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Sample records for hornbeam carpinus betulus

  1. On the use of dorsiventral reflectance asymmetry of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) leaves in air pollution estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackx, Melanka; Verhelst, Jolien; Scheunders, Paul; Samson, Roeland

    2017-08-25

    This study examines the role of dorsiventral leaf measurements in reflectance-based air quality estimation. The dorsiventral asymmetry is used to describe the difference between the upper (adaxial) and lower (abaxial) leaf side. Spectral characteristics of dorsiventral asymmetry and both adaxial and abaxial leaf reflectance are investigated for a typical dicotyledonous species Carpinus betulus used in an urban environment. The link with traffic-related air pollution is established and the potential for monitoring of air quality is evaluated. We conclude that dorsiventral reflectance asymmetry is a factor that should not be ignored in canopy measurements and modeling. On the other hand, the benefits of dorsiventral asymmetry indices as a tool for reflectance-based air quality seem limited.

  2. Pattern and dynamics of the ground vegetation in south Swedish Carpinus betulus forests. Importance of soil chemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Conservation Biology, Uppsala (Sweden); Falkengren-Grerup, U.; Tyler, G. [Plant Ecology, Dept. of Ecology, Lund (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The vegetation and environmental conditions of south Swedish horn-beam Carpinus betulus forests are described with data from 35 permanent sample plots. The main floristic gradient of the ground vegetation is closely related to acid-base properties of the top soil: Base saturation, pH and organic matter content. Other floristic differences are related to tree canopy cover and the distance of the sample plots to the Baltic coast. Species richness of herbaceous plants typical of forests increases with soil pH. The number of other herbaceous species, occurring in both forests and open habitats, and of woody species is not related to pH. Comparisons of vegetation data from 1983 and 1993 show relatively small compositional differences of the herbaceous forest flora. The number of other herbaceous species increased considerably in those plots where canopy trees had been cut after 1983. The number of new species in managed plots increases with soil pH. Species losses and gains of the herbaceous forest flora between 1983 and 1993 are generally lower as compared with other herbaceous species and woody species. However, the ground cover of herbaceous forest species, especially of Oxalis acetosella and Lamium galeobdolon, was considerably lower in 1993 as compared to 1983 in both unmanaged and managed plots. Possible explanations for this decrease are current soil acidification and drought during the growing season. (au) 32 refs.

  3. Papermaking Properties of Carpinus betulus with kraft, Soda and Soda-Urea Pulping Processes

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    Rasoul Darstan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in order to comparatively investigate the hornbeam kraft, soda and soda-urea papermaking properties. The selected treatment in kraft process had an average yield of 44.43% and kappa number of 23.75. In soda process the selected treatment had an average yield of 38.75% and kappa number of 19.28. In soda-urea process, the selected treatments had an average yield of 39.85, 40.1, 40.5, 39.8 and 40.61 and kappa number of 21.21, 22.33, 22.66, 25.28 and 26.85. After refining the selected pulp to reach the freeness of 400±25 ml CSF, 60 g/m2 handsheets were made and physical, mechanical and optical properties were measured. Results showed that kraft pulps had higher yield and better refinability than soda and soda-urea pulps. Papers made from kraft process had higher strength properties than those made of soda and soda-urea process. With addition of urea, yield and kappa number of pulps increased. The highest improvement in tensile index, breaking length and tear index was achieved with addition of 3% urea and the highest improvement in burst index was achieved with adding 4% urea. Results of brightness measurements showed that papers from kraft and soda processes had the lowest and highest brightness degree respectively. With the addition of urea, brightness of papers decreased.

  4. Effects of litter quality and parent material on organic matter characteristics and N-dynamics in Luxembourg beech and hornbeam forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Martinez-Hernandez, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    To test effects of litter quality and soil conditions on N-dynamics, we selected seven forests in Luxembourg dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and located on acid loam, decalcified marl or limestone, and measured organic matter characteristics, microbial C

  5. Carpinus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    The hornbeam genus—Carpinus L.—includes about 35 species of deciduous, monoecious, small to large trees, that are native to the Northern Hemisphere from Europe to eastern Asia, south to the Himalayas, and in North and Central America (Furlow 1990; Hillier 1991; Krüssmann 1984; LHBH 1976; Suszka and others 1996). Five species are considered here....

  6. Mechanical Properties and Decay Resistance of Hornbeam Cement Bonded Particleboards

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    Antonios N. Papadopoulos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement bonded particleboards were manufactured from hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. wood particles. Hydration tests were carried out to determine the inhibitory index in order to characterise wood-cement compatibility. The results revealed that the mixture of hornbeam-cement can be classified as moderate inhibition. Two wood: cement ratios were applied in this study, namely, 1 : 3 and 1 : 4, for the board manufacture. It was found that an increase of cement-wood ratio resulted in an improvement in all properties examined, except MOR. All properties of the boards made from 1 : 4 wood: cement ratio surpassed the minimum requirements set forth by the building type HZ code. Boards were exposed to brown and white rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, and Trametes versicolor, respectively. Overall, both fungi failed to attack the cement-bonded boards.

  7. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

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    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  8. Phylogeny of Korean Hornbeam (Carpinus turczaninovii) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... According to the result of phylogenetic tree, all se- quences amplified in this experiment were divided into two clades, with 98% identity between them (Figure 1). Among them, GHGS2, HNSS2 and JSHA formed one clade, the other isolates formed another clade, composed by BABS1 and GHPY group, ...

  9. Ecophysiological variation of European hornbeams along the foliation period in semi-rural recreational forest landscape

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    Melih Öztürk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the ecophysiological characteristics of deciduous trees in the recreational areas allows construction of planning objectives particularly for the urban forests. Analysis of a multipurpose vegetation parameter; LAI (Leaf Area Index together with some meteorological variables supplies to an extent the comprehension of those ecophysiological characteristics. Around this scope, the LAI dynamics of Carpinus betulus L. trees in a recreational area were monitored and analyzed along the foliation period of approximately three months. The mean LAI which was only 0.80 during the budburst stage gradually escalated reaching 1.49 after the flushing stage. The increment of the leaves in size and numbers led to the mean LAI achieve its climax with 3.41 in early May. Then, the mean LAI experienced a stable period until the end of May. The change in the mean LAI were subjected to correlation test especially with the air and soil temperatures. The correlations between the mean LAI and, in particular the soil temperature (r≥0.95 and air temperature were high and significant (P<0.01. There were no definite correlation between the mean LAI and mean sunlight duration, air humidity and total precipitation. Impact of air temperature on the LAI of Carpinus betulus L. trees indicates the vulnerability of the recreational area to possible urban heat oriented climate warming. On the other hand, the influence of soil temperature on the mean LAI warns the susceptibility of the recreational area to possible anthropogenic pressure resulting in soil compaction and regeneration difficulties. Consequently, sustainable management of this recreational area necessitates the anticipation and mitigation of these possible destructions.

  10. Macromycetes of oak-lime-hornbeam woods in the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków (S Poland - monitoring studies

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    Władysława Wojewoda

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1994-1996 studies on macromycetes of the Niepołomice Forest near Kraków were made in four plots designated in deciduous forests (Tilio-Carpinetum stachyetosum with a population of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur and Tilia cordata (the size of each plot was 1000 m2. The observations were made through an international project "Mycological monitoring in European oak forests". As many as 274 species were recorded, including 234 saprobic, 33 mycorrhizal, and 7 parasitic fungi. Moreover, 15 species of fungi are connected with oak, 24 species of fungi are threatened, and 16 species are new to Poland.

  11. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho

    2013-01-01

    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC 50 values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC 50 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS + radical scavenging assay, with SC 50 values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC 50 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii

  12. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC{sub 50} values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS{sup +} radical scavenging assay, with SC{sub 50} values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii.

  13. Potential evapotranspiration and its impact on autumn phenological phases of selected plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palesova, I.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the assessment of the impact of water balance on the timing of phenological phases at two locations (Hips and Bukovina), on the selected tree species (hazel (Corylus avellana L.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea, Liebl.)). Phenological observations have been held since 2007, and together with measurements of meteorological parameters allow us to evaluate the microclimate in the stands in detail. (authors)

  14. Litter quality effects of beech and hornbeam on undergrowth species diversity in Luxembourg forests on limestone and decalcified marl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Do beech and hornbeam differ in undergrowth species diversity, and could these differences be explained by mass of the organic layer, pH or soil moisture? Could species richness under beech and hornbeam be explained by differences in N dynamics? Location: Ancient forests dominated by beech

  15. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  16. Intensity of 137Cs accumulation by macromycetes of oak-hornbeam forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.A.; Kurbet, T.V.

    2005-01-01

    The intensity of 137 Cs accumulation by fruit bodies of macromycetes of 25 species were studied under conditions of fresh oak forests in oak-hornbeam forests of Podolsk Hills (Ukraine). It was found the intraspecific differences of average values of 137 Cs specific activity in mushrooms fruit bodies on the same forest plots were about 35 times and average values of transfer factor - about 45 times; the ranked row of mushroom species was build up according their average values. It was shown, the row →forest litter saprotrophes→humus sapritrophes→xylotrophes-sapritrophes - is formed according to intensity of 137 Cs accumulation in fruit bodies ecological-trophic groups of macromycete. Permissible levels for density of 137 Cs soil contamination to preserve edible mushrooms were calculated; and it was drawn a conclusion to the effect that studied species of mushrooms can be presented without any limits. (author)

  17. Floristic diversity of posavina's floodplain forests in serbia and their wider geographical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisic, B.; Puvaca, N.

    2014-01-01

    In order to detect floristic divergence of analysed stands we applied TWINSPAN classification and ordinary Correspondence Analysis. Both analyses have shown an almost identical result of floristic composition, where 114 studied samples were grouped into seven association groups at the third twinspan classification level. These seven groups, successively from the most humid to most dry, comprising two large groups of plant associations, completely corresponding to two alliances: Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Alder and Forest of Pedunculate Oak and Hornbeam. SIMPER procedure have shown tahat within the first 20.51% of cumulative contribution, the floristic divegence among the studied forest stands includes 13 taxa: Carpinus betulus., Fraxinus angustifolia, Quercus cerris, Amorpha fruticosa, Convallaria majalis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Quercus robur, Lysimachia nummularia, Tamus communis, Galium aparine, Rubus caesius, Ulmus carpinifolia and Ajuga reptans. ANOSIM analysis were used to determine the degree of floristic discontinuity. It was largest between forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak and Ash (statistics R = 0.8824 (p<0.001)). The lowest floristic dissimilarity was between the forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak and forest of Pedunculate Oak, Hornbeam and Turkey Oak with Lindens, where R = 0.2009 (p<0.01). Posavina floodplain forests in Serbia generally show good agreement with analogous communities in neighbouring countries in the Balkan peninsula and Central Europe. (author)

  18. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Strengths in Parallel and Perpendicular to Grain of some Hardwoods of Iran

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    Sadegh Maleki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular longitudinal to grain of some hardwoods; oak (Quercus castaneifolia, hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, beech (Fagus orientalis, Sycamore (Platanus oriantalis and poplar (Populus deltoids were investigated. The tests were conducted following ASTM D 1761 with specimen dimension of 15×5×5(T×R×L. Three kinds of screws namely sheet metal screw, wood screw and coarse drywall screw with diameter of 4 and 5 mm were used. Three different nails with nominal diameter of 2.5, 3.25 and 3.75 mm were also used. The highest screw withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, beech, oak, Sycamore and poplar respectively. Furthermore, the highest nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain were related to hornbeam, oak, beech, Sycamore and poplar respectively for nails with 3.75 mm diameter. Higher density and shear strength of hornbeam compared to the other species accounts for its high screw and nail withdrawal strengths parallel and perpendicular to grain.

  19. Characterization of total ecosystem scale biogenic VOC exchange at a Mediterranean oak-hornbeam forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhart, S.; Rantala, P.; Nemitz, E.; Mogensen, D.; Tillmann, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Rinne, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.

    2015-10-01

    Recently, the number and amount of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been discussed vigorously. Depending on the ecosystem the published number varies between a dozen and several hundred compounds. We present ecosystem exchange fluxes from a mixed oak-hornbeam forest in the Po Valley, Italy. The fluxes were measured by a proton transfer reaction-time-of-flight (PTR-ToF) mass spectrometer and calculated by the eddy covariance (EC) method. Detectable fluxes were observed for twelve compounds, dominated by isoprene, which comprised over 65 % of the total flux emission. The daily average of the total VOC emission was 9.5 nmol m-2 s-1. Methanol had the highest concentration and accounted for the largest deposition. Methanol seemed to be deposited to dew, as the deposition happened in the early morning, right after the calculated surface temperature came closest to the calculated dew point temperature. We estimated that up to 27 % of the upward flux of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) originated from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. A comparison between two flux detection methods (classical/visual and automated) was made. Their respective advantages and disadvantages were discussed and the differences in their results shown. Both provide comparable results; however we recommend the automated method with a compound filter, which combines the fast analysis and better flux detection, without the overestimation due to double counting.

  20. Characterization of total ecosystem-scale biogenic VOC exchange at a Mediterranean oak–hornbeam forest

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    S. Schallhart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the number and amount of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs has been discussed in great detail. Depending on the ecosystem, the published number varies between a dozen and several hundred compounds. We present ecosystem exchange fluxes from a mixed oak–hornbeam forest in the Po Valley, Italy. The fluxes were measured by a proton transfer reaction-time-of-flight (PTR-ToF mass spectrometer and calculated using the eddy covariance (EC method. Detectable fluxes were observed for up to 29 compounds, dominated by isoprene, which comprised over 60 % of the total upward flux (on a molar basis. The daily average of the total VOC upward flux was 10.4 nmol m−2 s−1. Methanol had the highest concentration and accounted for the largest downward flux. Methanol seemed to be deposited to dew, as the downward flux happened in the early morning, right after the calculated surface temperature came closest to the calculated dew point temperature.We estimated that up to 30 % of the upward flux of methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR originated from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. A comparison between two methods for the flux detection (manual and automated was made. Their respective advantages and disadvantages were discussed and the differences in their results shown. Both provide comparable results.

  1. Utilization of the invasive plant Impatiens parviflora DC. by the snail Columella edentula Draparnaud in oak-hornbeam forests

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    Renata Piskorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the extend to which the snail Columella edentula is more strongly associated with the small balsam Impatiens parviflora than with other plants in the herb layer of an oak-hornbeam forest, and to interpret the character of the interaction Impatiens parviflora - Columella edentula. Numbers of C. edentula and rates of colonization were compared on various plant species under natural and laboratory conditions. Seasonal variation in snail abundance on I. parviflora was observed on permanent plots. The leaf injuries caused by C. edentula were localized in respect of the morphological and anatomical structure of leaves. The results show that I. parviflora is one of the plant species of the herb layer that are most abundantly colonized by this snail in oak-hornbeam forest. Snail finds a plant particularly suitable as a place for resting. The most favoured attachment site is on the underside of the leaf, along the midrib, which provides the highest and relatively stable humidity, as well as protection from direct sunlight and predators. I. parviflora is also a food for the snails, but they do not eat these fragments of leaves where calcium carbonate is accumulated.

  2. The Results of Complex Selective Logging in Beech-Hornbeam Tree Stands of the Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan

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    A. B. Yakhyaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex selective logging conducted in beech-hornbeam tree stands on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus are analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out in two forestry districts, involving beech stands, comprising 2–3 units, with 30° slopes, in beech forests with woodruff, fescue and forb forest types. It has been revealed that for recovering the main tree species, as well as for increasing productivity and sustainability of the beech-hornbeam tree stands, which was spread out in the northern exposures, 2–3 repetitions of complex selective logging are recommended. It is recommended that in order to increase the amount of beech in the tree stand composition to 6–8 units in young stands and to 4–6 units at the slopes of south exposures, to complete 3–4 thinning operations, with the increasing beech share to 4–5 units in the upper story and in the undergrowth.

  3. Production potential and stability of a broadleaved mixed oak/hornbeam forest stand situated on a eutrophic site, Ždánický les

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    Václav Hurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on assessing the growth and production of a mixed oak/hornbeam forest stand established by combined regeneration in 1940 to 1942. The stand is situated at an altitude of 460 m. Since 1961, it is left to its natural development. The 25–year–old stand was characterized as an individually mixed, both diameter- and height-differentiated pole-stage stand. The proportion of tree species was as follows: sessile oak 77 %, hornbeam 19 %, birch 1 %, lime 1 %, black poplar 1 %, wild cherry tree, wild service tree, and field maple. During 41 years of measurements, the proportion of oak slightly decreased to 76 %, on the other hand, the proportion of hornbeam increased to 22%. The initial growing stock of the 25–year–old stand, 75 m3.ha−1, increased to 323 m3.ha−1 at an age of 66 years in 2008. At present, current volume increment ranged between 6.3 m3.ha−1.year−1 and 11.6 m3.ha−1.year−1 during years 1967 and 1998. Since the age of 61, the growth of the stand has decreased and then even ceased due to increased mortality of oak.

  4. The impact of forest roads on understory plant diversity in temperate hornbeam-beech forests of Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljouei, Azade; Abdi, Ehsan; Marcantonio, Matteo; Majnounian, Baris; Amici, Valerio; Sohrabi, Hormoz

    2017-08-01

    Forest roads alter the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, modifying temperature, humidity, wind speed, and light availability that, in turn, cause changes in plant community composition and diversity. We aim at investigating and comparing the diversity of herbaceous species along main and secondary forest roads in a temperate-managed hornbeam-beech forest, north of Iran. Sixteen transects along main and secondary forest roads were established (eight transects along main roads and eight along secondary roads). To eliminate the effect of forest type, all transects were located in Carpinetum-Fagetum forests, the dominant forest type in the study area. The total length of each transect was 200 m (100 m toward up slope and 100 m toward down slope), and plots were established along it at different distances from road edge. The diversity of herbaceous plant species was calculated in each plot using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness, and Pielou's index. The results showed that diversity index decreased when distance from road edge increases. This decreasing trend continued up to 60 m from forest road margin, and after this threshold, the index slightly increased. Depending on the type of road (main or secondary) as well as cut or fill slopes, the area showing a statistical different plant composition and diversity measured through Shannon-Wiener, species richness, and Pielou's index is up to 10 m. The length depth of the road edge effect found in main and secondary forest roads was small, but it could have cumulative effects on forest microclimate and forest-associated biota at the island scale. Forest managers should account for the effect of road buildings on plant communities.

  5. Conversion trials in mixed coppices of Gargano (Puglia, Italy: first results

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Six plots have been drawn in an mixed aged coppice stand, 40 years after last coppicing; they represent a typical expression of Doronico-Carpinetum phytosociological association and they are characteristic of many woods of Gargano’s territory, composed by Quercus cerris L. (turkey oak, Quercus pubescens Willd. (downy oak, Acer opalus Mill. (italian maple, Carpinus betulus L. (european hornbeam, Ostrya carpinifolia Scop. (hop hornbeam. Compared treatments are: natural evolution of the coppice without thinning versus two thinning regimes with different intensity, both aimed to convert the stands into high forests. 1200 and 1600 stems per hectare were released in the conversion plots. Plots, control and treated in 2001, have been measured before and immediately after thinning and remeasured five years later. At the present time, stands are characterized by a basically monolayered structure, in which turkey oak is prevalent in term of basal area. Moreover in thinned areas, losses on the released shoots number are unimportant both in absolute and in percent terms; in control plot, instead, competition by plants of upper storey on the dominated ones means high values of mortality.

  6. The biotransformation of soil biocenosis by micromycetes under introduction of Fagus sylvatica L. to oak-hornbeam forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, Artur; Bilyera, Nataliya; Sedykh, Olena; Melnychuk, Maksym

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: micromycetes, beech, soil enzymes, illuminance, Penicillium canescens. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is a commercially valuable tree species. As the potential distribution area for beech forest is restricted by Europe, planting of artificial stands is adopted in this region. Beech introduction can alter ecosystem considerably, but the mechanism of this transformation is not clear. We aimed to define abiotic and biotic parameters affecting floor development in beech stands introduced to the oak-hornbeam forest ecosystem ca.50 years ago in Eastern Europe (Ukraine). The daylight illuminace level was similar (2.9-6.5 klx) for both stands. However, grass cover in beech stands did not exceed 0.1-0.5 % even on sites with illuminace level 7.5-8.3 klx. It does not comply with the commonly used suggestion that shading is the main factor causes forest floor absence in the beech stands. We indicated predominantly biotic factors influencing forest floor formation. Thus, particular edaphon represented by micromycetes was able to inhibit plants and microorganisms. We isolated Penicillium canescens strains from soil under beech stands. These fungi utilized beech root exudates and phenol compounds of leaf litter, and produced biologically active substances caused cytostatic and mutagenic effects. They also accelerated (in 2-3.2 times) soil β-glucosidase activity, but had no effect on phosphatase. The biomass of fungi varied under cultivation of Penicillium canescens strains on Czapek medium with the addition of aqueous extracts of beech leaf litter. The biomass of micromycetes increased on 10-15 % at plant phenols concentrations up to 1 mg mL-1. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of phenols up to 4 mg mL-1resulted in a biomass decrease to 40%. The relationship between the concentration of plant phenols and rate of fungal biomass formation indicates that there is probably seasonal regulation of micromycetes activity in the forest biocenosis. The highest

  7. Work efficiency in the operations of juvenile thinning of mixed stands of pedunculate oak with hornbeam, ash and other hard broadleaves with the Stihl MS 260 chainsaw

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    Danilović Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research of efficacy of the lightweight low power chainsaw Stihl MS 260 in the operations of juvenile thinning in preserved even-aged mixed stands of pedunculate oak with hornbeam, ash and other hard hardwoods. The investigations were carried out in the territory of FE “Sremska Mitrovica” in three sample plots of different ages. It is the first research of this kind based on the choice of optimal technological solution for the cleaning cuts of oak stands. Technology of work is based on cutting unwanted species at a certain height in order to favor pedunculate oak as the main species. In sample plot 1 the cutting through of undesirable species was carried out in one place and then third parties carried out their processing and transportation. In sample plots 2 and 3 workers cut the unwanted species in several places and stacked the timber on the ground so as not to interfere with the growth of pedunculate oak which does not tolerate shading. In this study, we applied time and work study. Group system of work was recorded. The group typically consisted of 4 workers and a foreman. Fuel consumption was recorded by the method of tank refuelling. The research results show that operating conditions have a significant impact on the effects of work with a chainsaw, as well as on the consumption of fuel and lubricants. The differences are mainly caused by different structures of cut timber.

  8. Coppice Woods and Pollard Trees in the Visual Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sprouting capacity of some broadleaves has been used for their regeneration since ancient times. Often concurrently with taking advantage of sprouting stools, the trees used to be shaped also by pruning their stems, namely on pasturelands and in grazing forests. The activity of woodcutters and shepherds was obviously rather common in warmer climates with broadleaved stands because coppice and pollard trees appear relatively often in the visual arts from ancient works through the period if the Italian and German Renaissance up to the romantic and realistic landscape painting of the 19th century overlapping into the 20th century. For centuries, most frequently illustrated in European and Czech paintings have been pollard willows (Salix spp.. Other coppice and pollard tree species identified in paintings are oaks (Quercus spp., hornbeam (Carpinus betulus, European beech (Fagus sylvatica, European chestnut (Castanea sativa, and rarely other species, too. Artists apparently often used bizarrely shaped woods to increase the dramatic atmosphere of their landscape sceneries as well as figural compositions, and the coppice and pollard trees had certainly also a symbolic meaning in some of their works.

  9. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  10. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. F. Acton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m−2 h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m−2 h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  11. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  12. 137Cs in Research Polygon 'Sumbar'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoko, B.; Marovic, G.; Babic, D.; Vickovic, I.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Reseach and Occupational Health started a radioactivity measurement programme in research polygon ''Sumbar''. The purpose of these investigations is to collect as many data as possible about the contamination of the polygon that is mainly covered by a forest of English oak (Quercus robur) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus). Once contaminated, forests represent long-term sources of radiation exposure to specific population groups which are using them as a source of foodstuffs. After the Chernobyl accident, researchers have shown that there has been more variability in radionuclide activity concentration in forests than in agricultural ecosystems. In order to carry out a radioactivity screening of the polygon, we randomly chosed three sampling sites for collecting soil, grass and moss samples. Different species of mushrooms were collected over the whole polygon area. The average activity concentration of 137Cs in soil for two sampling sites is (123 @ 9) Bq kg -1 , while the result for the third site is lower by an order of magnitude ((16.1@0.5) Bq kg -1 ). The activity concentration of 137Cs in grass samples ranges from (0.43 @ 0.03) Bq kg -1 to (13.2 @ 0.1) Bq kg -1 , and in moss samples from (8.7 @ 0.2) Bq kg -1 to (57.8 @ 0.3) Bq kg - 1. In five collected mushroom species, the activity of 137Cs is in the range between (4.1 @ 0.5) Bq kg -1 and (610 @ 5) Bq kg -1 , the lowest and the highest values referreing to Clitocybe nebularis and Gymnopus dryophilus, respectively. Parasitic mushrooms exhibit activity below the minimum detection level. Our preliminary results show and confirm variability of the activity concentration of 137Cs in different parts of this ecosystem. (author)

  13. Validating the Operational Draft Regional Guidebook for the Functional Assessment of High-Gradient Ephemeral and Intermittent Headwater Streams in Western West Virginia and Eastern Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    blackgum, wild black cherry (Prunus serotina), sweet cherry (Prunus avium), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum), red maple, and...virginiana), American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), and slippery elm . Buffalo nut (Pyrularia pubera), wild hydrangea (Hydrangea arborescens...Pinus strobus), wild black cherry, boxelder (Acer negundo), sycamore, black locust (Robinia pseudo-acacia), slippery elm , and white ash. The shrub

  14. Ecological indicators of Tuber aestivum habitats in temperate European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moser, B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Molinier, V.; Peter, M.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, oct (2017), s. 59-66 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Burgundy truffle * Carpinus betulus forest * Ecological indicator values * Fagus sylvatica forest * Potential distribution of Tuber aestivum * Truffle ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  15. Dynamics of forest populations in the mountain resort region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Efimenko, Natalia; Slepykh, Olga; Slepykh, Viktor; Povolotskaya, Nina

    2017-04-01

    Prehistoric formula of forest species composition of the resort region Caucasian Mineralnye Vody (RR CMV) in the North Caucasus is 6Q3Cb1Fe [1]. According to it, undisturbed forests of the region consisted of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and the durmast (Quercus cerris L.) by 60%, the European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) by 30% and the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) only by 10%. At present the formula of forest composition of the region is 5Fe3Cb2Q, according to it, the rate of oak-groves (the most valuable to resort landscape gardening) has reduced to 20%, and the ash-tree, though the rate of the hornbeam has not changed, increased up to 50%. Forest breeding populations in the RR CMV are referred to natural medical resources as they have high rehabilitation and climate-regulating properties, the change in forest breeding populations influences the conditions of the resort climate-landscape-therapy. The researches conducted in the perfect oak wood of vegetative origin in Beshtaugorsky Forestry Area (BFA) of the RR CMV have shown the reduction of the pedunculate oak in the tree-stand composition during 1984-2014 from 10 to 8 units in the composition: the European ash (1 unit) and the crataegus monogyna (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), the checker tree (Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz), the common pear (Pyrus communis L.) have appeared [2]. The rate of the pedunculate oak decreased from 10 units to 9 in the perfect planting of the pedunculate oak of the artificial origin (Mashuk section of the forestry of BFA of the RR CMV) during 1986-2016. Among accompanying breeds there was the English field maple (Acer campestre L.), the Chinese elm in singular (Ulmus parvifolia Jacq.), the single-seed hawthorn. The reliable regrowth (4C3Fe3Ac+Q+Cm+Pc+Up) in number of 3,9 thousand pieces/hectare defines the perspective of complete replacement of the oak crop in the future on planting with dominance of the hornbeam and the involvement of the ash-tree and the English

  16. Eco-monitoring of highly contaminated areas: historic heavy metal contamination in tree ring records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baross, Norbert; Jordán, Győző; Albert, Julianna; Abdaal, Ahmed; Anton, Attila

    2014-05-01

    This study examines and compares tree rings of trees grown in a mining area highly contaminated with heavy metals. Tree rings offers an excellent opportunity for eco-monitoring polluted areas. Contamination dispersion from the source to the receptors can be studied in time and space. The sampled area is located in the eastern part of the Matra Mts. of the Inner-Carpathian calc-alkaline Volcanic Arc (Hungary) with abundant historical ore (Pb, Zn, Cu, etc.) mining in the area. Dense forests are composed of the most typical association of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris). Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European black pine (Pinus nigra), oak (Quercus robur), beech (Fagus sylvatica), and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) also occurs in the landscape. Sampled trees are located within a 1km radius of the abandoned historic ore mines. Sample sites were located above the old mines and waste rock heaps, under the waste rock heaps and on the floodplain of the Ilona Creek. The sampled trees were selected by the following criteria: the tree should be healthy, showing no signs of thunderbolt or diseases and having a minimum diameter of 50 cm. Samples were taken with a tree borer at the height of 150 cm. At the same time, soil samples were also taken near the trees in a 25 cm depth. Prior to laboratory analysis, the samples measured and air dried. Every fifth years tree ring was taken from the samples under microscope, working backwards from the most recent outer ring (2012, the year of the sampling). Samples were digested with a mixture of H2SO4 and H2O2m in Teflon vessels in a microwave unit. The samples were analyzed by ICP-OES instrument. The results were evaluated with statistical method. Results revealed a consistent picture showing distinct locations and years of the contamination history in the former mining area. Some elements are built into the trees more efficiently than other elements depending on mobility in the soil solution that is influenced by soil chemical properties

  17. Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing the Functions of Headwater Slope Wetlands on the South Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    i.e., swamp bay) ( Persea borbonia) in the overstory or midstory ERDC/EL TR-11-11 20 (Monk 1966, Nelson 1986, Wharton et al. 1977, USACE 1988). In...biflora swamp tupelo Persea borbonia redbay Pinus glabra spruce pine Pinus taeda loblolly pine Quercus laurifolia laurel oak Quercus michauxii swamp... American elm Group 22 Carpinus caroliniana American hornbeam 0.66 Celtis laevigata sugarberry Cornus foemina stiff dogwood Diospyros virginiana

  18. Review of Reports on Lake Erie-Lake Ontario Waterway, New York. Appendix E. Impact Assessment and Environment Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    Ostrya virginiana ), American hornbeam or blue beech (Carpinus caroliana), American elm (Ulnus americana), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), red maple...921 4, 13, 780 Pears 7, 519, lt7 (,, 58t, 058 Cherries 7, 75,727 7, 147, 129 Plums and prunes 2. 892.85i 2, 352, 488 Grapes b, 874, 9e,) 8, t 2 4...drained soils), 10 percent peaches, 15-20 percent grapes, and 5 percent plums and prunes . A high per- centage of new plantings, up to 20 percent for

  19. Ecosystem scale VOC exchange measurements at Bosco Fontana (IT) and Hyytiälä (FI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhart, S.; Rantala, P.; Taipale, R.; Nemitz, E.; Tillmann, R.; Mentel, T. F.; Ruuskanen, T.; Rinne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The ozone production and destruction mechanisms in the troposphere depend on the abundance of NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). As the latter originate not only from human activities, but to a large extent from vegetation it is important to quantify these biogenic sources as well. The VOC-fluxes were measured in Bosco Fontana forest as a part of an intensive measurement campaign of the Eclaire project, which investigates how climate change alters the threat of air pollution. Measurements were carried out at the Nature Reserve 'Bosco della Fontana' in the Po valley, Italy. The area of the forest is 198 ha and the dominanting tree species are Quercus robur (English oak), Quercus cerris (Turkey oak) and Carpinus betulus (hornbeam). The fluxes were measured on at a height of 32 metres using the eddy covariance method. A PTR-TOF (Ionicon Analytik, Austria) measured volatile organic compounds up to a mass of 300 atomic mass units. The instrument is capable of recording full spectra of VOCs in real-time with a resolution of 10 Hz. In addition to the mass spectrometer a 3D Anemometer was placed next to the inlet. Results will be presented and compared with disjunct eddy covariance measurements (Taipale et al. 2011) from a Pinus sylvestris (Scots Pine) dominated forest in Hyytiälä, Finland. The two forests are characterized by a different emission profile; the Bosco Fontana forest emits large amounts of isoprene, whereas the terpenoid emissions from Hyytiälä forest are dominated by monoterpenes. The magnitude of the emissions differs as emission from Bosco Fontana is much higher. The monoterpene emission from Bosco Fontana is likely to follow different dynamics than that from Hyytiälä as it correlates well with the radiation. This leads to the conclusion, that monoterpenes are released right after they are produced (de novo). In Hyytiälä the emissions are light and temperature dependent, which is caused by de novo and storage emissions. Pines have large

  20. Changes in diversity, biomass and abundance of soil macrofauna, Parrotio-Carpinetum forest at organic and semi-organic horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Izadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Present study evaluates diversity, abundance and biomass of soil macrofauna in organic and semi-organic horizons in Parrotia persica-Carpinus betulus forest in Shast kola area. Totally 70 sample points were randomly selected from organic and semi-organic horizons then sampling was done by a rectangle 100 cm2 area. Soil macrofauna were separated from soil samples by hand sorting and using Berlese funnel then dried at 60°C for 72h and weighted in 0.001 gr. With using taxonomic classification key, thirteen macrofauna orders were identified. Most of abundance of soil macrofauna in both soil horizons were allocated to Millipedes order. Changes in diversity, abundance and biomass of macrofauna in both soil horizons were calculated. The results showed Shannon diversity index, Simpson evenness and Margalef richness indices in semi-organic horizon were more than organic horizon. Abundance and biomass of macrofauna in semi-organic horizon were more than organic horizon.

  1. Distribution and ecology of the lichen Fellhanera gyrophorica in the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland and its status in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents recent data on the distribution of Fellhanera gyrophorica (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycota in Poland, a rare lichen with a crustose, usually sterile thallus. Both previous and new localities of the species are presented with data on its eco­logy and general distribution. Furthermore, this paper provides detailed results on floristic investigations of the species in the forest areas of the Pojezierze Olsztyńskie Lakeland (Northern Poland. Fertile specimens of F. gyrophorica have been observed in Poland for the second time and in the world – for the third time. Also, a new substrate for this species has been found: Acer platanoides. In addition, Carpinus betulus and Populus tremula were also found to be the species' substrates in Poland. Based on this study and previous reports, F. gyrophorica seems to be a relatively common species in north-eastern Poland.

  2. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  3. Invasive Impatiens parviflora has negative impact on native vegetation in oak-hornbeam forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Florianová, Anna; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 226, Jan 2017 (2017), s. 10-16 ISSN 0367-2530 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : small balsam * impact of invasive plant on vegetation * removal experiment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2016

  4. Apoderus coryli (L. – a Biologically Little Known Species of the Attelabidae (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazel-leaf roller weevil (Apoderus coryli /L./ is a noteworthy species from the perspective of biology and forestry; it belongs to the family Attelabidae. Its occurrence, development and harmfulness were studied in surroundings of Brno city in 2011 and 2012. Imagoes of the first generation and those of not very numerous second generation are observed to winter in the area under study. From the beginning of May to the end of July they occur on the host woody plants (mainly on Carpinus betulus and Corylus avellana. The males and females consume on average 21 and 33 cm2 of leaves, respectively. The fertilized females cut into the leaf blade in an original manner, and bite into the main and side leaf veins. They fold the withering part of the blade lengthwise to the adaxial face first, and then forming the folded blade into a short cylindrical roll. In the initial phase of rolling, the females lay up on average 1.0 egg into the leaf rolls on C. betulus (1.2 on C. avellana. In total, they make around 30 rolls. The larvae emerge on average within 10 days. In the course of 3 to 4 weeks, they pass through two instars only and damage on average 4 cm2 of leaves. This work describes the occurrence and development of the beetles of the first and second generation. It provides an assessment of the mortality of the individual development stages of A. coryli within the rolls. It was demonstrated that rolling of the leaves causes on average 9 times more damage to the trees than maturation feeding of the beetles.

  5. Patterns of multiannual changes in the spatial structure of a bank vole (Myodes glareolus population in hornbeam-oak forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Мyakushko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on changes in the spatial structure of a population of bank vole (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780 in the context of a study of multiannual dynamics of population density. The field research took place in Kaniv Nature Reserve, Cherkassy region, Ukraine, in May – June 2009–2012. In forest biotopes of the reserve the dominant mammal species is the bank vole The period of research spanned four consecutive phases of long-term dynamics of density of population of this species, and also of the rodent community in general (growth – peak – decline – depression. The trapping of the animals was carried out by means of the traditional method of study plots. Parameters of spatial distribution of individuals – aggregation coefficient (K and density of individuals within concentrations (m – make it possible to gain an adequate impression of the structure of populations on the basis of data on distribution of individuals within the study plots. It has been established that the spatial structure of populations of rodents naturally changes in the course of multiannual dynamics of the population. During alternation of separate phases reorganizations of the spatial distribution of bank vole populations consisted of changes in the quantity and size of concentrations, and also the density of their placement. A scheme of changes in spatial structure in conditions of cyclic fluctuations of density is presented. Absence of concentration during the depression phase of dynamics is defined by the insignificant number of consumers of environmental resources, which causes a surplus and availability of these resources and is indicated also by the fact that compact distribution of animals interferes with successful realization of reproductive potential. Intensive reproduction and rapid rate of increase in a population, which are characteristic of a growth phase, cause formation and growth of separate concentrations. Increase in their area prevents rapid growth of density within these populations, and action of negative effects of overpopulation is weakened by redistribution of young animals. The phase of peak population causes merging of borders between separate concentrations and the creation of a uniform concentration with a high internal density. Later (decline phase such concentration breaks up into a number of small concentrations which are concentrated in the most optimum habitats. We found that multiannual "pulsation" of the spatial structure of a population occurs over absolutely different time periods and is similar to the seasonal pulsation. It is possible to draw analogies between separate phases (years of dynamics and certain seasons because at such stages the development of populations has similar patterns.

  6. The importance of biotic factors in predicting global change effects on decomposition of temperate forest leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouifed, Soraya; Handa, I Tanya; David, Jean-François; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO(2) and temperature are predicted to alter litter decomposition via changes in litter chemistry and environmental conditions. The extent to which these predictions are influenced by biotic factors such as litter species composition or decomposer activity, and in particular how these different factors interact, is not well understood. In a 5-week laboratory experiment we compared the decomposition of leaf litter from four temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Carpinus betulus and Tilia platyphyllos) in response to four interacting factors: elevated CO(2)-induced changes in litter quality, a 3 degrees C warmer environment during decomposition, changes in litter species composition, and presence/absence of a litter-feeding millipede (Glomeris marginata). Elevated CO(2) and temperature had much weaker effects on decomposition than litter species composition and the presence of Glomeris. Mass loss of elevated CO(2)-grown leaf litter was reduced in Fagus and increased in Fagus/Tilia mixtures, but was not affected in any other leaf litter treatment. Warming increased litter mass loss in Carpinus and Tilia, but not in the other two litter species and in none of the mixtures. The CO(2)- and temperature-related differences in decomposition disappeared completely when Glomeris was present. Overall, fauna activity stimulated litter mass loss, but to different degrees depending on litter species composition, with a particularly strong effect on Fagus/Tilia mixtures (+58%). Higher fauna-driven mass loss was not followed by higher C mineralization over the relatively short experimental period. Apart from a strong interaction between litter species composition and fauna, the tested factors had little or no interactive effects on decomposition. We conclude that if global change were to result in substantial shifts in plant community composition and macrofauna abundance in forest ecosystems, these interacting biotic factors could have

  7. The likely impact of climate change on the biodiversity of Italian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on literature results and our expert evaluation, we report some likely impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of forest communities in Italy by the end of this century. In the Mediterranean region and on the Apennines: at low altitudes, vulnerability of Pinus sp. and Quercus ilex forests, with loss of intraspecific genetic variability; transition from Mediterranean closed-canopy macchia to scattered shrublands; risk of local extinction for coastal populations of mesic/relic hardwood species (e.g., Quercus robur, Carpinus betulus, Zelkova sicula, Fraxinus sp.; ’eastern’ relic species like Quercus troiana, Quercus frainetto, Quercus aegilops, and Q. gussonei in Sicily, and the peripheral low-altitude Fagus sylvatica populations, will be highly vulnerable; in the mid-altitude forest, vulnerability of most demanding species like Quercus cerris and Castanea sativa, possible immigration of Mediterranean species like Quercus ilex; in the montane forest, Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba will be less competitive with respect to more continental and drought-resistant tree species, and could loose genetic variability; relic species like Taxus baccata and Betula aetnensis may be at risk. In the alpine region: upward movement of timberline and changes in timberline communities, for instance Picea abies may be more competitive over Larix decidua, and fragmented species like Pinus cembra might become vulnerable. In general, we recognize the difficulty in separating the effects of climatic variables from those of other processes, like fires and land-use change.

  8. Characteristic of Tuber spp. localities in natural stands with emphasis on plant species composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Hilszczanska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi belonging to the genus Tuber establish ectomycorrhizal symbioses with shrubs, trees and some herbaceous plants. Some Tuber species, for example, T. melanosporum, T. magnatum, T. aestivum are economically important because they produce edible fruiting bodies with a distinctive taste and flavor. Our concept of truffle ecophysiology is dominated by the symbiosis with deciduous hosts, such as: Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, Castanea sativa, Corylus spp., Carpinus betulus, Ostrya carpinifolia, Betula verrucosa, and Tilia spp., whereas the real range of hosts in nature seems to be much wider. Moreover, interactions between Tuber mycelium and plant community could be more complex than just forming the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Here we show our inventory of plants and soils at six truffle’ sites in the southern part of Poland (Nida Basin and Przedbórz Upland. The aim of this study was to widen our understanding of ecological factors affecting Tuber spp., in the context of pioneering stage of research on truffles in Poland. We hope our findings will have a practical application and will help to choose suitable soils for truffle orchards.

  9. Relationships between browsing damage and the species dominance by the highly food-attractive and less food-attractive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Čermák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses data on the browsing damage to Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus spp., Tilia cordata and Fagus sylvatica. Field research was carried out in the period 2007–2010 and analysed data came from 33 transects at 10 localities with the various abundance of game in the CR (everywhere Capreolus capreolus, on several plots also Cervus elaphus, Ovis musimon or Dama dama. Trees were monitored up to a height of 150 cm in natural regeneration under stands and in plantations and the occurrence was noted of new browsing damage. Differences between the percentage of damaged individuals of the given species of a food-attractive species (A. p., C. b., F. e. and the percentage of damaged individuals of all tree species on a transect as well as the proportion of these parameters correlate negatively with the given species dominance and thus, they appear to be suitable parameters for the analysis of relationships between the damage intensity and dominance. The higher the percentage proportions of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species, the lower the relative intensity of damage to highly food-attractive species. At the same time, the higher the percentage proportion of highly food-attractive species and the lower the percentage of less-attractive species then the lower a difference between damage to less food-attractive species and all species.

  10. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  11. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah Musa

    Full Text Available The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  12. Fruit production in three masting tree species does not rely on stored carbon reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin

    2013-03-01

    Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three species with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed trees to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower δ(13)C values compared to control trees. δ(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three species, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of δ(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting trees, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding.

  13. Leaf gas exchange performance and the lethal water potential of five European species during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Feifel, Marion; Karimi, Zohreh; Schuldt, Bernhard; Choat, Brendan; Jansen, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Establishing physiological thresholds to drought-induced mortality in a range of plant species is crucial in understanding how plants respond to severe drought. Here, five common European tree species were selected (Acer campestre L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L., Corylus avellana L. and Fraxinus excelsior L.) to study their hydraulic thresholds to mortality. Photosynthetic parameters during desiccation and the recovery of leaf gas exchange after rewatering were measured. Stem vulnerability curves and leaf pressure-volume curves were investigated to understand the hydraulic coordination of stem and leaf tissue traits. Stem and root samples from well-watered and severely drought-stressed plants of two species were observed using transmission electron microscopy to visualize mortality of cambial cells. The lethal water potential (ψlethal) correlated with stem P99 (i.e., the xylem water potential at 99% loss of hydraulic conductivity, PLC). However, several plants that were stressed beyond the water potential at 100% PLC showed complete recovery during the next spring, which suggests that the ψlethal values were underestimated. Moreover, we observed a 1 : 1 relationship between the xylem water potential at the onset of embolism and stomatal closure, confirming hydraulic coordination between leaf and stem tissues. Finally, ultrastructural changes in the cytoplasm of cambium tissue and mortality of cambial cells are proposed to provide an alternative approach to investigate the point of no return associated with plant death. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Charles P-A; Bayat, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR) is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i) three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii) four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii) seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content), yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot), than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species). This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently general to be

  15. Flora, life form and chorological study of soil seed bank in Sisangan box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the soil seed bank flora of the Sisangan Box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark reserve by using seedling emergence method. 150 soil samples were collected during late June and early November by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 to a depth of 5 cm. Results showed 67 species, representing 63 genera and 38 families germinated from soil seed bank. 45 species belonging to 28 families and 59 species belonging to 32 families were recorded in June and November soil seed bank respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (7 species, 10.5%, Lamiaceae (6 species, 9%, Poaceae (5 species, 7.5% and Rosaceae (4 species, 6% which compromised 32.8% percent of the total species in the soil seed bank. Results also showed that Hemicrptophytes (28.4% and Euro-Sibria elements (23/9% were the most important biological spectrum and phytochorion respectivly in the soil seed bank of Sisangan forest. From the total number of species recorded in seed bank, 30 species (44.6 % were found only in the seed bank and never observed in above-ground vegetation. In this regard, seeds of 10 woody species including Albizia julibrissin, Ficus carica, Morus alba, Diospyrus lotus, Celtis australis, Gleditsia caspica, Buxus hyrcana, Ulmus minor, Zelkova carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus were found in the soil seed bank, from which only 6 species were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. This condition confirmed low similarity between above-ground vegetation and persistent soil seed bank and it also reiterated the importance of soil seed bank study for introducing more accurate capacity of plant biodiversity.

  16. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-Ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  17. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Roques

    Full Text Available Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China, and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major

  18. Landscape variation in tree species richness in northern Iran forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P-A Bourque

    Full Text Available Mapping landscape variation in tree species richness (SR is essential to the long term management and conservation of forest ecosystems. The current study examines the prospect of mapping field assessments of SR in a high-elevation, deciduous forest in northern Iran as a function of 16 biophysical variables representative of the area's unique physiography, including topography and coastal placement, biophysical environment, and forests. Basic to this study is the development of moderate-resolution biophysical surfaces and associated plot-estimates for 202 permanent sampling plots. The biophysical variables include: (i three topographic variables generated directly from the area's digital terrain model; (ii four ecophysiologically-relevant variables derived from process models or from first principles; and (iii seven variables of Landsat-8-acquired surface reflectance and two, of surface radiance. With symbolic regression, it was shown that only four of the 16 variables were needed to explain 85% of observed plot-level variation in SR (i.e., wind velocity, surface reflectance of blue light, and topographic wetness indices representative of soil water content, yielding mean-absolute and root-mean-squared error of 0.50 and 0.78, respectively. Overall, localised calculations of wind velocity and surface reflectance of blue light explained about 63% of observed variation in SR, with wind velocity accounting for 51% of that variation. The remaining 22% was explained by linear combinations of soil-water-related topographic indices and associated thresholds. In general, SR and diversity tended to be greatest for plots dominated by Carpinus betulus (involving ≥ 33% of all trees in a plot, than by Fagus orientalis (median difference of one species. This study provides a significant step towards describing landscape variation in SR as a function of modelled and satellite-based information and symbolic regression. Methods in this study are sufficiently

  19. Counts of fox breeding dens in a riverine area of Northern Italy / Conteggio delle tane riproduttive di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area golenale dell'Italia settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1982 to 1986 the fox breeding dens were counted over areas ranging from 37 to 188 km² of the Ticino Park (Lombardy region. Eighty-eight breeding dens were found, of which 84.1% was along the wooded slopes of the river valley, 12.5% on the edge of woods, and 3.4% on the edge of poplar plantations. Breeding foxes used almost exclusively deserted setts of Meles meles and burrows of Oryctolagus cuniculus. The mean density was 0.22 dens/km² (min-max: 0.0-1.0 dens/km² and the highest values were found in agricoltura1 areas with wooded slopes of the river valley (1.0 dens/km² and in mixed woods with prevailing Quercus robur and Carpinus betulus (0.5 dens/km². The density of breeding dens does not seem to be influenced by the presence of protected areas and by the density of hares and of pheasants. Riassunto La ricerca delle tane riproduttive di Volpe Vulpes vulpes è stata effettuata nel periodo 1982-86 nel Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino e ogni anno ha interessato una superficie variabile da 37 a 188 km². Su un totale di 88 tane rilevate, l'84,1% è stato rinvenuto lungo le scarpate dei terrazzi fluviali, il 12,5% al margine di boschi golenali e il 3,4% al margine di pioppeti. La Volpe utilizza quasi esclusivamente le tane abbandonate dal Tasso e quelle del Coniglio selvatico. La densità media di tane riproduttive è stata di 0,22 tane/km² (min-max: 0,O-1,0 tane/km² e i valori più elevati sono stati riscontrati in zone agricole con presenza di scarpate boscate (1,O tane/km² e in zone con boschi a prevalenza di Farnia e Carpino bianco (0,5 tane/km². Le densità trovate in aree protette non differiscono significativamente da quelle rilevate in aree in cui l'esercizio venatorio è consentito e non sembrano essere influenzate positivamente dalla densità di specie di particolare interesse venatorio come la Lepre e il Fagiano.

  20. Declines in populations of Salix caprea L.during forest regeneration after strong herbivore pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz B. Faliński

    2014-01-01

    (Carpinus betulus, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Ulmus glabra under the canopy of light-seeded trees, and the non-creation of a new generation of pioneer species points to the imminent end of the process of regeneration in the forest communities of Białowieża National Park.

  1. The Turkey oak high forests in the Molise region (central Italy. Analysis of past silvicultural system and current management choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2010-12-01

    from Carpinus betulus stools clearcutting, was a further hindrance to the establishment of natural oak regeneration. In the fifties, the rate of forest management increased as a consequence of the coming up economic concern in sleeper production. The silvicultural shelterwood system was therefore codified. The system resulted to be more effective and adopted up to the present time. The traditional shelterwood system was based on a 90 yrs rotation length, three thinnings performed from the age of 25 up to 75, time of the seed cutting with a release of 90 trees per hectare. In the seventies, following the much more reduced and even null concern in wood production from oak high forests, practices into the same forests were suspended or postponed. At now, the renewed concern for fuelwood production, the only assortment marketable, as well as the increased attention paid to the multifunctional role of these forests, made again actual the problem of oak high forest management. The effectiveness of shelterwood system is the main outcome of the documental analysis performed. The study of the Carovilli’s chronosequence confirmed the close link between the current stand structures and the prescribed rules adopted in the past, in accordance with the management plans. The experimental trials in progress are now focused at defining an improvement of the shelterwood system practice as for the following issues: reduction of cutting areas; establishment of a more complex structural mosaic at neighbouring forest patches, setting up of a consistent release of seed trees i.e. number and dendrotypes to be selected at the purpose, with a special care to the crown cover to the forest floor, effective control of the understorey development due to the resprouting of Carpinus betulus stools, to enhance the establishment of oak natural regeneration. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso

  2. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  3. A multiproxy study of Holocene water-depth and environmental changes in Lake St Ana, Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E. K.; Buczkó, K.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.

    2009-04-01

    This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary investigation carried out on the sediment of a crater lake (Lake Saint Ana, 950 m a.s.l.) from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains. The lake is set in a base-poor volcanic environment with oligotrophic and slightly acidic water. Loss-on-ignition, major and trace element, pollen, plant macrofossil and siliceous algae analyses were used to reconstruct Holocene environmental and water-depth changes. Diatom-based transfer functions were applied to estimate the lake's trophic status and pH, while reconstruction of the water-depth changes was based on the plant macrofossil and diatom records. The lowest Holocene water-depths were found between 9,000 and 7,400 calibrated BP years, when the crater was occupied by Sphagnum-bog and bog-pools. The major trend from 7,400 years BP was a gradual increase, but the basin was still dominated by poor-fen and poor fen-pools. Significant increases in water-depth, and meso/oligotrophic lake conditions were found from 5,350(1), 3,300(2) and 2,700 years BP. Of these, the first two coincided with major terrestrial vegetation changes, namely the establishment of Carpinus betulus on the crater slope (1), and the replacement of the lakeshore Picea abies forest by Fagus sylvatica (2). The chemical record clearly indicated significant soil changes along with the canopy changes (from coniferous to deciduous), that in turn led to increased in-lake productivity and pH. A further increase in water-depth around 2,700 years BP resulted in stable thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia that via P-release further increased in-lake productivity and eventually led to phytoplankton blooms with large populations of Scenedesmus cf. S. brasiliensis. High productivity was depressed by anthropogenic lakeshore forest clearances commencing from ca. 1,000 years BP that led to the re-establishment of Picea abies on the lakeshore and consequent acidification of the lake-water. On the whole, these data

  4. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    ., Fantasmomyces hyalinus (incl. Fantasmomyces gen. nov.) on Acacia exuvialis , Paracladophialophora carceris (incl. Paracladophialophora gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Umthunziomyces hagahagensis (incl. Umthunziomyces gen. nov.) on Mimusops caffra. Spain : Clavaria griseobrunnea on bare ground in Pteridium aquilinum field, Cyathus ibericus on small fallen branches of Pinus halepensis , Gyroporus pseudolacteus in humus of Pinus pinaster , and Pseudoascochyta pratensis (incl. Pseudoascochyta gen. nov.) from soil. Thailand : Neoascochyta adenii on Adenium obesum , and Ochroconis capsici on Capsicum annuum . UK : Fusicolla melogrammae from dead stromata of Melogramma campylosporum on bark of Carpinus betulus . Uruguay : Myrmecridium pulvericola from house dust. USA : Neoscolecobasidium agapanthi (incl. Neoscolecobasidium gen. nov.) on Agapanthus sp . , Polyscytalum purgamentum on leaf litter, Pseudopithomyces diversisporus from human toenail, Saksenaea trapezispora from knee wound of a soldier, and Sirococcus quercus from Quercus sp . Morphological and culture characteristics along with DNA barcodes are provided.

  5. Physical and mechanical properties and the use of lesser-known ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-30

    Nov 30, 2011 ... The sample trees were harvested from a mixed oak-hornbeam- Silver ... Europe and eastern North America; they are not native to western North America. Tilia species are large deciduous ...... Kollmann FFP, Côte WA (1968).

  6. Effects of Permanently Raised Water Tables on Forest Overstory Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Mississippi Valley* Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant** Water hickory Carya aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis...Table I (Concluded) Common Name Scientific Name Intolerant* Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Shellbark

  7. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  8. Phytosociological characteristics of forest vegetation NPR Dubnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovsky, A.; Balkovic, J.; Kollar, J.

    2010-01-01

    National Wildlife (NPR) Dubnik represents a unique fragment of natural forest vegetation in the region of Nitra loess upland. Status of oak and oak-hornbeam forests in this book was last documented in 1965. The aim of the contribution is to assess the current status of forest vegetation in the NPR Dubnik by modern methods of phytosociology in accordance with current thinking on the classification of oak and oak-hornbeam forests.

  9. Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostra, Swantje; Majdi, Hooshang; Olsson, Mats

    2006-01-01

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech (Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate

  10. Mechorosty Přírodní rezervace Červený kříž a okolí Vyspalovy seče v CHKO a BR Křivoklátsko

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franklová, H.; Kolbek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 453-458 ISSN 1211-5258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005202; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/98/1549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : bryophytes * Křivoklátsko * oak and oak-hornbeam forest Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  11. Generation of Combat Power by Insurgents: An Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    without the weight of food or water normally required something the GoO military forces could not replicate. Through the use of villagers and jebelis as...group’s Freedom of Action. In Dhofar, the establishment of the Leopard Line, Hornbeam Line, and the Damavand Line established control of terrain that

  12. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  13. National Wetland Plant List Indicator Rating Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    glaucus (blue rye grass), Eragrostis pilosa (Indian love grass), Oenothera biennis (king’s-cureall), Ostrya virginiana (eastern hop-hornbeam...profile with a low wa- ter-holding capacity. ERDC/CRREL TN-12-1 6 Prunus serotina (black cherry), Phleum pretense (common timothy), Sarcobatus

  14. Rinodina degeliana: a corticolous lichen species overlooked in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kubiak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New localities of Rinodina degeliana in Poland are described. The morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of the species are discussed and characters that help to differentiate R. degaliana from similar lichens are presented. The species is relatively frequent in lime-hornbeam forests of northern and central Poland.

  15. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  16. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: Litter quality or parent material?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil

  17. Tuber aestivum Vittad. mycelium quantified: advantages and limitations of a qPCR approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Trilčová, Jana; Hršelová, Hana; Streiblová, Eva; Gryndlerová, Hana; Jansa, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2013), s. 341-348 ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/0382 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Summer truffle * Quantitative real-time PCR * Carpinus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.985, year: 2013

  18. Sprout growth of some hardwoods following clearcutting in the Dapgok District of the Seoul National University Forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.K.; Kim, K.D.

    1982-01-01

    Stewartia koreana and Styrax japonica produced the best growth of coppice shoots and suckers, while Carpinus laxiflora produced none. Lindera erythrocarpa, Euonymus sachalinensis. Cornus controversa, Prunus sargentii and Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed good short growth after felling and good seedling emergence. Growth of shoots and suckers was better on fertile than on poor sites.

  19. How Biotic Differentiation of Human Impacted Nutrient Poor Deciduous Forests Can Affect the Preservation Status of Mountain Forest Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Durak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant loss of biodiversity resulting from human activity has caused biotic homogenisation to become the dominant process shaping forest communities. In this paper, we present a rare case of biotic differentiation in European temperate deciduous forest herb layer vegetation. The process is occurring in nutrient poor oak-hornbeam forests in mountain areas (Polish Eastern Carpathians, Central Europe where non-timber use was converted into conventional forest management practice. This change contributed to increases in the nitrogen content and pH reaction of the soil that, contrary to predominant beliefs on the negative impact of habitat eutrophication on diversity, did not result in a decrease in the latter. We discuss possible reasons for this phenomenon that indicate the important role of tree stand composition (an increasing admixture of beech worsening the trophic properties of the soil. The second issue considered involves the effect of the changes in herb species composition of oak-hornbeam forest on its distinctiveness from the beech forest predominating in the Polish Eastern Carpathians. Unfortunately, despite the increase in the species compositional dissimilarity of oak-hornbeam forest, a reduction in their distinctiveness in relation to the herb species composition of beech forest was found. Such a phenomenon is an effect of the major fragmentation of oak-hornbeam forests, a spread of beech forest-type species, and forest management that gives preference to beech trees. Consequently, it can be expected that changes occurring in oak-hornbeam forest vegetation will contribute to a decrease in the forest vegetation variability at the regional scale.

  20. Possibilities for the Use of Wood Ashes in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Symanowicz; Marcin Becher; Dawid Jaremko; Korneliusz Skwarek

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the agricultural usefulness of the ashes obtained following the combustion of wood of fourteen tree species (pear tree, apple tree, aspen, ash, alder, birch, poplar, hornbeam, pine, common walnut, oak, hazel, bird cherry and spruce) in home fireplaces. The following physical properties of the ashes were determined: colour, solubility, porosity, absorbability, compression strength, degree of fineness, moisture content and spreadability. In the ashes...

  1. Volvariella surrecta - a new species in the mycoflora of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Celka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first record of Volvariella surrecta (Knapp Sing. (Pluteaceae in Poland. Its fruit bodies were found on 20 October 2000 in an oak-hornbeam wood in the southern part of Pomań. The parasitic V. surrecta grew on decaying sporophores of Lepista nebularis and Melanoleuca brevipes. The article also describes the macroscopic and microscpic characteristics of the discovered specimens.

  2. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  3. Late- and post-glacial vegetation dynamics in Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria) based on pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovitch, L.; Lazarova, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study offers a reconstruction of Quaternary vegetation in the region of Shiroka Polyana (Western Rhodopes mountains) on the basis of pollen analysis and 14 C dating. It helps to trace out the trends in vegetation dynamics. The palaeosuccession cycle providing valuable floristic and coenotic information about the Late Glacial (13000 BP) and the entire Holocene throughout several major stages is recreated: grassy communities, thermophilus deciduous forests, fir-hornbeam-beech forests, spruce-pine forests, pine-spruce forests. (authors)

  4. Ocena sestojne zgradbe na območju Krakovskega pragozdnega rezervata s segmentacijo podatkov laserskega skeniranja

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Pintar, Anže Martin

    2017-01-01

    In Krakovo virgin forest reserve we assessed stand structures on the basis of the laser scanning data of Slovenia and forest inventory permanent sampling plots. Large growing stocks (730 m3 /ha) and quantities of deadwood (27 % of growing stock) are characteristic for a reserve in the area of lowland, occasionally flooded forests. Pedunculate oak (83 %) and common hornbeam (12 %) prevail in the growing stock. We delineated stand structures in the forest reserve zone on the basis of the height...

  5. Paradoxical differences in N-dynamics between Luxembourg soils: litter quality or parent material?

    OpenAIRE

    Kooijman, A.M.; Smit, A.

    2009-01-01

    To explore whether litter quality could alter differences in N-dynamics between soil types, we compared spruce and beech growing on soils with parent material sandstone and limestone, and beech and hornbeam on acid marl and limestone. We measured pH, organic matter content, C:N ratio, soil respiration and net N-mineralization of the organic layer and the mineral topsoil in a laboratory incubation experiment and estimated gross N-mineralization and immobilization with a simulation model. Speci...

  6. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  7. Late Neogene leaf assemblage from Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf macroremains collected in the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (central Poland were investigated. The fossil assemblage consists of leaves of Acer, Betula, Carpinus, Dicotylophyllum, Fagus, ?Magnolia, “Parrotia”, Pinus, Quercus, and Zelkova. Mesophytic (zonal elements dominate, with admixture of riparian (azonal leaf taxa. The floristic composition points to late Neogene (late Miocene to late Pliocene age and suggests favourable temperate climate with mild winters.

  8. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  9. Specific Vicariance of Two Primeval Lowland Forest Lichen Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Dariusz; Osyczka, Piotr

    2017-06-01

    To date, the lichens Chrysothrix candelaris and Varicellaria hemisphaerica have been classified as accurate primeval lowland forest indicators. Both inhabit particularly valuable remnants of oak-hornbeam forests in Europe, but tend toward a specific kind of vicariance on a local scale. The present study was undertaken to determine habitat factors responsible for this phenomenon and verify the indicative and conservation value of these lichens. The main spatial and climatic parameters that, along with forest structure, potentially affect their distribution patterns and abundance were analysed in four complexes with typical oak-hornbeam stands in NE Poland. Fifty plots of 400 m2 each were chosen for detailed examination of stand structure and epiphytic lichens directly associated with the indicators. The study showed that the localities of the two species barely overlap within the same forest community in a relatively small geographical area. The occurrence of Chrysothrix candelaris depends basically only on microhabitat space provided by old oaks and its role as an indicator of the ecological continuity of habitat is limited. Varicellaria hemisphaerica is not tree specific but a sufficiently high moisture of habitat is essential for the species and it requires forests with high proportion of deciduous trees in a wide landscape scale. Local landscape-level habitat continuity is more important for this species than the current age of forest stand. Regardless of the indicative value, localities of both lichens within oak-hornbeam forests deserve the special protection status since they form unique assemblages of exclusive epiphytes, including those with high conservation value.

  10. How Does Temperature Impact Leaf Size and Shape in Four Woody Dicot Species? Testing the Assumptions of Leaf Physiognomy-Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, M.; Royer, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The physiognomy (size and shape) of fossilized leaves has been used to reconstruct the mean annual temperature of ancient environments. Colder temperatures often select for larger and more abundant leaf teeth—serrated edges on leaf margins—as well as a greater degree of leaf dissection. However, to be able to accurately predict paleotemperature from the morphology of fossilized leaves, leaves must be able to react quickly and in a predictable manner to changes in temperature. We examined the extent to which temperature affects leaf morphology in four tree species: Carpinus caroliniana, Acer negundo, Ilex opaca, and Ostrya virginiana. Saplings of these species were grown in two growth cabinets under contrasting temperatures (17 and 25 °C). Compared to the cool treatment, in the warm treatment Carpinus caroliniana leaves had significantly fewer leaf teeth and a lower ratio of total number of leaf teeth to internal perimeter; and Acer negundo leaves had a significantly lower feret diameter ratio (a measure of leaf dissection). In addition, a two-way ANOVA tested the influence of temperature and species on leaf physiognomy. This analysis revealed that all plants, regardless of species, tended to develop more highly dissected leaves with more leaf teeth in the cool treatment. Because the cabinets maintained equivalent moisture, humidity, and CO2 concentration between the two treatments, these results demonstrate that these species could rapidly adapt to changes in temperature. However, not all of the species reacted identically to temperature changes. For example, Acer negundo, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ostrya virginiana all had a higher number of total teeth in the cool treatment compared to the warm treatment, but the opposite was true for Ilex opaca. Our work questions a fundamental assumption common to all models predicting paleotemperature from the physiognomy of fossilized leaves: a given climate will inevitably select for the same leaf physiognomy

  11. Investigation the Potential Replacement of the Old Corrugated Container (OCC) and Poplar Wood Flour Instead of Wheat Flour such as Urea-formaldehyde Adhesive Filler in the Plywood Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kazem D.Hosseini; Meysam Mahdinia; Elham Farhid; Abdollah Elyasi

    2012-01-01

    Considering the value and importance of wheat flour in our country, replacement of a new type of filler instead of wheat flour in glue combination in plywood industry is necessary. In this study the possibility of using wood flour of poplar and OCC (old corrugated container) fiber as filler in the combination of urea formaldehyde glue has been studied. The plywood was manufactured from Poplar species (in core of plywood) and Hornbeam veneer (in back and face of plywood) on the basis of the st...

  12. Fort Leonard Wood Cantonment Landscape Context, Inventory, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Characteristics Ostrya virginiana Hop Hornbeam Height 30-50’ oval to rounded attractive habit Platanus occiden- talis American Planetree Height 80...langeana olia -white flowers in spring Saucer Magn Height 20-30’ rounded showy pink Prunus maakii Amur Chokecherry s in May Height 30-40’ pyramidal white...mound’’ Pine Spread 3-5 dense, dark green foliage Prunus glandulosa Dwarf Flowering Almond and leggy Height 3-5’, Spread 3-4’ broad rounded pink or

  13. PHYTOCOENOSES OF URBAN RIPARIAN FORESTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LAS OSOBOWICKI FOREST (WROCŁAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Las Osobowicki forest is remnant riparian woodland of the Odra valley. Floristic data were collected from circular 100m2 plots (with a radius of 5.64m which were systematically chosen in forest communities. Four plant communities were determined within data set. They were represented Fagetalia order and Querco-Fagetea class. Flood prevention caused disappearance of riparian forest species, expansion of common hornbeam and Norway maple expansion and a decrease of species richness. However, spatial distribution of phytocoenoses proves the river influence on the vegetation.

  14. Report of the International Ice Patrol in the North Atlantic. 1984 Season Bulletin Number 70

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    directed 300 to the right of area has a high degree of the middle of the thermocline. downwind. Measured winds from variability (Soule, 1964; Scobie ...geostrophic flow as long as the in the area north of 430 N ( Scobie conducted in both 1983 and Figure B-10. Actual iceberg and TOD drift from 17-22 July...before next season. lIP 8030. plans to evaluate the drift model using the drift data obtained from Scobie , R.W. and R.H., Schultz HORNBEAM, data from

  15. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  16. Spatial pattern of tree diversity and evenness across forest types in Majella National Park, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Redowan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimation of tree diversity at broader scale is important for conservation planning. Tree diversity should be measured and understood in terms of diversity and evenness, two integral components to describe the structure of a biological community. Variation of the tree diversity and evenness with elevation, topographic relief, aspect, terrain shape, slope, soil nutrient, solar radiation etc. are well documented. Methods Present study explores the variation of tree diversity (measured as Shannon diversity and evenness indices of Majella National Park, Italy with five available forest types namely evergreen oak woods, deciduous oak woods, black/aleppo pine stands, hop-hornbeam forest and beech forest, using satellite, environmental and field data. Results Hop-hornbeam forest was found to be most diverse and even while evergreen Oak woods was the lowest diverse and even. Diversity and evenness of forest types were concurrent to each other i.e. forest type which was more diverse was also more even. As a broad pattern, majority portion of the study area belonged to medium diversity and high evenness class. Conclusions Satellite images and other GIS data proved useful tools in monitoring variation of tree diversity and evenness across various forest types. Present study findings may have implications in prioritizing conservation zones of high tree diversity at Majella.

  17. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  18. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  19. Age-dependent diet change, parental care and reproductive costin tawny owls Strix aluco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán; Csörgõ, Tibor; Hahn, István

    2000-07-01

    Tawny owls Strix aluco breeding in nest-boxes were studied in a mixed oak/hornbeam/beech forest located in the Duna-Ipoly National Park 30 km north-west of Budapest, Hungary, during the period 1992-1999. Diet composition, prey mass, breeding performance and body mass of the parents of known age were recorded. Older males had a greater ability to choose alternate prey, delivered a greater mass of prey with a higher feeding frequency and achieved higher productivity than younger males when the availability of the preferred prey declined. The reproductive cost was paid only by young parents. We suggest that the lowest breeding performance, which was observed with young parents in adverse weather conditions, may be due to both the lower ability of these younger birds to exploit alternative prey and to their poor body condition which resulted in them providing fewer resources to their offspring because of their need to provide for their own survival.

  20. Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae reflects biotope disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langraf Vladimír

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5 and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6 (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3 with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1, a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4 and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7 (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3, where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

  1. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzinska, K

    1977-05-01

    pH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of five deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (scots pine) in the Cracow Industrial Region (southern Poland) and, for comparison, in the Bialowieza Forest (northeastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air pollution by SO/sub 2/ in these areas. All trees showed the least acidic reaction in the control area (Bialowieza Forest), more acidic in Niepolomice Forest and the most acidic in the center of Cracow. The buffering capacity of the bark against alkali increased with increasing air pollution. The seasonal fluctuations of pH values and buffering capacity were found. Tree bark is recommended as a sensitive and simple indicator of air pollution.

  2. Acidity of tree bark as a bioindicator of forest pollution in southern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodznska, K

    1976-01-01

    PH values and buffering capacity were determined for bark samples of 5 deciduous trees (oak, alder, hornbeam, ash, linden), one shrub (hazel) and one coniferous tree (scots pine) in the Cracow industrial region (southern Poland) and for comparison in the Bialowieza Forest (north-eastern Poland). The correlation was found between acidification of tree bark and air pollution by SO/sub 2/ in these areas. All trees showed the least acidic reaction in the control area (Bialowieza Forest), more acidic in Niepolomice Forest and the most acidic in the center of Cracow city. The buffering capacity of the bark against alkali increased with increasing air pollution. The seasonal fluctuations of pH values is recommended as a sensitive and simple indicator of air pollution.

  3. Chasmophytic forests of Ostrya carpinifolia in west-Serbian canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić, B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability patterns and biodiversity components of chasmophytic forests of Ostrya carpinifolia in westSerbian ravine habitats were analyzed in this article. Investigations were performed in four gorges along Gornja Trešnjica, Gradac, Ljutina and Lim rivers. Chasmophytic hop hornbeam forests occur on steep slopes (25° to 50° at elevations ranging from 260 m to 1200 m, on all aspects. These forests grow on screes, rocky clifs, colluvial gravel, on shallow soils on dolomites, limestone and serpentine. Canonical correspondence analysis indicates that moisture, light and temperature gradients are the main factors affecting diversification of investigated forests. The greatest alpha diversity was detected in Brodarevo and Gostun gorges, along the Lim River.

  4. Aeropalynologic analysis of Timisoara (Romania during 2006 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a one year qualitative-quantitative study of airborne pollen. The objective of the investigation was to analyse the daily presence and distribution of pollen and to identify the pollen types that are abundantly represented in the atmosphere of the city of Timisoara. A continuous aeropalynologic survey was accomplished between 1 mai 2006 and 8 octombrie 2006. Plants with anemophilous pollination were the best represented: Pinaceae, Poaceae, Plantago, Rumex, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Artemisia, Ambrosia, Fraxinus, Salix, Betula, Carpinus, Quercus, Juglans, Platanus, Morus, Tilia. The total pollen spectrum was represented by 17 pollen types. Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen types was dominant. The highest level of pollen emission was recorded during August-September.

  5. Relationships between aeroallergen levels and hospital admissions for asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region: a daily time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Ariane; Cox, Bianca; Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Hoebeke, Lucie; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke; De Cremer, Koen; Bladt, Sandrine; Brasseur, Olivier; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An

    2018-04-11

    Outdoor pollen grain and fungal spore concentrations have been associated with severe asthma exacerbations at the population level. The specific impact of each taxon and the concomitant effect of air pollution on these symptoms have, however, still to be better characterized. This study aimed to investigate the short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various aeroallergens and hospitalizations related to asthma in the Brussels-Capital Region (Belgium), an area recording especially high rates of admissions. Based on administrative records of asthma hospitalizations and regular monitoring of 11 tree/herbaceous pollen taxa and 2 fungal spore taxa, daily time series analyses covering the 2008-2013 period were performed. Effects up to 6 days after exposure were captured by combining quasi-Poisson regression with distributed lag models, adjusting for seasonal and long-term trends, day of the week, public holidays, mean temperature and relative humidity. Effect modification by age and air pollution (PM, NO 2 , O 3 ) was tested. A significant increase in asthma hospitalizations was observed for an interquartile range increase in grass (5.9%, 95% CI: 0.0, 12.0), birch (3.2%, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.3) and hornbeam (0.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.3) pollen concentrations. For several taxa including grasses, an age modification effect was notable, the hospitalization risk tending to be higher in individuals younger than 60 years. Air pollutants impacted the relationships too: the risk appeared to be stronger for grass and birch pollen concentrations in case of high PM 10 and O 3 concentrations respectively. These findings suggest that airborne grass, birch and hornbeam pollen are associated with severe asthma exacerbations in the Brussels region. These compounds appear to act in synergy with air pollution and to more specifically affect young and intermediate age groups. Most of these life-threatening events could theoretically be prevented with improved disease diagnosis

  6. Abundance of large old trees in wood-pastures of Transylvania (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor; Hanspach, Jan; Moga, Cosmin I; Holban, Lucian; Szapanyos, Árpád; Tamás, Réka; Hováth, Csaba; Réti, Kinga-Olga

    2018-02-01

    Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures. We identified 2520 large old trees belonging to 16 taxonomic groups. Oak was present in 66% of the wood-pastures, followed by beech (33%), hornbeam (24%) and pear (22%). For each of these four species we constructed a generalized linear model with quasi-Poisson error distribution to explain individual tree abundance. Oak trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures and in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region of Transylvania. Beech abundance related positively to elevation and to proximity of human settlements. Abundance of hornbeam was highest in large wood-pastures, in wood-pastures from the Saxon cultural region, and in places with high cover of adjacent forest and a low human population density. Large old pear trees were most abundant in large wood-pastures that were close to paved roads. The maintenance of large old trees in production landscapes is a challenge for science, policy and local people, but it also can serve as an impetus for integrating economic, ecological and social goals within a landscape. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Holocen history of vegetation at “Uroczysko Mokradła” (SW Poland – paleobotanical research

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    Klara Tomaszewska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two peat bogs were studied in the Bory Dolnośląskie, the forest complex in Lower Silesia (Poland. An Instorf drill was used to collect two peat profiles from the deepest places. The macroremains analysis showed that after the initiation of peat-forming processes phytocoenoses responsible for the deposition of transition sphagnum peat were developed at both locations. Later on, the development of both peat bogs differed. The smaller peat bog continued to develop, whereas the big bog was shifted to ombrotrophic water regime. Therefore, phytocoenoses accumulated 1.3 m of Sphagnum peat. The peat-forming process was initiated at different times in both sites. For the smaller peat bog, it took place during the Atlantic period, while in the case of the larger peat bog – several thousand years later. The first identified forest phytocoenoses in the Atlantic period are mesophilic multi-species deciduous forests. Dry coniferous forests and mixed birch-pine forests grew in dry habitats. Riparian forests occupied lower grounds. In the Subboreal period, the oak–hazel communities initially developed and mixed coniferous forests were partially replaced by light oak forests. The encroachment of spruce, fir, hornbeam, and beech resulted in the development of dry ground forests, including beech–fir woods. The importance of riparian forests increased, whereas in dry grounds pine and mixed coniferous forests continued to occur. In the Subatlantic period, the transformations in forest communities were associated with the spread of hornbeam, beech, and fir and thereby vast fertile habitats were colonized by dry ground communities and beech woods. Pine and mixed forests as well as riparian forests were of lesser importance. Pollen records from the last 500 years showed the clear presence of humans. It was evident from the presence of cereal and weed pollen and from the disturbances in the pollen records caused by peat extraction in the Middle Ages.

  8. Vegetation history since the last glacial maximum in the Ozark highlands (USA): A new record from Cupola Pond, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    The timing and drivers of vegetation dynamics and formation of no-analog plant communities during the last deglaciation in the unglaciated southeastern US are poorly understood. We present a multi-proxy record spanning the past 19,800 years from Cupola Pond in the Ozarks Mountains, consisting of replicate high-resolution pollen records, 25 AMS radiocarbon dates, and macrofossil, charcoal, and coprophilous spore analyses. Full-glacial Pinus and Picea forests gave way to no-analog vegetation after 17,400 yr BP, followed by development of Quercus-dominated Holocene forests, with late Holocene rises in Pinus and Nyssa. Vegetation transitions, replicated in different cores, are closely linked to hemispheric climate events. Rising Quercus abundances coincide with increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures and CO2 at 17,500 yr BP, declining Pinus and Picea at 14,500 yr BP are near the Bølling-Allerød onset, and rapid decline of Fraxinus and rise of Ostrya/Carpinus occur 12,700 yr BP during the Younger Dryas. The Cupola no-analog vegetation record is unusual for its early initiation (17,000 yr BP) and for its three vegetation zones, representing distinct rises of Fraxinus and Ostrya/Carpinus. Sporormiella was absent and sedimentary charcoal abundances were low throughout, suggesting that fire and megaherbivores were not locally important agents of disturbance and turnover. The Cupola record thus highlights the complexity of the late-glacial no-analog communities and suggests direct climatic regulation of their formation and disassembly.

  9. Vegetation history since the last glacial maximum in the Ozark highlands (USA): A new record from Cupola Pond, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel A.; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2017-08-01

    The timing and drivers of vegetation dynamics and formation of no-analog plant communities during the last deglaciation in the unglaciated southeastern US are poorly understood. We present a multi-proxy record spanning the past 19,800 years from Cupola Pond in the Ozarks Mountains, consisting of replicate high-resolution pollen records, 25 AMS radiocarbon dates, and macrofossil, charcoal, and coprophilous spore analyses. Full-glacial Pinus and Picea forests gave way to no-analog vegetation after 17,400 yr BP, followed by development of Quercus-dominated Holocene forests, with late Holocene rises in Pinus and Nyssa. Vegetation transitions, replicated in different cores, are closely linked to hemispheric climate events. Rising Quercus abundances coincide with increasing Northern Hemisphere temperatures and CO2 at 17,500 yr BP, declining Pinus and Picea at 14,500 yr BP are near the Bølling-Allerød onset, and rapid decline of Fraxinus and rise of Ostrya/Carpinus occur 12,700 yr BP during the Younger Dryas. The Cupola no-analog vegetation record is unusual for its early initiation (17,000 yr BP) and for its three vegetation zones, representing distinct rises of Fraxinus and Ostrya/Carpinus. Sporormiella was absent and sedimentary charcoal abundances were low throughout, suggesting that fire and megaherbivores were not locally important agents of disturbance and turnover. The Cupola record thus highlights the complexity of the late-glacial no-analog communities and suggests direct climatic regulation of their formation and disassembly.

  10. Flora, life form and chorology of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana habitats in forests of the Farim area of Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Samira Soleymanipour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to present floristic-physiognomic investigation of Box trees (Buxus hyrcana of the Farim area of Sari. All of species in the area were recorded by two methods field-walk and 60 releves with an area of 400 m2 in a systematic-selective design in two elevation classes, more and less than 1200 m above sea level implemented. Our results showed that the flora of this region includes 47 families, 67 genera, and 77 species. Phanerophytes (37.7%, Cryptophytes (32.5% and Hemicryptophytes (24.7% were the most important structure groups of the local biological spectrum according to Raunkiaer method, and also with increasing elevation, portions of Hemicryptophytes and Cryptophytes increased and decreased, respectively. Chorological studies showed that chorotype form Euro-Sibria was the most important phytochorion in two habitats. The correlation of environment variables with two first axes of DCA showed that elevation of sea level and dominance average (canopy percentage of Box trees had decisive role on the vegetation composition and mean richness of species (Hill N0 index. Also, Jackknife estimation results confirmed that species richness in habitats with elevation more than 1200 m (75.8 species had a higher level compared to habitats with elevation less than 1200 m (58.6 species because of decreasing box trees dominance. Totally, the results of the present study not only confirmed the ecological capacity of Box trees in developing up to 1700 m in mountain forests of north Iran, but also the association of box trees with some plants of high regions with steep slope of north Hyrcanian forests such as: Acer mazandaranicum, Carpinus schuschaensis and Taxus baccata, can be introduced as two new syntaxa including Taxus baccata- Buxus hyrcana and Carpinus schuschaensis- Buxus hyrcana in Hyrcanian forests.

  11. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  12. Molecular and morphological characterization of Dothiorella species associated with dieback of Ostrya carpinifolia in Slovenia and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draginja PAVLIC-ZUPANC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolates that resemble Dothiorella (Botryosphaeriaceae, Ascomycota species were isolated from dead twigs, asymptomatic and necrotized bark of European hop hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop., Eurasian smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria Scop. and common juniper (Juniperus communis L. growing in western Slovenia and northern Italy. They were identified based on anamorph morphology and phylogenetic analyses of the ITS rDNA and EF-1α sequences, and previously designated as Dothiorella sp. A, B and C. This study has clarified the identity of these species by comparing them with other Dothiorella species known from culture based on gene sequence data, as well as morphological characters of the anamorphs. The phylogenetic results revealed three species, Dothiorella iberica, Dothiorella parva, and a Dothiorella sp. Isolates identified in the phylogenetic analyses as D. parva differed from the original description of this species and are thus described here based on the anamorph morphology. Isolates of D. parva were identified from O. carpinifolia in western Slovenia and northern Italy, and C. coggygria in western Slovenia, and coexist with Dothiorella sp. on O. carpinifolia in northern Italy. Dothiorella iberica was identified on J. communis in western Slovenia, thus expanding the geographic range of this species. This is the first record of D. parva from these hosts and countries. Our results indicate that these Dothiorella species occur widely across the Mediterranean region, and on a variety of hosts.

  13. THE EFFECT OF THE GEOMETRIC STRUCTURE OF FLOOD PLAIN VEGETATION ON THE PROBABILITY OF PASSING FOR PLANT DEBRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Walczak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Flood plains are a specific sedimentary environment. They are a natural clarifier and filter for rivers carrying large amounts of heavy metals, biogenic elements and other contaminants transported during high water and floods. Plenty of it is accumulated in the riverbank zone of channels i.e. a buffer strip. This is a relatively narrow strip of land situated along watercourses, often covered with riparian plants. It is functionally associated with river flooding and it forms a transition zone to ecosystems of mixed (oak-lime-hornbeam forest plants. These plants unquestionably grow into a natural protective system of surface waters against contamination flowing down from areas used for agricultural purposes. Buffer zones provide the opportunity for self-cleaning, and according researchers they are among the most efficient natural tools to protect a catchment area. They can reduce the amount of sediments and nutrients carried by surface water flowing down from agricultural areas. Besides positive effects, the zones are accompanied by the phenomenon of flow blockage, which is particularly hazardous in case of directing great water away from its main channel. Shrubby vegetation retains small elements of plant origin and thus the free flow of water stopped. The article analyses the effect of vegetation structure density on flow conditions for small plant debris on a laboratory scale.

  14. AGRICULTURAL USE OF FLOODPLAINS ABOVE JEZIORSKO RESERVOIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Walczak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Flood plains are specific sedimentary environment. They are a natural clarifier tank and filter for rivers carrying various impurities m. in .: heavy metals, biogenic elements, which are transported during floods and floods. Much of it is accumulated on the river bank called bufferstrip. It is a strip of land lying along the watercourses, often overgrown with riparian plant associations related functionally to the flooding of the river and forming a transition zone ecosystems of plants oak-hornbeam forest. Very often vegetation found in this strip is made up of annual plants, shrubs and trees of different heights and characterized by various density. Some of these areas is used for agriculture as pastures and meadows, where you can get for animal feed. Based on aerial photographs, maps and studies showed significant differences in the way development in the analyzed part of valley. Much smaller growth of shrubs, rather its lack is observed in areas used for grazing cattle. Despite the favorable conditions for development (access water and light through continuous mowing of vegetation by animals did not develop in a manner threatening reducing bandwidth floodplains.

  15. Investigation the Potential Replacement of the Old Corrugated Container (OCC and Poplar Wood Flour Instead of Wheat Flour such as Urea-formaldehyde Adhesive Filler in the Plywood Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem D.Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the value and importance of wheat flour in our country, replacement of a new type of filler instead of wheat flour in glue combination in plywood industry is necessary. In this study the possibility of using wood flour of poplar and OCC (old corrugated container fiber as filler in the combination of urea formaldehyde glue has been studied. The plywood was manufactured from Poplar species (in core of plywood and Hornbeam veneer (in back and face of plywood on the basis of the standard 3210 of ISIRI (Institute of Standards and Industrial Researches of Iran and the physical and mechanical properties of experimental plywood were measured. The results of statistical analysis of variance and Least Significant Difference (LSD showed that Mechanical and physical properties of samples made with fine OCC were more than that of control samples (the Samples made with wheat flour filler. The results also showed physical and mechanical properties of plywood increase by adding 10 to 15 percent of OCC to adhesive

  16. Complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid on various aspects of ethanol and fumaric acid production by immobilized cells within SSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Anna S; Dotsenko, Gleb S; Senko, Olga V; Stepanov, Nikolay A; Lyagin, Ilya V; Efremenko, Elena N; Gusakov, Alexander V; Zorov, Ivan N; Rubtsova, Ekaterina A

    2018-02-01

    The pretreatment of softwood and hardwood samples (spruce and hornbeam wood) with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl) was undertaken for further simultaneous enzymatic saccharification of renewable non-food lignocellulosic biomass and microbial fermentation of obtained sugars to ethanol and fumaric acid. A multienzyme cocktail based on cellulases and yeast or fungus cells producing ethanol and fumaric acid were the main objects of [Bmim]Cl influence studies. A complex effect of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl on various aspects of the process (both action of cellulases and microbial conversion of hydrolysates to target products) was revealed. Positive effects of the pretreatment with [Bmim]Cl included decreasing the lignin content in the biomass, and increasing the effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis and microbial transformation of pretreated biomass. Immobilized cells of both yeasts and fungi possessed improved productive characteristics in the biotransformation of biomass pretreated with [Bmim]Cl to ethanol and fumaric acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trade-off between light availability and soil fertility determine refugial conditions for the relict light-demanding species in lowland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Kurowski, Józef Krzysztof; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    Identifying potential refugial habitats in the face of rapid environmental change is a challenge faced by scientists and nature conservation managers. Relict populations and refugial habitats are the model objects in those studies. Based on the example of Actaea europaea from Central Poland, we analyse the habitat factors influencing relict populations of continental, light-demanding species in lowland forests and examine which habitats of studied species corresponding most closely to ancient vegetation. Our results indicate that the current refugial habitats of Actaea europaea include not only communities which are very similar to ancient open forest but also forests with a closed canopy. Although the populations are influenced by nitrogen and light availability, the co-occurrence of these two factors in forest communities is limited by dense canopy formation by hornbeam and beech trees on fertile soils and in more humid conditions. Our findings indicate that the future survival of relict, light-demanding communities in lowland forests requires low-intensity disturbances to be performed in tree-stands, according to techniques, which imitate traditional forests management.

  18. Impact of wild ungulates on coppices from the Bisenzio Valley (province of Prato, Italy

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    Bianchi L

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Apennine areas, a considerable increase of wild ungulate density has been observed in the past decades in the Bisenzio valley (province of Prato, leading to a strong impact on coppice regeneration. In some felling areas, the prolonged browsing on young suckers turned the stumps into low and dense bushes, thus threatening the survival of the forest stand and triggering a loss of environmental stability. The aim of this work was to study the impact of deer on sprout regeneration after cutting in mixed coppices felled in the period 2007-2010 and characterized by the dominance of chestnut, hornbeam, Turkey oak, and beech. Some 36 plots were established in four municipal districts of the Prato province (Cantagallo, Vernio, Montemurlo, Vaiano. Damage and browsing intensity on each stump were evaluated using an index that allowed the comparison among different areas and fores stand types. Regardless of the species, over 90% of the sprouts revealed a very strong damage, whereas only 6% did not exhibit any damage. A significant difference in the sprout height was detected between browsed and non-browsed areas. Despite a high incidence of damage in all the studied areas, chestnut showed a greater resilience against browsing. In summary, overgrazing by wild game may determine severe contraints to the evolutionary dynamics of forest stands, frustrating the effects of silvicultural practices. The possible benefits of the implementation of a large-scale integrated wildlife plan, including hunting and forest-evironmental management are discussed.

  19. Analysis of stress- strain distribution of dowel and glue line in L-type furniture joint by means of finite element method

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    mossayeb dalvand

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study 3D stress-strain distribution of dowel and glue line on L-type joints made of plywood doweled was investigated. Members of joints made of 11-ply hardwood plywood (Hornbeam, Beech and Alder that were 19 mm in thickness. In this study effect of beech dowels in three levels diameters (6, 8 and 10 mm and penetration of depth (9, 13 and 17 mm on bending moment capacity of L-type joints under compression loading was investigated as experimental test, then stress-strain distribution of wood dowel and glue line in specimens were simulated by means of ANSYS 15 software with finite element method (FEM.Results have shown that bending moment resistance increased with increasing dowel diameter from 6 to 8 mm, but downward trend was observed with increasing 8 to 10 mm in dowel diameter. Bending moment resistance increased with increasing penetration depth. Also, result obtained of simulation by means of ANSYS software have shown that stress-strain in dowel and glue line increased with increasing diameter of dowel and Increasing stress in joints made of diameter dowel 10 mm due to fracture in joints and decrease in resistance once. According to results obtained of model analysis, the ultimate stress of dowel and glue line occurred in the area that joints were contacted.

  20. The replanting campaign has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    GS-SEM Group - General Infrastructure and Services Department

    2010-01-01

    The poplars on the border of CERN's Prévessin site were felled, according to plan, on Friday, 26 February. The work was essential as the trees were showing signs of serious ageing problems (broken and dead branches, weakened trunks and root systems, etc.) and needed to be felled to ensure the safety of drivers on the D35 The trees that have been cut will be transformed into renewable energy wood chips and used to heat local schools and crèches. They will be replaced by a hedge of hornbeams, a native fast-growing tree, which will be planted in the spring.     The felling operation was entrusted to the French national forestry authorities, with the support of the Bellegarde-Pays de Gex Agence Routière et Technique. It marks the start of a vast poplar-felling and replanting campaign, which will be extended to CERN's Meyrin site.  The work is part of CERN's general renovation and site planning scheme for the future.    

  1. A contribution to the study of stand degradation process on the territory of Fruška Gora National Park

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    Bobinac Martin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the process of stand degradation of individual forest ecosystems in the region of the zonal community Tilio-Carpino-Qurcetum robori-cerris Jov. 79 located in the western part of Fruška Gora National Park. Degradation occurred is consequence to regeneration felling and it progressed towards the extinction of oaks, first of all the valuable pedunculate oak and Vergilius's oak, and then also Turkey oak. The analyzed mature stands were degraded coppice and mainly predominated by the Turkey oak in the tree stratum. In juvenile stands, often initially well regenerated with Turkey oak, the dominant species in the tree stratum are lime, hornbeam, flowering ash, field maple and other secondary species, predominantly of coppice origin. Restitution of the degraded stands is possible by applying an adequate regeneration system. Taking into account the primarily protective function of the analyzed forest ecosystems and the fact that these are degraded and coppice stands, the system of regeneration should be based on combined restoration.

  2. Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy

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    Mario Pividori

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thinning trials in lowland plantations in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. More than 234 hectares of new plantations of lowland mixed forest have been realized in the last 20 years in the Veneto Region (North-eastern Italy. In many of these is now needed to start thinning operations, but there is a lack of experience about this topic. Aim of this work was to undertake an experimentation on different types of thinnings. The thinning trial has been performed at Bosco San Marco forest, municipality of Cessalto (Venice, in a very dense hornbeam-oak plantation aged 16. In 2010, three different thinning types were implemented on 9 hectares according to the following layout: geometrical (34% of woody mass removed, selective (15%, mixed geometrical-selective (30%, control plot. Three years later no significant differences between thinning trials in term of diametric growth, geometrical thinning excepted, were observed. These results provide a suite of solutions to the forest manager for choosing the early thinning type in high tree density condition.

  3. Local changes in communities of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes: 30 years later

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    Banaszak Józef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in communities of wild bees (Apiformes were studied in relation to changes in vegetation in six permanent plots (natural forest habitats in the Wielkopolska National Park, and semi-natural habitats in the agricultural landscape near Turew at the end of four decades (starting from the late 1970s. In 2008-2010, as many as 100 species of Apiformes were recorded there, which is more than reported in earlier decades. The most stable bee communities were those in forest habitats (oak-hornbeam forest, oak forest. Substantial qualitative and quantitative changes in vegetation and bee communities were recorded only after the renaturalisation of a former xerothermic grassland, which had become overgrown with shrubs and trees as a result of plant succession. Human interference (e.g. the felling of some trees growing along a road, clearance of understorey shrubs, ploughing of roadside margins at selected refuge habitats in the agricultural landscape led to short-term fluctuations in bee abundance and diversity, but an increasing trend in abundance was noted.

  4. Action of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J

    1873-01-01

    In order to ascertain which trees best withstand the action of sulfurous oxide, and are, therefore, best suited for planting in neighborhoods where this gas is given off, young trees of various kinds growing in the open ground, were exposed under glass shades to air containing quantities of sulfurous oxide, varying from 1/10,000 to 1/70,000, under circumstances most favorable to its action, viz., in direct sunlight and after having been watered. The sensitiveness of the leaves was carefully noticed, and also the power which the trees possessed of compensating for injury by the reproduction of leaves; this was found to vary considerably in different trees, as did also the resisting power in the first case. Alder, sycamore, ash, and especially maple, are recommended for growth where exposed to smoke containing sulfurous oxide; next follow birch, hornbeam, and oak, and last, beech. The pines did not give constant results, but in nature they suffer more than other trees, and this is owing to the fact that, although their sensitiveness at first is less than that of other trees, their power of restoring lost leaves is much less.

  5. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  6. Field experiments for studying the deposition of aerosols onto vegetation and other surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.; Heinemann, K.

    1986-01-01

    For some pollutions, dry deposition clearly predominates in the long-term mean over the wash-out or wet deposition. The deposition velocity or fall-out constant, defined as follows, is a measure of the dry deposition of pollutants onto the soil or vegetation: upsilonsub(g) = K/I, where upsilonsub (g) = deposition velocity (cms -1 ); K = contamination of the sampling surface per cm 2 area (quantity deposited per cm 2 ); I = time-integrated air concentration conventionally measured at a reference height of 1 m above the ground. The deposition velocity of radioactively labelled test aerosols (copper sulphate) onto grass, clover, various species of tree (common beech, hornbeam, red oak, common oak, horse chestnut, silver birch, Norway maple, common spruce, Scots pine, Japanese larch, European larch, common silver fir) as well as onto bare soil, water, metals and horizontal filter paper was determined in an extensive series of field tests at the Julich Nuclear Research Centre (Jonas, 1984; Jonas and Heinemann, 1985). For determination of the deposition velocities, the reader is referred to Jonas and Heinemann (1985). (author)

  7. Allometric biomass equations for 12 tree species in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaijiang; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Fousseni, Folega; Wang, Jinsong; Dai, Haijun; Yang, Song; Zuo, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country. Biomass allocation was examined and biomass models were developed using diameter as independent variable for individual tree species and all species combined. The results showed that the largest biomass allocation of all species combined was on stems (57.1%), followed by coarse root (21.3%), branch (18.7%), and foliage (2.9%). The log-transformed model was statistically significant for all biomass components, although predicting power was higher for species-specific models than for all species combined, general biomass models, and higher for stems, roots, above-ground biomass, and total tree biomass than for branch and foliage biomass. These findings supplement the previous studies on this forest type by additional sample trees, species and locations, and support biomass research on forest carbon budget and dynamics by management activities such as thinning and harvesting in the northeastern part of China.

  8. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  9. Late-Quaternary vegetation history at White Pond on the inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. A.

    1980-03-01

    At White Pond near Columbia, South Carolina, a pollen assemblage of Pinus banksiana (jack pine), Picea (spruce), and herbs is dated between 19,100 and 12,800 14C yr B.P. Plants of sandhill habitats are more prominent than at other sites of similar age, and pollen of deciduous trees is infrequent. The vegetation was probably a mosaic of pine and spruce stands with prairies and sand-dune vegetation. The climate may have been like that of the eastern boreal forest today. 14C dates of 12,800 and 9500 yr B.P. bracket a time when Quercus (oak), Carya (hickory), Fagus (beech), and Ostrya-Carpinus (ironwood) dominated the vegetation. It is estimated that beech and hickory made up at least 25% of the forest trees. Conifers were rare or absent. The environment is interpreted as hickory-rich mesic deciduous forest with a climate similar to but slightly warmer than that of the northern hardwoods region of western New York State. After 9500 yr B.P. oak and pine forest dominated the landscape, with pine becoming the most important tree genus in the later Holocene.

  10. Late glacial vegetation and climate changes in the high mountains of Bulgaria (Southeast Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozilova, E.D.; Tonkov, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Late glacial vegetation history in the high mountains of Southern Bulgaria (Rila, Pirin, Western Rhodopes) is reconstructed by means of pollen analysis, plant macrofossils and radiocarbon dating of sediments from lakes and peat-bogs located between 1300 and 2200 m a.s.l. The vegetation response to the climate fluctuations after 13000 14 C yrs. BP in the Rila Mountains is bound for the first time to a detailed chronological framework. Two stadial and one interstadial phases are delimited analogous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling/Allerod-Younger Dryas cycle for Western Europe. During the stadials mountain-steppe vegetation composed of Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae and other cold-resistant herbs dominated at high elevation with sparse stands of Pinus, Betula, and shrubland of Juniperus and Ephedra. The climate improvement in the interstadial resulted in the initial spread of deciduous and coniferous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Corylus, Carpinus, Abies, Picea) from their local refugia below 1000 m. The palaeoecological record from the climate deterioration during the Younger Dryas is documented in thin sections of the cores investigated. (author)

  11. Are temperate canopy spiders tree-species specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupepele, Anne-Christine; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus; Floren, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Arboreal spiders in deciduous and coniferous trees were investigated on their distribution and diversity. Insecticidal knock-down was used to comprehensively sample spiders from 175 trees from 2001 to 2003 in the Białowieża forest and three remote forests in Poland. We identified 140 species from 9273 adult spiders. Spider communities were distinguished between deciduous and coniferous trees. The richest fauna was collected from Quercus where beta diversity was also highest. A tree-species-specific pattern was clearly observed for Alnus, Carpinus, Picea and Pinus trees and also for those tree species that were fogged in only four or three replicates, namely Betula and Populus. This hitherto unrecognised association was mainly due to the community composition of common species identified in a Dufrene-Legendre indicator species analysis. It was not caused by spatial or temporal autocorrelation. Explaining tree-species specificity for generalist predators like spiders is difficult and has to involve physical and ecological tree parameters like linkage with the abundance of prey species. However, neither did we find a consistent correlation of prey group abundances with spiders nor could differences in spider guild composition explain the observed pattern. Our results hint towards the importance of deterministic mechanisms structuring communities of generalist canopy spiders although the casual relationship is not yet understood.

  12. Palaeotemperature estimation in the Holsteinian Interglacial (MIS 11) based on oxygen isotopes of aquatic gastropods from eastern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanek, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    For quantitative estimation of past water temperature of four Holsteinian (MIS 11) palaeolakes from eastern Poland, the oxygen isotope palaeothermometer was applied to shells of the aquatic gastropods Viviparus diluvianus and Valvata piscinalis. The δ18O composition of their shells demonstrated the average growth-season water temperatures during the mesocratic stage of the interglacial (Ortel Królewski Lake), during its climatic optimum - the Carpinus-Abies Zone (Ossówka-Hrud, Roskosz and Szymanowo Lakes), and in the post-optimum (Szymanowo Lake). The calculation was based on δ18OShell values and the δ18OWater assumed for the Holsteinian from the modern oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and the expected amount of evaporative enrichment. The mean oxygen isotope palaeotemperatures of Ortel Królewski lake waters were in the range of 18.1-21.9°C and were uniform for the Taxus and Pinus-Larix zones. Ossówka-Hrud and Roskosz Lakes had mean temperatures of 17.4-21.0°C during the climatic optimum, whereas the temperature of Szymanowo lake waters was estimated at 20.6-21.7°C at that time. These values are concordant with the pollen-inferred July air temperatures noted during the Holsteinian in eastern Poland. Relatively high values of 25°C in the post-optimum noted at Szymanowo were connected with the presence of a shallow and warm isolated bay indicated by pollen and mollusc records.

  13. History of formation of forests in the plain part of Ukraine in the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezusko, L.G.; Mosyakin, S.L.; Tsymbalyuk, Z.M.; Bezusko, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The authors analyzed and generalized the results of palynological and radiocarbon-dating studies of Holocene deposits of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones of Ukraine. Based on the obtained data, we reconstructed the pattern of main changes of vegetation and climate starting from 10,300 years BP. We consider changes in forest vegetation of the studied area in the Early (PB-1, PB-2, BO-1, BO-2, BO-3), Middle (AT-1, AT-2, AT-3, SB-1, SB-2, SB-3) and Late Holocene. For most important forest-forming trees (species of Pinus, Betula, Alnus, Quercus, Tilia, Carpinus, Fagus etc.), the main periods of their maximum participation in Ukrainian forest vegetation were identified. Broadleaf forests and mixed forests with participation of broadleaf trees were most widespread in Ukraine 4,500-6,200 years BP. During the second phase of the Atlantic time of the Holocene the northern border of the steppe zone in Ukraine was stable. Expansion of forest communities in the steppe zone progressed through gradual increase of forest areas that originally occurred in flood plains and ravines. (author)

  14. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  15. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Brasov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate, for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  16. Tritium in water and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Winter, M.

    1977-10-01

    A summary is presented of the results obtained in programs on the measurement of the T concentration in the immediate and more distant environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (KFK). The amount of T released with the waste water and the exhaust air from the KFK in the years 1969 until 1976 is indicated. The total releases ranged from 2000 Ci/a to 5200 Ci/a in the period of reporting. The fractions contained in the exhaust air and in the waste water were subjected to considerable variations over the years. The results of measurements for water samples are presented as annual mean values. The annual values of measured results obtained for precipitations on the site clearly exceed the values measured at sampling stations outside the KFK. Of the surface waters monitored the rivers Rhine and Neckar showed the highest T values. In smaller flowing waters the T concentration is also influenced by the percentage of waste water from communities. Obviously the tritium content of the ground and drinking water depends on the depth of sampling. Drinking water raised from a small depth in the vicinity of the Rhine is subjected to the same variations as the water from the river Rhine. To find out relations to the T offer of the relevant media close to the plants, the T concentrations in tissue water of plants and in air humidity, ground water and precipitations were investigated. Variations of the T concentration in air humidity correlate with the variations of the T concentration in the tissue water of plants. The T concentration level in the tissue water of plants is close to the T concentration in air humidity. The following time constants and half-lives, respectively, are found: for oak and hornbeam leaves 2+-1 days, for spruce needles 3+-1.5 days, for pine needles 6+-3 days. The dispersion of T released into the air and into the water is dealt with briefly. (orig.) [de

  17. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novenko, E; Zuganova, I [Institute of Geography of RAS, Staromonetny Lane 29, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); Olchev, A [A N Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution of RAS, Leninsky Prospekt 33, Moscow 119071 (Russian Federation); Desherevskaya, O, E-mail: lenanov@mail.r [Faculty of Geography, M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 {sup 14}C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr{sup -1}). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  18. Migration of vascular plant species to a recent wood adjoining ancient woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodland communities can be restored by natural succession in sites adjoining ancient woodlands which can act as seed sources for trees, shrubs and woodland herbs. The influence of dominant tree species and the distance from an adjacent ancient oak-hornbeam woodland upon the floristic composition of species in a recent pine wood planted on dry rendzina soil were studied. It was found that, in spite of a 52-year long succession, the border between woods was sharp and the composition of species in the recent wood were significantly different than in the adjacent ancient woodland. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA showed that the distance to the ancient woodland had a significant influence on species distributions in the recent wood. The numbers of species from the Querco-Fagetea class, vegetatively reproducing species and myrmecochores decreased with this distance, whereas the numbers of anemochores increased. The migration rate of many woodland species, calculated on occurrence of the farthest individuals was very slow, varying from 0.0 m year-1 to 0.38 m year-1. The restoration of the field layer vegetation in the studied pine wood was much slower than in recent deciduous woods on rich and moist soils where the migration rate of some species exceeded 1.50 m year-1. Recent woods adjacent to ancient woodlands can be more effectively colonised by woodland species only when they are dominated by broad-leaved trees with quickly decomposing litter, and the spatial continuity of these woods persists for a long period.

  19. Breeding avifauna of mature forest stands in the Borki Forest and its dynamics at the turn of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rąkowski Grzegorz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition and structure of the breeding bird community in the Borki Forest in north-eastern Poland were investigated during two separate periods: 1994–1996 and 2012–2014. Bird censuses were carried out in three plots located in mature oak-hornbeam, ash-alder and mixed coniferous forest stands. A standard combined mapping technique for estimating the number of breeding birds was applied. A total of 74 bird species bred at least once within any plot during 1994–1996 or 2012–2014. The structure of the bird assemblages on particular plots displayed a high degree of similarity, exceeding 75%, which means that they represent essentially the same bird community. However, the investigated assemblages have changed substantially over the 20 years. Both, the number of breeding bird species and the population densities on all plots, were much higher in 2012–2014 than in 1994–1996. The mean number of breeding species on all plots was over 50% higher in 2012–2014 than in 1994–1996, whereas the mean total density of breeding pairs increased by more than 60%. Total population densities on the plots increased as a result of an increase in population densities of individual bird species combined with an increase in the number of breeding species. Due to different rates of population growth for certain species, also the composition of dominating species group have changed. The observed changes in the avifauna of the Borki Forest were most probably due to an enrichment of the forest habitats structure, which was caused by natural factors, such as ageing of forest stands, forest succession and a change in water regime by beaver dams, as well as by forest management, including group felling within or in the vicinity of plots and uncovering of the forest edge.

  20. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I; Temchenko, Volodymyr P; Kyselov, Vitalii S; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO2) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Paleoclimatic reconstructions for the south of Valdai Hills (European Russia) as paleo-analogs of possible regional vegetation changes under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novenko, E; Zuganova, I; Olchev, A; Desherevskaya, O

    2009-01-01

    The possible response of forest ecosystems of south taiga at the south of Valdai Hills on projected future global warming was assessed using analysis of pollen, plant macrofossil and radiocarbon data from four profiles of buried organic sediments of the last interglacial and several cores from modern raised bogs and two small forest mires in the Central Forest State Natural Biosphere Reserve (CFSNBR; Twer region, Russia). The future pattern of climatic conditions for the period up to 2100 was derived using the data of A2, B1 and A1B emission scenarios calculated by the global climatic model ECHAM5-MPIOM (Roeckner E et al 2003 The Atmospheric General Circulation Model ECHAM 5. PART I: Model Description, Report 349 (Hamburg: Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology) p 127). The paleoclimatic reconstructions showed that the optimum of the Holocene (the Late Atlantic period, 4500-4800 14 C yr BP) and the optimal phases of the last interglacial (Mikulino, Eemian, 130 000-115 000 yr BP) can be considered as possible analogs for projected climatic conditions of the middle and the end of the 21st century, respectively. The climate of the CFSNBR during the Holocene climatic optimum was characterized by higher winter (about 3 deg. C higher than at present) and summer temperatures (about 1 deg. C higher than present values). Precipitation was close to present values (about 600-800 mm yr -1 ). Vegetation was represented by mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. In the warmest phases of the last interglacial the winter temperature was 5-8 deg. C higher than present values. The summer temperatures were also about 2-4 deg. C higher. Broad-leaved and hornbeam trees were the dominant tree species in vegetation cover.

  2. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at characterising the ecological niche of a typical forest orchid (Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Vegetation-environmental data were collected across mountain ranges and  their foothills in the Western Carpathians in 2011. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main forest vegetation types and a linear mixed effect model was applied to reveal differences between plots with versus without E. pontica. This endangered species of Slovak flora grows in thermophilous turkey oak forests (Quercion confertae-cerris, mesophilous broad-leaved mixed oak-hornbeam forests (Carpinion betuli, but most stands correspond to the acidic (Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae and mesotrophic beech forests (Fagion sylvaticae. Principal component analysis supported the floristic separation of plant communities and showed some significant vegetation environmental relationships. E. pontica prefers forests with closed canopy (mean canopy openness: 8.5–15.1% occurring especially on slightly acidic (soil reaction: 4.48–5.65 and nutrient-poor soils (soil conductivity: 43.1–72.6 μS/cm. The proposed Ellenberg indicator values for light (4, temperature (5, continentality (4, moisture (5, soil reaction (6 and nutrients (5 follow species composition pattern of vascular plants in Slovak phytosociological relevés with E. pontica occurrence. They are also in accordance with its habitat conditions and ecological requirements in other parts of its range. The linear mixed effect model did not confirm any environmental peculiarity of plots with the presence of E. pontica at a microscale level and this result was consistent across the studied sites.

  3. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  4. German-Russian project PLOT: new postglacial-glacial-preglacial pollen records from the Lakes Ladoga and Bol'shoe Shuch'e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Gromig, R.; Wennrich, V.; Fedorov, G.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.

    2017-12-01

    The German-Russian project PLOT (PaleolimnoLOgical Transect) investigates the Late Quaternary environmental history along the Northern Eurasia transect. Within the scope of a pilot phase of the project we have investigated Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe. Although the postglacial history of the lake was studied over the last decades, the preglacial history remained unknown. It is assumed that during the Last Interglacial Lake Ladoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea. Sediment coring at two sites in western Ladoga Lake in September 2013 has revealed sediment succession subdivided into 5 main lithological units. The sediments studied in a 22.7 m lake core were also palynologically investigated. Pollen assemblages indicate that the lowermost sediments with pollen of Betula, Alnus, Pinus, Carpinus, Quercus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia, remains of fresh-water Pediastrum and Botryococcus colonies as well as cysts of marine dinoflagellates and brackish water acritarchs) were accumulated during an interglacial with climate more favorable than in the Holocene. The OSL-dated samples show the late Eemian and post Eemian ages. Lake Bol'shoe Shuch'e (Polar Urals) was cored in April 2016. The thickness of the lacustrine sediments was 54 m. According to the previous studies, most of the study area has remained ice-free over the last 50-60 ka. However, the configuration and timing of the preceding glaciations has remained unclear, because of lack continuous, long-term paleoenvironmental records in the area. Preliminary studies show that the uppermost 9 m of the sediments were accumulated during the Holocene, between 11 and 9 m - in Younger Dryas, between 11 and 9 m - in Allerod, between 11 and 25 m - in MIS 2, between 25 and 54 m - in the MIS 3. We expect that the core will provide the most continuous sediment records from the whole region which can be used to reconstruct the environmental changes.

  5. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  6. Miocene palynoflora from the KRAM-P 218 leaf assemblage from the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worobiec Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During a palynological analysis of four samples from the Bełchatów KRAM-P 218 collection of plant macroremains 95 fossil species of sporomorphs were identified. Among the non-pollen palynomorphs was the fossil species Desmidiaceaesporites cosmarioformis, previously not reported from fossil floras of Poland, most probably related to the zygospores of desmids. The pollen analysis indicates the presence of a freshwater body (probably an oxbow lake and shows the dominant role of wetland, predominantly riparian vegetation, at the time of sedimentation. The riparian forests probably consisted of Carya, Pterocarya, Celtis, and Ulmus, accompanied by Alnus, Acer, Fraxinus, Juglans, Liquidambar, Vitis, Zelkova, and Salix. In mixed forests there probably were Fagus, Quercus, Carpinus, Eucommia, Corylus, Tilioideae, and conifers, as well as some thermophilous taxa (e.g. Castanea, Symplocos, Reevesia, Mastixiaceae, and plants producing pollen of the fossil species Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum. Taxodium, Nyssa, and presumably Glyptostrobus and Alnus were components of swamp communities that might have overgrown the adjacent area with higher groundwater. Members of the families Ericaceae, Cyrillaceae, and Clethraceae, as well as Myrica and probably also Ilex, may have been components of swamp forests and bush swamps. Our analysis indicates that the climate was warm temperate and moderately wet. The palynoflora is most similar in composition to the spore-pollen spectra of the X climatic phase - the Nyssapollenites spore-pollen zone. Deposits bearing assemblages of the Nyssapollenites spore-pollen zone were deposited during the Sarmatian and early Pannonian. Our results are consistent with those from plant macroremains from the same collection.

  7. History of human activity in last 800 years reconstructed from combined archive data and high-resolution analyses of varved lake sediments from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Ott, Florian; Obremska, Milena; Kaczmarek, Halina; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to reconstruct human and landscape development in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 800 years. We apply an approach that combines historic maps and documents with pollen data. Pollen data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of 5 years. The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). We applied the REVEALS model to translate pollen percentage data into regional plant abundances. The interpretation of the pollen record is furthermore based on pollen accumulation rate data. The pollen record and historic documents show similar trends in vegetation development. During the first phase (AD 1200-1412), the Lake Czechowskie area was still largely forested with Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus forests. Vegetation was more open during the second phase (AD 1412-1776), and reached maximum openness during the third phase (AD 1776-1905). Furthermore, intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests during this period. Since the early 20th century, the forest cover increased again with dominance of the Scots pine in the stand. While pollen and historic data show similar trends, they differ substantially in the degree of openness during the four phases with pollen data commonly suggesting more open conditions. We discuss potential causes for this discrepancy, which include unsuitable parameters settings in REVEALS and unknown changes in forest structure. Using pollen accumulation data as a third proxy record we aim to identify the most probable causes. Finally, we discuss the observed vegetation change in relation the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10

  8. Survival and development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and introduced Eurasian tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keena, M A

    2003-02-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introduced into North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven conifer species (Abies concolor, Picea abies, P. glauca, P. pungens, Pinus sylvestris with male cones, P. menziesii variety glance, and Tsuga canadensis) and six broadleaf species (Betula populifolia, Malus x domestica, Prunus serotiaa, Quercus lobata, Q. rubra, and Q. velutina) were suitable for L. monacha survival and development. Eleven of the host species tested were rated as intermediate in suitability, four conifer species (Larix occidentalis, P. nigra, P. ponderosa, P. strobus, and Pseudotsuga menziesii variety menziesii) and six broadleaf species (Carpinus caroliniana, Carya ovata, Fagus grandifolia, Populus grandidentata, Q. alba, and Tilia cordata) and the remaining 10 species tested were rated as poor (Acer rubrum, A. platanoidies, A. saccharum, F. americana, Juniperus virginiana, Larix kaempferi, Liriodendron tulipfera, Morus alba, P. taeda, and P. deltoides). The phenological state of the trees had a major impact on establishment, survival, and development of L. monacha on many of the tree species tested. Several of the deciduous tree species that are suitable for L. monacha also are suitable for L. dispar (L.) and L. mathura Moore. Establishment of L. monacha in North America would be catastrophic because of the large number of economically important tree species on which it can survive and develop, and the ability of mated females to fly and colonize new areas.

  9. Connecting long term species changes and their water competitions in temperate forest Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J.; Lee, H.; Lee, M.; Song, W.; Byeon, S.; Lee, B.; Cho, S.; Park, J.; Kim, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many dynamic vegetation model simulations have predicted dramatic changes in species composition of temperate forests due to climate changes and successional reasons. Especially, conifer species are expected to lose their habitats and to be replaced by broadleaf species. Similarly, our more than 15-years-long 880 permenant plots tree survey data in Mt. Baegun, Rep. of Korea, showed substantial decrease of conifer species and their productivities and increase of broadleaved species. One of main reasons for these changes in species could be attributed to the water competition among tree species in the same stand. Therefore, we investigated the differences in water uptake scheme between conifer and broadleaf species from the temperate forests of Korea using stable isotopes. Six study plots showing high competition (conifers vs. broadleaf species) based on previous vegetation survey were chosen and the species-specific water uptake depth was estimated by measuring hydrogen(δ2H) and oxygen(δ18O) ratio from the xylem sap and leaves of individual species and by comparing them with those of soil water from 5 depths, (10, 30, 50, 100 and 120 cm), which extracted by lysimeter. The collection was conducted from April 2016 to Nov 2017. The conifer species included Pinus densiflora and Chamaecyparis obtusa vs. broadleaved species included Carpinus laxiflora, Prunus sargentii, Styrax obassia, Lindera erythrocarpa and Quercus species such as Q. mongolica, Q. serrata, Q. accuticima. Preliminary results showed the stable isotope signatures of soil water was increased from 10 cm to 30 cm, and then decreased gradually until 120 cm. In addition, current dominant canopy species, Chamaecyparis obtusa absorbed majority of their water from 10 to 30 cm depth. In comparison, current mid canopy but one of upcoming dominant species, Styrax obassia's major water source was 30 cm and deeper of soil. Our results could be essential for the prediction of species composition under climate change

  10. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr, E-mail: gryshkov@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Klyui, Nickolai I., E-mail: klyuini@ukr.net [College of Physics, Jilin University, 130012 Changchun (China); V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Temchenko, Volodymyr P., E-mail: tvp@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kyselov, Vitalii S., E-mail: kyselov@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Chatterjee, Anamika, E-mail: chatterjee@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Belyaev, Alexander E., E-mail: belyaev@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Lauterboeck, Lothar, E-mail: lauterboeck@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Iarmolenko, Dmytro, E-mail: iarmolenko.dmytro@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Glasmacher, Birgit, E-mail: glasmacher@imp.uni-hannover.de [Institute for Multiphase Processes, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO{sub 2}) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO{sub 2} using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO{sub 2} to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO{sub 2} coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of Si

  11. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  12. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  13. Porous biomorphic silicon carbide ceramics coated with hydroxyapatite as prospective materials for bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Klyui, Nickolai I.; Temchenko, Volodymyr P.; Kyselov, Vitalii S.; Chatterjee, Anamika; Belyaev, Alexander E.; Lauterboeck, Lothar; Iarmolenko, Dmytro; Glasmacher, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Porous and cytocompatible silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics derived from wood precursors and coated with bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-zirconium dioxide (HA/ZrO 2 ) composite are materials with promising application in engineering of bone implants due to their excellent mechanical and structural properties. Biomorphic SiC ceramics have been synthesized from wood (Hornbeam, Sapele, Tilia and Pear) using a forced impregnation method. The SiC ceramics have been coated with bioactive HA and HA/ZrO 2 using effective gas detonation deposition approach (GDD). The surface morphology and cytotoxicity of SiC ceramics as well as phase composition and crystallinity of deposited coatings were analyzed. It has been shown that the porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on initial wood source. The XRD and FTIR studies revealed the preservation of crystal structure and phase composition of in the HA coating, while addition of ZrO 2 to the initial HA powder resulted in significant decomposition of the final HA/ZrO 2 coating and formation of other calcium phosphate phases. In turn, NIH 3T3 cells cultured in medium exposed to coated and uncoated SiC ceramics showed high re-cultivation efficiency as well as metabolic activity. The recultivation efficiency of cells was the highest for HA-coated ceramics, whereas HA/ZrO 2 coating improved the recultivation efficiency of cells as compared to uncoated SiC ceramics. The GDD method allowed generating homogeneous HA coatings with no change in calcium to phosphorus ratio. In summary, porous and cytocompatible bio-SiC ceramics with bioactive coatings show a great promise in construction of light, robust, inexpensive and patient-specific bone implants for clinical application. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from wood • Successful deposition of bioactive calcium phosphate coatings using gas detonation deposition • Porosity and pore size of SiC ceramics depend on wood

  14. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  15. Do Reductions in Dry Season Transpiration Allow Shallow Soil Water Uptake to Persist in a Tropical Lower Montane Cloud Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Villers, L. E.; Holwerda, F.; Alvarado-Barrientos, M. S.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Geissert Kientz, D. R.; González Martínez, T. M.; Dawson, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF) are ecosystems particularly sensitive to climate change; however, the effects of warmer and drier conditions on TMCF water cycling remain poorly understood. To investigate the plant functional response to reduced water availability, we conducted a study during the mid to late dry season (2014) in the lower limit (1,325 m asl) of the TMCF belt (1200-2500 m asl) in central Veracruz, Mexico. The temporal variation of transpiration rates of dominant upper canopy and mid-story tree species, depth of water uptake, as well as tree water sources were examined using micrometeorological, sapflow and soil moisture measurements, in combination with data on stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) composition of rain, tree xylem, soil (bulk and low suction-lysimeter) and stream water. The sapflow data suggest that crown conductances decreased as temperature and vapor pressure deficit increased, and soil moisture decreased from the mid to late dry season. Across all samplings (January 21, April 12 and 26), upper canopy species (Quercus spp.) showed more depleted (negative) isotope values compared to mid-story trees (Carpinus tropicalis). Overall, we found that the evaporated soil water pool was the main source for the trees. Furthermore, our MixSIAR Bayesian mixing model results showed that the depth of tree water uptake changed over the course of the dry season. Unexpectedly, a shift in water uptake from deeper (60-120 cm depth) to shallower soil water (0-30 cm) sources was observed, coinciding with the decreases in transpiration rates towards the end of the dry season. A larger reduction in deep soil water contributions was observed for upper canopy trees (from 70±14 to 22±15%) than for mid-story species (from 10±13 to 7±10%). The use of shallow soil water by trees during the dry season seems consistent with the greater root biomass and higher macronutrient concentrations found in the first 10 cm of the soil profiles. These findings are an

  16. Vegetation history and paleoclimate at Lake Dojran (FYROM/Greece) during the Late Glacial and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alessia; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Thienemann, Matthias; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura

    2018-03-01

    A new high-resolution pollen and NPP (non-pollen palynomorph) analysis has been performed on the sediments of Lake Dojran, a transboundary lake located at the border between Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). The sequence covers the last 12 500 years and provides information on the vegetational dynamics of the Late Glacial and Holocene for the southern Balkans. Robust age model, sedimentological diatom, and biomarker analyses published previously have been the base for a multi-perspective interpretation of the new palynological data. Pollen analysis revealed that the Late Glacial is characterized by steppic taxa with prevailing Amaranthaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. The arboreal vegetation starts to rise after 11 500 yr BP, taking a couple of millennia to be definitively attested. Holocene vegetation is characterized by the dominance of mesophilous plants. The Quercus robur type and Pinus are the most abundant taxa, followed by the Quercus cerris type, the Quercus ilex type and Ostrya-Carpinus orientalis. The first attestation of human presence can be presumed at 5000 yr BP from the contemporary presence of cereals, Juglans and Rumex. A drop in both pollen concentration and influx together with a δ18Ocarb shift indicates increasing aridity and precedes clear and continuous human signs since 4000 yr BP. Also, a correlation between Pediastrum boryanum and fecal stanol suggests that the increase in nutrients in the water is related to human presence and pasture. An undoubted expansion of human-related plants occurs since 2600 yr BP when cereals, arboreal cultivated and other synanthropic non-cultivated taxa are found. A strong reduction in arboreal vegetation occurred at 2000 yr BP, when the Roman Empire impacted a landscape undergoing climate dryness in the whole Mediterranean area. In recent centuries the human impact still remains high but spots of natural vegetation are preserved. The Lake Dojran multi-proxy analysis including pollen

  17. Differential Responses of Neotropical Mountain Forests to Climate Change during the Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Rangel, B. L.; Olvera Vargas, M.

    2013-05-01

    . During periods of aridity, temporal heterogeneity in the abundance of individual taxa was crucial in the determination of forest resilience following climate change, where some taxa disappeared for hundreds years and then reappeared when humidity returns. Given the global climate change prediction for neotropical forests where drier environments are expected, the long-term resilience of these ecosystems may be greatly reduced. Fire was determined as an essential natural component of the PF. Consequently conservation and management strategies should always regard fire as an important tool for its present and future perpetuation. CF is a vulnerable community, distinctive in temporal taxa composition, therefore site-specificity protection schemes are crucial for its future preservation.TF was a CF in the past developing into a Pinus-Carpinus-Quercus forest today. Given the present-day predictions of global warming, the goal in this forest is to avoid its conversion into an open-land establishing strict protection schemes.

  18. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  19. Vegetation history and paleoclimate at Lake Dojran (FYROM/Greece during the Late Glacial and Holocene

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    A. Masi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new high-resolution pollen and NPP (non-pollen palynomorph analysis has been performed on the sediments of Lake Dojran, a transboundary lake located at the border between Greece and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM. The sequence covers the last 12 500 years and provides information on the vegetational dynamics of the Late Glacial and Holocene for the southern Balkans. Robust age model, sedimentological diatom, and biomarker analyses published previously have been the base for a multi-perspective interpretation of the new palynological data. Pollen analysis revealed that the Late Glacial is characterized by steppic taxa with prevailing Amaranthaceae, Artemisia and Poaceae. The arboreal vegetation starts to rise after 11 500 yr BP, taking a couple of millennia to be definitively attested. Holocene vegetation is characterized by the dominance of mesophilous plants. The Quercus robur type and Pinus are the most abundant taxa, followed by the Quercus cerris type, the Quercus ilex type and Ostrya–Carpinus orientalis. The first attestation of human presence can be presumed at 5000 yr BP from the contemporary presence of cereals, Juglans and Rumex. A drop in both pollen concentration and influx together with a δ18Ocarb shift indicates increasing aridity and precedes clear and continuous human signs since 4000 yr BP. Also, a correlation between Pediastrum boryanum and fecal stanol suggests that the increase in nutrients in the water is related to human presence and pasture. An undoubted expansion of human-related plants occurs since 2600 yr BP when cereals, arboreal cultivated and other synanthropic non-cultivated taxa are found. A strong reduction in arboreal vegetation occurred at 2000 yr BP, when the Roman Empire impacted a landscape undergoing climate dryness in the whole Mediterranean area. In recent centuries the human impact still remains high but spots of natural vegetation are preserved. The Lake

  20. Stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved tree species: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on tree functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    The functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical trees and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved trees have only rarely been studied. We examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved trees with largely different morphology and physiology (genera Fagus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Carpinus and Acer). We expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect species differences in wood anatomy (ring vs. diffuse-porous) and wood density. Sap flux density was recorded synchronously at five positions along the root-to-branch flow path of mature trees (roots, three stem positions and branches) with high temporal resolution (2 min) and related to stem radius changes recorded with electronic point dendrometers. The daily amount of stored stem water withdrawn for transpiration was estimated by comparing the integrated flow at stem base and stem top. The temporal coincidence of flows at different positions and apparent time lags were examined by cross-correlation analysis. Our results confirm that internal water stores play an important role in the four diffuse-porous species with estimated 5-12 kg day(-1) being withdrawn on average in 25-28 m tall trees representing 10-22% of daily transpiration; in contrast, only 0.5-2.0 kg day(-1) was withdrawn in ring-porous Fraxinus. Wood density had a large influence on storage; sapwood area (diffuse- vs. ring-porous) may be another influential factor but its effect was not significant. Across the five species, the length of the time lag in flow at stem top and stem base was positively related to the size of stem storage. The stem stores were mostly exhausted when the soil matrix potential dropped below -0.1 MPa and daily mean vapor pressure deficit exceeded 3-5 hPa. We conclude that stem storage is an important factor improving the water balance of diffuse-porous temperate broad-leaved trees in moist

  1. Canopy gradients in leaf functional traits for species that differ in growth strategies and shade tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Fogel, Marilyn L; Parker, Geoffrey G

    2017-10-01

    In temperate deciduous forests, vertical gradients in leaf mass per area (LMA) and area-based leaf nitrogen (Narea) are strongly controlled by gradients in light availability. While there is evidence that hydrostatic constraints on leaf development may diminish LMA and Narea responses to light, inherent differences among tree species may also influence leaf developmental and morphological response to light. We investigated vertical gradients in LMA, Narea and leaf carbon isotope composition (δ13C) for three temperate deciduous species (Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liriodendron tulipifera L.) that differed in growth strategy (e.g., indeterminate and determinate growth), shade tolerance and leaf area to sapwood ratio (Al:As). Leaves were sampled across a broad range of light conditions within three vertical layers of tree crowns to maximize variation in light availability at each height and to minimize collinearity between light and height. All species displayed similar responses to light with respect to Narea and δ13C, but not for LMA. Light was more important for gradients in LMA for the shade-tolerant (C. caroliniana) and -intolerant (L. tulipifera) species with indeterminate growth, and height (e.g., hydrostatic gradients) and light were equally important for the shade-tolerant (F. grandifolia) species with determinate growth. Fagus grandifolia had a higher morphological plasticity in response to light, which may offer a competitive advantage in occupying a broader range of light conditions throughout the canopy. Differences in responses to light and height for the taller tree species, L. tulipifera and F. grandifolia, may be attributed to differences in growth strategy or Al:As, which may alter morphological and functional responses to light availability. While height was important in F. grandifolia, height was no more robust in predicting LMA than light in any of the species, confirming the strong role of light availability in

  2. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  3. Environmental changes and human settlement in the central Marches (Italy during the early-middle Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Calderoni

    2007-12-01

    centrales (Fig. 1 enregistrèrent une rapide amélioration du climat, caractérisée par des conditions tempérées-humides. On assiste à un vaste développement de la végétation méditerranéenne thermophile avec des forêts à latifoliées et d’épais sols bruns-calciques. Dans la haute vallée du fleuve Chienti, sur la base d’analyses polliniques de sédiments tourbeux (A. PAGANELLI, 1959, datés successivement 8260 ± 100 C14 yr BP et 7740 ± 80 C14 yr BP (G. CALDERONI et al., 1996, on a déterminé une association forestière à quercus, accompagné de carpinus et tilia, typiques d’un climat tempéré-chaud.Cette nouvelle couverture végétale a réduit drastiquement l’érosion sur les versants et la sédimentation fluviale,et a favorisé l’incision des dépôts alluviaux précédents dans les secteurs moyen-hauts des fleuves (G. CILLA et F. DRAMIS, 2000. Cependant, dans les vallées de montagne, l’érosion linéaire a été localement ralentie par le développement de barrages de travertin qui ont créé des ruptures du profil longitudinal des cours d’eau et de chutes. En amont des barrages, des étangs et des petits bassins lacustres se sont formés. Là se sont déposés des couches de sables phytoclastiques avec des niveaux argileux et tourbeux (G. CILLA et al., 1994 ; G. CALDERONI et al., 1996. La sédimentation fluviatile a continué dans de la zone orientale (Photo 1 jusqu’à environ 3500 ans BP avec la mise en place de matériaux fins (G. CILLA et al., 1996. Entre 5000 et 3500 ans BP les processus de sédimentation ont touché les systèmes hydrographiques en entier. Ensuite et jusqu’à l’époque post-romaine, l’incision fluviale a dominé de partout dans les Marches centrales, avec le développement de chenaux sinueux ou à méandre qui se sont réalisés lentement (M. COLTORTI, 1991.Après 3500 ans BP la sédimentation du travertin a subi une réduction, ce qui a provoqué l’incision des barrages et la disparition des