypothesis of a role of this saprophytic phase in the epidemiology of hypovirulence.

  16. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  17. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs......, especially their need for social contact with conspecifics, as well as to have a beneficial effect on horse–human interactions during training. Group housing of farm animals is widely applied in practice. As a consequence, scientists have investigated numerous aspects of group housing to help further improve...... animal welfare and human–animal interactions under these conditions. However, compared to this literature available in farm animals, and the plentiful studies conducted of feral horse populations, there is much less done when it comes to the management of horses kept in groups in the domestic environment...

  18. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  19. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  20. Copy number variation in the horse genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Ghosh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  1. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  2. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  4. Discospondylitis in an adult horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillyer, M.H.; Innes, J.F.; Patteson, M.W.; Barr, A.R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Discospondylitis, of presumed bacterial origin, was diagnosed in an adult thoroughbred racehorse. The clinical signs were vague and associated with abnormal mobility of the neck and forelimbs. Clinical pathology showed only a non-specific inflammatory response. A scintigraphic examination revealed the site of the lesion and the diagnosis was confirmed by the identification of radiographic changes affecting two thoracic vertebrae. A prolonged course of antimicrobial agents produced a complete recovery and the horse returned to full athletic use

  5. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  6. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  7. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  8. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  9. Relevance of test information in horse breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ducro, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to determine the role of test results of young

    horses in selection for sport performance, 2) to assess the genetic diversity

    of a closed horse breed and 3) the consequences of inbreeding for male

    reproduction. The study was

  10. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.J.; Allhands, R.V.; Baker, G.J.; Boero, M.J.; Foreman, J.H.; Hyyppa, T.; Huhn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  11. East Chestnut Ridge hydrogeologic characterization: A geophysical study of two karst features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Permitting and site selection activities for the proposed East Chestnut Ridge landfill, located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, have required additional hydrogeologic studies of two karst features. Geophysical testing methods were utilized for investigating these karst features. The objectives of the geophysical testing was to determine the feasibility of geophysical techniques for locating subsurface karst features and to determine if subsurface anomalies exist at the proposed landfill site. Two karst features, one lacking surface expression (sinkhole) but with a known solution cavity at depth (from previous hydrologic studies), and the other with surface expression were tested with surface geophysical methods. Four geophysical profiles, two crossing and centered over each karst feature were collected using both gravimetric and electrical resistivity techniques

  12. Groundwater quality assessment for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime at the Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of groundwater quality data obtained during the 1991 calendar year at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy Y- 12 Plant. These sites are located south of the Y- 12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (CRHR), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater and surface-water quality monitoring. Section 2.0 of this report contains background information regarding groundwater monitoring at the waste-management sites located in the CRHR. An overview of the hydrogeologic system in the CRHR is provided in Section 3.0. A discussion of the interpretive assumptions used in evaluating the 1991 assessment data and detailed descriptions of groundwater quality in the regime are presented

  13. Development of an Energy Biorefinery Model for Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Morana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut shells (CS are an agronomic waste generated from the peeling process of the chestnut fruit, which contain 2.7–5.2% (w/w phenolic compounds and approximately 36% (w/w polysaccharides. In contrast with current shell waste burning practices, this study proposes a CS biorefinery that integrates biomass pretreatment, recovery of bioactive molecules, and bioconversion of the lignocellulosic hydrolyzate, while optimizing materials reuse. The CS delignification and saccharification produced a crude hydrolyzate with 12.9 g/L of glucose and xylose, and 682 mg/L of gallic acid equivalents. The detoxification of the crude CS hydrolyzate with 5% (w/v activated charcoal (AC and repeated adsorption, desorption and AC reuse enabled 70.3% (w/w of phenolic compounds recovery, whilst simultaneously retaining the soluble sugars in the detoxified hydrolyzate. The phenols radical scavenging activity (RSA of the first AC eluate reached 51.8 ± 1.6%, which is significantly higher than that of the crude CS hydrolyzate (21.0 ± 1.1%. The fermentation of the detoxified hydrolyzate by C. butyricum produced 10.7 ± 0.2 mM butyrate and 63.9 mL H2/g of CS. Based on the obtained results, the CS biorefinery integrating two energy products (H2 and calorific power from spent CS, two bioproducts (phenolic compounds and butyrate and one material reuse (AC reuse constitutes a valuable upgrading approach for this yet unexploited waste biomass.

  14. Hydrolysable chestnut tannins for reduction of postweaning diarrhea: Efficacy on an experimental ETEC F4 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Thanner, Sophie; Pradervand, Nicolas; Hu, Dou; Ollagnier, Catherine; Bee, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    An experimental model for postweaning diarrhea with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC F4) was set up in piglets, and the efficacy of 1% chestnut-tannin extract in preventing diarrhea was subsequently assessed. In a first trial (infection model), 32 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 24 days; average BW: 7.8 ± 0.8 kg) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (infected [INF], noninfected [NINF]). In a subsequent trial, 72 Swiss Large White piglets (age: 26 days; average BW: 7.4 ± 1.5 kg) were blocked by BW and assigned within block to four experimental groups: NINF-CO: not infected and fed a standard control starter diet (CO); INF-CO: infected and fed the CO diet; NINF-TA: not infected and fed the CO diet supplemented with 1% chestnut extract containing 54% of hydrolysable tannins (TA); and INF-TA: infected and fed the TA diet. Both diets (TA and CO) were formulated to be isocaloric and isoproteic and to meet or surpass the nutritional requirements. In both trials, four days after weaning, piglets assigned to the INF group received an oral suspension of ETEC F4. Fecal score, ETEC shedding in feces (only in trial 2), and growth performance traits were measured for the following 14 days post infection. In both trials, more than 50% of the INF piglets developed diarrhea within six days post infection. Tannins reduced (P < 0.05) the average fecal score, the percentage of piglets in diarrhea, and the duration of diarrhea, whereas feed intake and the average daily gain were unaffected.

  15. QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF COAT COLOR IN OLD KLADRUBER BLACK HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Hofmanová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  16. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  17. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijt, van der R.; Boom, van den R.; Jongema, Y.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine (1) which species of Culicoides is most commonly attracted to horses, (2) whether horses suffering insect hypersensitivity attract more Culicoides spp. than unaffected horses, and (3) the times when Culicoides spp. are most active. Horses affected by insect

  18. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm in...

  19. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No..., blankets, or other things used for or about horses governed by the regulations this part, shall be landed...

  20. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or cream from horses quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person other...

  1. 9 CFR 11.4 - Inspection and detention of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection and detention of horses. 11... AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.4 Inspection and detention of horses. For the purpose of effective enforcement of the Act: (a) Each horse owner, exhibitor, trainer, or other person...

  2. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  3. 9 CFR 93.317 - Horses from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada. 93.317 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.317 Horses from Canada. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, horses from Canada shall be inspected as provided in § 93.306; shall be...

  4. Effect of early training on the jumping technique of horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santamaría, Susana; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Back, Willem; Barneveld, Ab; van Weeren, P. Rene

    Objective - To investigate the effects of early training for jumping by comparing the jumping technique of horses that had received early training with that of horses raised conventionally. Animals - 40 Dutch Warmblood horses. Procedure - The horses were analyzed kinematically during free jumping at

  5. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  6. Injuries in group kept horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdell, C.M.; Jorgensen, G.M.; Keeling, L.

    2014-01-01

    developed and validated a scoring system for external injuries in horses to be able to record the severity of a lesion in a standardized and simple way under field conditions. The scoring system has five categories from insignificant loss of hair to severe, life threatening injuries. It was used...... of different breeds, age and gender. Most injuries occurred the day after mixing. Injuries of the more severe categories 4 and 5, which normally would necessitate veterinary care and/or loss of function for some time, were not observed at all. The minor injuries categorized as 1-2 counted for 99% of the total...

  7. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.

    2008-01-01

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S b (E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U e for several two body processes are discussed

  9. Diagnosis of hoof diseases in horses using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, M.; Nowak, M.; Kaufels, N.; Tambur, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This study describes findings of computed tomography investigations at the Bergische Equine Clinic (Bergische Tierklinik), Germany, of 39 horses with hoof diseases. The most frequently findings were the navicular syndrome (eight horses), laminitis (seven horses), keratnoma (six horses) and ossification of collateral cartilages in the distal phalanx (four horses). The special value of the computed tomography is in evaluating the size and courses fracture/fissure of the navicular and koffin bones, which were diagnose in five horses. In four of horses no pathologic changes of the hoof were determined by computed tomography

  10. Distal phalanx fractures in horses: a survey of 274 horses with radiographic assessment of healing in 36 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honnas, C.M.; O'Brien, T.R.; Linford, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The case records of 274 horses with fractures of the distal phalanx were reviewed. Fifty-two horses had bilateral forelimb fractures, for a total of 326 distal phalanx fractures. The fractures were classified into one of five previously described types, based on the radiographic anatomic configuration of the fracture. Solar margin fractures, which have been briefly described in other reports and previously classified as type V fractures, were identified in 132 horses. This type of fracture is distinct from other distal phalanx fractures. Due to the high incidence of solar margin fractures, these fractures were classified as a separate type (type VI). Follow-up radiographic examinations to assess fracture healing were available for 36 horses. Twenty-two horses with distal phalanx fractures (three type I, nine type II, two type III, one type IV, one type V, and six type VI) had radiographic evidence of complete bony union of the fracture at a mean of 11 months after injury. Eight horses with conplete type II fractures involving the articular surface had bony union of the body and solar margin, but not the subchondral bone at the articular surface, a mean of 11 months after injury. Six horses (four type II and two type IV) had little radiographic evidence of bony healing during the follow-up period. All fractures that eventually healed had evidence of progression toward bony union by 6 months after injury

  11. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  12. Exploration of a rare population of Chinese chestnut in North America: stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Amy C; Woeste, Keith E; Anagnostakis, Sandra L; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-10-20

    With the transport of plants around the globe, exotic species can readily spread disease to their native relatives; however, they can also provide genetic resistance to those relatives through hybrid breeding programmes. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) was an abundant tree species in North America until its decimation by introduced chestnut blight. To restore chestnut in North America, efforts are ongoing to test putative blight-resistant hybrids of Castanea dentata and Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima), but little is known about the ecology of C. mollissima. In a forest in northeastern USA in which C. mollissima has become established, we explored questions of stand dynamics, health and genetic relationships of C. mollissima offspring to an adjacent parent orchard. We found that C. mollissima was adapted and randomly distributed among native species in this relatively young forest. The genetics of the C. mollissima population compared with its parents indicated little effect of selection pressure as each of the parent trees contributed at least one offspring. The ease with which this exotic species proliferated calls to question why C. mollissima is rare elsewhere in forests of North America. It is likely that a time window of low animal predation allowed seedlings to establish, and the shallow soil at this site limited the maximum forest canopy height, permitting the characteristically short-statured C. mollissima to avoid suppression. Our results indicate that because C. mollissima exhibited pioneer species characteristics, hybrids between C. mollissima and C. dentata have the potential to be successful pioneer species of future forests in North America, and we challenge the paradigm that exotic tree species are wholly detrimental to native biodiversity. We contend that exotic tree species should be assessed not only by their level of threat to native species, but also by their potential positive impacts on ecosystems via hybrid breeding programmes

  13. 75 FR 76453 - Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG10-65-000; EG10-66-000; EG10-67-000; EG10-68-000; EG10- 69-000; EG10-70-000; EG10-71-000] Top of the World Wind Energy, LLC; Kit Carson Windpower, LLC; Chestnut Flats Wind, LLC; Minco Wind, LLC; Arizona Solar One LLC; Criterion...

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut burrs, the thorny encapsulation of chestnut fruit, can sometimes cause corneal injuries and ulceration, with poor prognoses. We report a case of corneal perforation and damaged anterior lens capsule due to a chestnut burr, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. A 67-year-old woman with a chestnut burr injury in her right eye was referred to our hospital. Her right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.8. Slit-lamp examination and AS-OCT showed perforation involving the endothelial layer at the center of the cornea. The iris and anterior lens capsule were damaged. Cell infiltration was observed around the wound. Bacterial examination showed gram-positive cocci but no fungi. The patient was diagnosed with a corneal perforation and bacterial keratitis. Levofloxacin 1.5% and cefmenoxime treatments were initiated and a soft contact lens was placed to seal the wound. On day 3, there was no improvement in the corneal cell infiltration, but AS-OCT suggested that the inner wound had closed. A culture test revealed the presence of Propionibacterium acnes, which was sensitive to both levofloxacin and cefmenoxime. Therefore, we continued the same antibiotic treatment. On day 26, the opacification and cell infiltration at the center of the cornea had improved. AS-OCT showed healing of the corneal wound with reduction in the central corneal thickness. Her BCVA improved to 1.0. AS-OCT was a valuable tool to noninvasively observe wound shape and detect the presence of any intracorneal foreign bodies.

  15. Stress and its effects on horses reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal M. AboEl-Maaty

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 mares and horses were subjected to blood sampling for determining the effect of management (farm, reproductive condition, sex, age, breed and month of the year during breeding on circulating levels of cortisol and sex hormones. Blood samples were collected from December to the following June from four farms. Blood sera underwent testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol assaying using ELISA kits. Cortisol levels were significantly low in lactating mares during their foal heat but significantly high levels were recorded in both repeat breeder mares and horses used for racing. High and significant testosterone and estradiol levels were recorded in both stallions used for breeding especially after semen collection and early pregnant mares. Similar testosterone levels were recorded in both early pregnant mares and racing horses but high levels were recorded in stallions. Estradiol was high in both early pregnant and mares with endometritis but the highest levels were observed in stallions. Horses held in private farms had high cortisol levels compared to those of governmental farms. In contrast to mares, horses had low cortisol and high estradiol levels. Cortisol levels were high from April to June (Spring and early summer compared to its levels from December to March (Winter. Arab horses had low cortisol compared to native and imported foreign breeds. In conclusion, environmental condition, exercise, breed, management and the purpose of raising horses all are affecting its cortisol levels.

  16. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  17. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sorice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by 1H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  18. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This annual groundwater report contains groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste-management facilities associated with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These sites are located south of the Y-12 Plant in the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime), which is one of three regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the Y-12 Plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual groundwater report for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two-parts; Part 1 (this report) containing the groundwater quality data and Part 2 containing a detailed evaluation of the data. The primary purpose of this report is to serve as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each year under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. However, because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, this report is submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDEC) by the RCRA reporting deadline

  19. Antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein haplotypes and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of yogurt made from milk characterized by different casein (CN) haplotypes (αs1-, β-, κ-CN) and fortified with chestnut and sulla honeys. The CN haplotype was determined by isoelectric focusing, whereas antioxidant activity of yogurt was measured using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power. The statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. The results showed that chestnut honey presented the highest phenolic acid and flavonoid contents, which are closely associated with its high antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of fortified yogurt samples was affected both by different CN haplotypes and by type of honey added. Yogurts fortified with chestnut honey showed higher antioxidant activity than those fortified with sulla honey. The different behavior observed among the fortified yogurts led us to hypothesize that the effects of protein-polyphenol complex on antioxidant activity are interactive. The results suggest that milk proteins polymorphism and polyphenols play different roles in affecting the bioavailability and the antioxidant activity of yogurt. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasta Mandić; Josip Ljubešić; Tomo Rastija; Živko Bošnjak

    2000-01-01

    Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to en...

  1. BREEDING AND UTILIZATION OF ARABIAN HORSE TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Arab horse raising has a hundred year old tradition. A real stud farm raising started by purchasing original reproductive material from Asia in 1895, 1897 and 1899. Apart from state stud in Goražde, Arab horse was also raised in several private stud farms, especially in Slavonia and Srijem region. By the end of the II World war Arab horse raising was restricted to only 2-3 stud farms, regardless the above mentioned oldest Arab stud farm Goražde. According to reports refering to end of 1940 in former Yugoslavia there were slightly more than 150 grown up thoroughbred Arab heads, stallions and mares in both private and public property. A number of well known stud farms was reduced, thus, Arab horse raising was limited only to stud farms Goražde, Inocens Dvor and Karađorđevo. Sires were mostly used in Bosnian-mountain horse breeding whereas in plain areas they were used for ceossing with heavy draft mares or raising of, in that time numerous represented, nonius breed. The year 1970 was characterized by Arab horses reduction, thereby raising stagnation. Horse raising was closed, so, 77 Sabich stallion, bought in Germany, started again Arab horse raising, firstly in Goražde. It was also attributed by raising establishment of agricultural economy Višnjica near Slatina. At the same time Arab horse raising increased slowly at individual raisers in Kutina, Vrbovsko, Istria, Čađavica and Zagreb vicinity. According to available data from 1999 there were approx. 132 stallions and mares due to horse raisers scattered throught Croatia. All male and female reproductive heads were mostly used as raising heads for thoroughbred raising or for crossing with other breeds which is justified by the data from the period 1930-1935. On the other hand one part of reproductive heads, especially males, were used as sports heads for gallop races and distance riding as Arab horses were used by their arrival to present areas and by Arab horse raising tradition.

  2. Effect of chestnuts level in the formulation of the commercial feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality of Celta pig breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesús, C. De; Domínguez, R.; Cantalapiedra, J.; Iglesias, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed on carcass characteristics and meat quality from 24 castrated males Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of 15% of chestnut (CH15) improved (p<0.01) the carcass (118 vs. about 104 kg) and live weights (149 vs. 133-139 kg). Killing out percentage was also better for chestnuts groups than for control group. With regards the morphometric parameters, there were no statistically significant (p>0.05) differences except for the carcass length and ham length, for which the CH15 group proved to be the group with the longest sizes. The diet did not affect the physicochemical properties (colour parameters, water holding capacity and shear force) of longissimus dorsi muscle. The composition of some fatty acids of the longissimus dorsi muscle was affected by diet. The total saturated (35-38%) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (8-10%) did not present differences. However, the increase of chestnut in the diet increased (p<0.05) the monounsaturated fatty acids in intramuscular fat (57% in CH25 vs. 53% in control and CH15). Within monounsaturated fatty acids, the C18:1n9 was the most influenced of the diet. Therefore, the lower content of protein and the higher amounts of C18:1n9 and C18:2n6 in the chestnut could be explaining the greater content of C18:1n9 in muscle of chestnut-fed animals. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet would allow reduce production costs with no effect or even improving carcass measurements and meat quality. (Author)

  3. Genetic Correlations between Young Horse and Dressage Competition Results in Danish Warmblood Horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lina Johanna Maria; Christiansen, Karina; Holm, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    .13˗0.48) than the breeding goal trait of dressage competition results (0.16). Young horse results showed medium high to high genetic correlations to dressage competition results (0.32˗0.91) where most recorded young horse gait- and conformation scores contributed with considerable information to future dressage...... competition results. If considering both accuracy of each young horse trait and genetic correlation to dressage competition results, as rg×rIA, the best young horse indicator traits for future performance were capacity, trot, canter, and rideability, all under own rider. Most important conformation traits...

  4. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Irgaziev, B.; Bertulani, C. A.; Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN , Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Texas A and M University, College Station (United States); Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Taskent University, Taskent (Uzbekistan); Texas A and M University, Commerce (United States); Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for this method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.

  6. Invisible Trojan-horse attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Minshull, Carter; Jain, Nitin; Makarov, Vadim

    2017-08-21

    We demonstrate the experimental feasibility of a Trojan-horse attack that remains nearly invisible to the single-photon detectors employed in practical quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, such as Clavis2 from ID Quantique. We perform a detailed numerical comparison of the attack performance against Scarani-Ac´ın-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) QKD protocol at 1924 nm versus that at 1536 nm. The attack strategy was proposed earlier but found to be unsuccessful at the latter wavelength, as reported in N. Jain et al., New J. Phys. 16, 123030 (2014). However at 1924 nm, we show experimentally that the noise response of the detectors to bright pulses is greatly reduced, and show by modeling that the same attack will succeed. The invisible nature of the attack poses a threat to the security of practical QKD if proper countermeasures are not adopted.

  7. Tracking the origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis for their fast adaptation to subarctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Schubert, Mikkel; Jónsson, Hákon; Albrechtsen, Anders; Fumagalli, Matteo; Yang, Melinda A; Gamba, Cristina; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Mortensen, Cecilie D; Petersen, Bent; Hoover, Cindi A; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Nedoluzhko, Artem; Boulygina, Eugenia; Tsygankova, Svetlana; Neuditschko, Markus; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Thèves, Catherine; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Popov, Ruslan; Grigoriev, Semyon; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Rubin, Edward M; McCue, Molly; Rieder, Stefan; Leeb, Tosso; Tikhonov, Alexei; Crubézy, Eric; Slatkin, Montgomery; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Kantanen, Juha; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-12-15

    Yakutia, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian Far East, represents one of the coldest places on Earth, with winter record temperatures dropping below -70 °C. Nevertheless, Yakutian horses survive all year round in the open air due to striking phenotypic adaptations, including compact body conformations, extremely hairy winter coats, and acute seasonal differences in metabolic activities. The evolutionary origins of Yakutian horses and the genetic basis of their adaptations remain, however, contentious. Here, we present the complete genomes of nine present-day Yakutian horses and two ancient specimens dating from the early 19th century and ∼5,200 y ago. By comparing these genomes with the genomes of two Late Pleistocene, 27 domesticated, and three wild Przewalski's horses, we find that contemporary Yakutian horses do not descend from the native horses that populated the region until the mid-Holocene, but were most likely introduced following the migration of the Yakut people a few centuries ago. Thus, they represent one of the fastest cases of adaptation to the extreme temperatures of the Arctic. We find cis-regulatory mutations to have contributed more than nonsynonymous changes to their adaptation, likely due to the comparatively limited standing variation within gene bodies at the time the population was founded. Genes involved in hair development, body size, and metabolic and hormone signaling pathways represent an essential part of the Yakutian horse adaptive genetic toolkit. Finally, we find evidence for convergent evolution with native human populations and woolly mammoths, suggesting that only a few evolutionary strategies are compatible with survival in extremely cold environments.

  8. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippold Sebastian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73% already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the

  9. Refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred horse: a comparison with the Crossbred horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull-Cotrina, Jorge; Molleda, Jose M; Gallardo, José; Martín-Suárez, Eva

    2013-01-01

    To assess the refractive state of the equine eye utilizing retinoscopy. To compare the refractive state of Spanish Thoroughbred horses with the refractive state of Crossbred horses. The refractive state of 135 horses (264 eyes) was assessed utilizing streak retinoscopy. Two perpendicular meridians were examined in order to assess astigmatism at a working distance of approximately 67 cm. A group of 81 Spanish Thoroughbred horses was compared with a group of 54 Crossbred horses. Cyclopentolate ophthalmic solution was instilled in the eyes of a group of 18 horses to determine if accommodation has any influence on the assessment of the refractive state.   Mean ± SE refractive state of all horses examined was -0.17 ± 0.04 D. The mean refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was -0.28 ± 0.06 D while that of the Crossbred was -0.01 ± 0.05 D. The refractive state of the Spanish Thoroughbred was found to be statistically different to that of the Crossbred. The most prevalent refractive state was emmetropia in all cases, followed by hyperopia for the Crossbred, and myopia for the Spanish Thoroughbred. Astigmatism ≥0.50 D present in both eyes from the same individual was found in 21.7% of all horses examined. Anisometropia ≥1.00 D was diagnosed in 4 out of 129 horses with both visual eyes. Cycloplegia did not statistically affect the refractive state of the evaluated eyes. The equine eye has a refractive state close to emmetropia. Myopia is higher among Spanish Thoroughbred horses than among Crossbred horses. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Miscellaneous neurologic or neuromuscular disorders in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica

    2011-12-01

    NMD is an important cause of morbidity in horses. Signs of dysfunction could be variable depending on the specific area affected. NM disease can go unrecognized if a thorough evaluation is not performed in diseased horses. Electrodiagnostic testing is an area that has the potential to document and improve our understanding of NM disease yet is uncommonly performed. Keeping an open and observant mind will enhance our ability to search and find answers.

  11. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed...

  12. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  13. Vascular Dysfunction in Horses with Endocrinopathic Laminitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Morgan

    Full Text Available Endocrinopathic laminitis (EL is a vascular condition of the equine hoof resulting in severe lameness with both welfare and economic implications. EL occurs in association with equine metabolic syndrome and equine Cushing's disease. Vascular dysfunction, most commonly due to endothelial dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular risk in people with metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that horses with EL have vascular, specifically endothelial, dysfunction. Healthy horses (n = 6 and horses with EL (n = 6 destined for euthanasia were recruited. We studied vessels from the hooves (laminar artery, laminar vein and the facial skin (facial skin arteries by small vessel wire myography. The response to vasoconstrictors phenylephrine (10-9-10-5M and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT; 10-9-10-5M and the vasodilator acetylcholine (10-9-10-5M was determined. In comparison with healthy controls, acetylcholine-induced relaxation was dramatically reduced in all intact vessels from horses with EL (% relaxation of healthy laminar arteries 323.5 ± 94.1% v EL 90.8 ± 4.4%, P = 0.01, laminar veins 129.4 ± 14.8% v EL 71.2 ± 4.1%, P = 0.005 and facial skin arteries 182.0 ± 40.7% v EL 91.4 ± 4.5%, P = 0.01. In addition, contractile responses to phenylephrine and 5HT were increased in intact laminar veins from horses with EL compared with healthy horses; these differences were endothelium-independent. Sensitivity to phenylephrine was reduced in intact laminar arteries (P = 0.006 and veins (P = 0.009 from horses with EL. Horses with EL exhibit significant vascular dysfunction in laminar vessels and in facial skin arteries. The systemic nature of the abnormalities suggest this dysfunction is associated with the underlying endocrinopathy and not local changes to the hoof.

  14. Spine fractures caused by horse riding

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenga, Jan; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Elzinga, Matthijs J.; Bakker, Fred C.; Haarman, Henk J. T. M.; Patka, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective study and review of literature. Objectives: Study of demographic data concerning spinal fractures caused by horse riding, classification of fractures according to the AO and Load Sharing classifications, evaluation of mid-term radiological results and long-term functional results. Methods: A review of medical reports and radiological examinations of patients presented to our hospital with horse riding-related spine fractures over a 13-year period; long-term functio...

  15. Do horses generalise between objects during habituation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tatjana; Ladevig, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Habituation to frightening stimuli plays an important role in horse training. To investigate the extent to which horses generalise between different visual objects, 2-year-old stallions were habituated to feeding from a container placed inside a test arena and assigned as TEST (n = 12) or REFERENCE...... horses (n = 12). In Experiment 1, TEST horses were habituated to six objects (ball, barrel, board, box, cone, cylinder) presented in sequence in a balanced order. The objects were of similar size but different colour. Each object was placed 0.5 m in front of the feed container, forcing the horses to pass...... the object to get to the food. TEST horses received as many 2 min exposures to each object as required to meet a habituation criterion. We recorded behavioural reactions to the object, latency to feed, total eating time, and heart rate (HR) during all exposures. There was no significant decrease in initial...

  16. The Effect of Increasing Numbers of Horses of Undefined Breed on Horse Breeding in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Bihuncová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyse the numbers and division of horses of undefined breed. At the present time this group is the most numerous in the entire population of horses. Horses of undefined breed do not come under any breeder union which would provide reports about these horses; these horses are only registered and breeders are informed only about their numbers. Our study is the first to deal with the problem of increasing numbers of horses of undefined breed. The database contained 22 211 horses not entered registered in any of the stud books. In the database we filed approved horses born between 1972 and 1 September 2012 and horses registered from 1987. The data were processed in the Excel programme and results were evaluated in graphs. The most frequent horse in this group was the warm-blood type (n = 9 303, pony type (n = 6 285, cold-blooded type (n = 2 663 and unlisted horses (n = 2 278. Since 2001 the number of registered horses of undefined breed has increased. The most numerous dams of horses of undefined breed is the Czech warm-blood with 1 912 offspring; dams of the English Thoroughbred with 552 offspring and mares of the utility Huzule horse with 492 offspring. In the group of registered horses of undefined breed the Czech warm-blood appears in the pedigree of 507 colts and the American Paint Horse in the pedigree of sires of 506 colts. Why the numbers of horses of undefined breed are increasing is the boom of leisure horsemanship and unqualified horse breeding.

  17. 77 FR 33607 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... substantively identical form letters submitted by individuals who commented through an animal welfare advocacy... associations, horse and animal welfare advocacy groups, participants in the horse industry, and the general... Show Report'' at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/hp/hp_pubs_reports.shtml . The list of shows...

  18. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  19. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... prohibiting the showing or selling of sored horses. The regulations in 9 CFR part 11, referred to below as the... substance or device has been used by a person on any limb of a horse or a person has engaged in a practice... the regulations in Sec. 11.2 prohibit the use of devices, methods, and substances that are used to...

  20. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  1. Optimization of osmotic dehydration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. slices using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Delgado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of chestnut slices in sucrose was optimized for the first time by Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments were planned according to a three-factor central composite design (α=1.68, studying the influence of sucrose concentration, temperature and time, on the following parameters: volume ratio, water activity, color variation, weight reduction, solids gain, water loss and normalized moisture content, as well as total moisture, ash and fat contents. The experimental data was adequately fitted into second-order polynomial models with coefficients of determination (R2 from 0.716 to 0.976, adjusted-R2 values from 0.460 to 0.954, and non-significant lacks of fit. The optimal osmotic dehydration process conditions for maximum water loss and minimum solids gain and color variation were determined by the “Response Optimizer” option: 83% sucrose concentration, 20 °C and 9.2 hours. Thus, the best operational conditions corresponded to high sugar concentration and low temperature, improving energy saving and decreasing the process costs.

  2. Comparative vesicle proteomics reveals selective regulation of protein expression in chestnut blight fungus by a hypovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzi; Wang, Fangzhen; Feng, Youjun; Mi, Ke; Chen, Qi; Shang, Jinjie; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-01-14

    The chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) and hypovirus constitute a model system to study fungal pathogenesis and mycovirus-host interaction. Knowledge in this field has been gained largely from investigations at gene transcription level so far. Here we report a systematic analysis of the vesicle proteins of the host fungus with/without hypovirus infection. Thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were identified in the purified vesicle protein samples by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Down-regulated proteins were mostly cargo proteins involved in primary metabolism and energy generation and up-regulated proteins were mostly vesicle associated proteins and ABC transporter. A virus-encoded protein p48 was found to have four forms with different molecular mass in vesicles from the virus-infected strain. While a few of the randomly selected differentially expressed proteins were in accordance with their transcription profiles, majority were not in agreement with their mRNA accumulation patterns, suggesting that an extensive post-transcriptional regulation may have occurred in the host fungus upon a hypovirus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  4. Governance structures in the production chain Amazônia chestnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Fernanda Sbsczk Pereira Meneguetti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the structure of governance in the Production Chain Chestnut of the Amazon state of Rondonia in order to know the relationship of its agents. We used secondary data source and qualitative approach, based on the collection of data resulting from the project on nontimber forest products (NTFPs, which included the cities of Costa Marques, Guajará-Mirim, Machadinho do Oeste, Porto Velho and Presidente Médici, located in the state of Rondônia. It was found that producers and middlemen pay a high cost for shipping, however, these costs is not just about the initial link of the chain, but to the end consumer to pay more for the product, due to the difficulties faced during the process. Furthermore, it was also evidenced the low price of the product received by producers and middlemen, however, the transactions show that there is no formal relationship between the parties, contracts are informal, the form of governance found most frequently is the way market.

  5. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupini, C; Cecchinato, M; Scagliarini, A; Graziani, R; Catelli, E

    2009-12-01

    Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings.

  6. Contribution to the biochemical characterization of the silk and structure characterization of the cocoons of the horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hněvsová, V.; Kodrík, Dalibor; Weyda, František

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 4 (2011), s. 711-715 ISSN 1210-5759 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/2382; GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant - others:The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic - Open Science(CZ) CZ.1.07./2.3.00/09.0034 No. 1.33/3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk * cocoon * pupal chamber Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.061, year: 2011 http://www.eje.cz/scripts/viewabstract.php?abstract=1672

  7. Ultrastructural and biochemical comparison of summer active and summer diapausing pupae of the horse chestnut leaf miner, Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillaridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, F.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Stašková, Tereza; Tomčala, Aleš; Prenerová, E.; Zemek, Rostislav; Volter, L.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2015), s. 197-203 ISSN 1210-5759 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Gracillariidae * Cameraria ohridella Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/pdfs/eje/2015/01/26.pdf

  8. Monitoring the population dynamics of the horse chestnut leafminer .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. with a synthetic pheromone in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Freise, J.; Heitland, W.; Augustin, S.; Guichard, S.; Avtzis, N.; Svatoš, Aleš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2002), s. 131-138 ISSN 1212-2580 Grant - others:CONTROCAM(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. * female sex pheromone traps Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  9. Spatial patterns and infestation processes in the horse chestnut leafminer .I.Cameraria ohridella./I.: a tale of two cities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibert, M.; Svatoš, Aleš; Lehmann, M.; Bacher, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 107, - (2003), s. 25-27 ISSN 0013-8703 Grant - others:Controcam(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01684; Swiss Ministry for Education and Science(CH) BBW99.0830-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : .I.Cameraria ohridella./I. * Biological invasion * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2003

  10. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  11. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva; Jensen, Margit Bak; Nicol, Christine J.

    2011-01-01

    and muzzle contact, respectively, to a familiar companion horse. Horses were housed individually next to their companion horse and separations between pens prevented physical contact. During daily test sessions horses were brought to a test area where they could access an arena allowing social contact. Arena......Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...... test session was recorded. All horses could access all three types of social contact in a cross-over design, and an empty arena was used as control. Motivational strength was assessed using elasticity of demand functions, which were estimated based on the number of rewards earned and FR. Elasticities...

  13. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    Only little is known about behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration, despite the high prevalence of this condition. Our objectives in the present study was to (i) describe the severity of gastric ulceration in horses, housed under relatively standardised conditions, and (ii......) to investigate whether horses with severe glandular gastric ulceration have increased baseline and response concentration of stress hormones and behave differently than control horses. We investigated stomachs of 96 horses at one stud, and compared an ulcer group (n = 30; with severe lesions in the glandular...... conclude that the prevalence of gastric ulcers was high, and our results suggest different factors affecting ulceration in the glandular versus the nonglandular region of the horse stomach. Obvious external signs (e.g. poor body condition) identifying ulcer horses were absent. Horses with severe glandular...

  14. Alterations of epidermal proliferation and cytokeratin expression in skin biopsies from heavy draught horses with chronic pastern dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Florian; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Deegen, Eckehard; Doeleke, Renate; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion

    2005-12-01

    We report the historical, clinical and histopathological characteristics of skin lesions in biopsies from 37 heavy draught horses with chronic pastern dermatitis. The skin lesions were divided into four macroscopic groups: scaling (group I, n=5), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II, n=14), nodular skin masses (group III, n=16) and verrucous skin lesions (group IV, n=2). The principal histological findings were hyperkeratosis and epidermal hyperplasia. There was a gradual increase in epidermal hyperplasia from groups I to IV, suggesting that the lesions represent different stages of disease. In all cases, there was perivascular dermatitis dominated by T lymphocytes with an increase in MHC class II-positive dendritic-like cells. Immunohistochemical labelling for cytokeratins CK5/6(4), CK10 and CK14 indicated a change in their expression pattern. This correlated with the degree of epidermal hyperplasia, indicating abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes. There was a statistically significant correlation between the severity of skin lesions and several other factors including increasing age, increasing cannon circumference, prominence of anatomical structures such as fetlock tufts of hairs, ergots and chestnuts, and bulges in the fetlock region.

  15. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  16. Effect of the amount of chestnuts in the diet of Celta pigs on the fatty acid profile of dry-cured lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jesús, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including chestnuts in the formulation of the feed (0, 15 and 25% chestnut on the fatty acids of dry-cured lacon from Celta pigs was studied. The inclusion of chestnuts decreases the saturated fatty acid content (SFA and the monounsaturated fatty acid content (MUFA. With regards to the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the lacon from animals fed with chestnuts presented higher values of total PUFA, n6 PUFAs and n3 PUFAs. This is related to the fact that chestnut diets had the highest amounts of essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3, therefore the lacon from chestnut-fed animals also presented higher amounts of these fatty acids. According to nutritional ratios, lacon obtained from chestnut-fed pigs was healthier than the one obtained from pigs fed on commercial feed. The main conclusion is that including chestnuts in the diet allows us to obtain healthier dry-cured meat products.Se estudió el efecto de la inclusión de la castaña en la formulación del pienso (0, 15 y 25% de castaña sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos del lacón curado de cerdo Celta. La inclusión de castañas produjo una disminución del contenido de ácidos grasos saturados (SFA y monoinsaturados (MUFA. Con respecto a los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA los lacones de animales alimentados por castaña presentaron valores más altos de PUFA totales, PUFA n6 y PUFA n3. Esto está relacionado con que las castañas tienen una mayor cantidad de ácidos grasos esenciales (C18:2n6 y C18:3n3, por tanto los lacones de cerdos alimentados con castaña también presentan mayores contenidos de estos ácidos grasos. De acuerdo con los índices nutricionales, los lacones obtenidos de cerdos alimentados con mayor proporción de castañas fueron más saludables. La inclusión de castañas en la dieta nos permite obtener productos cárnicos curados más saludables.

  17. Gc globulin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg

    can prevent development of shock and thereby increase survival chances. The in vivo toxicity of Gc-globulin infusion is currently being investigated in horses and other species. Gc-globulin has been demonstrated in horse plasma and its structure closely resembles that of human Gc-globulin. Gc......-globulin concentrations in horses under clinical conditions have never previously been investigated. The Ph.D. project focuses on Gc-globulin as a prognostic marker in horses with acute abdominal pain....

  18. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ∼1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaf physiology and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seedlings in response to light and water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb E; Mickelbart, Michael V; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2014-12-01

    Partial canopy cover promotes regeneration of many temperate forest trees, but the consequences of shading on seedling drought resistance are unclear. Reintroduction of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) into eastern North American forests will often occur on water-limited sites and under partial canopy cover. We measured leaf pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd), leaf gas exchange, and growth and biomass allocation of backcross hybrid American chestnut seedlings from three orchard sources grown under different light intensities (76, 26 and 8% full photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)) and subjected to well-watered or mid-season water-stressed conditions. Seedlings in the water-stress treatment were returned to well-watered conditions after wilting to examine recovery. Seedlings growing under medium- and high-light conditions wilted at lower leaf Ψpd than low-light seedlings. Recovery of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance (gs) was greater in low and medium light than in high light. Seed source did not affect the response to water stress or light level in most cases. Between 26 and 8% full PAR, light became limiting to the extent that the effects of water stress had no impact on some growth and morphological traits. We conclude that positive and negative aspects of shading on seedling drought tolerance and recovery are not mutually exclusive. Partial shade may help American chestnut tolerate drought during early establishment through effects on physiological conditioning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Horse Manure Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Eriksson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1 unmanaged composting; (2 managed composting; (3 large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP plant; (4 drying and small-scale combustion; and (5 liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of procaterol in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, K; Nomura, M; Toju, K; Ishikawa, Y; Minamijima, Y; Yamashita, S; Nagata, S

    2016-06-01

    Procaterol (PCR) is a beta-2-adrenergic bronchodilator widely used in Japanese racehorses for treating lower respiratory disease. The pharmacokinetics of PCR following single intravenous (0.5 μg/kg) and oral (2.0 μg/kg) administrations were investigated in six thoroughbred horses. Plasma and urine concentrations of PCR were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma PCR concentration following intravenous administration showed a biphasic elimination pattern. The systemic clearance was 0.47 ± 0.16 L/h/kg, the steady-state volume of the distribution was 1.21 ± 0.23 L/kg, and the elimination half-life was 2.85 ± 1.35 h. Heart rate rapidly increased after intravenous administration and gradually decreased thereafter. A strong correlation between heart rate and plasma concentration of PCR was observed. Plasma concentrations of PCR after oral administration were not quantifiable in all horses. Urine concentrations of PCR following intravenous and oral administrations were quantified in all horses until 32 h after administration. Urine PCR concentrations were not significantly different on and after 24 h between intravenous and oral administrations. These results suggest that the bioavailability of orally administrated PCR in horses is very poor, and the drug was eliminated from the body slowly based on urinary concentrations. This report is the first study to demonstrate the pharmacokinetic character of PCR in thoroughbred horses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321, 93.322...

  4. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  5. We know next to nothing about vitamin D in horses!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Very few references on vitamin D in horses exist, but the limited research available suggests that the vitamin D physiology of horses may be very different from other species. Horses can obtain vitamin D both through endogenous synthesis in the skin during sunlight exposure and through dietary so...

  6. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  7. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Navicular bone fracture in the pelvic limb in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser-Hotz, B.; Ueltschi, G.; Hess, N.

    1991-01-01

    The case history, radiographic and scintigraphic findings of two horses with pelvic limb navicular bone fractures are presented. In both cases the fractures were of traumatic origin. One horse had a bilateral fracture of the navicular bone, distal border, the other horse had a fracture of the proximal articular border in one pelvic limb navicular bone

  9. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI

  10. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  11. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fialho, S.A.G.; Graca, D.L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L.S.S. de; Lopes, S.T.D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia

  12. Cervical myelography with iohexol in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialho, S. A.G.; Graca, D. L.; Silva, A.M. da; Pellegrine, L.C. de; Oliveira, L. S.S. de; Lopes, S. T.D.A.

    1989-08-15

    Five horses, weighing 337 to 400 kg, were used in this research, one of them being used as control. Cervical myelography with iohexol (Omnipaque) was performed on four horses tranquilized with flunitrazepan before induction of anesthesia with sodium thiopental. Anesthesia was maintained with fluothane and oxygen. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was analysed before and after an injection of ioxheol into the subarachnoid space. The animals received 25 to 50 ml of iohexol, after removal of 20 ml cerebrospinal fluid. Radiographies were taken with the horses at lateral recumbency, and the cranial, central and caudal regions of the cervical spine being focalized. No significant changes occurred in the cerebrospinal fluid after injecting the contrast medium. Pathologic changes were not found by gross or microscopic examination of the brain and the cervical spinal cord. Radiographies of good to excellent image quality were obtained. At autopsy, radiographic diagnosis of cervical vertebral instability was confirmed in the animal that had pelvic limb ataxia.

  13. Genetic variability of Italian Heavy Draught Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the Italian Heavy Draught Horse (IHDH breed using a panel of 23 microsatellite markers. We also compared the population structure of the IHDH to other two unrelated breeds (Italian Haflinger, IH and Quarter Horse, QH. The IHDH showed a genetic variability comparable with other European heavy draught horse breeds and with the IH and QH breeds analyzed. Clustering analyses using a posterior Bayesian approach clearly differentiated the three breeds; it also showed a fragmentation of the IHDH in three subpopulations that need to be further investigated. These findings are an indicator of the present situation of the IHDH and will contribute to the conservation and implementation of the selection programme for this breed.

  14. 9 CFR 93.304 - Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Import permits for horses from regions affected with CEM and for horse specimens for diagnostic purposes; reservation fees for space at quarantine... POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.304 Import...

  15. Whole-genome SNP association in the horse: identification of a deletion in myosin Va responsible for Lavender Foal Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A Brooks

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS is a lethal inherited disease of horses with a suspected autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. LFS has been primarily diagnosed in a subgroup of the Arabian breed, the Egyptian Arabian horse. The condition is characterized by multiple neurological abnormalities and a dilute coat color. Candidate genes based on comparative phenotypes in mice and humans include the ras-associated protein RAB27a (RAB27A and myosin Va (MYO5A. Here we report mapping of the locus responsible for LFS using a small set of 36 horses segregating for LFS. These horses were genotyped using a newly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip containing 56,402 discriminatory elements. The whole genome scan identified an associated region containing these two functional candidate genes. Exon sequencing of the MYO5A gene from an affected foal revealed a single base deletion in exon 30 that changes the reading frame and introduces a premature stop codon. A PCR-based Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay was designed and used to investigate the frequency of the mutant gene. All affected horses tested were homozygous for this mutation. Heterozygous carriers were detected in high frequency in families segregating for this trait, and the frequency of carriers in unrelated Egyptian Arabians was 10.3%. The mapping and discovery of the LFS mutation represents the first successful use of whole-genome SNP scanning in the horse for any trait. The RFLP assay can be used to assist breeders in avoiding carrier-to-carrier matings and thus in preventing the birth of affected foals.

  16. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Glucocorticoids and laminitis in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Slight, Simon H; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Kreeger, John M

    2002-08-01

    The administration of exogenously administered GCs and syndromes associated with GC excess are both attended by increased risk for the development of laminitis in adult horses. However, there exists substantial controversy as to whether excess GCs cause laminitis de novo. If true, the pathogenesis of laminitis arising from the effects of GC excess is probably different from that associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and endotoxemia. Although a satisfactory explanation for the development of laminitis as a consequence of GC action is currently lacking, numerous possible and plausible theoretical mechanisms do exist. Veterinarians must exert caution with respect to the use of GCs in adult horses. The extent to which individual horses are predisposed to laminitis as a result of GC effect cannot be predicted based on current information. However, the administration of systemic GCs to horses that have been previously affected by laminitis should be used only with extreme caution, and should be accompanied by careful monitoring for further signs of laminitis. The risk of laminitis appears to be greater during treatment using some GCs (especially dexamethasone and triamcinalone) compared with others (prednisone and prednisolone). Whenever possible, to reduce the risk of laminitis, GCs should be administered locally. For example, the risk of GC-associated laminitis is evidently considerably reduced in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) if GC treatment is administered via inhalation. We have hypothesized that structural changes in the equine hoof that resemble laminitis may arise as a consequence of excess GC effect. Although these changes are not painful per se, and are not associated with inflammation, they could likely predispose affected horses to the development of bona fide laminitis for other reasons. Moreover, the gross morphological appearance of the chronically GC-affected hoof resembles that of a chronically

  18. Horse keeping in peri-urban areas

    OpenAIRE

    Elgåker, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    The number of horses in Sweden has increased from 70 000 to almost 300 000 in 30 years. Today these horses are to a large extent kept for the purpose of hobby and leisure and create a substantial land use but link a diverse and a large amount of activities in peri-urban areas in Sweden. The sector contributes with new economic, social and physical possibilities, but also with conflicts between various stakeholders and interests. The overall aim of this work was to contribute to increased unde...

  19. Water homeostasis and diabetes insipidus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Harold C

    2011-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare disorder of horses characterized by profound polyuria and polydipsia (PU/PD), which can be caused by loss of production of arginine vasopressin (AVP). This condition is termed neurogenic or central DI. DI may also develop with absence or loss of AVP receptors or activity on the basolateral membrane of collecting-duct epithelial cells. This condition is termed nephrogenic DI. Equine clinicians may differentiate true DI from more common causes of PU/PD by a systematic diagnostic approach. DI may not be a correctable disorder, and supportive care of affected horses requires an adequate water source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dominance and Leadership: Useful Concepts in Human–Horse Interactions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Christensen, Janne Winther; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    of management scenarios, ranging from taking a horse out of its social group to the prospect of humans mimicking the horse's social system by taking a putative leadership role and seeking after an alpha position in the dominance hierarchy to achieve compliance. Yet, there is considerable debate about whether...... the roles horses attain in their social group are of any relevance in their reactions to humans. This article reviews the empirical data on social dynamics in horses, focusing on dominance and leadership theories and the merits of incorporating those concepts into the human–horse context. This will provide...

  1. The role of the horse in Europe. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, D.; Davidson, N.

    1999-01-01

    The horse has a unique place in European society. Historically, it has played a major part in shaping political and agricultural advances. Today, the horse has diverse roles ranging from the companion and leisure horse, to the sporting athlete. The horse continues to work on the land in many European countries, it serves in the police and the armed forces, and in some regions is a source of food. This has resulted in a vast range of horse-human interactions and relationships. Despite the l...

  2. Effect of diet chestnut tannin supplementation on meat quality, fatty acid profile and lipid stability in broiler rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Zoccarato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of chestnut tannins on meat quality in broiler rabbits. 72 commercial hybrid rabbits (mean body weight 740 g, 32 days old were fed for 49 days with three diets containing 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% of a commercial chestnut wood extract (ENC®, Sil- vachimica srl, respectively. Eight rabbits per group were slaughtered at 12 weeks of age and at 24h post-mortem pH and colour were measured on the carcass. Moreover, both sides of m. longis- simus thoracis (LT were dissected. Left side was used for cooking losses whereas the other side was used for the determination of fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No differences were found in pH, colour and cooking losses, as well as the fatty acid profile of LT muscle and its relative health indexes. Concerning the antioxidant effect, the ENC shows a positive and significant effect at the inclusion level of 0.5%. In conclusion, the ENC has not undesirable side effects on the meat quality of rabbits, although further studies will be necessary to find the optimal diet inclusion level of ENC to elicit a stronger antioxidant effect in the rabbit meat.

  3. Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared from wheat flour supplemented with cassava and water chestnut flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional and sensory properties of cookies prepared by supplementing different proportions of cassava flour (CF and water chestnut flour (WCF blends (0–100% to wheat flour (WF were studied. Seven formulations of cookies were prepared from (a Control (100% WF, (b 30% WF, 35% WCF and 35% CF, (c 27% WF, 37.5% WCF and 37.5% CF, (d 20% WF, 40% WCF and 40% CF, (e 15% WF, 42.5% WCF and 42.5% CF, (f 10% WF, 45% WCF and 45% CF, and (g 0% WF, 50% WCF and 50% CF. Cookies were subjected to physical analysis (cookie diameter, cookie thickness, spread ratio, bulk volume, bulk density, breaking strength, and color analysis and evaluated for consumer acceptance by descriptive sensory analysis. Cookies prepared from water chestnut and cassava flour had low moisture content (5.63%, low fat (24.87%, higher spread ratio (8.148, decreased L, a and b values (dark color, and low breaking strength than control ones. Sensory evaluation established that cookies prepared from 50% WCF and 50% CF were more acceptable than cookies prepared from other formulations.

  4. Compositional analysis of Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) cell-wall material from parenchyma, epidermis, and subepidermal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassby, Terri; Jay, Andrew J; Merali, Zara; Parker, Mary L; Parr, Adrian J; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2013-10-09

    Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis (Burman f.) Trin ex Henschel) is a corm consumed globally in Oriental-style cuisine. The corm consists of three main tissues, the epidermis, subepidermis, and parenchyma; the cell walls of which were analyzed for sugar, phenolic, and lignin content. Sugar content, measured by gas chromatography, was higher in the parenchyma cell walls (931 μg/mg) than in the subepidermis (775 μg/mg) or epidermis (685 μg/mg). The alkali-extractable phenolic content, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, was greater in the epidermal (32.4 μg/mg) and subepidermal cell walls (21.7 μg/mg) than in the cell walls of the parenchyma (12.3 μg/mg). The proportion of diferulic acids was higher in the parenchyma. The Klason lignin content of epidermal and subepidermal cell walls was ~15%. Methylation analysis of Chinese water chestnut cell-wall polysaccharides identified xyloglucan as the predominant hemicellulose in the parenchyma for the first time, and also a significant pectin component, similar to other nongraminaceous monocots.

  5. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. European domestic horses originated in two holocene refugia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Warmuth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of European wild horses in horse domestication is poorly understood. While the fossil record for wild horses in Europe prior to horse domestication is scarce, there have been suggestions that wild populations from various European regions might have contributed to the gene pool of domestic horses. To distinguish between regions where domestic populations are mainly descended from local wild stock and those where horses were largely imported, we investigated patterns of genetic diversity in 24 European horse breeds typed at 12 microsatellite loci. The distribution of high levels of genetic diversity in Europe coincides with the distribution of predominantly open landscapes prior to domestication, as suggested by simulation-based vegetation reconstructions, with breeds from Iberia and the Caspian Sea region having significantly higher genetic diversity than breeds from central Europe and the UK, which were largely forested at the time the first domestic horses appear there. Our results suggest that not only the Eastern steppes, but also the Iberian Peninsula provided refugia for wild horses in the Holocene, and that the genetic contribution of these wild populations to local domestic stock may have been considerable. In contrast, the consistently low levels of diversity in central Europe and the UK suggest that domestic horses in these regions largely derive from horses that were imported from the Eastern refugium, the Iberian refugium, or both.

  7. Effects of repeated regrouping on horse behaviour and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Søndergaard, Eva; Thodberg, Karen

    2011-01-01

    about how repeated regrouping affect horse behaviour and welfare, and it is unknown whether horses may adapt to regrouping. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of an unstable group structure, caused by weekly regroupings, on behaviour and frequency of injuries in young horses. Forty...... after each regrouping (2 × 20 min/group/day). Injuries were scored by the end of the experimental period. The level of aggression shown by horses in Unstable groups immediately after regrouping was not affected by week (F5,35 = 0.42, P = 0.83), indicating that horses neither habituated, nor sensitized...... injuries were registered and there was no treatment effect (U = 184; P = 0.11). We conclude that the behaviour of young horses is affected by group management, and that horses appear not to adapt to weekly regroupings....

  8. Best management practices plan for the Chestnut Ridge-Filled Coal Ash Pond at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP) Project has been established to satisfy Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2. FCAP is on Chestnut Ridge, approximately 0.5 miles south of the Y-12 Plant. A 62-foot high earthen dam across Upper McCoy Branch was constructed in 1955 to create a pond to serve as a settling basin for fly and bottom ashes generated by burning coal at the Y-12 Steam Plant. Ash from the steam was mixed with water to form a slurry and then pumped to the crest of Chestnut Ridge and released through a large pipe to flow across the Sluice Channel area and into the pond. The ash slurry eventually overtopped the dam and flowed along Upper McCoy Branch to Rogers Quarry. The purpose of this document is to provide a site-specific Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan for construction associated with environmental restoration activities at the FCAP Site

  9. Calendar Year 1997 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report For The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime At The U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.B.

    1998-02-01

    This report contains the groundwater monitoring data obtained during calendar year (CY) 1997 in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit (PCP) for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). In July 1997, the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved modifications to several of the permit conditions that address RCRA pow-closure corrective action groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (Security Pits), and RCIU4 post-closure detection groundwater monitoring at the Chestnut Ridge Sediment Disposal Basin (Sediment Disposal Basin) and Kerr Hollow Quarry. This report has been prepared in accordance with these modified permit requirements. Also included in this report are the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained during CY 1997 for the purposes ofi (1) detection monitoring at nonhazardous solid waste disposal facilities (SWDFS) in accordance with operating permits and applicable regulations, (2) monitoring in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Recove~ Act Records of Decision (now pefiormed under the Integrated Water Quality Program for the Oak Ridge Reservation), and (3) monitoring needed to comply with U.S. Department of Energy Order 5400.1.

  10. Phisiological and biochemical characteristics of protein and lipid exchanges of maple and chestnut seeds from different regions of Dnepropetrovsk city technogenic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Filonik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of protein and lipid exchanges - the content of proteins, lipase activity, level of lipids and their composition, component composition of free fatty acids in the maple and chestnut seeds from several sites of Dnepropetrovsk technical pollution were investigated. The revealed figures can be used as biomarkers of anthropogenic pollution in industrial region.

  11. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailiea Arianna Goyen

    Full Text Available Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162 of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214 currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1 perceived low risk (compared to high of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2 perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3 horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4 horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5 handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only and 6 perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination. Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  12. A survey on the feeding of eventing horses during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J; Wichert, B; Burger, D; von Peinen, K; Liesegang, A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims at the comparison of the actual feeding of horses with the recommendations from the literature, and it studies the effects of feeding and exercise on several blood metabolic parameters before and after exercise. Blood samples were collected from 25 horses during one-star eventing competitions and evaluated for blood glucose, insulin, lactate, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Questionnaires on the feeding practices of the horses were evaluated. The questionnaires revealed that during training, and on tournament days, horses received on average 4.3 kg of concentrate per day (min. 1.54 kg, max. 8 kg). The statistical analysis showed no significant effect of the amount of concentrate fed before exercise on the measured blood values. Oil was supplied as a supplementary energy source to 30% of the horses, but most of them only received very small quantities (0.02-0.4 l/day). Five horses (20%) had no access to salt supplements at all, and eleven horses (45%) had no access to salt on tournament days. Fifteen horses (60%) were supplied with mineral feed. Twenty-one horses (84%) had daily access to pasture during the training period. During competition, 55% of the horses received roughage ad libitum, compared with 37% during training. The majority of the horses received less roughage on days before the cross-country competition. It could not be ascertained whether feeding a large amounts of roughage had a beneficial effect on performance, because only a few horses in this study were fed with very restrictive roughage. Feeding of most of the horses was in agreement with the recommendations from the literature, except the need for sodium and chloride. The sodium and chloride need for sport horses may be overestimated in literature and needs to be re-evaluated. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Adapting craniosacral therapy to treat horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kanik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniosacral therapy is an acknowledged therapeutic method used for treating humans. It derives from osteopathy, being a manual technique which uses a very gentle touch. It consists in balancing the fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid by applying appropriate holds that make it possible for the patientŐs organism to release tensions which have formed in tissues. The aim of the present work was to depict the possibility to adapt the method of craniosacral therapy used in humans to the therapy of horses. Thirteen therapeutic holds proposed for the treatment of horses were described and interpreted graphically on the basis of therapy of 62 horses with different disorders. A total of 241 craniosacral therapy treatments were performed. The adaptation of presented craniosacral therapy holds to equine therapy was developed by the first author on the basis of relevant holds used in the biodynamic craniosacral therapy in humans and in own therapeutic practice. The effects of own practice and data available in literature suggest that craniosacral therapy seems to be an effective method of improving the state of health of horses suffering from different complaints that may cause major difficulties in sport, breeding or private use of the animals. The use of thermography made it possible to record the effects of therapy and some processes accompanying it, which had been impossible before.

  15. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  16. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Gerhard; Typel, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-from distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two-body and three-body cross sections becomes very transparent. Applications of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed. It is special interest that electron screening corrections are negligible due to the high projectile energy. (author)

  17. Theory of the Trojan-Horse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typel, S.; Baur, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Trojan-Horse method is an indirect approach to determine the energy dependence of S factors of astrophysically relevant two-body reactions. This is accomplished by studying closely related three-body reactions under quasi-free scattering conditions. The basic theory of the Trojan-Horse method is developed starting from a post-form distorted wave Born approximation of the T-matrix element. In the surface approximation the cross-section of the three-body reaction can be related to the S-matrix elements of the two-body reaction. The essential feature of the Trojan-Horse method is the effective suppression of the Coulomb barrier at low energies for the astrophysical reaction leading to finite cross-sections at the threshold of the two-body reaction. In a modified plane wave approximation the relation between the two- and three-body cross-sections becomes very transparent. The appearing Trojan-Horse integrals are studied in detail

  18. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2003-01-01

    The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments

  19. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each

  20. Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)

  1. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  2. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  3. Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, J.V.; Barber, S.M.; Fretz, P.B.; Jacobs, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).

  4. General anesthesia for horses with specific problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, D.S.; Dunlop, C.I.

    1990-01-01

    We have discussed anesthetic techniques, special considerations, and expected complications involved in anesthetizing horses for abdominal, orthopedic, and head and neck surgery, and myelography and have described expected physiologic dysfunction that may require changes in anesthetic technique or supportive measures. The objective is high-quality patient care and reduction in anesthesia-related morbidity and death

  5. Recent Studies on Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of nuclear reactions that are important for the understanding of astrophysical problems received an increasing attention over the last decades. The Trojan Horse Method was proposed as a tool to overcome some of the problems connected with the measurement of cross-sections between charged particles at astrophysical energies. Here we present some recent studies on this method. (authors)

  6. [The development of verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part I: Review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-06-01

    Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic hyperplastic dermatopathy of the feet of horses which is characterized by a greasy, odorous coating of the skin and, in advanced stages, by clearly demarcated calluses and wart-like proliferations. The disease occurs almost exclusively in cold-blooded and other heavy horses, with certain breeds affected most frequently. It is considered a distinct disease entity within the framework of pastern dermatitis syndrome. There is no consensus in the literature about relationship of the disease to the sex and age of the horse. Horses with a high cannon circumference and pronounced fetlock tufts of hair seem to be affected most severely. In chiefly anecdotal reports the cause of the disease or its aggravation has been ascribed to housing conditions and environmental influences, chemicals, mechanical insults, feeding, or infections with Chorioptes skin mites. It thus seems likely that the disease is affected by a variety of factors. Although verrucous pastern dermatitis has been known for hundreds of years, its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear.

  7. Ocular findings in Quarter Horses with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochal, Cathleen A; Miller, William W; Cooley, A James; Linford, Robert L; Ryan, Peter L; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2010-08-01

    To compare ocular structures of Quarter Horses homozygous for hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) with those of Quarter Horses not affected by HERDA (control horses) and to determine the frequency of new corneal ulcers for horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Cohort study of ocular structures and retrospective case series of horses with and without HERDA. The cohort portion of the study involved 10 Quarter Horses with HERDA and 10 Quarter Horses without HERDA; the retrospective case series involved 28 horses with HERDA and 291 horses without HERDA. Ophthalmic examinations, Schirmer tear tests, tonometry, corneal pachymetry, histologic examinations, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed in cohorts of Quarter Horses with and without HERDA. Records were reviewed to determine the incidence of corneal ulcers in horses with and without HERDA during a 4-year period. Corneal thickness of horses with HERDA was significantly less than that of control horses, but tear production of horses with HERDA was significantly greater than that of control horses. Results of SEM revealed zones of disorganized, haphazardly arranged collagen fibrils in corneas of horses with HERDA that were not evident in corneas of control horses. The incidence of corneal ulcers was significantly greater for horses with HERDA than for horses without HERDA during the 4-year period. Alterations in corneal thickness, arrangement of collagen fibers, and incidence of corneal ulcers indicated that abnormalities in horses with HERDA were not limited to the skin.

  8. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities.

  9. Calendar year 1993 groundwater quality report for the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1993 Groundwater quality data interpretations and proposed program modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This groundwater quality report (GWQR) contains an evaluation of the groundwater quality data obtained during the 1993 calendar year (CY) at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management facilities associated with the US DOE Y-12 Plant located on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) southeast of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The groundwater quality data are presented in Part 1 of the GWQR submitted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) in February 1994. Groundwater quality data evaluated in this report were obtained at several hazardous and non-hazardous waste management sites located within the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Chestnut Ridge Regime encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of the Y-12 Plant and is one of three hydrogeologic regimes defined for the purposes of groundwater quality monitoring at the plant. The Environmental Management Department of the Y-12 Plant Health, Safety, Environment, and Accountability Organization manages the groundwater monitoring activities in each regime as part of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). The annual GWQR for the Chestnut Ridge Regime is completed in two parts. Part 1 consists primarily of data appendices and serves as a reference for the groundwater quality data obtained each CY under the lead of the Y-12 Plant GWPP. Because it contains information needed to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) interim status assessment monitoring and reporting requirements, the Part 1 GWQR is submitted to the TDEC by the RCRA reporting deadline (March 1 of the following CY). Part 2 (this report) contains an evaluation of the data with respect to regime-wide groundwater quality, presents the findings and status of ongoing hydrogeologic studies, describes changes in monitoring priorities, and presents planned modifications to the groundwater sampling and analysis activities

  10. Effects of chestnut tannins on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Zhou, D W; Li, K

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) on performance and antioxidative status of transition dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein cows in late gestation were paired according to expected calving date and randomly assigned either to a diet supplemented with CT (CNT, 10 g of CT/kg of diet, dry matter basis) or to an unsupplemented control (CON) diet from 3 wk prepartum to 3 wk postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d -21, 1, 7, and 21 relative to calving for analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver samples were taken by puncture biopsy on d 1 and 21 relative to calving for analysis of SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA. Data were analyzed for a completely randomized block design with repeated measures. The addition of CT had no significant effects on dry matter intake, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, and milk composition but did decrease milk MDA and somatic cell score in transition dairy cows. Dry matter intake decreased from d -21 to 0 and increased from d 1 to 21 relative to calving across treatments. During the experimental period, body weight and body condition score decreased, whereas milk MDA and somatic cell score increased across treatments. A time effect was also observed for plasma MDA, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than that on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT decreased MDA concentrations in plasma and liver. Neither time nor CT × time effects were observed for SOD and T-AOC in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px in liver; a time effect was observed for plasma GSH-Px, which peaked on d 1 relative to calving and remained higher than those on d -21 relative to calving across treatments. Addition of CT increased SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC activities in plasma and SOD and GSH-Px activities in liver. In conclusion, addition of CT might

  11. Demography of the Pryor Mountain wild horses, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Ransom, Jason I.; Coates-Markle, Linda; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Wild horses (Equus caballus) at Pryor Mountain were studied by direct observation from 1993 through 2007. All horses present were individually identifiable on the basis of coat coloration, head and leg markings, gender, and band associations. Of the 609 horses either present prior to foaling in 1993 or born since, ages were precisely known for 491 (observed as a foal). Ages for 52 horses were estimated through tooth eruption and wear patterns, and for the remaining 66 horses through body size, morphology, and anecdotal evidence concerning when they were present on the range. At varying intensities, never less than 30 days per year, all horses were inventoried and their band associations noted. Foals were paired with dams based on observations of attachment during the early days and weeks of life. Year of death was determined by identification of the carcass where possible. In the absence of finding a carcass, an animal that was not observed for 2 years was considered to have died in the year that it went missing. Animals that were removed from the herd and mares that were part of a contraception study were excluded from calculations of survival and foaling rates, respectively, as appropriate. The average prefoaling population over the 15 years of the study was 148.8 animals (range = 120-187), and the annual foal crop averaged 32.1 (range = 23-40). Large removals (19-60 animals) in four years helped maintain the herd at this level; apparent growth rate (calculated as though removals had not occurred) was 9.6 percent annually (? = 1.096, range = 0.977-1.220). This annual growth rate is relatively low compared to that for many western horse herds, at least in part because of a decline in foal survival. Sex ratio of the foal crop varied widely among years, but pooled across years did not differ from 50:50. Sex ratio in the herd changed mostly as a result of removals. The average age of both males and females in the herd increased during the course of the study. Annual

  12. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The negative effects of fireworks on companion animals have been reported, but little has been documented on the impact on horses. Horse anxiety was commonly associated with fireworks, and 26% of owners reported horse injuries as a result of fireworks. Many management strategies were seen as ineffective. The majority of horse owners were in favour of a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. Abstract Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765) “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765) rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  13. Hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  14. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  15. DMPD: Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9287290 Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cell...ml) Show Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses and cellularsaboteurs. PubmedID ...9287290 Title Lipoprotein trafficking in vascular cells. Molecular Trojan horses

  16. Surgical management of proximal splint bone fractures in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.R.; Pascoe, J.R.; Wheat, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Fractures of Metacarpal and Metatarsal II and IV (the splint bones) were treated in 283 horses over an 11 year period. In 21 cases the proximal portion of the fractured bone was stabilized with metallic implants. One or more cortical bone screws were used in 11 horses, and bone plates were applied in 11 horses. One horse received both treatments. Complications of screw fixation included bone failure, implant failure, radiographic lucency around the screws, and proliferative new bone at the ostectomy site. Only two of the horses treated with screw fixation returned to their intended use. Complications of plate fixation included partial fixation failure (backing out of screws), wound drainage, and proliferative bony response around the plate. Six of the 11 horses treated by plate fixation returned to their intended use. The authors recommend consideration of plate fixation techniques for repair of fractures in the proximal third of the splint bone

  17. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  18. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Characterisation of the horse transcriptome from immunologically active tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Moreton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the horse has not been well studied, despite the fact that the horse displays several features such as sensitivity to bacterial lipopolysaccharide that make them in many ways a more suitable model of some human disorders than the current rodent models. The difficulty of working with large animal models has however limited characterisation of gene expression in the horse immune system with current annotations for the equine genome restricted to predictions from other mammals and the few described horse proteins. This paper outlines sequencing of 184 million transcriptome short reads from immunologically active tissues of three horses including the genome reference “Twilight”. In a comparison with the Ensembl horse genome annotation, we found 8,763 potentially novel isoforms.

  20. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    of colic horses in a referral hospital have not been reported earlier. Objectives Evaluation of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in horses with colic. Methods Blood and PF samples were collected from 75 colic horses at admission to a referral hospital and from...... 19 healthy control horses. SAA and haptoglobin were measured in both serum and PF. Colic cases were classified according to diagnosis, treatment and outcome based on the clinical records. Protein concentrations were compared between groups with student´s t-test and ANOVA. Results Colic horses had...... significantly higher mean concentrations of serum SAA, PF SAA and PF haptoglobin compared to controls. PF SAA was significantly higher in horses with infectious conditions compared to both simple and strangulating obstructions, where as PF haptoglobin was higher in both strangulating and infectious conditions...

  1. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Zharkikh, Tjatjana; Chovaux, Elodie

    2011-01-01

    The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse–human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors...... for object generalisation (Christensen et al., 2008). In a series of experiments, we aimed to further explore the ability of horses (n = 30, 1 and 2-year-old mares) to recognise and generalise between objects during habituation. TEST horses (n = 15) were habituated to a complex object, composed of five...... simple objects of varying shape and colour, whereas CONTROL horses (n = 15) were habituated to the test arena, but not to the complex object. In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i) simple objects that were previously part of the complex object (i...

  2. Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  3. Phylogenetic and phenotypic characterisation of Sirococcus castaneae comb. nov. (synonym Diplodina castaneae), a fungal endophyte of European chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joana B; Trapiello, Estefanía; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Sieber, Thomas N; Cornejo, Carolina; Aghayeva, Dilzara; González, Ana J; Prospero, Simone

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we resolve the taxonomic status of the fungus Diplodina castaneae (Ascomycetes, Diaporthales, Gnomoniaceae) which occurs on the European chestnut (Castanea sativa) as endophyte and as the causal agent of Javart disease. Specimens from Switzerland, Spain, and Azerbaijan were sequenced at five nuclear loci (β-tubulin, EF-1α, ITS, LSU, and RPB2). Phylogenies were inferred to place D. castaneae in the Gnomoniaceae family. Moreover, growth rates and morphological characteristics on different agar media were assessed and compared to those of Gnomoniopsis castaneae, which can easily be confused with D. castaneae. Based on morphological and phylogenetic characteristics, we propose to reallocate D. castaneae to the genus Sirococcus, as S. castaneae comb. nov. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, J. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Shiraigol, W.; Li, B.; Bai, D. Y.; Ye, W. X.; Daidiikhuu, D.; Yang, L. H.; Jin, Brqqg; Zhao, Q. A.; Gao, Y. H.; Wu, J.; Bao, Wydl; Li, A. A.; Zhang, Y. H. Percival

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  5. Analysis of horse genomes provides insight into the diversification and adaptive evolution of karyotype

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jinlong; Zhao, Yiping; Shiraigol, Wunierfu; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Ye, Weixing; Daidiikhuu, Dorjsuren; Yang, Lihua; Jin, Burenqiqige; Zhao, Qinan; Gao, Yahan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Li, Anaer; Zhang, Yuhong

    2014-01-01

    Karyotypic diversification is more prominent in Equus species than in other mammals. Here, using next generation sequencing technology, we generated and de novo assembled quality genomes sequences for a male wild horse (Przewalski's horse) and a male domestic horse (Mongolian horse), with about 93-fold and 91-fold coverage, respectively. Portion of Y chromosome from wild horse assemblies (3 M bp) and Mongolian horse (2 M bp) were also sequenced and de novo assembled. We confirmed a Robertsoni...

  6. A Massively Parallel Sequencing Approach Uncovers Ancient Origins and High Genetic Variability of Endangered Przewalski's Horses

    OpenAIRE

    Goto, Hiroki; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Allison R.; Schultz, Bryant; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.; Nekrutenko, Anton; Makova, Kateryna D.

    2011-01-01

    The endangered Przewalski's horse is the closest relative of the domestic horse and is the only true wild horse species surviving today. The question of whether Przewalski's horse is the direct progenitor of domestic horse has been hotly debated. Studies of DNA diversity within Przewalski's horses have been sparse but are urgently needed to ensure their successful reintroduction to the wild. In an attempt to resolve the controversy surrounding the phylogenetic position and genetic diversity o...

  7. Chronic pulmonary disease - a multifacted disease complex in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews chronic pulmonary disease (CPD) as an insidiously developing disease capable of being manifest in many degrees. Horses may suffer mild, sub-clinical degrees of lower respiratory tract inflammation or small airway disease withouth showing symptoms at rest. This form of disease becomes manifest as poor performance when these horses take part in athletic competition. Factors relating to the aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of all degrees of small airway disease of horses are discussed. 30 refs

  8. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  9. 15 CFR 754.5 - Horses for export by sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for export by sea. 754.5... CONTROLS § 754.5 Horses for export by sea. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the letters “SS” in the... No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR) a license is required for the export of horses exported by sea to all...

  10. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Torfs, Sara C; Maes, An A; Delesalle, Catherine J; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those fo...

  11. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination.

  12. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  13. An ethological study of young horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Šišková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia, defecation and micturition, comfortable behaviour and mutual comfort behaviour, manifestations of relaxation (resting posture, lying down, movement manifestations, playful behaviour, stereotype behaviour, other manifestations (acoustic, olfactory etc.As a result we recommended several changes in the technology, e.g. larger stables, salt-lick out of reach of the foals, more frequent exchange of bedding, shelter for horses grazing in the open.

  14. The Trojan horse method in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliotta, M.; Rolfs, C.; Lattuada, M.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Spitaleri, C.; Miljanic, Dj.; Typel, S.; Wolter, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the Coulomb barrier, reaction cross sections in astrophysics cannot be accessed directly at the relevant Gamow energies, unless very favourable conditions are met (e.g. LUNA--underground experiments). Theoretical extrapolations of available data are then needed to derive the astrophysical S(0)-factor. Various indirect processes have been used in order to obtain additional information on the parameters entering these extrapolations. The Trojan Horse Method is an indirect method which might help to bypass some of the problems typically encountered in direct measurements, namely the presence of the Coulomb barrier and the effect of the electron screening. However, a comparison with direct data in an appropriate energy region (e.g. around the Coulomb barrier) is crucial before extending the method to the relevant Gamow energy. Additionally, experimental and theoretical tests are needed to validate the assumptions underlying the method. The application of the Trojan Horse Method to some cases of interest is discussed

  15. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  16. Endoscopic-assisted electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy in standing sedated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Fürst, Anton; Kummer, Martin; Mosel, Gesine; Tschanz, Theo; Lischer, Christoph J

    2012-07-01

    To report use of transendoscopic electrohydraulic shockwave lithotripsy for fragmentation of urinary calculi in horses. Case series. Male horses (n = 21). Fragmentation of cystic calculi (median, 6 cm diameter; range, 4-11 cm diameter) was achieved by transurethral endoscopy in standing sedated horses using an electrohydraulic shockwave fiber introduced through the biopsy channel of an endoscope. The fiber was advanced until it contacted the calculus. Repeated activation of the fiber was used to disrupt the calculus into fragments calculus removal was achieved in 20 horses (95%) with mean total surgical time of 168.6 minutes (range, 45-450). In the 20 horses with single calculi, 1-6 sessions were required to completely fragment the calculus. Except for 1 horse, in which perineal urethrotomy was eventually performed for complete fragment removal, fragments calculi were excreted via the urethra. Postoperative complications included hematuria because of severe mucosal erosion (n = 2), dysuria because of a trapped urethral fragment (2), small amount of urinary debris (1). One horse was euthanatized because of bladder rupture. Complete clearance of calculi and urinary debris was confirmed endoscopically 20 (3-45) days after the last session. Telephone follow-up (mean, 18.8 months; range, 7-24 months) revealed that horses had returned to previous activity levels without recurrence of clinical signs. Transendoscopic electrohydraulic lithotripsy appears to be an effective method for fragmentation of low-density calcium carbonate cystic calculi in male horses. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Evaluation of the conformation of stallions of selected horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Petlachová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the conformation of stallions of the breeds American Quarter Horse (AQH, American Paint Horse (APH, Appaloosa (Appa, the Lipizzaner horse (LH and the Old Kladruby horse (OKH. Representatives of these breeds are characterized as the descendants of horses on the base of the Arab-Berber blood. Western breeds (AQH, APH, Appa due to different environmental conditions, nutrition and the other structure under the influence of a different type of use, type of riding demands differed considerably from the original Spanish-type horses. It was measured a total of 24 body dimensions. Representatives of The American western breeds are statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 in 23 of the 24 observed effects. To be precise, they are: smaller wither height as measured by stick, lower at the tail-set, longer neck, narrower chest, longer oblique body length, wider front pelvis length, longer pelvis bones, longer femur bones, shorter hind cannons.A statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 was found in the length of the humerus, where the Old Kladruby Horse has a humerus that is longer by 2.34 cm than that of the APH. The Lipizzaner horse differs statistically highly conclusively (P ≤ 0.01 from the Appaloosa and Old Kladruby horse in the tape length of its head.

  18. Bone scintigraphy for horses; Die Skelettszintigrafie beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Werner [Pferdeklinik Bargteheide (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  19. Genetic diversity of Halla horses using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%, Thoroughbred (18.8% and Halla horse (75.1%. Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people’s weighted interest toward Jeju horses. Method Using 17 Microsatellite (MS Markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG, genomic DNAs were extracted from the hair roots of 3,880 Halla horses breeding in Korea and genetic diversity was identified by genotyping after PCR was performed. Results and conclusion In average, 10.41 alleles (from 6 alleles in HTG7 to 17 alleles in ASB17 were identified after the analysis using 17 MS Markers. The mean value of Hobs was 0.749 with a range from 0.612(HMS1 to 0.857(ASB2. Also, it was found that Hexp and PIC values were lowest in HMS1 (0.607 and 0.548, respectively, and highest in LEX3(0.859 and 0.843, respectively, and the mean value of Hexp was 0.760 and that of PIC was 0.728. 17 MS markers used in this studies were considered as appropriate markers for the polymorphism analysis of Halla horses. The frequency for the appearance of identical individuals was 5.90 × 10−20 when assumed as random mating population and when assumed as half-sib and full-sib population, frequencies were 4.08 × 10−15 and 3.56 × 10−8, respectively. Based on these results, the 17 MS markers can be used adequately for the Individual Identification and Parentage Verification of Halla horses. Remarkably, allele M and Q of ASB23 marker, G of HMS2 marker, H and L of HTG6 marker, L of HTG7 marker, E of LEX3 marker were the specific alleles

  20. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-10-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of the art of exercise testing in the Olympic disciplines of eventing, show jumping and dressage, and areas for further development are defined. In event horses, a simple four-step incremental exercise test measuring heart rate (HR), lactate concentration (LA) and velocity (V) is most often used. In dressage and riding horses, a wide variety of exercise tests have been developed, including incremental exercise tests, indoor riding tests and lunging tests. In show jumping, the use of a five-step incremental exercise test and exercise tests evaluating technical skills and fatigue of the horse has been reported. The velocity at a plasma LA of 4 mmol/L (VLA4) and HR recovery during submaximal exercise intensity have been shown to be the best parameters in event horses for predicting performance and impending injuries. In riding horses, the fitness level of horses is also an important determinant of injuries. Implementation of regular exercise testing and monitoring of training sessions may have important added value in the assessment of performance ability and potential future injuries in Warmblood sport horses. However, there is an urgent need to standardise methodologies and outcome parameters in order to make results comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Welfare issues of horses: an overview and practical recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Canali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest proportion of the world’s horses are still used for work in agriculture and traction, however in the western countries they are increasingly kept for recreational and social purposes, breeding, sport and competition. It is often assumed that horses enjoys better farming conditions than other species, yet they have specific needs which should be fulfilled in order to have a proper welfare. This paper will review the main welfare issues of horses and the following aspects will be considered: nutrition, housing and management, clinical problems, behaviour problems, training and riding, transportation, measuring welfare. Horses are social animals that live in groups in close contact with conspecifics. They spend most of their waking hours moving at walk, grazing and eating grass. Some of the constraints imposed on horses during the last centuries conflict to their naturally evolved behaviour. Effective and humane handling of horses positively affects many important aspects like the safety of man, the performance level and the welfare of horses. It is an essential condition for keeping horses that handlers, riders, trainers, farriers and veterinarians have proper knowledge of the behaviour of the horse in order to fulfil their natural needs and guarantee their welfare.

  3. Plasma serotonin in horses undergoing surgery for small intestinal colic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Sara C.; Maes, An A.; Delesalle, Catherine J.; Pardon, Bart; Croubels, Siska M.; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study compared serotonin concentrations in platelet poor plasma (PPP) from healthy horses and horses with surgical small intestinal (SI) colic, and evaluated their association with postoperative ileus, strangulation and non-survival. Plasma samples (with EDTA) from 33 horses with surgical SI colic were collected at several pre- and post-operative time points. Serotonin concentrations were determined using liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results were compared with those for 24 healthy control animals. The serotonin concentrations in PPP were significantly lower (P serotonin was not a suitable prognostic factor in horses with SI surgical colic. PMID:25694668

  4. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Gronqvist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765 were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765 “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765 rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107 was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05 or location (p > 0.05. Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107 of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099 reported that their horse(s had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s to a paddock away from the fireworks (77% and to stable/yard them (55%. However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104 were against the sale of fireworks for private use.

  5. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  6. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  7. Serum amyloid A and haptoglobin concentrations in serum and peritoneal fluid of healthy horses and horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Andersen, Pia Haubro; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peritoneal fluid (PF) analysis is a valuable diagnostic tool in equine medicine. Markers such as serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) could facilitate the diagnosis of inflammatory abdominal conditions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to (1) establish reference intervals (RI......) for SAA and Hp in serum and PF in healthy horses, (2) compare SAA and Hp concentrations between healthy horses and horses with colic, and (3) to assess the correlation between serum and PF concentrations. METHODS: Serum amyloid A and Hp concentrations were determined by automated assays in prospectively...... enrolled healthy reference horses and horses with colic. RIs were calculated, group concentrations were compared by Student's t-test, and Pearson's correlation for serum and PF concentrations were determined. RESULTS: In healthy horses (n = 62) the measurements for SAA were below the detection limit (0...

  8. Trojan Horse Particle Invariance: An Extensive Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Lamia, L.; Cognata, M. La; Spartá, R.; Tumino, A.; Bertulani, C. A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the Trojan Horse method (THM) has played a crucial role for the measurement of several particle (both neutron and charged one) induced cross sections for reactions of astrophysical interest. To better understand its cornerstones and its applications to physical cases, many tests were performed to verify all its properties and the possible future perspectives. The Trojan Horse nucleus invariance proves the relatively simple approach allowed by the pole approximation and sheds light in the involved reaction mechanisms. Here we shortly review the complete work for the binary 2 H(d,p) 3 H, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He, 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions, by using the quasi free reactions after break-ups of different nuclides. Results are compared assuming the 6 Li and 3 He break-up in the case of the d(d,p)t, 6 Li(d,α) 4 He reactions and considering the 2 H and 3 He break-up for 6 Li(p,α) 3 He, 7 Li(p,α) 4 He reactions. These results, regardless of the Trojan Horse particle or the break-up scheme, confirms the applicability of the standard description of the THM and suggests the independence of binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan Horse nuclei for a whole spectra of different cases. This gives a strong basis for the understanding of the quasi-free mechanism which is the foundation on which the THM lies. (author)

  9. An ethological study of young horses

    OpenAIRE

    Pavla Šišková; Iva Jiskrová; Vladimír Mikule

    2006-01-01

    In the present study called “An Ethological Study of Young Horses” we focused on the behaviour of foals from their birth to separation from their mother. We observed and analysed their behaviour and daily activities, and from the achieved results we drew conclusions for practical horse breeding. We studied the following forms of behaviour of the foals: feeding behaviour (sucking, drinking, eating roughage and concentrates, gleaning, coprophagia), defecation and micturition, comfortable behavi...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younkin, T J; Davis, E G; Kukanich, B

    2017-08-01

    The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this crossover study. Plasma terbinafine concentrations were quantified with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.38 and 10.76 h, for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentrations were 0.291 μg/mL at 1.54 h and 0.418 μg/mL at 1.28 h for p.o. alone and p.o. with cimetidine, respectively. Terbinafine with cimetidine had an average C MAX 44% higher and the relative F was 153% compared p.o. terbinafine alone, but was not statistically different (P > 0.05). Terbinafine was infrequently detected when administered per rectum in two different suspensions (water or olive oil). Minor adverse effects included oral irritation, fever, and colic. All resolved spontaneously. More pharmacokinetic studies are indicated assessing drug-drug interactions and using multiple dosing intervals to improve our knowledge of effective oral dosing, the potential for drug accumulation, and systemic adverse effect of terbinafine in horses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. AHP 47: YELLOW-HEAD HORSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangs rgyas bkra shis སངས་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available My family had a stallion we called Rta mgo ser 'Yellow-Head Horse'. Father and two of his brothers occasionally rode it. Father said that Yellow-Head was very wild when it was taken to join local horseraces. I didn't believe that because Yellow-Head was very gentle when Mother rode it to the local monastery and also when I rode it.

  12. SS-HORSE method for studying resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Mazur, A. I.; Mazur, I. A., E-mail: 008043@pnu.edu.ru [Pacific National University (Russian Federation); Savin, D. A.; Shirokov, A. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A new method for analyzing resonance states based on the Harmonic-Oscillator Representation of Scattering Equations (HORSE) formalism and analytic properties of partial-wave scattering amplitudes is proposed. The method is tested by applying it to the model problem of neutral-particle scattering and can be used to study resonance states on the basis of microscopic calculations performed within various versions of the shell model.

  13. Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybrand J. van Sittert

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case of African horse sickness (AHS in a dog where there was no apparent ingestion of horse meat. Significantly, the dog was part of a colony that resides in a Good Clinical Practice and Good Laboratory Practice accredited facility where complete history, weather and feeding records are maintained. The dog died after a week-long illness despite therapy. The principal post-mortem findings were severe hydrothorax and pulmonary consolidation (red hepatisation of the lungs. Histopathology revealed severe oedema and congestion of the lungs, hyaline degeneration of the myocardium and congestion of the liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemistry detected AHS-positive staining granules in the myocardium, whilst a real-time reverse transcription quantitative Polymerase chain reaction assay of tissue samples was strongly positive for African horse sickness virus nucleic acid. Other dogs on the property showed a 43%seroconversion rate to AHS.

  14. Horses help to maintain CERN's forests

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    On the initiative of the Office National des Forêts, France’s forestry commission, horses are helping to remove trees cut down in CERN’s forests.   The CERN site covers 625 hectares, of which around 200 are fenced sites used for CERN’s research activities. The rest of the land consists of fields rented out to farmers and about 90 hectares of forests, mainly in France and managed by the French forestry commission, the Office National des Forêts (ONF), under an agreement with CERN signed in 2010. The upkeep of CERN’s forests requires regular maintenance work, which includes thinning out seedlings, selecting the strongest saplings and harvesting mature trees. This June, the ONF has decided to involve horses in the removal of felled trees from CERN’s woods in Prévessin.  As Florent Daloz, the logger entrusted with this activity by the ONF, explains, the use of horses to haul timber completely died out i...

  15. Distortion Effects on Trojan Horse Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Blokhintsev, L. D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Irgaziev, B. F.

    2011-01-01

    The widths of the spectator momentum distributions in several nuclei, which have been used as Trojan Horses, have been obtained as a function of the transferred momentum. Applications of Trojan Horse method will also be discussed. The study of processes relevant for astrophysics involving light nuclei has increased in the last decades due to the development of indirect methods. The present paper will also help to point out the distortion effects which arise at low energies in the study of three-body processes and will suggest some way to by-pass them in Trojan Horse Method (THM) applications. The goal of this paper is to compare the experimental momentum distribution of the spectator in the bound state a = (sx) extracted from the 2 → 3 particles (breakup, or breakup with rearrangement) reactions with the theoretical one. The theoretical momentum distribution has been calculated for the target a = (sx) using the Hulthen potential for a = d and Woods-Saxon one with the standard geometrical parameters, radius r 0 = 1.25 fm and diffuseness a = 0.65 fm, for other nuclei. (author)

  16. Tamoxifen induces apoptotic neutrophil efferocytosis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olave, C; Morales, N; Uberti, B; Henriquez, C; Sarmiento, J; Ortloff, A; Folch, H; Moran, G

    2018-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils are important cellular components in the process of acute inflammation and its subsequent resolution, and evidence increasingly suggests that they play important functions during the resolution of chronic, adaptive inflammatory processes. Exacerbated neutrophil activity can be harmful to surrounding tissues; this is important in a range of diseases, including allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans, and equine asthma (also known as recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Tamoxifen (TX) is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor modulator with effects on cell growth and survival. Previous studies showed that TX treatment in horses with induced acute pulmonary inflammation promoted early apoptosis of blood and BALF neutrophils, reduction of BALF neutrophils, and improvement in animals' clinical status. The aim of this study was to describe if TX induces in vitro efferocytosis of neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Efferocytosis assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) detection and translocation phosphatidylserine (PS) were performed on neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood samples from five healthy horses. In in vitro samples from heathy horses, TX treatment increases the phenomenon of efferocytosis of peripheral neutrophils by alveolar macrophages. Similar increases in supernatant MPO concentration and PS translocation were observed in TX-treated neutrophils, compared to control cells. In conclusion, these results confirm that tamoxifen has a direct effect on equine peripheral blood neutrophils, through stimulation of the engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages.

  17. Australian bat lyssavirus infection in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Mustaghfira Wafa; Annand, Edward J; Driver, Luke; Warrilow, David; Harrower, Bruce; Allcock, Richard J N; Pukallus, Dennis; Harper, Jennifer; Bingham, John; Kung, Nina; Diallo, Ibrahim S

    2014-10-10

    In May 2013, the first cases of Australian bat lyssavirus infections in domestic animals were identified in Australia. Two horses (filly-H1 and gelding-H2) were infected with the Yellow-bellied sheathtail bat (YBST) variant of Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). The horses presented with neurological signs, pyrexia and progressing ataxia. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Negri bodies) were detected in some Purkinje neurons in haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections from the brain of one of the two infected horses (H2) by histological examination. A morphological diagnosis of sub-acute moderate non-suppurative, predominantly angiocentric, meningo-encephalomyelitis of viral aetiology was made. The presumptive diagnosis of ABLV infection was confirmed by the positive testing of the affected brain tissue from (H2) in a range of laboratory tests including fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and real-time PCR targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Retrospective testing of the oral swab from (H1) in the real-time PCR also returned a positive result. The FAT and immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed an abundance of ABLV antigen throughout the examined brain sections. ABLV was isolated from the brain (H2) and oral swab/saliva (H1) in the neuroblastoma cell line (MNA). Alignment of the genome sequence revealed a 97.7% identity with the YBST ABLV strain. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Nogueira da Gama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP evaluates the integrity of the auditory pathways to the brainstem. The aim of this study was to evoke BAEPs in 21 clinically normal horses. The animals were sedated with detomidine hydrochloride (0.013mg.kg-1 BW. Earphones were inserted and rarefaction clicks at 90 dB and noise masking at 40 dB were used. After performing the test, the latencies of waves (I, II, III, IV, and V and interpeaks(I-III, III-V, and I-V were identified. The mean latencies of the waves were as follows: wave I, 2.4 ms; wave II, 2.24 ms; wave III, 3.61ms; wave IV, 4.61ms; and wave V, 5.49ms. The mean latencies of the interpeaks were as follows: I-III, 1.37ms; III-V, 1.88ms; and I-V, 3.26ms. This is the first study using BAEPs in horses in Brazil, and the observed latencies will be used as normative data for the interpretation of tests performed on horses with changes related to auditory system or neurologic abnormalities.

  19. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Trailović Ružica; Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Jovanović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific co...

  20. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio‐Martínez, L. M.; Redding, W. R.; Bladon, B.; Wilderjans, H.; Payne, R. J.; Tessier, C.; Geffroy, O.; Parker, R.; Bell, C.; Collingwood, F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. Objectives To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Study design Multicentre retrospective case series. Methods Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow‐up informatio...

  1. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: an investigation of several outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Moleman, M; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Multem, J; Troelstra, A; Fluit, A C; van Wamel, W J B; Houwers, D J; de Neeling, A J; Wagenaar, J A

    2010-02-24

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in 2006/2007, MRSA isolates of spa-type t2123 were cultured from 7 horses and 4/61 personnel which indicated zoonotic transmission. After intervention the outbreak stopped. However, another outbreak occurred in 2008, where 17 equine MRSA isolates of spa-type t011 (n=12), t2123 (n=4), and t064 (n=1) were found. This time, 16/170 personnel were positive for MRSA with spa-type t011 (n=11) and t2123 (n=5). Personnel in close contact with horses were more often MRSA-positive (15/106) than those without (1/64). Screening of horses upon admission showed that 9.3% were MRSA-positive predominantly with spa-type t011. Weekly cross-sectional sampling of all hospitalized horses for 5 weeks showed that 42% of the horses were MRSA-positive at least once, again predominantly with spa-type t011, which suggests that nosocomial transmission took place. Fifty-three percent of the environmental samples were MRSA-positive, including samples from students' and staff members' rooms, and all were spa-type t011. This indicates that humans contribute to spreading the organism. Culturing of samples employing high-salt pre-enrichment performed better than a comparable method without pre-enrichment. Our results show that nosocomial transmission occurs in equine clinics and suggests that personnel play a role in the transmission. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  5. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  7. Biochemical, Oxidative, and Lipolytic Changes during Vacuum-Packed Storage of Dry-Cured Loin: Effect of Chestnuts Intake by Celta Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet of Celta pig breed on the characteristics of dry-cured loin, a traditional Spanish dry-cured meat product, after the manufacturing process and the vacuum-packed storage was studied. In general, no significant differences between the diets (chestnut, mixed, and concentrate diet were obtained for physicochemical (moisture, intramuscular fat, and titratable acidity and lipolytic parameters. Lower pH and higher values for oxidation parameters (peroxide and TBA values were obtained in loins from pigs fed with chestnuts. However, no differences were found for fatty acids from the different lipid fractions when diets were compared, with the exception of some minor fatty acids. Free fatty acids represented over 2.7% of the fat in the final product. The distinction between diets was procured when a discriminant canonical analysis was performed for fatty acid contents. After vacuum-packed storage, only a slight evolution of the studied parameters was obtained.

  8. Hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 nanoneedles grown on nickel foam as binder-free electrode for high energy density asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kwun Nam; Hui, Kwan San; Tang, Zikang; Jadhav, V. V.; Xia, Qi Xun

    2016-10-01

    Hierarchical chestnut-like manganese cobalt oxide (MnCo2O4) nanoneedles (NNs) are successfully grown on nickel foam using a facile and cost-effective hydrothermal method. High resolution TEM image further verifies that the chestnut-like MnCo2O4 structure is assembled by numerous 1D MnCo2O4 nanoneedles, which are formed by numerous interconnected MnCo2O4 nanoparticles with grain diameter of ∼10 nm. The MnCo2O4 electrode exhibits high specific capacitance of 1535 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and good rate capability (950 F g-1 at 10 A g-1) in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. An asymmetric supercapacitor is fabricated using MnCo2O4 NNs on Ni foam (MnCo2O4 NNs/NF) as the positive electrode and graphene/NF as the negative electrode. The device shows an operation voltage of 1.5 V and delivers a high energy density of ∼60.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of ∼375 W kg-1. Moreover, the device exhibits an excellent cycling stability of 94.3% capacitance retention after 12000 cycles at 30 A g-1. This work demonstrates that hierarchical chestnut-like MnCo2O4 NNs could be a promising electrode for the high performance energy storage devices.

  9. Effect of Dietary Chestnut or Quebracho Tannin Supplementation on Microbial Community and Fatty Acid Profile in the Rumen of Dairy Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Buccioni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants derived products have a prominent role in diets and economy worldwide; therefore, the capability to control the rumen microbial ecosystem, for ameliorating their quality, is of fundamental importance in the livestock sector. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with chestnut and quebracho tannins on microbial community and fatty acid profile, in the rumen fluid of dairy ewes. Multivariate analysis of PCR-DGGE profiles of rumen microbial communities showed a correlation among the presence of chestnut or quebracho in the diet, the specific Butyrivibrio group DGGE profiles, the increase in 18:3 cis9, cis12, and cis15; 18:2 cis9 and cis12; 18:2 cis9 and trans11; 18:2 trans11 and cis15; and 18:1 trans11 content, and the decrease in 18:0 concentration. Phylogenetic analysis of DGGE band sequences revealed the presence of bacteria representatives related to the genera Hungatella, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium and unclassified Lachnospiraceae family members, suggesting that these taxa could be affected by tannins presence in the diets. The results of this study showed that tannins from chestnut and quebracho can reduce the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids through changes in rumen microbial communities.

  10. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  11. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  12. Analgesia in the horse, assessing and treating pain in equines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, Thijs van

    This review focuses on pain and nociception in horses and is based on the PhD thesis “Analgesia in the Horse, various approaches for assessment and treatment of pain and nociception in equines” by J.P.A.M. van Loon. Apart from a scientific review of the related literature, a multi-disciplinary

  13. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  14. Pain: Its Diagnosis and Management in the Rehabilitation of Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglish, Jodie; Mama, Khursheed R

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a brief overview of pain physiology and its relevance to equine patients. Objective and subjective techniques for assessing pain in the horse are described in depth. Pharmacologic and interventional pain modulation treatments are discussed with a focus on the rehabilitating horse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vacuum phenomenon in the metatarsophalangeal joint of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, T.E.; Poulos, P.W.; Metcalf, M.R.; Robertson, I.D.

    1990-01-01

    Vacuum phenomenon was induced inadvertently during radiographic examination of a metatarsophalangeal joint of a lame horse. The phenomenon was recreated in a sound horse when a metacarpophalangeal joint was radiographed in a stress-flexed position. Distraction of apposing articular surfaces may induce the vacuum phenomenon, which could result in misdiagnosis of an osteochondral defect or fracture

  16. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  17. The use of relative coupling intervals in horses during walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    Walking speed varies between over-ground trials and a speed-independent gait-parameter does not exist for use in horses. We introduce relative (R) lateral (L) and diagonal (D) coupling intervals (CI) and hypothesize that both are independent of walking speed. Four horses were walked over 8 Kistler...

  18. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  19. Skidding with horses to thin young stands in western Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington

    1957-01-01

    Increased use of commercial thinning to provide an additional source of needed raw material and to boost overall yields from forest lands has again brought horses into the northwest woods. They are particularly well adapted to skidding small logs under the light, frequent cuts typical of a thinning operation. Horses can, moreover, work at close quarters in a young...

  20. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  1. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race

    OpenAIRE

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  2. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  3. Rib fracture in a horse during an endurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Pablo; Muñoz, Ana; Castejón, Francisco; Riber, Cristina; Hassel, Diana M

    2011-11-01

    We describe a fatal case, in which a horse suffered a fall and as a consequence, rib fractures. Diagnosis was made postmortem and the horse died without showing clear signs of respiratory dysfunction. The retrospective reports of injuries can be important to reduce these traumatic events and to avoid fatalities.

  4. Genetic diversity and bottleneck studies in the Marwari horse breed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity within the Marwari breed of horses was evaluated using 26 different microsatellite pairs with 48 DNA samples from unrelated horses. This molecular characterisation was undertaken to evaluate the problem of genetic bottlenecks also, if any, in this breed. The estimated mean (± s.e.) allelic diversity was 5.9 ...

  5. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet...

  6. Environmental exposures and airway inflammation in young thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivester, K M; Couëtil, L L; Moore, G E; Zimmerman, N J; Raskin, R E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) in horses is a widespread, performance-limiting syndrome believed to develop in response to inhaled irritants in the barn environment. To evaluate changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and exposure to particulates, endotoxin, and ammonia during horses' first month in training. Forty-nine client-owned 12- to 36-month-old Thoroughbred horses entering race training. In this prospective cohort study, a convenience sample of horses was assigned to be fed hay from a net (n = 16), whereas the remaining horses were fed hay from the ground (n = 33). BALF was collected at enrollment and after 14 and 28 days in training. Respirable particulate, inhalable particulate, respirable endotoxin, and ammonia concentrations were measured at the breathing zone of each horse weekly. Median respirable particulates were significantly higher when horses were fed from hay nets than when fed hay from the ground (hay net 0.28 mg/m(3) , no hay net 0.055 mg/m(3) , P horses were fed from hay nets. Feeding hay from a net resulted in significantly higher BALF eosinophil proportions over time (P Thoroughbreds, indicating a potential hypersensitivity to inhaled particulate allergens. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Thoroughbred Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database: HSDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Ho Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is important for breeding and selection of horses but there is a lack of well-established horse-related browsers or databases. In order to better understand horses, more variants and other integrated information are needed. Thus, we construct a horse genomic variants database including expression and other information. Horse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and Expression Database (HSDB (http://snugenome2.snu.ac.kr/HSDB provides the number of unexplored genomic variants still remaining to be identified in the horse genome including rare variants by using population genome sequences of eighteen horses and RNA-seq of four horses. The identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were confirmed by comparing them with SNP chip data and variants of RNA-seq, which showed a concordance level of 99.02% and 96.6%, respectively. Moreover, the database provides the genomic variants with their corresponding transcriptional profiles from the same individuals to help understand the functional aspects of these variants. The database will contribute to genetic improvement and breeding strategies of Thoroughbreds.

  8. Immunohistochemical analysis of laryngeal muscles in normal horses and horses with subclinical recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Hannah S; Steel, Catherine M; Derksen, Frederik J; Robinson, N Edward; Hoh, Joseph F Y

    2009-08-01

    We used immunohistochemistry to examine myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-based fiber-type profiles of the right and left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and arytenoideus transversus (TrA) muscles of six horses without laryngoscopic evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN). Results showed that CAD and TrA muscles have the same slow, 2a, and 2x fibers as equine limb muscles, but not the faster contracting fibers expressing extraocular and 2B MyHCs found in laryngeal muscles of small mammals. Muscles from three horses showed fiber-type grouping bilaterally in the TrA muscles, but only in the left CAD. Fiber-type grouping suggests that denervation and reinnervation of fibers had occurred, and that these horses had subclinical RLN. There was a virtual elimination of 2x fibers in these muscles, accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of 2a and slow fibers, and hypertrophy of these fiber types. The results suggest that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms are at work in early RLN, including selective denervation and reinnervation of 2x muscle fibers, corruption of neural impulse traffic that regulates 2x and slow muscle fiber types, and compensatory hypertrophy of remaining fibers. We conclude that horses afflicted with mild RLN are able to remain subclinical by compensatory hypertrophy of surviving muscle fibers.

  9. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Pablo Librado; Fages, Antoine Alphonse; Gaunitz, Charleen

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circ......The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude...... of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped...

  10. Acute phase response to surgery of varying intensity in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Nielsen, Jon Vedding; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative inflammatory response of horses to elective surgery of varying intensity. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal study. ANIMALS: Horses referred to 2 hospitals for either arthroscopic removal of a unilateral osteochondritic lesion in the tibiotarsal joint...... (minimal surgical trauma, n=11), correction of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy by laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy (intermediate surgical trauma, n=10) or removal of an ovarian tumor by laparotomy (major surgical trauma, n=5). METHODS: Horses had a thorough clinical examination every day. White blood cell....... RESULTS: Postoperative concentrations of SAA and fibrinogen were significantly higher in horses that had laparotomy and ovariectomy than in horses that had laryngoplasty and ventriculectomy, or arthroscopy. Iron concentrations decreased to lower levels after intermediate and major surgical trauma than...

  11. Coronavirus infections in horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemida, M G; Chu, D K W; Perera, R A P M; Ko, R L W; So, R T Y; Ng, B C Y; Chan, S M S; Chu, S; Alnaeem, A A; Alhammadi, M A; Webby, R J; Poon, L L M; Balasuriya, U B R; Peiris, M

    2017-12-01

    Equine coronaviruses (ECoV) are the only coronavirus known to infect horses. So far, data on ECoV infection in horses remain limited to the USA, France and Japan and its geographic distribution is not well understood. We carried out RT-PCR on 306 nasal and 315 rectal swabs and tested 243 sera for antibodies to detect coronavirus infections in apparently healthy horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman. We document evidence of infection with ECoV and HKU23 coronavirus by RT-PCR. There was no conclusive evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in horses. Serological data suggest that lineage A betacoronavirus infections are commonly infecting horses in Saudi Arabia and Oman but antibody cross-reactivities between these viruses do not permit us to use serological data alone to identify which coronaviruses are causing these infections. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Dietary change and evolution of horses in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlbachler, Matthew C; Rivals, Florent; Solounias, Nikos; Semprebon, Gina M

    2011-03-04

    The evolution of high-crowned molars among horses (Family Equidae) is thought to be an adaptation for abrasive diets associated with the spread of grasslands. The sharpness and relief of the worn cusp apices of teeth (mesowear) are a measure of dietary abrasion. We collected mesowear data for North American Equidae for the past 55.5 million years to test the association of molar height and dietary abrasion. Mesowear trends in horses are reflective of global cooling and associated vegetation changes. There is a strong correlation between mesowear and crown height in horses; however, most horse paleopopulations had highly variable amounts of dietary abrasion, suggesting that selective pressures for crown height may have been weak much of the time. However, instances of higher abrasion were observed in some paleopopulations, suggesting intervals of stronger selection for the evolution of dentitions, including the early Miocene shortly before the first appearance of Equinae, the horse subfamily in which high-crowned dentitions evolved.

  13. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa

    2014-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  14. SEROPREVALENCE OF BRUCELLOSIS IN HORSES IN AND AROUND FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WADOOD, M. AHMAD, A. KHAN1, S. T. GUL1 AND N. REHMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT and Serum Agglutination test (SAT were used to monitor the seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses in and around Faisalabad, Pakistan. Sera were screened by RBPT and positive or doubtful sera were further processed by SAT for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in horses was 20.7 and 17.7% by RBPT and SAT, respectively. Source wise seroprevalence of brucellosis was 19.8, 25.5, 2.9 and 0% in horses of Remount Area Faisalabad, Remount Area Toba Tek Singh, private and Livestock Management Department University of Agriculture Faisalabad, respectively. Sex wise seroprevalence in horses was 9.67 and 17.7% in male and female, respectively. In relation to age, seroprevalence was 12.9, 16.5, 14.8 and 20.6%, in horses of 1-5, 6-10, 11-15 and above 15 years of age, respectively. Highest seroprevalence was recorded in horses of above 15 years of age. Depending upon the body condition, the seroprevalence was 9.7, 13, and 20% in poor fair, and good body conditioned horses, respectively. Seroprevalence of brucellosis on the basis of parity was 19.2, 20.9, 18.7, 16.6, and 21.1% in 0, 1, 2, 3 and above 3 foaling females, respectively. Prevalence of brucellosis in different breeds of horses was 22.4, 17.1, 25.7 and 0.0% in Desi, Thoroughbred, Crossbred and Arabian horses, respectively. However, statistically, in relation to various factors like source, sex, body condition, parity and breed of horses, a non significant difference was observed among various groups. Statistically a significant difference (P<0.001 in seroprevalence was observed with respect to age, only.

  15. Wrist loading patterns during pommel horse exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, K L; Shapiro, M S; Mandelbaum, B R; Teurlings, L

    1990-01-01

    Gymnastics is a sport which involves substantial periods of upper extremity support as well as frequent impacts to the wrist. Not surprisingly, wrist pain is a common finding in gymnasts. Of all events, the pommel horse is the most painful. In order to study the forces of wrist impact, a standard pommel horse was instrumented with a specially designed load cell to record the resultant force of the hand on the pommel during a series of basic skills performed by a group of seventeen elite male gymnasts. The highest mean peak forces were recorded during the front scissors and flair exercises (1.5 BW) with peaks of up to 2.0 BW for some gymnasts. The mean peak force for hip circles at the center or end of the horse was 1.1 BW. The mean overall loading rate (initial contact to first loading peak) ranged from 5.2 BWs-1 (hip circles) to 10.6 BW s-1 (flairs). However, many recordings displayed localized initial loading spikes which occurred during 'hard' landings on the pommel. When front scissors were performed in an aggressive manner, the initial loading spikes averaged 1.0 BW in magnitude (maximum 1.8 BW) with an average rise time of 8.2 ms; calculated localized loading rates averaged 129 BW s-1 (maximum 219 BW s-1). These loading parameters are comparable to those encountered at heel strike during running. These impact forces and loading rates are remarkably high for an upper extremity joint not normally exposed to weight-bearing loads, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of wrist injuries in gymnastics.

  16. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  17. Bioavailability of pivampicillin and ampicillin trihydrate administered as an oral paste in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, JM; Mol, A; Vulto, AG; Tukker, JJ

    1996-01-01

    Pivampicillin was administered as an oral paste to five healthy adult horses, and an oral paste with ampicillin trihydrate was administered to three horses, Pivampicillin was administered to both starved and fed horses, ampicillin trihydrate was administered to fed horses only, The dose of

  18. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are introduced...

  19. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions of...

  20. 9 CFR 93.313 - Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appearance of disease among horses in...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.313 Appearance of disease among horses in quarantine. If any contagious disease appears among horses during the quarantine period special...

  1. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...

  2. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Canada, the importer or his or her agent...

  3. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  4. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be...

  5. Negative contrast peritoneography in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, K.C.K.; Kerr, L.Y.; Meagher, D.M.; Baker, T.W.; Kurpershoek, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of negative contrast peritoneography using CO 2 peritoneal insufflation technique was investigated in adult horses. Radiographic visualization of anatomic structures in the dorsal abdomen, including the kidneys, portions of the spleen and liver, dorsal stomach and mesenteric root region, was enhanced. Visualization of ventral abdominal structures was not enhanced. Negative contrast peritoneography allowed reduction in the radiographic technique from 140 kVp and 40 mAs before insufflation to 100 kVp and 5–10 mAs following insufflation. The technique was easily and safely performed with minimal patient discomfort and risk

  6. The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitaleri, C., E-mail: spitaleri@lns.infn.it [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute (United States); Blokhintsev, L. D. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Cognata, M. La [Universita degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The study of energy production and nucleosynthesis in stars requires an increasingly precise knowledge of the nuclear reaction rates at the energies of interest. To overcome the experimental difficulties arising from the small cross sections at those energies and from the presence of the electron screening, the Trojan Horse Method has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available.

  7. Congenital hypotrichosis in a Percheron draught horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, B A; Hedstrom, O R; Miller, W H; Scott, D W; Mathies, S

    2001-08-01

    A blue roan Percheron foal was born with poorly circumscribed patchy alopecia of the trunk and legs. Teeth and hoof development were normal. Alopecia was progressive, becoming almost complete by 1 year of age. Histopathological findings in a skin biopsy obtained at 7 months of age were consistent with severe follicular hypoplasia. Sebaceous glands, epitrichial sweat glands and arrector pilae muscles were normal. The horse is alive and otherwise well at 6 years of age, although adult stature is considered small for this breed. The clinical history and histopathological findings are most consistent with a form of congenital hypotrichosis.

  8. Osteoma of paranasal sinuses of a horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, J.; Smith, B.L.; Morgan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was examined for torticollis, facial protuberances over the frontal and maxillary sinuses, and persistent nasal discharge unresponsive to antibiotics. Radiograph revealed an osseous mass in the right paranasal sinuses. Histologic examination of the biopsied mass led to a diagnosis of osteoma. The mass was removed surgically in sections from the right frontal and maxillary sinuses through separate bone flaps, and sinuses were irrigated with saline solution for 8 days after surgery. Two weeks after surgery, radiography revealed small osseous opacities in the right paranasal sinuses. These opacities remained unchanged in radiographs obtained up to 23 months after surgery

  9. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  10. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is ∼ 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends ∼1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of ∼1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top

  11. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  12. Common slavic *komońь "horse"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common Slavic name for horse *koń', with a probably older, yet geographically more limited variant *komoń', has so far no generally accepted etymology. Given the great importance of this animal in the prehistory and the early history of the Indo-European and other peoples of Eurasia, this sets a problem not only for linguists, but also for historians and archeologists. The PIE word for horse, *ekuos, attested among all other branches of IE linguistic family, originally must have been common to the Slavs, as it was to their Baltic, Iranian and German neighbors, but at a later moment - which is hard to determine precisely, although we can assign it to a time before the disintegration of Slavic linguistic unity around the middle of the first millennium A. D. - for this inherited designation the new one *ko(moń' was substituted, either as a lexical innovation made by the Slavs themselves or as a borrowing from another language. Under the entries *komoń' and *koń' of the Moscow dictionary, where their continuations in Slavic languages are respectively listed, O. N. Trubachev gives a survey of previous etymological proposals and rejects all of them in favor of his own explanations. According to him, *komoń' is a Slavic onomatopoeic creation imitative of neigh, while *koń' is a loan-word, going back to Celtic *konkos/kankos 'horse' (originally 'springer'? through an intermediate form *konk', which was presumably understood as a diminutive in -'k'' and consequently shortened. Apart from the facts that the word in question is scarcely attested in comparison with two others Celtic designations for horse, *equo- (> Olr. ech, Gall, epo- and *marka-, and that in Slavic mouth it should have been reflected as *kok'', and not as *kon'k'', the very separation of both forms, *koń' and *komoń', seems unmethodical. With more reason Gamkrelidze and Ivanov recur to the old proposal connecting *koń' via *komoń' (<**kobn-? with *kobyla and further with

  13. Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Y; Noda, H; Nagahata, H

    1992-08-01

    Serological survey of Rhodococcus equi infection in horses in Hokkaido was performed using ELISA. Of 2,879 horse sera, 318 (11.0%) gave antibody-positive (OD greater than or equal to 0.3) reactions. The antibody-positive rate of female was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that of male, and no statistical difference between Anglo-Arab and thoroughbred was detected in the antibody-positive rate. The maximum antibody-positive rate (27.1%) was shown at 14 years of age. The antibody-positive rates on the 160 farms were found to vary widely from 0 to 78.9%. A significant difference (p less than 0.01) in the antibody-positive rate was detected among horse farms. It was elucidated that 100 (62.5%) out of 160 horse farms had an antibody-positive horse. These results indicate that R. equi was widespread on horse farms, and the level of environmental contamination with R. equi differed among horse farms.

  14. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  15. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do horses with poor welfare show `pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S.; Fureix, C.; Rowberry, R.; Bateson, M.; Hausberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations ( e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions ( e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food (`positive' location) or unpalatable food (`negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  17. Do horses with poor welfare show 'pessimistic' cognitive biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Fureix, C; Rowberry, R; Bateson, M; Hausberger, M

    2017-02-01

    This field study tested the hypothesis that domestic horses living under putatively challenging-to-welfare conditions (for example involving social, spatial, feeding constraints) would present signs of poor welfare and co-occurring pessimistic judgement biases. Our subjects were 34 horses who had been housed for over 3 years in either restricted riding school situations (e.g. kept in single boxes, with limited roughage, ridden by inexperienced riders; N = 25) or under more naturalistic conditions (e.g. access to free-range, kept in stable social groups, leisure riding; N = 9). The horses' welfare was assessed by recording health-related, behavioural and postural indicators. Additionally, after learning a location task to discriminate a bucket containing either edible food ('positive' location) or unpalatable food ('negative' location), the horses were presented with a bucket located near the positive position, near the negative position and halfway between the positive and negative positions to assess their judgement biases. The riding school horses displayed the highest levels of behavioural and health-related problems and a pessimistic judgment bias, whereas the horses living under more naturalistic conditions displayed indications of good welfare and an optimistic bias. Moreover, pessimistic bias data strongly correlated with poor welfare data. This suggests that a lowered mood impacts a non-human species' perception of its environment and highlights cognitive biases as an appropriate tool to assess the impact of chronic living conditions on horse welfare.

  18. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernislav GÁLIK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings. The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Higher digestibility of calcium (Ca (71.11% vs. 69.09% and phosphorus (P (52.74% vs. 47.55% was determined in horses fed the phytogenic additives (P>0.05. In this group of horses we found significantly (P<0.05 higher digestibility of magnesium (Mg, 64.32% in comparison with the control group (43.55%. Insignificantly differences in sodium (Na digestibility we found (75.98% in control group vs. 76.58% in experimental group. Significantly (P<0.05 higher potassium (K digestibility we found in horses fed with phytoadditives (57.11%. In horses fed without phytoadditives we detected significantly (P<0.05 lower digestibility of K (30.55%. In conclusion, we found positive effects of a phytogenic additive on macroelements faecal digestibility in sport horses.

  19. [Two horses with neurological symptoms: could this be equine botulism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, H I J; de Bruijn, C M; Picavet, M T J E; Prins, B; Parmentier, D; de Zwart, G M A M; Dijkstra, Y E; van Zijderveld, F G

    2009-10-01

    Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of equine botulism are discussed by the presentation of two detailed reports of horses with neurological symptoms and the results of laboratory investigations over the period 2003-2008 in the Netherlands. In addition a brief summary of the available literature is presented. Prevailing symptoms of botulism in horses include paralysis of the tongue, salvation, dysphagia and paresis and paralysis of the skeletal muscles, as well as signs of colic. Symptoms and prognosis vary with the amount of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) involved. For early clinical diagnosis of botulism thorough investigation of the facial nerves is important, for instance by the use of the 'Tongue Stress Test'. Laboratory results often remain negative, probably due to the sampling time, the high sensitivity of horses for botulinum neurotoxin or treatment with antitoxins. Most clinical cases in horses are caused by botulinum neurotoxin B (BoNT/B). For therapy to be successful antiserum needs to be administered in the earliest possible stage of the disease and this should be supported by symptomatic therapy. Botulism is a feed-related intoxication caused by either carcasses in the roughage or BoNT/B production after poor conservation of grass silage. This is the main source of botulism in horses due to the popularity of individually packed grass silage as feed for horses. As long as no vaccine is available in the Netherlands quality control of silage and haylage is strictly recommended in order to reduce the risk of botulism in horses.

  20. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Martínez, L M; Redding, W R; Bladon, B; Wilderjans, H; Payne, R J; Tessier, C; Geffroy, O; Parker, R; Bell, C; Collingwood, F A

    2018-01-01

    Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Multicentre retrospective case series. Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained from re-examination visits and/or owners. Twenty-one cases were identified at 9 equine hospitals between 2004 and 2016. A history of trauma and acute onset of lameness was reported in 12 horses. All cases underwent fracture removal via arthroscopy of the medial femorotibial joint. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in 6 horses and damaged in 15 horses (damage was ≤25% [n = 9], 25-50% [n = 4] or ≥50% [n = 2] of the cross-sectional area). The cranial ligament of the medial meniscus was damaged in 11 horses (≤25% [n = 8], 25-50% [n = 3]). The medial meniscus was damaged in 5 horses and articular cartilage damage was identified in 14 horses (mild [n = 8], moderate [n = 6]). Follow-up information (median 14 months; 4 months-6 years) was available for 20 cases; 2 horses were sound but convalescing; 13 horses were sound and returned to their previous or expected use. Of the 4 horses with the most severe changes to the articular soft tissue structures, 2 remained lame and 2 were subjected to euthanasia because of persistent lameness. The retrospective, multicentre nature of this study and the limited number of horses are the main limitations. Fractures of the MICET are commonly associated with a traumatic event. Prompt diagnosis and early arthroscopic removal of the fracture are recommended. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  1. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Technique-associated outcomes in horses following large colon resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzanite, Lynn M; Hackett, Eileen S

    2017-11-01

    To compare survival and complications in horses undergoing large colon resection with either sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses. Retrospective cohort study. Twenty-six client-owned horses with gastrointestinal disease. Retrospective data were retrieved from the medical records of 26 horses undergoing colectomy, including 14 horses with sutured end-to-end and 12 horses with stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses, between 2003 and 2016. Records were evaluated for signalment, medical and surgical treatments, and survival to hospital discharge. Long-term follow-up was obtained through owner contact. Continuous variables were compared with Mann-Whitney tests. Fisher's exact testing was used to compare survival to hospital discharge. Survival time was compared by constructing Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performing log-rank curve comparison testing. Mean age of horses undergoing colectomy was 13 years. Reason for colectomy was prophylaxis (12) or salvage (14). Mean surgical time was 169 minutes. Mean hospitalization time was 9 days, which did not differ with anastomosis type (P = .62). Nine of 12 horses undergoing stapled functional end-to-end anastomosis and 12 of 14 horses undergoing sutured end-to-end anastomosis survived to hospital discharge (P = .63). Survival time did not differ with anastomosis technique (P = .35). Short- and long-term survival outcomes are not different between sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses in horses undergoing colectomy. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M. E-mail: mdepoli@lnl.infn.it; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S.O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 {mu}g/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  5. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S.O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present

  6. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S. O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  7. Combustion Characteristics of Impregnated and Surface-treated Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. Wood Left Outdoors for One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Said Fidan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating wood with impregnating materials in order to improve resistance to burning is a commonly employed safety measure. In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. wood samples were impregnated using either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB according to ASTM-D 1413-76 and surface-treated using water-based or synthetic varnish according to ASTM-D 3023. These samples were used to investigate the combustion characteristics of samples left outdoors for one year as detailed in ASTM-E 160-50. The combustion temperatures of the samples left outdoors were similar upon impregnation with either Tanalith-E or Wolmanit-CB. However, the combustion temperature of the samples treated with synthetic varnish was lower than those that were treated with water-based varnish. The time to collapse and the total duration of combustion of the samples left outdoors were shorter for those impregnated with Wolmanit-CB. Weight loss of the samples left outdoors was higher for those that were impregnated with Tanalith-E and treated with water-based varnish. Gas analysis of the samples that were left outdoors indicated that the O2 content of flue gas from samples that were impregnated with Wolmanit-CB and treated with synthetic varnish was high and the CO content of flue gas from the same samples was low.

  8. A tangled tale of two teal: Population history of the grey Anas gracilis and chestnut teal a. castanea of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, L.; Adcock, G.J.; Linde, C.; Omland, K.E.; Heinsohn, R.; Terry, Chesser R.; Roshier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two Australian species of teal (Anseriformes: Anatidae: Anas), the grey teal Anas gracilis and the chestnut teal A. castanea, are remarkable for the zero or near-zero divergence recorded between them in earlier surveys of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. We confirmed this result through wider geographical and population sampling as well as nucleotide sampling in the more rapidly evolving mtDNA control region. Any data set where two species share polymorphism as is the case here can be explained by a model of gene flow through hybridization on one hand or by incomplete lineage sorting on the other hand. Ideally, analysis of such shared polymorphism would simultaneously estimate the likelihood of both phenomena. To do this, we used the underlying principle of the IMa package to explore ramifications to understanding population histories of A. gracilis and A. castanea. We cannot reject that hybridization occurs between the two species but an equally or more plausible finding for their nearly zero divergence is incomplete sorting following very recent divergence between the two, probably in the mid-late Pleistocene. Our data add to studies that explore intermediate stages in the evolution of reciprocal monophyly and paraphyletic or polyphyletic relationships in mtDNA diversity among widespread Australian birds. ?? 2009 J. Avian Biol.

  9. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  10. Optimization of water curing for the preservation of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) and evaluation of microbial dynamics during process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Annalisa; Coppola, Raffaele; Aponte, Maria

    2014-09-01

    Chestnuts are very perishable fruits, whose quality may be compromised during postharvest handling. Damage can be caused both by insects and fungi. Water curing, a commonly used postharvest method, is based on soaking fruits in water typically for about one week. Factors that affect effectiveness of water curing have only been explained partially. A decrease in pH, likely imputable to a light fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria, may inhibit the growth of moulds. In this study a Lactobacillus pentosus strain was selected for its ability to inhibit fungi, and used as a starter culture during water curing. As second goal, a reduction of the environmental impact of the process was evaluated by using water that had been re-cycled from a previous curing treatment. Experiments were performed on pilot as well as on farm scale. In all trials, microbial dynamics were evaluated by means of a polyphasic approach including conventional and molecular-based analyses. According to results, the employment of an adjunct culture appears as a very promising opportunity. Even if no reduction in the duration of the process was achieved, waters exhibited a minor microbial complexity and fruits did not lose the natural lustre after the process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endoscopic findings of the stomach in pleasure horses in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to determine the prevalence of ulcers in the gastric squamous and glandular mucosa in Polish pleasure horses. Study design Medical records from gastroscopic examinations of 108 pleasure horses of different breeds were reviewed. The study population consisted of two groups; group I (n = 48) with horses that expressed mild clinical signs of gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) including poor appetite, slight weight loss or poor body condition, and group II (n = 60) with horses that had no signs of gastrointestinal problems. The age range was 4–10 years, including 5 males, 34 castrated males (geldings) and 69 mares. The prevalence, distribution and severity of gastric ulcers were recorded. Lesions involving the squamous mucosa and the glandular mucosa of the antrum and pylorus were graded and compared between groups. Results Significant difference was found in the presence and severity of gastric ulcers between the two groups of horses. The overall prevalence of gastric ulcers in the first group of horses (n = 48) was 59% while in the group of clinically healthy horses (n = 60) the prevalence of gastric lesion was 40% (P = 0.004). Almost 19% of horses from group I had between 6–10 lesions (EGUS score III) and nearly 19% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). The number of ulcerations in affected horses were significantly lower in group II compared to group I (P = 0.016) as 10% of horses had 6–10 lesions (EGUS number score III) and nearly 14% had either >10 localized lesions or very large diffuse lesions (EGUS number score IV). Gastroscopy revealed that nearly 32% of horses from the second group had an ulceration EGUS score ≥ II. Discussion and conclusions This study confirms that gastric ulcerations can be prevalent in apparently clinically normal pleasure horses and a complete gastroscopic examination including the examination of the pylorus is advisable

  12. The application of learning theory in horse training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Andrew N.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2017-01-01

    The millennia-old practices of horse training markedly predate and thus were isolated from the mid-twentieth century revelation of animal learning processes. From this standpoint, the progress made in the application and understanding of learning theory in horse training is reviewed including...... on the correct application of learning theory, and safety and welfare benefits for people and horses would follow. Finally it is also proposed that the term ‘conflict theory’ be taken up in equitation science to facilitate diagnosis of training-related behaviour disorders and thus enable the emergence...

  13. Metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad fibrotic proliferation in 63 horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabareiner, R.M.; White, N.A.; Sullins, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Medical records, radiographs, and sonograms of 63 horses with metacarpophalangeal joint synovial pad proliferation were examined retrospectively. AR horses had lameness, joint effusion, or both signs associated with one or both metacarpophalangeal joints. Bony remodeling and concavity of the distodorsal aspect of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) just proximal to the metacarpal condyles was identified by radiography in 71 joints (93%); 24 joints (32%) had radiographic evidence of a chip fracture located at the proximal dorsal aspect of the proximal phalanx. Fifty-four joints (71%) were examined by ultrasound. The mean +- SD sagittal thickness of the synovial pad was 11.3 +- 2.8 mm. Seventy-nine percent of the horses had single joint involvement with equal distribution between the right and left forelimbs. Sixty-eight joints in 55 horses were treated by arthroscopic surgery. Sixty joints (88%) had debridement of chondral or osteochondral fragmentation from the dorsal surface of Mc3 beneath the synovial pad and 30 joints (44%) had a bone chip fracture removed from the medial or lateral proximal dorsal eminence of the proximal phalanx. Complete or partial excision of both medial and lateral synovial pads was completed in 42 joints. Only the medial synovial pad was excised or trimmed in 21 joints, and 5 joints had only the lateral pad removed. Eight joints in eight horses were treated by stall rest, administration of intra-articular medication and systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Follow-up information was obtained for 50 horses treated surgically and for eight horses treated medically. Forty-three (86%) that had surgery returned to racing; 34 (68%) raced at an equivalent or better level than before surgery. Three (38%) of the medically treated horses returned to racing; only one horse raced better than the preinjury level. Horses that returned to racing at a similar or equal level of performance were significantly younger in age than horses returning at a

  14. Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The mission of the Coatings and Corrosion Laboratory is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of innovative coatings test procedures while evaluating the...

  15. Differences in serum protein 2D gel electrophoresis patterns of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsuren, Enkhbolor; Namkhai, Bandi; Kong, Hong Sik

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess differences in serum protein expression profiles of Przewalski's (Mongolian wild horse) and thoroughbred horses using proteome analysis. The serum proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and five different gene products were identified. Proteins represented by the five spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS technology. The identities of all proteins were deduced based on their similarity to proteins in the human plasma protein database. Three proteins (a haptoglobin-2 alpha glycoprotein and two haptoglobin-2beta glycoproteins with different accession numbers) were downregulated in Przewalski's horse sera compared to thoroughbred horse sera. Moreover, two proteins (tetraspanin-18 and pM5) were upregulated in Przewalski's horses compared to thoroughbred horses. Haptoglobin-2 alpha and haptoglobin-2beta may serve as candidate molecules in future studies of inflammation, coagulation, immune modulation and pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity with consequential effects on the entire metabolism of the horse. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Ascione, Frank R.; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues. PMID:29466458

  17. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Griffiths, Mark D; Ascione, Frank R; Wilson, Bethany

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533) to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males) who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males) who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  18. Flogging tired horses: Who wants whipping and who would walk away if whipping horses were withheld?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Recent studies have cast doubt on the effectiveness of whipping horses during races and this has led to questions concerning its continuing justification. Furthermore, it has been argued that whipping tired horses in racing is the most televised form of violence to animals. The present study used de-identified data from a recent independent Australian poll (n = 1,533 to characterise the 26% of respondents (113 females and 271 males who support the whipping of racehorses and the 10% of racing enthusiasts in the sample (44 females and 63 males who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned. Logistic regression models examining associations between age, gender, and income level of respondents demonstrated that those who support racehorse whipping are significantly more likely to be male. Among racing enthusiasts who would stop watching races and betting on them if whipping were banned, those in the lowest income bracket were over-represented. The more frequently respondents attended races or gambled on them, the more likely they were to agree that horses should be hit with a whip during the normal course of a race. These findings align with previous studies of violence among men and women but may also be attributed to male support of traditional gambling practices. Globally, racing organisations may consider the findings of the present study helpful in their deliberations on the merits of continuing the practice of whipping tired horses in the name of sport. The study might also provide important data for stakeholders who demand that it continues.

  19. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  20. Graphene Coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoot, Adam Carsten; Camilli, Luca; Bøggild, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Owing to its remarkable electrical and mechanical properties, graphene has been attracting tremendous interest in materials science. In particular, its chemical stability and impermeability make it a promising protective membrane. However, recent investigations reveal that single layer graphene...... cannot be used as a barrier in the long run, due to galvanic corrosion phenomena arising when oxygen or water penetrate through graphene cracks or domain boundaries. Here, we overcome this issue by using a multilayered (ML) graphene coating. Our lab- as well as industrial-scale tests demonstrate that ML...... graphene can effectively protect Ni in harsh environments, even after long term exposure. This is made possible by the presence of a high number of graphene layers, which can efficiently mask the cracks and domain boundaries defects found in individual layers of graphene. Our findings thus show...

  1. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  2. Variability of albumin in blood serum as a possible reflection of evolutional influence of diluvial horses on population of native mountain horse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trailović Ružica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Native mountain horse is an autochthonous ungulata with a domicile extending to the whole mountaneous region of Serbia, south of the Sava and Danube rivers. Along with native horses of other Balkan countries it is classified as Mediterranean pony, but unlike Balkan horses such as Skiros, Pinea, Pindos, Karakachan, Bosnian mountineous horse etc., mountineous horses in Serbia neither have been morphologically described nor were of concern to the scientific community till the end of the twentieth century. Investigations of albumin polymorphism in blood serum of native mountain horse were taken within a comprehensive reserch on morphologic, physiologic and genetic structure of this autochtonous ungulata breed. On the basis of the results obtained by electrophoretic separation of albumine types in native mountaneous horse blood serum, there were determined four albumine phenotypes: AA, AB, BB and BI which are inherited by three autosomal alleles AlA, Alb, All . The appearance of All allele in native mountaneous horse population points out to diluvial forest horse impact on process of microevolution of autochtonous native mountaneous horse. Occidental- specific albumin isoforms presence indicate the necessity of thorough study of evolution position and historic influence of different ancestors, and especially occidental horses on native mountain horse population in Serbia.

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of German heavy draught horse breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2007-04-01

    We analysed a 610-bp mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop fragment in a sample of German draught horse breeds and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from Arabian, Hanoverian, Exmoor, Icelandic, Sorraia and Przewalski's Horses as well as with Suffolk, Shire and Belgian horses. In a total of 65 horses, 70 polymorphic sites representing 47 haplotypes were observed. The average percentage of polymorphic sites was 11.5% for the mtDNA fragment analysed. In the nine different draught horse breeds including South German, Mecklenburg, Saxon Thuringa coldblood, Rhenisch German, Schleswig Draught Horse, Black Forest Horse, Shire, Suffolk and Belgian, 61 polymorphic sites and 24 haplotypes were found. The phylogenetic analysis failed to show monophyletic groups for the draught horses. The analysis indicated that the draught horse populations investigated consist of diverse genetic groups with respect to their maternal lineage.

  4. Welfare, Quality of Life, and Euthanasia of Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Catherine M; Ireland, Joanne L

    2016-08-01

    Duration of ownership strengthens the human-horse bond, affecting decision-making about the horse's welfare, quality of life (QoL), and euthanasia. Most owners consider their geriatric horses to have good or excellent QoL; however, increasing age is negatively associated with QoL. Management factors are important. The most common reasons for euthanasia include musculoskeletal disorders or lameness, colic, and nonspecific chronic diseases. The decision to euthanize is difficult, so the advice of the veterinarian and QoL are important. This article focuses on the human-horse bond, assessment of QoL, reasons for euthanasia, and owner experiences of mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined active-passive immunisation of horses against tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liefman, C E

    1980-03-01

    The protection afforded by active, passive and combined active-passive methods of immunisation against tetanus was examined in previously unimmunised horses. Three groups of horses were injected; one with tetanus toxoid alone, one with tetanus antitoxin alone and one in which the tetanus toxoid and tetanus antitoxin were injected simultaneously. The protection afforded was determined by monitoring the levels of antitoxin achieved in the horses by each of these methods. The results obtained demonstrated the effectiveness of the combined active-passive method in affording rapid and prolonged protection and enabled the examination of some of the factors involved in active and in passive immunisation when used alone. The advantages obtained by the use of the combined active-passive method in protecting unimmunised horses suddenly placed at risk to infection are outlined.

  6. Daily variability of strongyle fecal egg counts in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Helena; Larsen, Lene; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses and constitute a potential threat to equine health. Feces were collected from six horses four times daily over a period of 5 days. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed to identify any diurnal rhythms in strongyle egg shedding and to quantify...... variability at the different levels: individual horses, repeated counts, repeated subsamples, different time points, and different days. No significant differences in FECs were found between the different time points (P = .11). The variables-horse, day, subsample, and egg count-accounted for a variance of 104...... subsamples and repeated egg counts on the same subsamples, whereas the variability of FECs between following days can be considered negligible. The findings of this study have implication for designing and performing field surveillance of strongyle FEC levels and applying the FEC reduction test...

  7. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena

    and fibrinogen to differentiate between horses with infectious non-surgical colic and surgical colic. Materials & Methods:The performance of the APPs was evaluated individually and in combination with clinical examination, as wells as traditional biomarkers in blood (WCC, PCV, TPP, lactate) and peritoneal fluid...... (PF) (haemolysis, WCC, total protein).Admission data collected prospectively from 148 horses with severe colic in one hospital was used to construct multivariate logistic models to predict if a horse had an infectious non-surgical colic. The models were based on 1) clinical evaluation, 2) clinical...... and blood evaluation and 3) clinical, blood and PF evaluation. Each model was independently validated against admission data from 78 horses in another hospital.Results and Discussion:The variables included in the final ‘clinical model’ were: Lethargy, temperature increase from 38◦C, gastric reflux 5-10L...

  8. Experimental rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) toxicosis in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayless goldenrod (Isocoma pluriflora) sporadically poisons horses and other livestock in the southwestern United States. Similar to livestock poisoning by white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) in the midwestern United States, previous research suggests that benzofuran ketones (BFK: tremetone, dehy...

  9. Effects of handling on fear reactions in young Icelandic horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsbøll, Anna Feldberg; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a short-term standardised handling procedure on reactions of young horses in 2 types of fear tests (including and excluding human handling). Study design An experimental study with 3-year-old Icelandic horses (n = 24). Methods Handled horses (n = 12) were trained according...... to a standardised handling procedure whereas controls (n = 12) remained untrained. Behavioural and heart rate responses in a novel object test and 2 handling fear tests (HFTs) were measured. The HFTs were conducted with both an unknown (HFT-unknown) and a known handler (HFT-known). Results There was no effect...... correlated significantly between tests. Conclusions Previous handling may affect the behavioural fear response of horses when handled by their usual handler, whereas this effect did not apply to an unknown handler. Heart rates appeared unaffected by handling and may be a more reliable indicator...

  10. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis fishery off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1940s, mainly by purse-seiners operating off the. West ... near Mossel Bay to East London were carried out in ... West Coast (including Namibia) and South Coast population of horse mackerel, ..... spawning behaviour, as reported for mackerel.

  11. West Nile virus infection in horses, Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, E; Bernard, C; Lecollinet, S; Rakotoharinome, V M; Ravaomanana, J; Roger, M; Olive, M M; Meenowa, D; Jaumally, M R; Melanie, J; Héraud, J M; Zientara, S; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-08-01

    The circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in horses was investigated in the Southwest Indian ocean. In 2010, blood samples were collected from a total of 303 horses originating from Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion and the Seychelles and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. An overall seroprevalence of 27.39% was detected in the Indian Ocean with the highest WNV antibody prevalence of 46.22% (95% CI: [37.4-55.2%]) in Madagascar. The age and origin of the horses were found to be associated with the WNV infection risk. This paper presents the first seroprevalence study investigating WN fever in horses in the Southwest Indian Ocean area and indicates a potential risk of infection for humans and animals. In order to gain a better understanding of WN transmission cycles, WNV surveillance needs to be implemented in each of the countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infection of immunodeficient horses with Sarcocystis neurona does not result in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, Debra C; Knowles, Donald P; Greiner, Ellis C; Long, Maureen T; Hines, Melissa T; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B

    2004-11-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 x 10(5) sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 x 10(8) merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease.

  13. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf toxicosis in horses: a retrospective study of 32 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alward, Ashley; Corriher, Candice A; Barton, Michelle H; Sellon, Debra C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Jones, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of wilted red maple leaves by horses can result in severe hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. Little is known about what factors influence the outcome of red maple leaf toxicosis in horses. Our hypothesis was that physical examination findings, clinicopathologic variables or therapeutic modalities may predict outcome in horses with red maple leaf toxicity. Horses with red maple leaf toxicosis presented to referral hospitals in the southeast region of the United States. A multi-institutional retrospective study was designed to identify factors that predict mortality in horses with red maple toxicosis. Thirty-two horses with red maple toxicosis were identified, 19 of which died. Twenty-nine horses presented with anemia and 24 had clinicopathologic evidence of systemic inflammation. Renal insufficiency was identified in 12/30 (41%) horses. Laminitis (9/28) and colic (13/30) also were identified in horses with red maple toxicosis, but development of these 2 conditions did not have a negative effect on short-term survival. Horses with red maple toxicosis that survived to discharge were likely to have developed pyrexia during hospitalization (P = .030). Horses that were treated with a corticosteroid had a significantly increased likelihood of death (P = .045). There was no significant relationship between initial serum hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin concentration, or percentage methemoglobin and mortality in this horse series. This study suggests that information obtained on initial examination cannot be used to accurately predict survival in horses with red maple toxicosis, but horses that receive corticosteroids are unlikely to survive.

  14. Chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, K; Janssens, S; Buys, N

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this review was to summarise and evaluate the current state of knowledge about chronic progressive lymphoedema in draught horses. Clinical signs of this multifactorial disorder are mainly restricted to the lower limbs, comprising progressively deteriorating skin, swelling and deformation. Although typical lesions were first reported at the beginning of the 20th century, chronic progressive lymphoedema was recognised as a specific syndrome only in 2003, and since then research has driven forward. Despite the high prevalence in some breeds and the serious economic impact, the pathogenesis is not fully understood, and the available treatment options remain symptomatic and noncurative. There is a need to improve diagnostic techniques and to develop selection tools. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  15. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  16. Auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Schade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses, one hundred animals ranging between one and twenty-six years of age (21 stallions, nine geldings, 27 pregnant mares e 43 not pregnant mares were evaluated. The cardiac auscultation was performed during the clinical examination of the cardiovascular system, evaluating frequency, rate, normal and abnormal heart sounds (heart murmurs. The electrocardiographic examination followed the bipolar base-apex derivative system with animals at rest, by using an ECG-PC TEB equipment. The cardiac frequency, heart rate, morphology, duration, wave and complex amplitudes and interval durations were determined. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests with an error probability of 5%. The cardiac auscultation revealed presence of functional systolic and diastolic murmur (10.00% and systolic murmur compatible with tricuspid regurgitation besides normal heart sounds S1 (100.0%, S2 (100.0%, S3 (19.0% and S4 (34.0%. The cardiac frequency obtained the average of 43.64 bpm, observing significative differences in relation to sexual and age factors and training level. The sinus rhythm was the most frequent (57.00%, followed by sinus tachycardia (38.00% and sinus arrhythmia (5.00%, being observed rhythm disturbances in 16% of tracings. The P and T waves were observed more frequently in their forms P bifida positive (95.00% and biphasic T (91.00%, being variable at tracing. There were also observed Q waves in 12.00% of the tracings. Thus, it was concluded that the auscultatory characteristics of Crioulo horses are according to the described in the literature for the species and the sexual factor, category, age factor and training level can influence some electrocardiographic parameters.

  17. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  18. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  19. Evaluation of coronary band temperatures in healthy horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmeier, Jesper G.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    2012-01-01

    To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature.......To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature....

  20. Cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, T; Giguère, S; Rapoport, G; Barton, M H; Coleman, A E

    2016-05-01

    Pimobendan is an inodilator used in dogs for the management of heart failure due to myxomatous valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy. The lack of data regarding the effects of pimobendan in horses prevents the rational use of this drug. To determine the cardiovascular effects of pimobendan in healthy mature horses. Randomised experimental study. Five horses were fasted overnight prior to receiving i.v. pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt), intragastric (i.g.) pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg bwt) or i.g. placebo with a washout period of one week between each administration. Horses were instrumented for the measurement of right ventricular (RV) minimum pressure, RV maximum pressure, RV end diastolic pressure, and maximum rate of increase and decrease in RV pressure before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h after drug administration. Arterial blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output and heart rate were measured at the same time points. Data were expressed as a maximum percentage of change over baseline values. There were no adverse effects associated with administration of pimobendan. The percentage increase in heart rate was significantly greater for horses given pimobendan i.g. (33 ± 4%) and i.v. (36 ± 14%) than for those given a placebo (-2 ± 7%). The percentage increase in maximum rate of increase in RV pressure (35 ± 36%) and the percentage decrease in minimum pressure (47 ± 24%) and end diastolic pressure (34 ± 13%) were significantly greater in horses given pimobendan i.v. than in those given placebo. Other variables measured were not significantly different between treatment groups. Pimobendan administered i.v. has positive chronotropic and inotropic effects in healthy mature horses and warrants further investigation for the treatment of heart failure in horses. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  2. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  3. Bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract in 34 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racklyeft, D J; Love, D N

    2000-08-01

    To investigate associations between the bacteriology and aspects of history, clinical presentation, outcome and pathology of lower respiratory tract disease of 34 horses. Detailed aerobic and anaerobic bacteriological investigations were performed on clinical specimens from horses with pneumonia, lung abscessation and necrotic pneumonia with or without pleurisy in an attempt to identify those bacteria that might contribute to the initiation and progression of infection. Bacteria were cultured from 33 of the 34 horses. In ten cases, only aerobic/facultatively anaerobic isolates were cultured while aerobic/facultatively anaerobic bacteria and obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated in the other 23 cases. Moderate to large numbers of anaerobic bacteria were isolated only when the estimated duration of illness was at least five days. Bacteria were not cultured from 12 of the pleural fluid samples but were always cultured from pulmonary samples (either transtracheal aspirates from live horses or pulmonary lesions at necropsy). Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus was isolated in the three cases where only one bacterial species was cultured. In the other 30 cases, multiple species were isolated. These included most often and in greatest numbers, Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus, Pasteurellaceae, Escherichia coli, anaerobic cocci, Eubacterium fossor, Bacteroides tectum, Prevotella heparinolytica, Fusobacterium spp, and pigmented members of the genera Prevotella and Porphyromonas. Aerobic/facultatively anaerobic organisms were isolated from 97% of horses, while obligately anaerobic organisms were cultured from 68% of horses. There was no association between the isolation of any specific bacterium and the outcome of disease. However, obligately anaerobic bacteria (such as anaerobic cocci, Bacteroides tectum, P heparinolytica and Fusobacterium spp) and the facultatively anaerobic species Escherichia coli, were recovered more commonly from horses that died or were

  4. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  5. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  6. Mechanics of evolutionary digit reduction in fossil horses (Equidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHorse, Brianna K; Biewener, Andrew A; Pierce, Stephanie E

    2017-08-30

    Digit reduction is a major trend that characterizes horse evolution, but its causes and consequences have rarely been quantitatively tested. Using beam analysis on fossilized centre metapodials, we tested how locomotor bone stresses changed with digit reduction and increasing body size across the horse lineage. Internal bone geometry was captured from 13 fossil horse genera that covered the breadth of the equid phylogeny and the spectrum of digit reduction and body sizes, from Hyracotherium to Equus To account for the load-bearing role of side digits, a novel, continuous measure of digit reduction was also established-toe reduction index (TRI). Our results show that without accounting for side digits, three-toed horses as late as Parahippus would have experienced physiologically untenable bone stresses. Conversely, when side digits are modelled as load-bearing, species at the base of the horse radiation through Equus probably maintained a similar safety factor to fracture stress. We conclude that the centre metapodial compensated for evolutionary digit reduction and body mass increases by becoming more resistant to bending through substantial positive allometry in internal geometry. These results lend support to two historical hypotheses: that increasing body mass selected for a single, robust metapodial rather than several smaller ones; and that, as horse limbs became elongated, the cost of inertia from the side toes outweighed their utility for stabilization or load-bearing. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaapan, R M; Ghazy, A A

    2007-01-01

    Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked.

  8. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Tirosh-Levy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  9. Gasterophilus spp. infections in horses from northern and central Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrayev, Baltabek; Lider, Lyudmila; Bauer, Christian

    2015-01-15

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to obtain current data on the gastrointestinal myiasis of horses in the provinces of Kostanay, Akmola and Karagandy, northern and central Kazakhstan. The stomach, small intestine and rectum of 148 slaughter horses were examined for Gasterophilus spp. larvae during a 26-month study period. All horses were infected with 2nd and 3rd stage larvae (mean intensity: 803±350), and 22% of them harboured >1000 Gasterophilus spp. larvae each. Four species were identified: G. intestinalis (prevalence: 100%; mean intensity: 361±240 larvae), G. haemorrhoidalis (100%; 353±191), G. nasalis (100%; 73±36) and G. pecorum (91.2%; 18±10). Horses aged<2 years were higher infected with Gasterophilus larvae than 2-4 years old animals. Both the prevalence and extremely high intensity of Gasterophilus infections of horses in these Kazakh regions suggest respective control measurements to improve the health and performance of the animals and to increase the economic income of horse owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Resection and anastomosis of the descending colon in 43 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prange, Timo; Holcombe, Susan J; Brown, Jennifer A; Dechant, Julie E; Fubini, Susan L; Embertson, Rolf M; Peroni, John; Rakestraw, Peter C; Hauptman, Joe G

    2010-08-01

    To determine (1) the short- (to hospital discharge) and long- (>6 months) term survival, (2) factors associated with short-term survival, and (3) the perioperative course for horses with resection and anastomosis of the descending colon. Multicentered case series. Horses (n=43) that had descending colon resection and anastomosis. Medical records (January 1995-June 2009) of 7 equine referral hospitals were reviewed for horses that had descending colon resection and anastomosis and were recovered from anesthesia. Retrieved data included history, results of clinical and clinicopathologic examinations, surgical findings, postsurgical treatment and complications, and short-term survival (hospital discharge). Long-term survival was defined as survival > or =6 months after hospital discharge. Of 43 horses, 36 (84%) were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-eight of 30 horses with follow-up information survived > or =6 months. No significant associations between perioperative factors and short-term survival were identified. Lesions included strangulating lipoma (n=27), postfoaling trauma (4), infarction (4), intraluminal obstruction (2), and other (6). Common postoperative complications included fever and diarrhea. During hospitalization 7 horses were euthanatized or died because of septic peritonitis (3), endotoxemia (3), and colic and ileus (1). Descending colon resection and anastomosis has a favorable prognosis for hospital discharge and survival > or =6 months. The most common cause of small colon incarceration was strangulating lipoma. Complications include postoperative fever and diarrhea but the prognosis is good after small colon resection and anastomosis.

  11. Seroprevalence of Rhodococcus equi in horses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gürbilek, Sevil E; Tel, Osman Y; Keskin, Oktay; Steinman, Amir

    2017-06-26

    Rhodococcus equi is a common cause of pneumonia in foals and has extensive clinical, economic and possibly zoonotic consequences. This bacterium survives well in the environment and may be considered as normal flora of adult horses. Certain strains of this bacterium are extremely virulent in foals, and early identification and intervention is crucial for prognosis. Rhodococcus equi is endemic in many parts of the world and occasionally isolated in Israel. This study was designed to evaluate R. equi seroprevalence in adult horses in Israel to indirectly indicate the potential level of exposure of susceptible foals. Sera were collected from 144 horses during spring 2011 and from 293 horses during fall 2014, and the presence of antibodies against virulent R. equi was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Equine seroprevalence of R. equi was found to be 7.6% in 2011 and 5.1% in 2014. Only one farm had seropositive horses in 2011, whereas several farms had seropositive horses in 2014. No significant risk factors for seropositivity were found. Rhodococcus equi appears to be endemic in Israel. This is the first survey of R. equi in Israel that provides information on the epidemiology of this important bacterium.

  12. The use of nutritional supplements in dressage and eventing horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, C.; Gemmill, R.; Hollands, T.; Freeman, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine which types of nutritional supplements were used in dressage and eventing horses, and the reasons that owners used supplements. An online questionnaire was distributed through British Eventing and Dressage websites, to collect data on demographics of owners and their horses, supplements used and their opinion on health and performance problems. Data were evaluated using descriptive analysis, Sign and Fisher's exact tests for quantitative data, and categorisation of qualitative data. In total, 599 responses met the inclusion criteria (441 dressage and 158 eventing horse owners). Participants had 26.4 (3–60) (mean (range)) years of riding experience, owned 1.2 (0–10) horses and used 2 (0–12) supplements in their highest performing horse. The main health and performance issues identified for dressage were ‘energy/behaviour’, ‘lameness’ and ‘back and muscle problems’. The main issues for eventing were ‘stamina and fitness levels’,’ lameness’ and ‘energy/behaviour’. The main reasons for using supplements in their highest performing horse were ‘joints and mobility’, and ‘behaviour’ for dressage, and ‘electrolytes’, and ‘joints and mobility’ for eventing. Lameness and behavioural problems were significant concerns within both disciplines. There was incongruence between owners’ opinions of problems within their discipline and their reasons for using supplements. PMID:26925239

  13. Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment Induces Specific Alloantibodies in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. Owens

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unknown whether horses that receive allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs injections develop specific humoral immune response. Our goal was to develop and validate a flow cytometric MSC crossmatch procedure and to determine if horses that received allogeneic MSCs in a clinical setting developed measurable antibodies following MSC administration. Methods. Serum was collected from a total of 19 horses enrolled in 3 different research projects. Horses in the 3 studies all received unmatched allogeneic MSCs. Bone marrow (BM or adipose tissue derived MSCs (ad-MSCs were administered via intravenous, intra-arterial, intratendon, or intraocular routes. Anti-MSCs and anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies were detected via flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results. Overall, anti-MSC antibodies were detected in 37% of the horses. The majority of horses (89% were positive for anti-bovine serum albumin (BSA antibodies prior to and after MSC injection. Finally, there was no correlation between the amount of anti-BSA antibody and the development of anti-MSC antibodies. Conclusion. Anti allo-MSC antibody development was common; however, the significance of these antibodies is unknown. There was no correlation between either the presence or absence of antibodies and the percent antibody binding to MSCs and any adverse reaction to a MSC injection.

  14. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in draught and warmblood horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, O M; Hartmann, D J; Eicher, R; Uebelhart, B; Tschudi, P; Uebelhart, D

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of the cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) have been determined in the serum of one hundred clinically healthy adult Draught or Warmblood horses. The correlation between these two markers has been evaluated and the influence of gender, age and type of horse described. No significant variations were observed between animals of different sex, but a significant inverse correlation (P Draught [adjusted least square mean (LSM) = 6.612 micrograms.L-1] than in Warmblood horses (adjusted LSM = 8.596 micrograms.L-1), whereas levels of ICTP were higher in Draughts (adjusted LSM = 8.035 micrograms.L-1) than in Warmbloods (adjusted LSM = 6.643 micrograms.L-1). A significant correlation (P Draught horses might reflect a higher bone remodelling level of horses submitted to regular daily work. It was concluded that ICTP and OC are influenced by the type of horse, and probably reflect a physiological difference in bone remodelling between these animals.

  15. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of methocarbamol and phenylbutazone in exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Stanley, S D; Seminoff, K N; McKemie, D S; Kass, P H

    2016-10-01

    Methocarbamol (MCBL) is commonly used in performance horses for the treatment of skeletal muscle disorders. Current regulatory recommendations for show horses and racehorses are based on a single oral dose of 5 g, although doses in excess of this are often administered. The goal of the current study was to characterize the disposition of MCBL following higher dose administration and administration in combination with another commonly used drug in performance horses, phenylbutazone (PBZ). Exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered various doses of MCBL as a sole agent and MCBL in combination with PBZ. Blood samples were collected at various times, concentrations of MCBL and PBZ measured using LC-MS/MS and pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using compartmental analysis. Following administration of 15 g of MCBL, either as part of a single- or multiple-dose regimen, a number of horses exceeded the Association of Racing Commissioners International and the United States Equestrian Federation's recommended regulatory threshold at the recommended withdrawal time. There was not a significant difference between horses that received only MCBL and those that received MCBL and PBZ. Results of the current study support an extended withdrawal guideline when doses in excess of 5 g are administered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  18. Using magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose nondisplaced fractures of the second phalanx in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podadera, J M; Bell, R J; Dart, A J

    2010-11-01

    Two horses presented with a history of severe lameness that was localised to the area around the second phalanx (P2) of one forelimb. Radiographs of the second phalanx of both horses were unremarkable, apart from some smooth periosteal new bone production on the dorsum of P2. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a non-displaced fracture of P2 in both horses. One horse was euthanased because of a poor prognosis for racing, but the second horse was treated conservatively and salvaged for breeding. Magnetic resonance imaging is a newer imaging modality in horses and may be useful in diagnosing cases of obscure lameness.

  19. Evaluation of Meat and Egg Traits of Beijing-you Chickens Rotationally Grazing on Chicory Pasture in a Chestnut Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Meng

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Barn and cage-fed chickens have presented several problems, such as high rates of infectious disease and consequent antibiotic abuse, poorer chicken health and welfare, and often poorer meat and egg quality compared with free-range chickens. The poultry agroforestry system is becoming increasingly popular in many poultry farms nowadays. In this study, to evaluate the contribution of poultry agroforestry system to enhance some meat and egg traits of Beijing-you chickens, some indexes of meat and egg qualities, some indexes of slaughter traits, and the feed conversion efficiency were investigated in rotational grazing Beijing-you chickens on chicory (Cichorium intybus L. pasture (CGRG group and only free-ranging chickens on bare land without forage (control group in chestnut forest. Results showed that the live body weight, the dressing weight, the thigh muscle weight, and the breast muscle weight were increased (p<0.05 based on the decrease of 15% feed concentration in the CGRG group relative to the control. Furthermore, compared with the control, the crude ash, the essential amino acid content, and the inosinic acid content were increased (p<0.05, and the crude fat contents were decreased (p<0.05 in the thigh and breast muscles, while the yolk cholesterol and the feed conversion ratio were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in the CGRG group. This study would provide a scientific basis and technological support for the large-scale demonstration and application of rotational grazing chickens on the artificial pasture in forest.

  20. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Lee, D.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  1. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  2. Plasticity effect of rider-horse interaction on genetic evaluations for Show Jumping discipline in sport horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, E; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a sport horse that excels in the highest levels of competition, breeders must take into account certain genetic and environmental factors that could influence the sport horse's performance, such as the rider-horse interaction (RHI). The main aim of this study was to describe this interaction in a genetic model by modelling it in relation to the horse's age. A total of 31,129 sport results from Spanish Sport Horses were used from a total of 1,101 animals evaluated, and these were grouped in three age levels and had been ridden by 606 different riders. Only riders who had ridden more than one horse (and vice-versa) were considered for the analyses. Five linear models with different random effects were analysed according to the covariates, the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the RHI and the relevant residual random effects. The model of best fit was then selected for the genetic evaluation of the animal. In general, models including the RHI effect (M2, M4 and M5) fitted better than the other models, and the best fit was obtained for M4 (with heterogeneous residual variance). The genetic variance increased constantly with age, whereas heritability showed a response on three intervals. This study revealed the varied evolution of the RHI with age, showing the different "plastic abilities" of this relationship. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  4. Diagnosis and management of cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis in four horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, José M; Jenei, Thomas; Chope, Kate; Bubeck, Kirstin A

    2010-10-01

    4 horses with a history of neck pain, abnormal head carriage, and related inability to perform were examined. Cranial nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in 2 horses, and caudal nuchal bursitis was diagnosed in the other 2. All 4 horses had prominent swelling in the region between the frontal bone and temporal fossa (ie, the poll) and abnormal head carriage. Ultrasonographic examination revealed fluid distention and synovial thickening of the cranial or caudal nuchal bursa in all 4 horses. Ultrasonography-guided aspiration of the affected region was performed successfully in 3 horses. Radiography revealed bony remodeling and mineralization over the dorsal aspect of the atlas in 1 horse and a radiolucency at the axis in another. Nuclear scintigraphy revealed an increase in radioisotope uptake at the level of C2 in 1 horse. Although a septic process was considered among the differential diagnoses in all horses, a septic process could only be confirmed in 1 horse. All horses were refractory to conservative management consisting of intrabursal injection of anti-inflammatory medications. Bursoscopic debridement and lavage of the affected bursae resulted in resolution of the clinical signs in all horses, and they all returned to their intended use. Cranial and caudal nuchal bursitis, of nonseptic or septic origin, should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with head and neck pain. Horses undergoing surgical intervention consisting of nuchal bursoscopy have the opportunity to return to their original degree of exercise.

  5. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  6. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  7. Seroprevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Cortés Maria Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine piroplasmoses are enzootic parasitic diseases distributed worldwide with high incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. In Spain, there is insufficient epidemiological data about equine piroplasmoses. The main aim of the present study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in five regions and obtain information about the risk factors. This study was conducted in the central and south-western regions of Spain, using indirect fluorescence antibody testing (IFAT in 3,100 sera samples from apparently healthy horses of different ages, breeds, coat colours, genders and geographical locations. The overall seroprevalence was 52%, consisting of 44% seropositive for T. equi and 21% for B. caballi. There was a significant association between age (p < 0.0001, breed (p < 0.004, geographical location (p < 0.0001 and the seroprevalence, but neither the coat colour nor the gender was significantly associated with prevalence. In addition, it was proved that most of the geographic areas showed a moderate to high prevalence. The statistical κ value was used to compare the results obtained by the IFAT and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA utilised to test some samples (n = 108 and showed a higher concordance for T. equi (κ = 0.68 than for B. caballi (κ = 0.22. Consequently, this revealed the importance of developing an appropriate technique to detect each haemoparasite.

  8. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... and within subpopulations were analysed in three periods of time to describe changes in genetic connectedness between subpopulations. A decline in GS (0.97–0.45), GC0.5 (0.69–0.13) and r (0.018–0.014) in the recent years was observed. Both subpopulations have a common genetic pool; however...

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in horses and horse personnel: An investigation of several outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Duijkeren, E. van; Moleman, M.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Multem, J.D.; Troelstra, A.; Fluit, A.C.; Wamel, W.J.B. van; Houwers, D.J.; Neeling, A.J. de; Wagenaar, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    At the Veterinary Microbiological Diagnostic Center, the Netherlands, the percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates found in equine clinical samples increased from 0% in 2002 to 37% in 2008. MRSA of spa-type t064, belonging to MLST ST8 and spa-types t011 and t2123, both belonging to the livestock-associated MLST ST398, predominated. During an outbreak of post-surgical MRSA infections in horses at a veterinary teaching hospital in2006/2007,MRSAisolates of spa-ty...

  10. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ashutosh Santoshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small lacerations on the distal-third of the forearm. Copious irrigation with normal saline was done and he was administered anti-tetanus and post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was commenced. Radiographs revealed fracture of radius and ulna in the mid-shaft region. He underwent emergency wound debridement, and the ulna was stabilised with an intra-medullary square nail. Seventy-two hours later, he underwent re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis. He had an uneventful recovery and at three-month follow-up, the fractures had healed radiographically in anatomic alignment. At two-year follow-up, he is doing well, is pain free and has a normal range of motion compared to the contralateral side. Conclusion: Horse bites behave as compound fractures however rabies prophylaxis will be needed and careful observation is needed. Early radical debridement, preliminary skeletal stabilisation, re-debridement and conversion osteosynthesis to plate, and antibiotic prophylaxis were the key to the successful management of our patient. Keywords: Horse; animal bite; forearm; open fracture

  11. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  12. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, PHorses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, Phorses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if repeated measures designs are used to assess in vivo response to endotoxin in

  13. The effect of postsurgical pain on attentional processing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Louise; Knight, Laura; Allen, Kate; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of postsurgical pain on the performance of horses in a novel object and auditory startle task. Prospective clinical study. Twenty horses undergoing different types of surgery and 16 control horses that did not undergo surgery. The interaction of 36 horses with novel objects and a response to an auditory stimulus were measured at two time points; the day before surgery (T1) and the day after surgery (T2) for surgical horses (G1), and at a similar time interval for control horses (G2). Pain and sedation were measured using simple descriptive scales at the time the tests were carried out. Total time or score attributed to each of the behavioural categories was compared between groups (G1 and G2) for each test and between tests (T1 and T2) for each group. The median (range) time spent interacting with novel objects was reduced in G1 from 58 (6-367) seconds in T1 to 12 (0-495) seconds in T2 (p=0.0005). In G2 the change in interaction time between T1 and T2 was not statistically significant. Median (range) total auditory score was 7 (3-12) and 10 (1-12) in G1 and G2, respectively, at T1, decreasing to 6 (0-10) in G1 after surgery and 9.5 (1-12) in G2 (p=0.0003 and p=0.94, respectively). There was a difference in total auditory score between G1 and G2 at T2 (p=0.0169), with the score being lower in G1 than G2. Postsurgical pain negatively impacts attention towards novel objects and causes a decreased responsiveness to an auditory startle test. In horses, tasks demanding attention may be useful as a biomarker of pain. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. All rights reserved.

  14. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: undergraduate student outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Sarah L

    2012-12-01

    Equine teaching and research programs are popular but expensive components of most land grant universities. External funding for equine research, however, is limited and restricts undergraduate research opportunities that enhance student learning. In 1999, a novel undergraduate teaching and research program was initiated at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. A unique aspect of this program was the use of young horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue but of relatively low value. The media interest in such horses was utilized to advantage to obtain funding for the program. The use of horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs held the risks of attracting negative publicity, potential of injury while training previously unhandled young horses, and uncertainty regarding re-sale value; however, none of these concerns were realized. For 12 years the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program received extensive positive press and provided invaluable learning opportunities for students. Over 500 students, at least 80 of which were minorities, participated in not only horse management and training but also research, event planning, public outreach, fund-raising, and website development. Public and industry support provided program sustainability with only basic University infrastructural support despite severe economic downturns. Student research projects generated 25 research abstracts presented at national and international meetings and 14 honors theses. Over 100 students went on to veterinary school or other higher education programs, and more than 100 others pursued equine- or science-related careers. Laudatory popular press articles were published in a wide variety of breed/discipline journals and in local and regional newspapers each year. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses yielded positive outcomes for all, especially the undergraduate students.

  15. Post-anaesthetic myelomalacia in a horse : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Joubert

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a rare neurological complication of anaesthesia in a 2 year-old Clydesdale colt undergoing castration. Anaesthesia was induced with glyceryl guaiacol ether and ketamine and maintained with halothane. Following an uneventful anaesthetic of 40 minutes, the horse recovered from anaesthesia in a padded recovery stall. After approximately 70 minutes in the recovery stall, the horse attempted to stand and adopted a dog sitting position. One hundred and fifty minutes later, the horse became distressed and was sedated with xylazine. Clinical examination of the horse did not reveal any evidence of myositis or fractures. A neurological examination revealed an intact anal reflex, deep pain response in the hind legs, tail tone and voluntary movement of the hind legs was possible. The horse deteriorated neurologically over the next 24 hours and was euthanased on humane grounds. The horse was submitted for necropsy. Gross pathology was unremarkable except for a small amount of haemorrhage around the right kidney. Histopathology revealed no abnormalities in any muscle groups or peripheral nerves. Congestion and axonal swelling of the spinal cord was evident from T16 to S1. Ischaemic neurons were evident from L 1 to L 6. The most prominent lesions were at L4 and L5. A diagnosis of myelomalacia was made. This is a rare complication of anaesthesia in horses with 9 case studies appearing in the literature since 1979. This is the 1st case to be reported in South Africa. The speculated pathophysiology and risk factors for this complication are discussed.

  16. Two Variants in SLC24A5 Are Associated with “Tiger-Eye” Iris Pigmentation in Puerto Rican Paso Fino Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Mack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A unique eye color, called tiger-eye, segregates in the Puerto Rican Paso Fino (PRPF horse breed and is characterized by a bright yellow, amber, or orange iris. Pedigree analysis identified a simple autosomal recessive mode of inheritance for this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS with 24 individuals identified a locus on ECA 1 reaching genome-wide significance (Pcorrected = 1.32 × 10−5. This ECA1 locus harbors the candidate gene, Solute Carrier Family 24 (Sodium/Potassium/Calcium Exchanger, Member 5 (SLC24A5, with known roles in pigmentation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Humans with compound heterozygous mutations in SLC24A5 have oculocutaneous albinism (OCA type 6 (OCA6, which is characterized by dilute skin, hair, and eye pigmentation, as well as ocular anomalies. Twenty tiger-eye horses were homozygous for a nonsynonymous mutation in exon 2 (p.Phe91Tyr of SLC24A5 (called here Tiger-eye 1, which is predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Additionally, eight of the remaining 12 tiger-eye horses heterozygous for the p.Phe91Tyr variant were also heterozygous for a 628 bp deletion encompassing all of exon 7 of SLC24A5 (c.875-340_1081+82del, which we will call here the Tiger-eye 2 allele. None of the 122 brown-eyed horses were homozygous for either tiger-eye-associated allele or were compound heterozygotes. Further, neither variant was detected in 196 horses from four related breeds not known to have the tiger-eye phenotype. Here, we propose that two mutations in SLC24A5 affect iris pigmentation in tiger-eye PRPF horses. Further, unlike OCA6 in humans, the Tiger-eye 1 mutation in its homozygous state or as a compound heterozygote (Tiger-eye 1/Tiger-eye 2 does not appear to cause ocular anomalies or a change in coat color in the PRPF horse.

  17. Sporadic wind wave horse-shoe patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Annenkov

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work considers three-dimensional crescent-shaped patterns often seen on water surface in natural basins and observed in wave tank experiments. The most common of these 'horse-shoe-like' patterns appear to be sporadic, i.e., emerging and disappearing spontaneously even under steady wind conditions. The paper suggests a qualitative model of these structures aimed at explaining their sporadic nature, physical mechanisms of their selection and their specific asymmetric form. First, the phenomenon of sporadic horse-shoe patterns is studied numerically using the novel algorithm of water waves simulation recently developed by the authors (Annenkov and Shrira, 1999. The simulations show that a steep gravity wave embedded into widespectrum primordial noise and subjected to small nonconservative effects typically follows the simple evolution scenario: most of the time the system can be considered as consisting of a basic wave and a single pair of oblique satellites, although the choice of this pair tends to be different at different instants. Despite the effective low-dimensionality of the multimodal system dynamics at relatively sho ' rt time spans, the role of small satellites is important: in particular, they enlarge the maxima of the developed satellites. The presence of Benjamin-Feir satellites appears to be of no qualitative importance at the timescales under consideration. The selection mechanism has been linked to the quartic resonant interactions among the oblique satellites lying in the domain of five-wave (McLean's class II instability of the basic wave: the satellites tend to push each other out of the resonance zone due to the frequency shifts caused by the quartic interactions. Since the instability domain is narrow (of order of cube of the basic wave steepness, eventually in a generic situation only a single pair survives and attains considerable amplitude. The specific front asymmetry is found to result from the interplay of quartic

  18. Quality assurance project plan for the Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization Project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The Chestnut Ridge Fly Ash Pond Stabilization (CRFAPS) Project will stabilize a 19-m-high (62-ft-high) earthen embankment across Upper McCoy Branch situated along the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge. This task will be accomplished by raising the crest of the embankment, reinforcing the face of the embankment, removing trees from the face and top of the embankment, and repairing the emergency spillway. The primary responsibilities of the team members are: Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) will be responsible for project integration, technical support, Title 3 field support, environmental oversight, and quality assurance (QA) oversight of the project; Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation (FWENC) will be responsible for design and home office Title 3 support; MK-Ferguson of Oak Ridge Company (MK-F) will be responsible for health and safety, construction, and procurement of construction materials. Each of the team members has a QA program approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations. This project-specific QA project plan (QAPP), which is applicable to all project activities, identifies and integrates the specific QA requirements from the participant's QA programs that are necessary for this project

  19. Castanea sativa (European Chestnut Leaf Extracts Rich in Ursene and Oleanene Derivatives Block Staphylococcus aureus Virulence and Pathogenesis without Detectable Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra L Quave

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is home to a rich history of medical traditions that have developed under the influence of diverse cultures over millennia. Today, many such traditions are still alive in the folk medical practices of local people. Investigation of botanical folk medicines used in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections led us to study Castanea sativa (European Chestnut for its potential antibacterial activity. Here, we report the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of refined and chemically characterized European Chestnut leaf extracts, rich in oleanene and ursene derivatives (pentacyclic triterpenes, against all Staphylococcus aureus accessory gene regulator (agr alleles. We present layers of evidence of agr blocking activity (IC50 1.56-25 μg mL-1, as measured in toxin outputs, reporter assays hemolytic activity, cytotoxicity studies, and an in vivo abscess model. We demonstrate the extract's lack of cytotoxicity to human keratinocytes and murine skin, as well as lack of growth inhibitory activity against S. aureus and a panel of skin commensals. Lastly, we demonstrate that serial passaging of the extract does not result in acquisition of resistance to the quorum quenching composition. In conclusion, through disruption of quorum sensing in the absence of growth inhibition, this study provides insight into the role that non-biocide inhibitors of virulence may play in future antibiotic therapies.

  20. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2008-01-01

    : Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions......). During the test, unique pairs of companion and subject horses were exposed to the test stimulus while heart rate and behavioural responses were registered. Subsequently, subject horses were exposed to the stimulus on their own (post test). Results: Subject horses, paired with a calm companion horse......, showed less fear-related behaviour and lower heart rate responses compared to subject horses with control companions. Results from the post test suggest that the difference between treatment groups remained in the subsequent absence of companion horses. Conclusions and potential relevance: It appears...