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Sample records for hormoonravi vib phjustada

  1. Vibriobactin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae: VibH is an amide synthase homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetase condensation domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, T A; Marshall, C G; Walsh, C T

    2000-12-19

    The Vibrio cholerae siderophore vibriobactin is biosynthesized from three molecules of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB), two molecules of L-threonine, and one of norspermidine. Of the four genes positively implicated in vibriobactin biosynthesis, we have here expressed, purified, and assayed the products of three: vibE, vibB, and vibH. All three are homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) domains: VibE is a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate-adenosyl monophosphate ligase, VibB is a bifunctional isochorismate lyase-aryl carrier protein (ArCP), and VibH is a novel amide synthase that represents a free-standing condensation (C) domain. VibE and VibB are homologous to EntE and EntB from Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetase; VibE activates DHB as the acyl adenylate and then transfers it to the free thiol of the phosphopantetheine arm of VibB's ArCP domain. VibH then condenses this DHB thioester (the donor) with the small molecule norspermidine (the acceptor), forming N(1)-(2, 3-dihydroxybenzoyl)norspermidine (DHB-NSPD) with a k(cat) of 600 min(-1) and a K(m) for acyl-VibB of 0.88 microM and for norspermidine of 1.5 mM. Exclusive monoacylation of a primary amine of norspermidine was observed. VibH also tolerates DHB-acylated EntB and 1,7-diaminoheptane, octylamine, and hexylamine as substrates, albeit at lowered catalytic efficiencies. DHB-NSPD possesses one of three acylations required for mature vibriobactin, and its formation confirms VibH's role in vibriobactin biosynthesis. VibH is a unique NRPS condensation domain that acts upon an upstream carrier-protein-bound donor and a downstream amine, turning over a soluble amide product, in contrast to an archetypal NRPS-embedded C domain that condenses two carrier protein thioesters.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF 3 HUMAN PSEUDOGENES FOR SUBUNIT-VIB OF CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE - A MOLECULAR RECORD OF GENE EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; SCHRAGE, C; REUVEKAMP, P; BIJL, J; HARTOG, M; DEVRIES, H; AGSTERIBBE, E

    1991-01-01

    Three pseudogenes for the nuclear-encoded subunit VIb of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were isolated by screening a human genomic library with cloned human cDNA coding for COX subunit VIb. The nucleotide sequences of the pseudogenes, designated PSI-COX6b-1, PSI-COX6b-2 and PSI-COX6b-3, were determined.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF 3 HUMAN PSEUDOGENES FOR SUBUNIT-VIB OF CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE - A MOLECULAR RECORD OF GENE EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; SCHRAGE, C; REUVEKAMP, P; BIJL, J; HARTOG, M; DEVRIES, H; AGSTERIBBE, E

    1991-01-01

    Three pseudogenes for the nuclear-encoded subunit VIb of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) were isolated by screening a human genomic library with cloned human cDNA coding for COX subunit VIb. The nucleotide sequences of the pseudogenes, designated PSI-COX6b-1, PSI-COX6b-2 and PSI-COX6b-3, were determined.

  4. Ekspert: Kreeka uppudes hävib EL / Jan Jõgis-Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgis-Laats, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Prantsuse mõttekoja Institut francais des relations internationales (IFRI) teadlane Moreau Defarges leiab, et kui Euroopa Liit ei suuda Kreeka võlgu restruktureerida, siis EL hävib. Kreeka väljaheitmine või lahkumine euroalast ei ole teadlase sõnul mõeldav

  5. Orexin-dependent activation of layer VIb enhances cortical network activity and integration of non-specific thalamocortical inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Y Audrey; Andjelic, Sofija; Badr, Sammy; Lambolez, Bertrand

    2015-11-01

    Neocortical layer VI is critically involved in thalamocortical activity changes during the sleep/wake cycle. It receives dense projections from thalamic nuclei sensitive to the wake-promoting neuropeptides orexins, and its deepest part, layer VIb, is the only cortical lamina reactive to orexins. This convergence of wake-promoting inputs prompted us to investigate how layer VIb can modulate cortical arousal, using patch-clamp recordings and optogenetics in rat brain slices. We found that the majority of layer VIb neurons were excited by nicotinic agonists and orexin through the activation of nicotinic receptors containing α4-α5-β2 subunits and OX2 receptor, respectively. Specific effects of orexin on layer VIb neurons were potentiated by low nicotine concentrations and we used this paradigm to explore their intracortical projections. Co-application of nicotine and orexin increased the frequency of excitatory post-synaptic currents in the ipsilateral cortex, with maximal effect in infragranular layers and minimal effect in layer IV, as well as in the contralateral cortex. The ability of layer VIb to relay thalamocortical inputs was tested using photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing fibers from the orexin-sensitive rhomboid nucleus in the parietal cortex. Photostimulation induced robust excitatory currents in layer VIa neurons that were not pre-synaptically modulated by orexin, but exhibited a delayed, orexin-dependent, component. Activation of layer VIb by orexin enhanced the reliability and spike-timing precision of layer VIa responses to rhomboid inputs. These results indicate that layer VIb acts as an orexin-gated excitatory feedforward loop that potentiates thalamocortical arousal.

  6. Multistate APLIP and VibLIP: From molecular bond extension to atomic transport

    CERN Document Server

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2013-01-01

    APLIP is a method for using a STIRAP-like three-state configuration with two laser pulses for continuous extension of a molecular bond, introduced in 1998. It is based on time-dependent light-induced potential surfaces (LIP). In VibLIP one extends the idea into a method for tailoring the vibrational state while changing the electronic state, introduced in 2000. Here I discuss the extension of both methods to situations that involve more than three electronic states, and note the possibility of using the method on adiabatic transport of atoms between microtraps or equivalent structures.

  7. ASSIGNMENT OF THE GENE CODING FOR HUMAN CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE SUBUNIT-VIB TO CHROMOSOME-19, BAND-Q13.1, BY FLUORESCENCE INSITU HYBRIDIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; VANDERVEEN, AY; SCHRAGE, C; DEVRIES, H; BUYS, CHCM

    1991-01-01

    A cloned, 40 kb, genomic DNA fragment, containing the last exon of the gene for human cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb and its flanking sequences, was used as a probe to localize the subunit VIb gene on human metaphase chromosomes. The probe was labelled with Bio-11-dUTP and detected by fluorescence

  8. Carbide-forming groups IVB-VIB metals: a new territory in the periodic table for CVD growth of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyu; Fu, Lei; Song, Xiuju; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan

    2014-07-09

    Early transition metals, especially groups IVB-VIB metals, can form stable carbides, which are known to exhibit excellent "noble-metal-like" catalytic activities. We demonstrate herein the applications of groups IVB-VIB metals in graphene growth using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Similar to the extensively studied Cu, Ni, and noble metals, these transition-metal foils facilitate the catalytic growth of single- to few-layer graphene. The most attractive advantage over the existing catalysts is their perfect control of layer thickness and uniformity with highly flexible experimental conditions by in situ converting the dissolved carbons into stable carbides to fully suppress the upward segregation/precipitation effect. The growth performance of graphene on these transition metals can be well explained by the periodic physicochemical properties of elements. Our work has disclosed a new territory of catalysts in the periodic table for graphene growth and is expected to trigger more interest in graphene research.

  9. VIB1, a link between glucose signaling and carbon catabolite repression, is essential for plant cell wall degradation by Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Filamentous fungi that thrive on plant biomass are the major producers of hydrolytic enzymes used to decompose lignocellulose for biofuel production. Although induction of cellulases is regulated at the transcriptional level, how filamentous fungi sense and signal carbon-limited conditions to coordinate cell metabolism and regulate cellulolytic enzyme production is not well characterized. By screening a transcription factor deletion set in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa for mutants unable to grow on cellulosic materials, we identified a role for the transcription factor, VIB1, as essential for cellulose utilization. VIB1 does not directly regulate hydrolytic enzyme gene expression or function in cellulosic inducer signaling/processing, but affects the expression level of an essential regulator of hydrolytic enzyme genes, CLR2. Transcriptional profiling of a Δvib-1 mutant suggests that it has an improper expression of genes functioning in metabolism and energy and a deregulation of carbon catabolite repression (CCR. By characterizing new genes, we demonstrate that the transcription factor, COL26, is critical for intracellular glucose sensing/metabolism and plays a role in CCR by negatively regulating cre-1 expression. Deletion of the major player in CCR, cre-1, or a deletion of col-26, did not rescue the growth of Δvib-1 on cellulose. However, the synergistic effect of the Δcre-1; Δcol-26 mutations circumvented the requirement of VIB1 for cellulase gene expression, enzyme secretion and cellulose deconstruction. Our findings support a function of VIB1 in repressing both glucose signaling and CCR under carbon-limited conditions, thus enabling a proper cellular response for plant biomass deconstruction and utilization.

  10. NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE OF THE LAST EXON OF THE GENE FOR HUMAN CYTOCHROME-C-OXIDASE SUBUNIT-VIB AND ITS FLANKING REGIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAANMAN, JW; SCHRAGE, C; BOKMA, E; REUVEKAMP, P; AGSTERIBBE, E; DEVRIES, H

    1991-01-01

    A human genomic clone encompassing the last exon of the gene for cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb and a human genomic clone containing the most distal end of this gene were characterized. The last exon of the gene codes for the 17 C-terminal amino acid residues of the subunit and the 3' noncoding re

  11. Doping anatase TIO_{2} with group V-b and VI-b transition metal atoms : a hybrid functional first-principles study

    OpenAIRE

    Matsubara, Masahiko; Saniz, Rolando; Partoens, Bart; Lamoen, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate the role of transition metal atoms of group V-b (V, Nb, and Ta) and VI-b (Cr, Mo, and W) as n- or p-type dopants in anatase TiO2 using thermodynamic principles and density functional theory with the HeydScuseriaErnzerhof HSE06 hybrid functional. The HSE06 functional provides a realistic value for the band gap, which ensures a correct classification of dopants as shallow or deep donors or acceptors. Defect formation energies and thermodynamic transition levels are calc...

  12. Aids röövib miljoneid elusid / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    ÜRO Aidsiprogrammi (UN-AIDS) ja Maailma Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni eile avaldatud aastaaruandest selgub, et aasta jooksul on maailmas registreeritud umbes viis miljonit uut nakatunut ehk iga päev saab viiruse 14 000 inimest

  13. Aids röövib miljoneid elusid / Merit Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Merit, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    ÜRO Aidsiprogrammi (UN-AIDS) ja Maailma Tervishoiuorganisatsiooni eile avaldatud aastaaruandest selgub, et aasta jooksul on maailmas registreeritud umbes viis miljonit uut nakatunut ehk iga päev saab viiruse 14 000 inimest

  14. Töö röövib lastelt vanemad / Marion Pajumets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajumets, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Triin Roosalu Tallinna Ülikoolis kaitstud doktoriväitekirjast "Taking care of children and work in Estonian society : running out of post-socialist time?", mis käsitleb Eesti töö ja pereelu ühitamise mudelit

  15. Töö röövib lastelt vanemad / Marion Pajumets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pajumets, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Triin Roosalu Tallinna Ülikoolis kaitstud doktoriväitekirjast "Taking care of children and work in Estonian society : running out of post-socialist time?", mis käsitleb Eesti töö ja pereelu ühitamise mudelit

  16. Natural longitudinal frequencies of a uniform rod with a tip mass or a spring [J. Sound Vib. 77(1) (1981) 147-148

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadıoğlu, Fethi; Tekin, Gülçin

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this communication is to correct the equation which gives the condition for eigenvalues and present the corrected numerical solutions that give the natural longitudinal frequencies for a rod with a spring at the tip in a published letter [1].

  17. Corrigendum to "An equation decoupling approach to identify the equivalent foundation in rotating machinery using modal parameters" [J. Sound Vib. 365 (2016) 182-198

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minli; Feng, Ningsheng; Hahn, Eric J.

    2016-08-01

    The authors would like to apologise for the error made to the affiliation details of Dr Ningsheng Feng and Dr Eric J. Hahn in the original publication and who are both affiliated to The School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

  18. Comments on "Drill-string horizontal dynamics with uncertainty on the frictional force" by T.G. Ritto, M.R. Escalante, Rubens Sampaio, M.B. Rosales [J. Sound Vib. 332 (2013) 145-153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zifeng

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the mechanical and mathematical models in "Ritto et al. (2013) [1]". The results are that: (1) the mechanical model is obviously incorrect; (2) the mathematical model is not complete; (3) the differential equation is obviously incorrect; (4) the finite element equation is obviously not discretized from the corresponding mathematical model above, and is obviously incorrect. A mathematical model of dynamics should include the differential equations, the boundary conditions and the initial conditions.

  19. Kättemaksu tund läheneb - hangunud verele ülesklopsitud röövriik hävib! : vastupanuliikumise salatrükikoda "Punker Tiiu" Kambja vallas 1947.-1948. aastal / Tiit Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    Põrandaaluse salatrükikoja أPunker Tiiuؤ (1947-1948) tegevusest, lendlehtede levitamisest Tartumaal. Dokument: "Väljavõte ENSV RJM Tartu linna osakonna 2-N jaoskonna tööaruandest 1949. a. septembrikuu kohta"

  20. Kättemaksu tund läheneb - hangunud verele ülesklopsitud röövriik hävib! : vastupanuliikumise salatrükikoda "Punker Tiiu" Kambja vallas 1947.-1948. aastal / Tiit Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    Põrandaaluse salatrükikoja أPunker Tiiuؤ (1947-1948) tegevusest, lendlehtede levitamisest Tartumaal. Dokument: "Väljavõte ENSV RJM Tartu linna osakonna 2-N jaoskonna tööaruandest 1949. a. septembrikuu kohta"

  1. Role of vibrationally excited HBr in a HBr/He inductively coupled plasma used for etching of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinck, Stefan; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the role of vibrationally excited HBr (HBr(vib)) is computationally investigated for a HBr/He inductively coupled plasma applied for Si etching. It is found that at least 50% of all dissociations of HBr occur through HBr(vib). This additional dissociation pathway through HBr(vib) makes the plasma significantly more atomic. It also results in a slightly higher electron temperature (i.e. about 0.2 eV higher compared to simulation results where HBr(vib) is not included), as well as a higher gas temperature (i.e. about 50 K higher than without including HBr(vib)), due to the enhanced Franck-Condon heating through HBr(vib) dissociation, at the conditions investigated. Most importantly, the calculated etch rate with HBr(vib) included in the model is a factor 3 higher than in the case without HBr(vib), due to the higher fluxes of etching species (i.e. H and Br), while the chemical composition of the wafer surface shows no significant difference. Our calculations clearly show the importance of including HBr(vib) for accurate modeling of HBr-containing plasmas.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Rock Fracturing under Uniaxial Compression Using Virtual Internal Bond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Chang-ren; JIANG Jun-ling; GE Xiu-run

    2009-01-01

    A multi-scale virtual internal bond (VIB) model for the isotropic materials has been recently proposed to describe the material deformation and fracturing. During the simulation process of material fracturing using VIB, the fracture criterion is directly built into the constitutive formulation of the material using the cohesive force law. Enlightened by the similarity of the damage constitutive model of rock under uniaxial compression and the cohesive force law of VIB, a VIB density function of rock under uniaxial compression is suggested. The elastic modulus tensor is formulated on the basis of the density function. Thus the complete deformation process of rock under the uniaxial compression is simulated.

  3. Construction of a real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantitating thermo-stable-direct-hemolysin gene, an etiological gene-marker of pathogenic Vib-rio parahaemolyticus%副溶血性弧菌致病性标志基因tdh的实时荧光定量聚合酶链式反应的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏萍; 周晓明; 张继伦; 姜婷; 李雯雯; 鲍依稀

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立一个用于副溶血性弧菌致病性定量测定的检测体系.方法:以多组tdh基因的保守序列为基础,设计实时荧光定量PCR扩增适用的引物和TaqMan探针.以定量方式提取副溶血性弧菌基因组DNA,以tdh+菌株为阳性对照,建立实时荧光定量PCR方法.以tdh荧光定量结果与绝对菌数浓度作参比,以确定tdh基因在菌群中的拷贝水平.结果:使用正向序列5-GGAAG ATGTT TATGG TCAAT C-3(位置在467~487 bp处),反向序列5-ACCGC TGCCA TTG-TA TAGTC T-3(位置在571~551 bp处),TaqMan探针5-FAM-TGACA TCCTA CATGA CTGTG AAC-ECLIPSE-3(位置在517~539 bp处)建立一个实时荧光定馈PCR反应,目的片段长度105 bp.建立反应的DNA拷贝数对数值与Ct值线性关系为γ=-3.144 logx+43.229(r=0.997,P<0.001).建立了菌液A值与显微镜下绝对菌数浓度的相关关系为γ=2.0452x+6.2845(r=0.7828,P<0.01).根据tdh基因拷贝数与绝对菌数相比可计算tdh基因的单菌体拷贝量.结论:建立了一个定量副溶血性弧菌tdh基因拷贝水平的实时荧光定量PCR检测方法,可应用于副溶血性弧菌致病性的标准化定量测定体系.

  4. Designing a Virtual Item Bank Based on the Techniques of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey

    2011-01-01

    One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…

  5. Atrophy/hypertrophy cell signaling in muscles of young athletes trained with vibrational-proprioceptive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Helmut; Pelosi, Laura; Coletto, Luisa; Musarò, Antonio; Sandri, Marco; Vogelauer, Michael; Trimmel, Lukas; Cvecka, Jan; Hamar, Dusan; Kovarik, Josef; Löfler, Stefan; Sarabon, Nejc; Protasi, Feliciano; Adami, Nicoletta; Biral, Donatella; Zampieri, Sandra; Carraro, Ugo

    2011-12-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic (ISO-K) and vibrational-proprioceptive (VIB) trainings on muscle mass and strength. In 29 ISO-K- or VIB-trained young athletes we evaluated: force, muscle fiber morphometry, and gene expression of muscle atrophy/hypertrophy cell signaling. VIB training increased the maximal isometric unilateral leg extension force by 48·1%. ISO-K training improved the force by 24·8%. Both improvements were statistically significant (P⩿0·01). The more functional effectiveness of the VIB training in comparison with the ISO-K training was shown by the statistical significance changes only in VIB group in: rate of force development in time segment 0-50 ms (Pmuscle fibers (-3%, not significant). No neural cell adhesion molecule-positive (N-CAM(+)) and embryonic myosin heavy chain-positive (MHC-emb(+)) myofibers were detected. VIB induced a significant twofold increase (Pmuscle isoform insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Ec mRNA. Atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1) did not change, but myostatin was strongly downregulated after VIB training (Pmuscle damage. Only VIB-trained group showed statistical significance increase of hypertrophy cell signaling pathways (IGF-1Ec and PGC-1α upregulation, and myostatin downregulation) leading to hypertrophy of fast twitch muscle fibers.

  6. Tendon vibration attenuates superficial venous vessel response of the resting limb during static arm exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooue Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superficial vein of the resting limb constricts sympathetically during exercise. Central command is the one of the neural mechanisms that controls the cardiovascular response to exercise. However, it is not clear whether central command contributes to venous vessel response during exercise. Tendon vibration during static elbow flexion causes primary muscle spindle afferents, such that a lower central command is required to achieve a given force without altering muscle force. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a reduction in central command during static exercise with tendon vibration influences the superficial venous vessel response in the resting limb. Methods Eleven subjects performed static elbow flexion at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction with (EX + VIB and without (EX vibration of the biceps brachii tendon. The heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE in overall and exercising muscle were measured. The cross-sectional area (CSAvein and blood velocity of the basilic vein in the resting upper arm were assessed by ultrasound, and blood flow (BFvein was calculated using both variables. Results Muscle tension during exercise was similar between EX and EX + VIB. However, RPEs at EX + VIB were lower than those at EX (P P vein in the resting limb at EX decreased during exercise from baseline (P vein at EX + VIB did not change during exercise. CSAvein during exercise at EX was smaller than that at EX + VIB (P vein did not change during the protocol under either condition. The decreases in circulatory response and RPEs during EX + VIB, despite identical muscle tension, showed that activation of central command was less during EX + VIB than during EX. Abolishment of the decrease in CSAvein during exercise at EX + VIB may thus have been caused by a lower level of central command at EX + VIB rather than EX. Conclusion Diminished central command induced by tendon

  7. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... articles that contact food of Types I, II, III, IV-A, IV-B, V, VI-B (except carbonated beverages), VII-A...; for use (except carbonated beverage bottles) as articles or as components of articles that contact...

  8. Heat capacity and thermal expansion of water and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putintsev, N. M.; Putintsev, D. N.

    2017-04-01

    Original expressions for heat capacity CV and its components, vibrational and configurational components of thermal expansion coefficient were established. The values of CV, Cvib, Cconf, αvib and αconf for water and helium 4He were calculated.

  9. Salmonellabakter räsib Talleggi / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti suurimat linnulihatootjat Talleggi võib seoses salmonelloosi levikuga tabada miljonitesse kroonidesse ulatuv kahju ja ligi 30 000 kroonine rahatrahv. Diagramm: Tallegg vajus mullu kahjumisse. Lisa: Salmonella-bakter hävib kuumutades

  10. Salmonellabakter räsib Talleggi / Kristina Traks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Traks, Kristina, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    Eesti suurimat linnulihatootjat Talleggi võib seoses salmonelloosi levikuga tabada miljonitesse kroonidesse ulatuv kahju ja ligi 30 000 kroonine rahatrahv. Diagramm: Tallegg vajus mullu kahjumisse. Lisa: Salmonella-bakter hävib kuumutades

  11. Aquareovirus NS80 Initiates Efficient Viral Replication by Retaining Core Proteins within Replication-Associated Viral Inclusion Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Liming Yan; Jie Zhang; Hong Guo; Shicui Yan; Qingxiu Chen; Fuxian Zhang; Qin Fang

    2015-01-01

    Viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) are specific intracellular compartments for reoviruses replication and assembly. Aquareovirus nonstructural protein NS80 has been identified to be the major constituent for forming globular VIBs in our previous study. In this study, we investigated the role of NS80 in viral structural proteins expression and viral replication. Immunofluorescence assays showed that NS80 could retain five core proteins or inner-capsid proteins (VP1-VP4 and VP6), but not outer-capsi...

  12. Shaping motor cortex plasticity through proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzino, Laura; Pelosin, Elisa; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Bassolino, Michela; Pozzo, Thierry; Bove, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Short-term upper limb disuse induces a hemispheric unbalance between the primary motor cortices (M1s). However, it is still unclear whether these changes are mainly attributable to the absence of voluntary movements or to the reduction of proprioceptive information. The goal of this work was to investigate the role of proprioception in modulating hemispheric balance during a short-term right arm immobilization. We evaluated the 2 M1s excitability and the interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) between M1s in 3 groups of healthy subjects. Two groups received during the immobilization a proprioceptive (P-VIB, 80 Hz) and tactile (T-VIB, 30 Hz) vibration to the right hand, respectively. Another group did not receive any conditioning sensory inputs (No-VIB). We found that in the No-VIB and in the T-VIB groups immobilization induced a decrease of left M1 excitability and IHI from left to right hemisphere and an increase of right M1 excitability and IHI from right to left hemisphere. Differently, only a partial decrease in left M1 excitability, no change in right M1 excitability and in IHI was observed in the P-VIB group. Our findings demonstrate that the maintenance of dynamic proprioceptive inputs in an immobilized arm through muscle vibration can prevent the hemispheric unbalance induced by short-term limb disuse.

  13. The Virtual Insect Brain protocol: creating and comparing standardized neuroanatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindelin Johannes E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, new genetic, physiological, molecular and behavioral techniques for the functional analysis of the brain are rapidly accumulating. These diverse investigations on the function of the insect brain use gene expression patterns that can be visualized and provide the means for manipulating groups of neurons as a common ground. To take advantage of these patterns one needs to know their typical anatomy. Results This paper describes the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB protocol, a script suite for the quantitative assessment, comparison, and presentation of neuroanatomical data. It is based on the 3D-reconstruction and visualization software Amira, version 3.x (Mercury Inc. 1. Besides its backbone, a standardization procedure which aligns individual 3D images (series of virtual sections obtained by confocal microscopy to a common coordinate system and computes average intensities for each voxel (volume pixel the VIB protocol provides an elaborate data management system for data administration. The VIB protocol facilitates direct comparison of gene expression patterns and describes their interindividual variability. It provides volumetry of brain regions and helps to characterize the phenotypes of brain structure mutants. Using the VIB protocol does not require any programming skills since all operations are carried out at an intuitively usable graphical user interface. Although the VIB protocol has been developed for the standardization of Drosophila neuroanatomy, the program structure can be used for the standardization of other 3D structures as well. Conclusion Standardizing brains and gene expression patterns is a new approach to biological shape and its variability. The VIB protocol provides a first set of tools supporting this endeavor in Drosophila. The script suite is freely available at http://www.neurofly.de2

  14. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0-40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, PL; Carbone, F; van der Marel, D

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  15. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0–40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P.; Boeij, P.L. de; Carbone, F.; Marel, D. van der

    2006-01-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric a

  16. Detection of Serum Lysophosphatidic Acids Using Affinity Binding and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI) Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    VIB), Ghent University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Albert Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, the...Chemistry 280, 4415-4421 20 Camus , D., Lyon, J. A., Reaudjareed, T., Haynes, J. D., and Diggs, C. L. (1987) Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 26, 21-27

  17. Optical properties of bcc transition metals in the range 0-40 eV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaniello, P.; de Boeij, PL; Carbone, F; van der Marel, D

    We present a systematic analysis of the optical properties of bcc transition metals in the groups VB: V, Nb, and Ta, and VIB: paramagnetic Cr, Mo, and W. For this we use our formulation of time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the linear response of metals. The calculated dielectric

  18. Coastline Community College World Trade Center Institute Business and International Education Program. Final Performance Report: A Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Chet; Secord, Debra A.

    Under a Title VI-B grant, California's Coastline Community College (CCC) conducted a needs assessment survey establishing a database of international training needs, developed five courses and 10 workshops in international business, and formed the World Trade Center Institute (WTCI). This report provides information on the activities and…

  19. 45 CFR 147.126 - No lifetime or annual limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... enrolled in family coverage under Z's group health plan for the plan year beginning on October 1, 2008. On... maintain status as a grandfathered health policy under § 147.140(g)(1)(vi)(B). Since grandfathered health....126 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS...

  20. National Waterways Study Overview of the Transportation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    markets. 149 Figure VI-B Rail-Truck Share of Intercity Freight 10 -"A iL SHARF 30 .0Z TRUJCK 10 ’ 1970 1950 1%0 1970 1980 SOURCES: D. Wycoff, Motor Carrier...Commission, June, 1973. Richards , P. R. Public Port Financing in Texas: An Overview of Current Practices, Alternatives, and Future Needs. Galveston, Texas

  1. Raamat või film? / Lauri Birkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birkan, Lauri

    2005-01-01

    Harri Potteri fänn süüvib neljanda J.K. Rowlingu Potteri raamatu ekraniseeringusse "Harry Potter ja tulepeeker" ("Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire") : režissöör Mike Newell : Suurbritannia-USA 2005

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from a Rock Dove (Columba livia) in the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Kseniya S; Sivay, Mariya V; Glushchenko, Alexandra V; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Shchetinin, Alexey M; Shchelkanov, Michail Y; Shestopalov, Alexander M

    2015-01-29

    We report here the complete genome sequence of a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate, NDV/Altai/pigeon/770/2011, isolated from a rock dove in the Russian Federation. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, this strain was clustered into genotype VIb class II.

  3. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 16, Number 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    in smooth end Structures Volume 1. Speid Topics in Eartquake .. turbulent single-vibration testing of reactor components Ground Motioe including... Mexico , Albuquerque, NM 87131, seatingoperationsduringInstallation. Shock Vib. Bull., No. 54, Pt. 2, pp 143-153 (June 1984) 4 figs, 11 refs (Proc

  4. Active Control of Radiated Sound with Integrated Piezoelectric Composite Structures. Volume 3: Appendices (Concl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    York. Jackson, C. M., Wagner, H. I. and Wasilewski , R. L (1972). 55-Nitinol-the alloy with a memory: its physical metallurgy, properties and...Acoust., Vol. 113, 1991, pp. 100-107. Controlled Systems Eigenproperties," J. Sound Vib., Vol. 11. C. M. Jackson. H. J. Wagner, and R. J. Wasilewski

  5. High-intensity interval training with vibration as rest intervals attenuates fiber atrophy and prevents decreases in anaerobic performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Manuel Mueller

    Full Text Available Aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIT improves cardiovascular capacity but may reduce the finite work capacity above critical power (W' and lead to atrophy of myosin heavy chain (MyHC-2 fibers. Since whole-body vibration may enhance indices of anaerobic performance, we examined whether side-alternating whole-body vibration as a replacement for the active rest intervals during a 4 x 4 min HIT prevents decreases in anaerobic performance and capacity without compromising gains in aerobic function. Thirty-three young recreationally active men were randomly assigned to conduct either conventional 4 x 4 min HIT, HIT with 3 min of WBV at 18 Hz (HIT+VIB18 or 30 Hz (HIT+VIB30 in lieu of conventional rest intervals, or WBV at 30 Hz (VIB30. Pre and post training, critical power (CP, W', cellular muscle characteristics, as well as cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables were determined. W' (-14.3%, P = 0.013, maximal voluntary torque (-8.6%, P = 0.001, rate of force development (-10.5%, P = 0.018, maximal jumping power (-6.3%, P = 0.007 and cross-sectional areas of MyHC-2A fibers (-6.4%, P = 0.044 were reduced only after conventional HIT. CP, V̇O2peak, peak cardiac output, and overall capillary-to-fiber ratio were increased after HIT, HIT+VIB18, and HIT+VIB30 without differences between groups. HIT-specific reductions in anaerobic performance and capacity were prevented by replacing active rest intervals with side-alternating whole-body vibration, notably without compromising aerobic adaptations. Therefore, competitive cyclists (and potentially other endurance-oriented athletes may benefit from replacing the active rest intervals during aerobic HIT with side-alternating whole-body vibration.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01875146.

  6. Acute effects of passive stretching and vibration on the electromechanical delay and musculotendinous stiffness of the plantar flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, T J; Ryan, E D; Costa, P B; Walter, A A; Hoge, K M; Uribe, B P; McLagan, J R; Stout, J R; Cramer, J T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of passives stretching versus prolonged vibration on the active and passive properties of voluntary and evoked muscle actions of the plantar flexors. Eleven healthy men performed the isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) and passive range of motion (PROM) assessments before and after 20 min of passive stretching (PS), vibration (VIB), and control (CON) conditions. In addition, percent voluntary activation was calculated from superimposed and potentiated doublets during the MVCs. Voluntary peak torque (PT) decreased by 11% and 4%, while surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude decreased by 8% and 16% for the PS and VIB, respectively, with no changes during the CON The electromechanical delay (EMD) decreased and PROM increased following the PS, but was unchanged during the VIB and CON conditions. Musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) decreased at all joint angles following the PS, but decreased only at the furthest joint angle following the VIB. There were no changes in peak twitch torque (PTT), M-wave amplitude, and EMG amplitude during the PROM assessments for all conditions. Both PS and VIB elicited similar decreases in muscle activation, which may be the same centrally-mediated mechanism (i.e., y loop impairment). Changes in the EMD were inversely proportional to the changes in MTS, which occurred only following PS. The present findings indicated that the stretching- and vibration-induced force deficits may have resulted in part from similar centrally-mediated neural deficits, while an elongation of the series elastic component may also have affected the stretching-induced force deficit.

  7. The effects of passive stretching plus vibration on strength and activation of the plantar flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan D; Herda, Trent J; Trevino, Michael A; Mosier, Eric M

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the effects of passive stretching only (PS+CON) and passive stretching with the addition of continuous vibration (VIB) during post-passive stretching tests (PS+VIB) on peak torque (PT), percent voluntary inactivation (%VI), single stimulus twitch torque (TTSINGLE), and doublet stimuli twitch torque (TTDOUBLET) of the plantar flexors at a short (20° plantar flexion (PF)) and long muscle length (15° dorsiflexion (DF)). Fourteen healthy men (age = 22 ± 3 years) performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions at PF and DF, and passive range of motion (PROM) assessments before and after 8 × 30-s passive stretches without (PS+CON) or with VIB (PS+VIB) administered continuously throughout post-passive stretching tests. The passive properties of the muscle tendon unit were assessed pre- and post-passive stretching via PROM, passive torque (PASSTQ), and musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) measurements. PT, TTSINGLE, and TTDOUBLET decreased, whereas, %VI increased following passive stretching at PF and DF (P stretching during both trials (P stretching-induced force/torque deficit and increases in %VI were evident following passive stretching at short and long muscle lengths. Although not statistically significant, effect size calculations suggested large and moderate differences in the absolute changes in PT (Cohen's d = 1.14) and %VI (Cohen's d = 0.54) from pre- to post-passive stretching between treatments, with PS+VIB having greater decreases of PT and higher %VI than PS+CON. The decrement in PT following passive stretching may be primarily neural in origin.

  8. Comparison of parathyroid hormone and strontium ranelate in combination with whole-body vibration in a rat model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, D B; Sehmisch, S; Hofmann, A M; Eimer, C; Komrakova, M; Saul, D; Wassmann, M; Stürmer, K M; Tezval, M

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the combinatorial effects of whole-body vertical vibration (WBVV) with the primarily osteoanabolic parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the mainly antiresorptive strontium ranelate (SR) in a rat model of osteoporosis. Ovariectomies were performed on 76 three-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (OVX, n = 76; NON-OVX, n = 12). After 8 weeks, the ovariectomized rats were divided into 6 groups. One group (OVX + PTH) received daily injections of PTH (40 µg/kg body weight/day) for 6 weeks. Another group (OVX + SR) was fed SR-supplemented chow (600 mg/kg body weight/day). Three groups (OVX + VIB, OVX + PTH + VIB, and OVX + SR + VIB) were treated with WBVV twice a day at 70 Hz for 15 min. Two groups (OVX + PTH + VIB, OVX + SR + VIB) were treated additionally with PTH and SR, respectively. The rats were killed at 14 weeks post-ovariectomy. The lumbar vertebrae and femora were removed for biomechanical and morphological assessment. PTH produced statistically significant improvements in biomechanical and structural properties, including bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone quality. In contrast, SR treatment exerted mild effects, with significant effects in cortical thickness only. SR produced no significant improvement in biomechanical properties. WBVV as a single or an adjunctive therapy produced no significant improvements. In conclusion, vibration therapy administered as a single or dual treatment had no significant impact on bones affected by osteoporosis. PTH considerably improved bone quality in osteoporosis cases and is superior to treatment with SR.

  9. After-effects of peripheral neurostimulation on brain plasticity and ankle function in chronic stroke: The role of afferents recruited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Louis-David; Massé-Alarie, Hugo; Camiré-Bernier, Samuel; Ribot-Ciscar, Édith; Schneider, Cyril

    2017-09-01

    This study tested the after-effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) and muscle tendon vibration (VIB) on brain plasticity and sensorimotor impairments in chronic stroke to investigate whether different results could depend on the nature of afferents recruited by each technique. Fifteen people with chronic stroke participated in five sessions (one per week). Baseline measures were collected in session one, then, each participant received 4 randomly ordered interventions (NMES, rPMS, VIB and a 'control' intervention of exercises). Interventions were applied to the paretic ankle muscles and parameters of application were matched as closely as possible. Standardized clinical measures of the ankle function on the paretic side and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) outcomes of both primary motor cortices (M1) were collected at pre- and post-application of each intervention. The ankle muscle strength was significantly improved by rPMS and VIB (P≤0.02). rPMS influenced M1 excitability (increase in the contralesional hemisphere, P=0.03) and inhibition (decrease in both hemispheres, P≤0.04). The group mean of a few clinical outcomes improved across sessions, i.e. independently of the order of interventions. Some TMS outcomes at baseline could predict the responsiveness to rPMS and VIB. This original study suggests that rPMS and VIB were efficient to drive M1 plasticity and sensorimotor improvements, likely via massive inflows of 'pure' proprioceptive information generated. Usefulness of some TMS outcomes to predict which intervention a patient could be more responsive to should be further tested in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The economic burden of visual impairment and blindness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberlein, Juliane; Beifus, Karolina; Schaffert, Corinna; Finger, Robert P

    2013-11-07

    Visual impairment and blindness (VI&B) cause a considerable and increasing economic burden in all high-income countries due to population ageing. Thus, we conducted a review of the literature to better understand all relevant costs associated with VI&B and to develop a multiperspective overview. Systematic review: Two independent reviewers searched the relevant literature and assessed the studies for inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as quality. Interventional, non-interventional and cost of illness studies, conducted prior to May 2012, investigating direct and indirect costs as well as intangible effects related to visual impairment and blindness were included. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement approach to identify the relevant studies. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the variability of the reported cost categories and varying definition of visual impairment. A total of 22 studies were included. Hospitalisation and use of medical services around diagnosis and treatment at the onset of VI&B were the largest contributor to direct medical costs. The mean annual expenses per patient were found to be US$ purchasing power parities (PPP) 12 175-14 029 for moderate visual impairment, US$ PPP 13 154-16 321 for severe visual impairment and US$ PPP 14 882-24 180 for blindness, almost twofold the costs for non-blind patients. Informal care was the major contributor to other direct costs, with the time spent by caregivers increasing from 5.8 h/week (or US$ PPP 263) for persons with vision >20/32 up to 94.1 h/week (or US$ PPP 55 062) for persons with vision ≤20/250. VI&B caused considerable indirect costs due to productivity losses, premature mortality and dead-weight losses. VI&B cause a considerable economic burden for affected persons, their caregivers and society at large, which increases with the degree of visual impairment. This review provides insight into the distribution of costs and the

  11. Transferred plasma jet from a dielectric barrier discharge for processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Nascimento, Fellype do; Canesqui, Mara A; Moshkalev, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    In this work we studied processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in two different assemblies, one using the primary plasma jet obtained from a conventional DBD and the other using a DBD plasma jet transfer. The evolution of water contact angle (WCA) in function of plasma processing time and in function of aging time as well as the changes in the surface roughness of PDMS samples for both plasma treatments have been studied. We also compared vibrational and rotational temperatures for both plasmas and for the first time the vibrational temperature (T_vib) for the transferred plasma jet has been shown to be higher as compared with the primary jet. The increment in the T_vib value seems to be the main reason for the improvements in adhesion properties and surface wettability for the transferred plasma jet. Possible explanations for the increase in the vibrational temperature are presented.

  12. Communication: Vibrational relaxation of CO(1Σ) in collision with Ar(1S) at temperatures relevant to the hypersonic flight regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel; Bemish, Raymond J.; Meuwly, Markus

    2017-03-01

    Vibrational energy relaxation (VER) of diatomics following collisions with the surrounding medium is an important elementary process for modeling high-temperature gas flow. VER is characterized by two parameters: the vibrational relaxation time τvib and the state relaxation rates. Here the vibrational relaxation of CO(ν =0 ←ν =1 ) in Ar is considered for validating a computational approach to determine the vibrational relaxation time parameter (p τvib ) using an accurate, fully dimensional potential energy surface. For lower temperatures, comparison with experimental data shows very good agreement whereas at higher temperatures (up to 25 000 K), comparisons with an empirically modified model due to Park confirm its validity for CO in Ar. Additionally, the calculations provide insight into the importance of Δ ν >1 transitions that are ignored in typical applications of the Landau-Teller framework.

  13. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a finite periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    and wave forces that are associated with the characteristic wave-types, which can exist in a multicoupled periodic system [Mead, J. Sound Vib. 40, 19–39 (1975)]. The third part of the paper considers a finite specific test-structure with eight periodic elements and with structural terminations...... is examined in the first part of the present paper, and the damping-dependent decrease in wave coupling is revealed for a structure with multiresonant side-branches. In the second part, the simplifying semi-infinite assumption is relaxed and general expressions for the junction responses of finite...... and multicoupled periodic systems are derived as a generalization of the governing expressions for finite, mono-coupled periodic systems [Ohlrich, J. Sound Vib. 107, 411–434 (1986)]. The present derivation of the general frequency response of a finite system utilizes the eigenvectors of displacement responses...

  14. Preliminary evaluation of timing training accelerator for the SPRINT rowing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffaldi Emanuele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the selection and preliminary evaluation of rowing gesture timing training on the SPRINT platform. After the analysis of experts’ gestures and a literature review of rowing technique features, the selection of proper feedbacks and the development of the training protocol are investigated. The general problem discussed here is the learning of timing of complex motor pattern under the effect of load. Eight novice adults participated the experiment, half of them receiving vibrotactile feedback (VIB, both receiving knowledge of results (KR after training blocks. Preliminary results show the difficulty people had to accomplish the task and to exploit feedback. There is in fact no evidence of feedback effectiveness when comparing VIB-KR and KR group. Some causes were hypothesized and a side effect of load condition arisen from data. Therefore timing training will be further investigated exploiting information gathered.

  15. Synthetic Aperture Acoustic Imaging for Roadside Detection of Solid Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Conference on Mechanical Vibration and Noise (VIB) . 13-AUG-12, . : , TOTAL: 3 Number of Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than...targets 6 Laboratory SAA System   Figure 2.1: An illustration of acoustic wavefront reconstruction of a 0.2 m square aluminum plate located at...Equivalent: Total Number: Discipline Chelsea Good 0.25 Mechanical Engineering Nicole Bull 0.05 Mechanical Engineering 0.30 2 Sub Contractors (DD882) Names

  16. Damping Proceedings Held in Las Vegas, Nevada on 5-7 March 1986. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Balis Crema, A. Castellani, A. Nappi: "Influenza della Temperatura e del Vuoto sul coefficiente di Smorzamento in Giunti Rivettati", L’Atrotecnica...Vibrations Department of Ocean Engineering Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL. 33431 ABSTRACT The total loss factor for coupled structures is...JOSEPH M. LOCKHEED-GA. CO. FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIV. ZONE 406, DEPT 72-73 CENTER FOR ACOUSTICS & VIB.-DEPT. OCE 86 S. COBB DR. SMYRNA, GA. BOCA RATON, FL

  17. Detection of Luminous Vibrio harveyi in Penaeid Shrimp Through Nested PCR Using Haemolysin Gene Primer

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan Abdullah Setiawan; Utut Widyastuti; Munti Yuhana

    2015-01-01

    Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ64...

  18. Retention of features on a mapped Drosophila brain surface using a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Yu; Wu, Cheng-Chi; Shao, Hao-Chiang; Chang, Hsiu-Ming; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Model averaging is a widely used technique in biomedical applications. Two established model averaging methods, iterative shape averaging (ISA) method and virtual insect brain (VIB) method, have been applied to several organisms to generate average representations of their brain surfaces. However, without sufficient samples, some features of the average Drosophila brain surface obtained using the above methods may disappear or become distorted. To overcome this problem, we propose a Bézier-tube-based surface model averaging strategy. The proposed method first compensates for disparities in position, orientation, and dimension of input surfaces, and then evaluates the average surface by performing shape-based interpolation. Structural features with larger individual disparities are simplified with half-ellipse-shaped Bézier tubes, and are unified according to these tubes to avoid distortion during the averaging process. Experimental results show that the average model yielded by our method could preserve fine features and avoid structural distortions even if only a limit amount of input samples are used. Finally, we qualitatively compare our results with those obtained by ISA and VIB methods by measuring the surface-to-surface distances between input surfaces and the averaged ones. The comparisons show that the proposed method could generate a more representative average surface than both ISA and VIB methods.

  19. Increases in inspiratory neural drive in response to rapid oscillating airflow braking forces (vibration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumners, David Paul; Green, David A; Mileva, Katya N; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2008-02-29

    To investigate whether 10 breaths against a vibration stimulus elicits increments of spontaneous and maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (maxMP) and tidal mean inspiratory flow (iV(T)/T(I)) upon stimulus removal. Twelve healthy subjects (8 female, 4 male; 22-50 years old), recruited from the University student body, completed 3 maximal inspirations before (pre) and after (post) 10 inspirations against resistive loading with a vibration-type stimulus (VIB; youbreathe, Exoscience Ltd., London, UK), pressure-matched resistive loading (RES) or resting breathing (CON; no load). The trials were presented in a random order. maxMP and involuntary tidal breathing were compared pre and post conditioning. Inspiratory neural drive increased only after VIB as evidenced by increased tidal and maxMP and mean inspiratory flow (iV(T)/T(I); p control breathing on maximal maxMP or tidal responses. Ten conditioning breaths of VIB lead to increased maximal inspiratory mouth pressure and spontaneous mouth pressure and mean inspiratory flow possibly through a common mechanism of increased descending respiratory drive.

  20. Virtual multi-dimensional internal bonds model and its application in simulation of rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhenNan; GE XiuRun

    2008-01-01

    VMIB (virtual multi-dimensional internal bonds) is a multiscale mechanical model developed from the VIB (virtual internal bond) theory. In VIB theory, the solid material is considered to consist of random-distributed material particles in microscale. These particles are connected with normal bonds. The macro constitutive relation is derived from the cohesive law between particles. However, in VMIB, the micro particles are connected with both normal and shear bonds. The macro constitutive relation is derived in terms of bond stiffness coefficients. It has been theoretically certified that there exists a corresponding relationship between the two bond stiffness coefficients and the two macro material constants, i.e. the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. This corresponding relationship suggests that it should be necessary and sufficient to simultaneously account for the normal and shear interactions between particles. Due to the fact that the fracture criterion is directly incorporated into the constitutive relation, both VIB and VMIB present many advantages in simulating fractures of materials. In the damage model of rock mass, a damage tensor is usually defined to describe the distribution of cracks. The damage value in one direction determines the relative stiffness of rock mass in this direction. In VMIB solid, the relative distribution density of micro bonds in one direction determines the relative macro stiffness of the material in this direction. The effects of the damage value and the relative distribution density of bonds are consistent. To simulate the failure behavior of rock mass with VMIB, the presented paper sets up a quantitative relationship between the damage tensor and the relative distribution density of bonds. Comparison of the theoretical and the experimental results shows that VMIB model can represent the effect of distributed cracks on rock mass with this relationship. The presented work provides a foundation for further simulating fracture

  1. Influence of Whole Body Vibration and Specific Warm-ups on Force during an Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa L. Cazás-Moreno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of general and specific warm-up protocols on rate of force development (RFD, relative RFD (rRFD, ground reaction force (GRF and relative ground reaction force (rGRF during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP, after WBV exposure. Methods: Fifteen healthy recreationally trained males  (age: 24.1 ± 2.3 yrs, height: 72.9 ± 7.8 cm; mass: 86.9 ± 8.3 completed five protocols: baseline, isometric vibration (iVib, isometric no vibration (iNV, dynamic vibration (dVib and dynamic no vibration (dNV. The baseline was completed without any warm-up prior to the IMTP. The intervention protocols had the same prescription of 4 sets of 30-second bouts of quarter squats (dynamic [DQS] and isometric [IQS] on the WBV platform with or without vibration. Following a one-minute rest period after each protocol, participants completed three maximal IMTPs. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc demonstrated that RFD in dNV (7657.8 ± 2292.5 N/s was significantly greater than iVib (7156.4 ± 2170.0 N/s. However, the other experimental trials for RFD demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05. There were also no significant differences for rRFD, GRF or rGRF between protocols. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a dynamic warm-up without WBV elicits greater RFD than an isometric warm-up with WBV prior to a maximal isometric exercise. Further research needs to be investigated utilizing dynamic and isometric warm-ups in conjunction with WBV and power output. Keywords: males, recreationally trained, power

  2. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, J. L.; Jackman, S. R.; Scott, S.; Connolly, L. J.; Ermidis, G.; Julian, R.; Yousefian, F.; Helge, E. W.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Fulford, J.; Knapp, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB). Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6 ± 23.0 to 56.5 ± 22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P 0.05). An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P < 0.05), which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6 ± 0.2 to 3.4 ± 1.2 mM) and FG60 (0.6 ± 0.2 to 3.3 ± 2.0 mM), but not for VIB (0.6 ± 0.2 to 0.8 ± 0.4 mM) (P < 0.05). Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55 ± 63% and 137 ± 119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P < 0.05), but not after VIB (26 ± 54%, NS). In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health. PMID:28025642

  3. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bowtell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n=56 were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15 or long duration (FG60 small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6±23.0 to 56.5±22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P0.05. An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P<0.05, which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6±0.2 to 3.4±1.2 mM and FG60 (0.6±0.2 to 3.3±2.0 mM, but not for VIB (0.6±0.2 to 0.8±0.4 mM (P<0.05. Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55±63% and 137±119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P<0.05, but not after VIB (26±54%, NS. In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health.

  4. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 14, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Voorhees, C, MeUger, W.W., and Wilding , R., "Spacecraft Modal Testing Using Systematic Multi-Shakers Sine-Dwell Testing Techniques," Shock Vib. Bull...Center University of Wisconsin 610 Walnut St. Madison, Wl 53706 44 ^-v,*«,jj;.,a_w v;,r .., :f&L-x,^:-a.>ji2 SHORT COURSES MAY ADVANCED...Kanpur, India , J. Mech. Engrg. Sei., 23 (1),pp 37-44 (Feb 1981) Key Words: Bearings, Journal bearings. Squeeze film bearings Dynamically loaded

  5. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 15, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Vertical Rode with an Attached Maa H. Salto , S. Chonan, and T. Kobari 61 1 n Dept. of Mech. Engrg., Tohoku Univ., Sendai, Japan, J. Sound Vib.,£4...TRACKS (Al» »• Noi 487,488) 83448 Four QUOMI ExciUtion for Simulation of Vertical Road RoughiMM (VieriuMl-Aiiraguflg rar Simula- tkm v«rtikal«r...one-region core (teven column«), e two-dimen- «lonai vertical core and a two-dimen«ionei horizontal core, vibration tan«. 83452 Afeimic Study of

  6. Que lleva

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikov, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    En Que lleva, para ensamble, no hay un concepto que explique la obra en su totalidad, sino que se parte de varias ideas, utilizadas en diferentes grados, a lo largo de la pieza. Estrenada el 4 de diciembre de 2012, en la Sala Ambrosio Aliverti, en La Plata, interpretada por: Laura Borrajo (fl), Ana Vocaturo (cl), Alejandro Navone (trpt), Emiliano Alonso (perc I), Lucio Osorio (perc II), Javier Ledesma (perc III), Francisco Nápoli (gtr c [preparada] y gtr e [preparada], Lucas Muñoz (vib), Caro...

  7. The Shock and Vibration Digest, Volume 18, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Performance Robert A. Mercer, assistant vice-president, Network Compatibility Characteristics of Hearing Aids under Simu- Plnning Center, Bell...Communications Research, Inc. lated In-Situ Working Conditions Robert H. Preuser, assistant vice-president, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. ANSI S3.36-1985 Methods...1), pp 15 1-153 (May 8, 1985) J. Sound Vib., =iZ (4), pp 588-594 (Oct 22, . - 2 figs, 2 refs 1985) 4 figs, 7 refs S.H. Tank and M.H. Kuok F.A.A

  8. Density functional theory studies of screw dislocation core structures in bcc metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Søren Lund; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    The core structures of (I 11) screw dislocations in bee metals are studied using density functional theory in the local-density approximation. For Mo and Fe, direct calculations of the core structures show the cores to be symmetric with respect to 180degrees rotations around an axis perpendicular...... to the dislocation line. The magnetic moment in the Fe core is shown to be reduced relative to the bulk value. Calculations of gamma surfaces and the elastic constants B, C' and c(44) are reported for Fe and all group VB and VIB metals. Using a criterion suggested by Vitek and Duesbery the calculations point...

  9. Research of Linear Translation Devices with Stepper Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Komissarov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure accuracy of motorized linear translation stages theoretical and experimental investigations were performed, that allow to establish moving platform vibration level depending of operating modes (different velocities and used lubricant in the system. Lubricants had different viscosity, which has effect to the system moving smoothness, sound level and vibration level of the stage. Such work gives possibility to done conclusions: with what lubricant or with what viscosity of the lubricant motorized linear translation stage works smoother, with less noise and vib-ration level, and also show best movement characteristics.

  10. Elucidation of the Vibrio anguillarum genetic response to the potential fish probiont Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, using RNA-arbitrarily primed PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrøm, Kim; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    with the iron chelator 2,2-dipyridyl. A chromosomal transcript homologous to vibE that participates in vibriobactin synthesis in Vibrio cholerae was also upregulated during AH2 exposure. This transcript could represent a functionally active gene in V. anguillarum involved in biosynthesis of anguibactin......The antagonistic interaction between a potential fish probiont, Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2, and its target organism, Vibrio anguillarum, was investigated by studying the genetic response of the target organism when it was exposed to the antagonist. We compared the differential display...

  11. Modified virtual internal bond model for concrete subjected to dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Mayuri

    Concrete is often used as a primary material to build protective structures. There is a wide range of research work being performed to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete under impact and blast loading. This behavior is studied from both material and structural points of view. The research study presented in this thesis focuses on material aspects of modeling. LS-DYNARTM is an effective software for modeling and finite element analysis of structural members. It allows the user to define the material through commercially available or user-defined constitutive material models. Each material model has a distinct set of parameters to define a material which is further assigned to elements and used for simulations. This research study presents a user defined material model called Modified Concrete Virtual Internal Bond Model (MC-VIB). The basic constitutive model of VIB assumes the body as a collection of randomly oriented material points interconnected by a network of internal bonds. The model was modified by several researchers for different purposes. This research presents the MC-VIB for concrete under dynamic loading and studies its implementation into LS-DYNARTM. The modifications include incorporation of shear behavior and accounting for the difference in behavior of concrete in tension and compression. This project includes the calibration of the model based on stress-strain behavior of single element and cylinder model of concrete. The parameters are based on concrete with a uniaxial compressive strength of 27.6 MPa (4 ksi). These numerical curves are compared to those obtained from conventionally used material models for concrete and standard curves obtained by accepted equations to check the accuracy of prediction. The material model available in LS-DYNARTM requires a number of input parameters to define concrete behavior. These properties are normally derived from actual tests performed on the concrete under consideration. Often the properties are

  12. ESTIMATIVA DA VELOCIDADE DE INFILTRAÇÃO BÁSICA DO SOLO ESTIMATION OF THE SOIL BASIC INFILTRATION VELOCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS EDUARDO DE OLIVEIRA SALES

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando estimar a velocidade de infiltração básica (VIB, avaliou-se a associação desta com outras propriedades físicas das camadas superficial e subsuperficial de um Latossolo Roxo e um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, ambos ocorrentes no campus da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Para tanto, delineou-se um plano amostral consistindo de uma rede cujas malhas apresentaram espaçamentos variáveis. Nos pontos de interseção das malhas determinou-se a VIB e, posteriormente, coletaram-se amostras com estrutura deformada e indeformada nas camadas de 0-20 e 60-80 cm. Com essas amostras determinou-se a textura, densidade do solo e de partículas, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade e condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado. Após análises estatísticas de correlação e regressão, verificou-se que as propriedades físicas da camada de 0-20 cm do Latossolo Roxo e 60-80 cm do Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo associaram-se melhor com a VIB. Tanto a condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado quanto a densidade do solo se mostraram adequadas para estimar a VIB desses solos.With the objective of estimating the soil basic infiltration velocity (BIV, a study was conducted to evaluate the degree of association between BIV and other physical properties of the superficial and subsuperficial layers of a Dusky-Red Latosol (Oxisol and of a Red-Yellow Podzolic soil (Ultisol, both located at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sampling was performed with systematic spacing and the points constituted a grid, with variable spacing. At each sampling point, the value of the basic infiltration velocity was determined and thereafter undisturbed and disturbed samples at 0-20 and 60-80 cm of depth were collected. With these samples, the particle-size distribution, bulk density, particle density, total volume of pores, macroporosity, microporosity and hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil were determined. Statistical

  13. A molecular mechanics approach for analyzing tensile nonlinear deformation behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Daining Fang; Ai Kah Soh; Bin Liu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by capturing the atomic informa-tion and reflecting the behaviour governed by the nonlin-ear potential function, an analytical molecular mechanics approach is proposed. A constitutive relation for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT's) is established to describe the nonlinear stress-strain curve of SWCNT's and to predict both the elastic properties and breaking strain of SWCNT's during tensile deformation. An analysis based on the virtual internal bond (VIB) model proposed by P. Zhang et al. is also presented for comparison. The results indicate that the proposed molecular mechanics approach is indeed an acceptable analytical method for analyzing the mechanical behavior of SWCNT's.

  14. Isolation of a wheat cDNA clone for an abscisic acid-inducible transcript with homology to protein kinases.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, R J; Walker-Simmons, M K

    1992-01-01

    Increases in the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) initiate water-stress responses in plants. We present evidence that a transcript with homology to protein kinases is induced by ABA and dehydration in wheat. A 1.2-kilobase cDNA clone (PKABA1) was isolated from an ABA-treated wheat embryo cDNA library by screening the library with a probe developed by polymerase chain reaction amplification of serine/threonine protein kinase subdomains VIb to VIII. The deduced amino acid sequence of the PKABA...

  15. Physical properties of soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas and associated green vegetation covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian José Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is a sustainable option for biodiesel production due to its adaptation to different agro-ecological conditions and its high content of non-edible oil grains. The possibility of its cultivation in degraded low fertility soils makes the physic nut attractive to the Paraíba do Sul Valley region. This study evaluated physical attributes and water processes of an Oxisol which had been previously used for livestock and later converted to experimental farming. The soil was intercropped with perennial herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi and Calopogonio muconoides in place of the original cover of Brachiaria brizantha, largely cultivated in the region. We determined the soil texture, the levels of saturation and water retention, soil resistance to root penetration and the basic infiltration rate of water into the soil (VIB. The soil resistance to root penetration in B. brizantha ranged from high to moderate at 30 cm depth, while the addition of perennial herbaceous legumes as cover crops intercropped with Jatropha reduced this resistance and increased the average soil VIB from 4 mm h-1 (B. brizantha to 33 mm h-1. We conclude that the association of herbaceous legumes with Jatropha contributed to the improvement of the soil’s physical properties.

  16. Vibrational spectrum of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy, nuclear inelastic scattering and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronayne, Kate L; Paulsen, Hauke; Höfer, Andreas; Dennis, Andrew C; Wolny, Juliusz A; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Schünemann, Volker; Winkler, Heiner; Spiering, Hartmut; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Gütlich, Philipp; Trautwein, Alfred X; McGarvey, John J

    2006-10-28

    The vibrational modes of the low-spin and high-spin isomers of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been measured by IR and Raman spectroscopy and by nuclear inelastic scattering. The vibrational frequencies and normal modes and the IR and Raman intensities have been calculated by density functional methods. The vibrational entropy difference between the two isomers, DeltaS(vib), which is--together with the electronic entropy difference DeltaS(el)--the driving force for the spin-transition, has been determined from the measured and from the calculated frequencies. The calculated difference (DeltaS(vib) = 57-70 J mol(-1) K(-1), depending on the method) is in qualitative agreement with experimental values (20-36 J mol(-1) K(-1)). Only the low energy vibrational modes (20% of the 147 modes of the free molecule) contribute to the entropy difference and about three quarters of the vibrational entropy difference are due to the 15 modes of the central FeN(6) octahedron.

  17. Changes in Properties of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Jets for Different Gases and for Insulating and Conducting Transfer Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Fellype; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Machida, Munemasa

    2017-03-01

    Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma jets have been studied extensively in recent years because of its wide range of applications. DBD plasmas can be produced using many different gases and can be applied to a broad variety of surfaces and substrates. This work provides comparisons of DBD plasmas generated using argon (Ar), helium (He), and nitrogen (N2), as well as their mixtures with water vapor in order to know how some plasma properties are affected by the use of different gases. All plasmas were studied in two different conditions: using a transfer plate made of a conductive material and using a transfer plate made of an insulating one. It was observed that the process of Penning ionization of nitrogen molecules by direct collisions with metastable atoms and molecules is evident and significant only in plasmas that use He as the working gas, which means that He atoms in metastable states have greater ability to transfer energy to molecules of nitrogen in the plasma. The collisions of metastable He with N2 molecules determine the vibrational temperature (T vib) values in He plasmas, while in Ar and N2 plasmas, the T vib values are determined mainly by collisions of electrons with N2 molecules. It was noticed that the use of an insulating or a conducting transfer plate as the sample holder affects the results of adhesion between poly(dimethylsiloxane) samples, and it is mainly due to the differences in the plasma power, with a higher plasma power leading to better adhesion.

  18. Identification and biocellulose production of Gluconacetobacter strains isolated from tropical fruits in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daungjai Ochaikul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and four strains of biocellulose (BC-producing Gluconacetobacter strains were isolated from 48 rotten tropical fruits collected in Thailand. Twenty-nine representative isolates were selected from each of the 16 isolation sources and identified by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The selected 29 isolates were divided into seven subgroups within the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group of the genus Gluconacetobacter and identified as Gluconacetobacter oboediens (subgroup I, five isolates, Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus (subgroup II, one isolate, Gluconacetobacter hansenii (subgroup III, seven isolates, Gluconacetobacter swingsii (subgroup IV, two isolates and Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans (subgroup V, two isolates. The remaining isolates were grouped into subgroups VIa (three isolates and VIb (nine isolates. All the isolates were cultured in Hestrin-Schramm (HS medium statically at 30C for 7 days to determine cellulose production capability. Of the 29 isolates, isolate PAP1 (subgroup VIb, unidentified gave the highest yield (1.15 g/L of BC. However, the BC yield increased threefold (3.5 g/L when D-glucose in HS medium was replaced by D-mannitol.

  19. Pathogenic Vibrio Strains Isolated from Human Stool and Water Samples from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselida Achieng Owuor

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Investigate the type of pathogenic Vibrio strains from water and stool samples collected from Migori, SonduMiriu, Nyando and Yala regions in Western Kenya. Methods: A total of 811 samples (596 water and 215 stool samples were collected during the study periods of May to December 2013 and August to September 2014. Pathogenic Vibrio strains were identified through culturing in TCBS Agar, followed by oxidation, string and serological (polyvalent tests, respectively. The PCR analysis was done using combined primers targeting Vibrionaceae 16SrRNA and species specific primers for V. vulnificus and V. cholerae. Results: The results showed the presence of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae. However, V. parahaemolyticus was not found in any of the samples. The PCR results for 16SrRNA, Vib 1, and Vib 2 showed polymorphism in the genes, this was an indication of cross combination of genes from more than one strain in one isolate. Conclusion: The study showed the presence of V. cholerae (Ogawa and Inaba in water and human stool samples. Type B V. vulnificus was detected in the water sample collected from River Migori. This information is of essence in controlling and managing cholera in the western part of Kenya. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 1-7

  20. Experiment of exploration using the active-faults exploration system; Katsudanso tansa system wo mochiita chika tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikada, H.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Hirata, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute; Ikeda, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ikawa, T.; Kawabe, Y.; Aoki, Y. [JAPEX Geoscience Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    A system for exploration of active-faults by seismic reflection profiling method was introduced at Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. A test-run was conducted to check the performance of this system at Ranzan, Saitama Prefecture. This paper describes the confirmed performance of mini-VIB as a wide band frequency seismic source, the quality of data obtained using a digital data acquisition system, and problems for data processing of fault exploration in the future. For the test-run at Ranzan, two-dimensional exploration was conducted by the quasi-three-dimensional data acquisition method using three geophones of 8 Hz, 28 Hz, and 40 Hz, simply arranged in parallel on the measurement line. Using an active seismic vibrator, mini-VIB, data acquisition of faults in the wide band frequency was achieved, which would result in the highly accurate imaging. Operation of data acquisition and processing systems is easy, and the system can be also used as a kind of black box. The existing methods are to be used sufficiently as a tool for imaging of faults. Further research for accumulating experience may become necessary toward the extension of the system expected in the future. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Tissue- and Condition-Specific Isoforms of Mammalian Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunits: From Function to Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Sinkler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c oxidase (COX is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen. COX consists of 14 subunits, three and eleven encoded, respectively, by the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Tissue- and condition-specific isoforms have only been reported for COX but not for the other oxidative phosphorylation complexes, suggesting a fundamental requirement to fine-tune and regulate the essentially irreversible reaction catalyzed by COX. This article briefly discusses the assembly of COX in mammals and then reviews the functions of the six nuclear-encoded COX subunits that are expressed as isoforms in specialized tissues including those of the liver, heart and skeletal muscle, lung, and testes: COX IV-1, COX IV-2, NDUFA4, NDUFA4L2, COX VIaL, COX VIaH, COX VIb-1, COX VIb-2, COX VIIaH, COX VIIaL, COX VIIaR, COX VIIIH/L, and COX VIII-3. We propose a model in which the isoforms mediate the interconnected regulation of COX by (1 adjusting basal enzyme activity to mitochondrial capacity of a given tissue; (2 allosteric regulation to adjust energy production to need; (3 altering proton pumping efficiency under certain conditions, contributing to thermogenesis; (4 providing a platform for tissue-specific signaling; (5 stabilizing the COX dimer; and (6 modulating supercomplex formation.

  2. Los sistemas de producción lítica en el Epimagdaleniense y el Sauveterroide del Alto Ebro: El caso del abrigo de Atxoste (Vírgala, Álava, País Vasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Sebastián, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se exponen los resultados principales del análisis tecnológico y de materias primas de la de los niveles VIb2 y VIb del abrigo de Atxoste (Vírgala, Álava, adscritos respectivamente al Epimagdaleniense y Sauveterroide. Los resultados del estudio evidencian cambios en las sistemáticas de talla y en la gestión de los materiales silíceos entre ambos conjuntos, que denotan una mayor intensidad en el aprovechamiento de los recursos. Esto supone una novedad con respecto a lo conocido hasta el momento. Ciertamente, la definición de un conjunto microlaminar como Sauveterroide se debe principalmente a la presencia de geométricos, generalmente triángulos y segmentos de pequeñas dimensiones, entre los proyectiles. El estudio efectuado en Atxoste evidencia, que junto a los cambios que se operan en los proyectiles, se desarrollaron otros relacionados con el proceso productivo y la gestión de los recursos líticos. Ello plantea la existencia de una realidad compleja en la evolución de las industrias microlaminares de finales del Pleistoceno e inicios del Holoceno en la cuenca del Ebro.

  3. Quantification of mid and late evoked sinks in laminar current source density profiles of columns in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Markus K; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Current source density (CSD) analysis assesses spatiotemporal synaptic activations at somatic and/or dendritic levels in the form of depolarizing current sinks. Whereas many studies have focused on the short (primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils. By applying an algorithm for contour calculation, three distinct mid and four late evoked sinks were identified in layers I, III, Va, VIa, and VIb. Our results further showed that the patterns of intracortical information-flow remained qualitatively similar for low and for high sound pressure level stimuli at the characteristic frequency (CF) as well as for stimuli ± 1 octave from CF. There were, however, differences associated with the strength, vertical extent, onset latency, and duration of the sinks for the four stimulation paradigms used. Stimuli one octave above the most sensitive frequency evoked a new, and quite reliable, sink in layer Va whereas low level stimulation led to the disappearance of the layer VIb sink. These data indicate the presence of input sources specifically activated in response to level and/or frequency parameters. Furthermore, spectral integration above vs. below the CF of neurons is asymmetric as illustrated by CSD profiles. These results are important because synaptic feedback associated with mid and late sinks-beginning at 50 ms post stimulus latency-is likely crucial for response modulation resulting from higher order processes like memory, learning or cognitive control.

  4. Thin film photoelectric converter; Hakumaku koden henkan soshi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, K.; Takamizawa, M.; Sakaguci, A.

    1996-07-30

    Ib-IIIb-VIb group compound semiconductor represented by CuInSe2 having chalcopyrite crystalline structure is promising as a material for making thin film and high efficient solar cells. The problem with the solar cell elements fabricated using this material, however, is variance in the characteristics of photoelectric conversion. This invention relates to improvement of the ununiformity of the photoelectric conversion property by the use of a glass substrate, which contains each of the alkali and alkali earth elements such as Na, K, Ba, Sr, and Ca in the ratio of less than 1% of the substrate weight, and a thin film photoelectric converter structured containing a photoelectric conversion layer whose main components are the elements selected out of each Ib group, IIIb group, and VIb group. In addition, the uniformity of the photoelectric conversion layer can be further improved if one or more than two kinds of elements with larger than 1.70 angstrom atomic radius are contained in the photoelectric conversion layer in the ratio from 5ppm to 5 wt%. 1 fig.

  5. Selection of the N-acylhomoserine lactone-degrading bacterium Alteromonas stellipolaris PQQ-42 and of its potential for biocontrol in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTorres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of virulence factors by many pathogenic microorganisms depends on the intercellular communication system called quorum sensing (QS, which involves the production and release of signal molecules known as autoinducers. Based on this, new-therapeutic strategies have emerged for the treatment of a variety of infections, such as the enzymatic degradation of signalling molecules, known as quorum quenching (QQ. In this study, we present the screening of QQ activity amongst 450 strains isolated from a bivalve hatchery in Granada (Spain, and the selection of the strain PQQ-42, which degrades a wide range of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs. The selected strain, identified as Alteromonas stellipolaris, degraded the accumulation of AHLs and reduced the production of protease and chitinase and swimming motility of a Vibrio species in co-cultivation experiments in vitro. In the bio-control experiment, strain PQQ-42 significantly reduced the pathogenicity of V. mediterranei VibC-Oc-097 upon the coral Oculina patagonica showing a lower degree of tissue damage (29.25±14.63 % in its presence, compared to when the coral was infected with V. mediterranei VibC-Oc-097 alone (77.53±13.22 %. Our results suggest that this AHL-degrading bacterium may have biotechnological applications in aquaculture.

  6. Vibrational and magnetic contributions to the entropy change associated with the martensitic transformation of Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recarte, V; Pérez-Landazábal, J I; Gómez-Polo, C; Sánchez-Alarcos, V; Cesari, E; Pons, J

    2010-10-20

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys undergo a martensitic transformation accompanied by a change in the magnetic and vibrational properties. However, these property changes are not independent. In this paper, the interplay between magnetic and vibrational properties in the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed for Ni-Fe-Ga ferromagnetic shape memory alloys. The martensitic transformation entropy change has a magnetic and a vibrational contribution, ΔS(p−>m)=ΔS(vib)(p−>m) + ΔS(mag)(p−>m). Using a mean field approximation for the magnetic entropy, the full entropy ΔS(p−>m) has been decomposed and the magnetic contribution ΔS(mag)(p−>m) calculated. Upon removing the magnetic term, the vibrational entropy ΔS(vib)(p−>m) does not change substantially in the composition range where T(M) is below T(C). This latter contribution to the martensitic transformation entropy change has been analyzed using a Debye distribution for the density of states and a proportion of Einstein modes that account for the anomalous phonon mode of the austenite. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd

  7. Suppressor of fusion, a Fusarium oxysporum homolog of Ndt80, is required for nutrient-dependent regulation of anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shermineh; Fokkens, Like; Houterman, Petra M; Rep, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Heterokaryon formation is an essential step in asexual recombination in Fusarium oxysporum. Filamentous fungi have an elaborate nonself recognition machinery to prevent formation and proliferation of heterokaryotic cells, called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI). In F. oxysporum the regulation of this machinery is not well understood. In Neurospora crassa, Vib-1, a putative transcription factor of the p53-like Ndt80 family of transcription factors, has been identified as global regulator of HI. In this study we investigated the role of the F. oxysporum homolog of Vib-1, called Suf, in vegetative hyphal and conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) fusion and HI. We identified a novel function for an Ndt80 homolog as a nutrient-dependent regulator of anastomosis. Strains carrying the SUF deletion mutation display a hyper-fusion phenotype during vegetative growth as well as germling development. In addition, conidial paring of incompatible SUF deletion strains led to more heterokaryon formation, which is independent of suppression of HI. Our data provides further proof for the divergence in the functions of different members Ndt80 family. We propose that Ndt80 homologs mediate responses to nutrient quality and quantity, with specific responses varying between species.

  8. Functional and biochemical properties of Mal de Río Cuarto virus (Fijivirus, Reoviridae) P9-1 viroplasm protein show further similarities to animal reovirus counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroniche, Guillermo A; Mongelli, Vanesa C; Peralta, Andrea V; Distéfano, Ana J; Llauger, Gabriela; Taboga, Oscar A; Hopp, Esteban H; del Vas, Mariana

    2010-09-01

    Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV) is a plant virus of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae that infects several monocotyledonous species and is transmitted by planthoppers in a persistent and propagative manner. Other members of the family replicate in viral inclusion bodies (VIBs) termed viroplasms that are formed in the cytoplasm of infected plant and insect cells. In this study, the protein coded by the first ORF of MRCV segment S9 (P9-1) was shown to establish cytoplasmic inclusion bodies resembling viroplasms after transfection of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. In accordance, MRCV P9-1 self-associates giving rise to high molecular weight complexes when expressed in bacteria. Strong self-interaction was also evidenced by yeast two-hybrid assays. Furthermore, biochemical characterization showed that MRCV P9-1 bound single stranded RNA and had ATPase activity. Finally, the MRCV P9-1 region required for the formation of VIB-like structures was mapped to the protein carboxy-terminal half. This extensive functional and biochemical characterization of MRCV P9-1 revealed further similarities between plant and animal reovirus viroplasm proteins. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Caracterización físico-hídrica de suelos sometidos a diferentes manejos Caracterização físico-hídrica de solos submetidos a diferentes manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luiz Zwirtes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Em virtude da elevada demanda produtiva de alimentos o homem necessitou explorar solos anteriormente ocupados com pastagens e florestas nativas. Contudo, tais práticas provocaram modificações na estrutura do solo, principalmente a densidade e capacidade de infiltração de água de determinadas áreas. O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a capacidade de infiltração de água no solo em diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Os sistemas de cultivo avaliados foram mata nativa (MN, plantio direto (PD, plantio convencional (PC, pastagem perene cultivada (PPC e campo nativo (CN, avaliando-se capacidade de campo, densidade e velocidade de infiltração de água no solo. A área de mata nativa apresentou capacidade de infiltração de água no solo superior às áreas manejadas. Dentre as áreas cultivadas com culturas anuais, a área de PD apresentou maior velocidade de infiltração básica (VIB (118 mm h‑1, enquanto que a área de PPC apresentou 61 mm h‑1, tendo a área de pastejo apresentado a maior VIB. Conclui-se neste trabalho que solos de mata nativa apresentam melhores características físicas, seguido pela área manejada com plantio direto, possibilitando melhores valores de capacidade de infiltração de água no solo.

    Debido a la alta demanda para la producción de alimentos el hombre tuve la necesidad de explorar la tierra antes ocupada por pastizales y bosques nativos. Sin embargo, estas prácticas han causado cambios en la estructura del suelo, especialmente la densidad y la capacidad de infiltración del agua de algunas áreas. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la capacidad de infiltración del agua del suelo en diferentes sistemas de cultivo. Los sistemas de cultivo evaluados fueron: bosque nativo (MN, siembra directa (PD, labranza convencional (PC pastos perennes cultivados (PPC y campos nativos (CN, con la evaluación de la capacidad de campo, la densidad y la

  10. Virtual multi-dimensional internal bonds model and its application in simulation of rock mass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    VMIB (virtual multi-dimensional internal bonds) is a multiscale mechanical model developed from the VIB (virtual internal bond) theory. In VIB theory,the solid mate-rial is considered to consist of random-distributed material particles in microscale. These particles are connected with normal bonds. The macro constitutive relation is derived from the cohesive law between particles. However,in VMIB,the micro particles are connected with both normal and shear bonds. The macro constitutive relation is derived in terms of bond stiffness coefficients. It has been theoretically certified that there exists a corresponding relationship between the two bond stiffness coefficients and the two macro material constants,i.e. the Young’s modulus and Poisson ratio. This corresponding relationship suggests that it should be necessary and sufficient to simultaneously account for the normal and shear interactions between particles. Due to the fact that the fracture criterion is directly incorporated into the constitutive relation,both VIB and VMIB present many advantages in simulating fractures of materials. In the damage model of rock mass,a damage tensor is usually defined to describe the distribution of cracks. The damage value in one direction determines the relative stiffness of rock mass in this direction. In VMIB solid,the relative distribution density of micro bonds in one direction determines the relative macro stiffness of the material in this direction. The effects of the damage value and the relative distribution density of bonds are consistent. To simulate the failure behavior of rock mass with VMIB,the presented paper sets up a quantitative relationship between the damage tensor and the rela-tive distribution density of bonds. Comparison of the theoretical and the experi-mental results shows that VMIB model can represent the effect of distributed cracks on rock mass with this relationship. The presented work provides a founda-tion for further simulating fracture

  11. Observation of Coriolis Coupling between nu(2) + 4nu(4) and 7nu(4) in Acetylene &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) by Stimulated Emission Pumping Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss; Duan; Jacobson; O'Brien; Field

    2000-02-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy has been used to examine a low energy region (E(vib) approximately 4400 cm(-1)) of &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) acetylene at higher resolution than was possible in previous dispersed fluorescence studies. The expected bright state, nu(2) + 4nu(4), is observed to be coupled to the nearly degenerate 7nu(4) state by a Coriolis mechanism. A least-squares analysis yields values for zero-order vibrational energies, rotational constants, and a Coriolis-coupling coefficient that are all consistent with expectations. Calculated relative intensities of SEP transitions, accounting for interference due to axis-switching effects, are also consistent with observations. Implications of the observed Coriolis resonance with regard to global acetylene vibrational dynamics are also discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  12. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  13. Short duration small sided football and to a lesser extent whole body vibration exercise induce acute changes in markers of bone turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, Joanna L.; Jackman, Sarah R; Scott, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60......) small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB). Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6 ± 23.0 to 56.5 ± 22.5 μg·L(-1), mean ± SD, P ... in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health....

  14. RAD750 SBC Usage for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the first space weather research mission in the Living with a Star (LWS) Program. The science objective of the mission is to understand the solar variations that influence life on Earth. The mission is developed and managed by NASA/GSFC with a launch date in 2008 on a five-year mission using a geosynchronous inclined orbit. Involved with the mission are three science instruments: a helloseisic and magnetic imagery (HMI), extreme ultraviolet variability experiment (EVE), and solar helispheric activity research prediction program (SHARPP). 6U qualification Vib test has been completed with successful results (no interrupts detected at 1 nanosecond). Other test result to be reported at workshop.

  15. Prediction of two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors: Doped monolayer MoS2 systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-03-05

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: monolayer MoS2 doped by transition metals. Doping of transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups results in nonmagnetic states, since the number of valence electrons is smaller or equal to that of Mo. Doping of atoms from the VIIB to IIB groups becomes energetically less and less favorable. Magnetism is observed for Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, and Hg doping, while for the other dopants from these groups it is suppressed by Jahn-Teller distortions. Analysis of the binding energies and magnetic properties indicates that (Mo,X)S2 (X=Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  16. The genetic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: recent breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eykens C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Eykens,1,2 Wim Robberecht1–31Research Group Experimental Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven – University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Neurobiology, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven, Belgium; 3Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Deciphering the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of the motor neuron system, is important to understand the etiology of this fatal disease as well as to develop customized ALS therapies based on the patient's genetic fingerprint. In this review, we discuss the genetic basis of ALS, and attempt to link the causal genes to three highly interrelated pathogenic mechanisms: dysproteostasis, RNA dysregulation, and axon dysfunction. In addition, we address the clinical and biological implications of these genetic findings. Furthermore, we explore to what extent genetic knowledge can be converted into targeted and personalized treatments.Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, genetics, disease modifiers, personalized medicine

  17. Biofilm susceptibility to metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joe J; Ceri, Howard; Stremick, Carol A; Turner, Raymond J

    2004-12-01

    This study compared bacterial biofilm and planktonic cell susceptibility to metal toxicity by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the planktonic minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) using the MBEC device. In total, 17 metal cations and oxyanions, chosen to represent groups VIB to VIA of the periodic table, were each tested on biofilm and planktonic cultures of Escherichia coli JM109, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In contrast to control antibiotic assays, where biofilm cultures were 2 to 64 times less susceptible to killing than logarithmically growing planktonic bacteria, metal compounds killed planktonic and biofilm cultures at the same concentration in the vast majority of combinations. Our data indicate that, under the conditions reported, growth in a biofilm does not provide resistance to bacteria against killing by metal cations or oxyanions.

  18. Band Saw Blade Crack before and after Comparison and Analysis of Experiments (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jin-gui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on MJ3310 woodworking band saw machine as the research object, under the no-load and load of Vib system vibration signal acquisition, processing and analysis software of band saw blade transverse vibration test and the signal acquisition and analysis of the collected signals obtained: to determine the transverse vibration displacement 5.66μm ~ 7.86μm and the main vibration frequency between 624 Hz ~ 792 Hz, then saw blade crack at least 3 mm, need timely saw blade, cutting high hardness of wood band saw blade transverse vibration displacement and frequency will increase sharply. Can be generated according to the band saw blade crack before and after the changing rule of the horizontal vibration displacement and frequency of transverse vibration and scope, judgment and replacement time of saw blade saw blade defect types, which can fully rational utilization of saw blade work effectively.

  19. Ipsi- and contralateral H-reflexes and V-waves after unilateral chronic Achilles tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapole, Thomas; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal

    2013-09-01

    Chronic Achilles tendon vibration has previously shown its effectiveness in improving plantar flexor's strength and activation capacities. The present study investigated the related neural mechanisms by analyzing H-reflexes and V-waves of the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemii (GM gastrocnemius medialis; GL gastrocnemius lateralis) muscles under maximal isometric plantar flexion. Moreover, recordings were conducted bilaterally to address potential crossed effects. 11 subjects were engaged in this study. Maximal voluntary contraction and superimposed H-reflexes and V-waves were quantified in both legs at baseline (PRE) and 2 weeks later to verify repeatability of data (CON). Then, subjects were retested after 14 days of daily unilateral Achilles tendon vibration (VIB; 1 h per day; frequency: 50 Hz). No changes were reported between PRE and CON data. In the VIB condition, there was an increase in MVC for both the vibrated (+9.1 %; p = 0.016) and non-vibrated (+10.2 %; p = 0.009) legs. The H-reflex increased by a mean 25 % in the vibrated SOL (p wave also increased in the vibrated limb (+43.3 %; p vibrated one (+41.9 %; p = 0.006). Furthermore, the GM V-wave increased by 37.8 % (p = 0.081) in the vibrated side and by 39.4 % (p = 0.03) in the non-vibrated side. However, no changes were reported for the GL muscles. While the present study confirmed the strength gains induced by chronic Achilles tendon vibration, the results indicated a cross-education phenomenon with differences in neural adaptations between the vibrated leg and non-vibrated leg.

  20. Valuation of Risks And Vulnerabilities in the Oilfield Exploratiory Infrastructure Canto do Amaro, Municipality of Mossoró, State of Rio Grande Do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The work in the oilfield Canto do Amaro aimed to evaluate the risks and vulnerabilities of the oil exploration structures. For this, was made a detailed field work, and the majority of the exploratory wells was visited. Were collected seven soil samples for the oil infiltration risk analysis, and for which one were determined the values of DTA that for 57% of the soils is above the average of 1.41 mm/cm, presenting a franc-sand texture and sand-franc for the remaining 43%, whose DTA were smaller than 0.86 mm/cm. The tests of water/oil infiltration in these soils showed that the water VIB was high to very high and for oil was low to medium. The analysis of VIB showed that the soil with a higher risk to the oil spill are the Latossolos Vermelho Amarillo (AVL and of lowest risk are Neossolos Flúvicos (UK. Questionnaires were applied to 10% of families of the community to characterize the environmental and socioeconomic profile of the local population. The region is subject to intense human activities pressure as result of the oil and salt exploration and agriculture activities. The analyses of the diagnoses showed that the global vulnerability of the population is around 66%, index too high that show its high level of poverty. The vulnerability its caused by the fault of publics politics for development maintainable environmental, that’s seeks to the decrease of the risks, with social inclusion and environmental protection.

  1. Discharge and optical characterizations of nanosecond pulse sliding dielectric barrier discharge plasma for volatile organic compound degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Guo, Lianjie; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a nanosecond bipolar pulsed voltage coupled with a negative DC component is employed to generate sliding dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in a three-electrode geometry reactor and improve volatile organic compound (VOC) degradation at room temperature. The effects of the bipolar pulsed voltage (U ±pulse) and negative DC voltage (U ‑DC) on the discharge characteristic, optical characteristic, plasma gas temperature (T gas), and vibrational temperature (T vib) are discussed. The horizontal distribution characteristics of the N2(C3Πu  →  B3Πg) emission intensity, T gas, and T vib are also investigated to understand the propagation mechanism of sliding DBD along the dielectric surface. The experimental results reveal that a negative DC component applied to a third electrode can extend the plasma extension region, indicating that the gas ionization is ignited by the nanosecond high-voltage pulse, while charge drift is forced by the surface potential difference caused by the negative high-voltage DC. The T gas is measured by optical emission spectroscopy related to the rotational bands of N2(C3 Πu  →  B3Πg), and is approximately 375  ±  5 K under the condition of U ±pulse  =  20 kV and U ‑DC  =  ‑20 kV. Compared with typical surface DBD plasma, sliding DBD plasma is quasi-diffusive and distributed more uniformly within the whole discharge gap. Furthermore, both surface DBD and sliding DBD are used for removing toluene from flowing air. It is found that sliding DBD has higher toluene degradation efficiency and energy yield than surface DBD when they are excited by the positive pulsed voltage (U +pulse).

  2. The subunit composition and function of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadenbach, Bernhard; Hüttemann, Maik

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) from mammals and birds is composed of 13 subunits. The three catalytic subunits I-III are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, the ten nuclear-coded subunits (IV, Va, Vb, VIa, VIb, VIc, VIIa, VIIb, VIIc, VIII) by nuclear DNA. The nuclear-coded subunits are essentially involved in the regulation of oxygen consumption and proton translocation by COX, since their removal or modification changes the activity and their mutation causes mitochondrial diseases. Respiration, the basis for ATP synthesis in mitochondria, is differently regulated in organs and species by expression of tissue-, developmental-, and species-specific isoforms for COX subunits IV, VIa, VIb, VIIa, VIIb, and VIII, but the holoenzyme in mammals is always composed of 13 subunits. Various proteins and enzymes were shown, e.g., by co-immunoprecipitation, to bind to specific COX subunits and modify its activity, but these interactions are reversible, in contrast to the tightly bound 13 subunits. In addition, the formation of supercomplexes with other oxidative phosphorylation complexes has been shown to be largely variable. The regulatory complexity of COX is increased by protein phosphorylation. Up to now 18 phosphorylation sites have been identified under in vivo conditions in mammals. However, only for a few phosphorylation sites and four nuclear-coded subunits could a specific function be identified. Research on the signaling pathways leading to specific COX phosphorylations remains a great challenge for understanding the regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in mammalian organisms. This article reviews the function of the individual COX subunits and their isoforms, as well as proteins and small molecules interacting and regulating the enzyme.

  3. The locust standard brain: a 3D standard of the central complex as a platform for neural network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil El Jundi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Many insects use the pattern of polarized light in the sky for spatial orientation and navigation. We have investigated the polarization vision system in the desert locust. To create a common platform for anatomical studies on polarization vision pathways, Kurylas et al. (2008 have generated a three-dimensional (3D standard brain from confocal microscopy image stacks of 10 male brains, using two different standardization methods, the Iterative Shape Averaging (ISA procedure and the Virtual Insect Brain (VIB protocol. Comparison of both standardization methods showed that the VIB standard is ideal for comparative volume analysis of neuropils, whereas the ISA standard is the method of choice to analyze the morphology and connectivity of neurons. The central complex is a key processing stage for polarization information in the locust brain. To investigate neuronal connections between diverse central-complex neurons, we generated a higher-resolution standard atlas of the central complex and surrounding areas, using the ISA method based on brain sections from 20 individual central complexes. To explore the usefulness of this atlas, two central-complex neurons, a polarization-sensitive columnar neuron (type CPU1a and a tangential neuron that is activated during flight, the giant-fan shaped (GFS neuron, were reconstructed three-dimensionally from brain sections. To examine whether the GFS neuron is a candidate to contribute to synaptic input to the CPU1a neuron, we registered both neurons into the standardized central complex. Visualization of both neurons revealed a potential connection of the CPU1a and GFS neurons in layer II of the upper division of the central body.

  4. 考虑微观莫尔-库仑准则的拓展虚内键本构模型%Augmented virtual internal bond considering micro Mohr-Coulomb criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张振南; 秦爱芳

    2014-01-01

    The augmented virtual internal bond (AVIB) is a multiscale constitutive model developed from the virtual internal bond (VIB). VIB considers solid materials to consist of randomized‘material particles’ in a micro scale. The material particles are connected with VIB. AVIB uses the Xu-Needleman potential function to simultaneously account for the energy contribution of normal and shear deformations of a micro bond. Because the micro fracture mechanism has been implicitly embedded into the constitutive relation of AVIB, AVIB presents many advantages in simulating the fracture propagation of materials. Although the AVIB can successfully simulate the tensile fracture propagation, it cannot simulate the compressive-shear failure behaviors of geomaterials. The underlying reason lies in that the Xu-Needleman potential function cannot describe the micro contact properties of granular materials. To break this limitation of AVIB, a Mohr-Coulomb type of rupture criterion is introduced for compressive bond. Through the micro Mohr-Coulomb criterion, AVIB can capture the key failure mechanism of geo-materials subjected to compression and shear. Through numerical simulation, it is found that the micro cohesive strength governs the macro cohesive strength of geomaterials and the micro friction angle governs the macro friction angle. A linear relationship exists between the micro and macro cohesive strengths, and the micro and macro friction angles. There is no correlation between the micro cohesive strength and macro friction angle, and the micro friction angle and macro cohesive strength. The simulation example suggests that the triaxial strength of rock is linear with the confining pressure, which agrees with the observation in experiment. This demonstrates that the proposed method is valid. It may provide a new micro mechanics constitutive model for geomaterials.%拓展虚内键本构模型(augmented virtual internal bond-AVIB)蕴含了微观断裂机理,在模拟材

  5. Shallow seismic section in the central Kanto plain, to the north of Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K.; Kano, N.; Ohtaki, T.; Yokokura, T.; Ito, S.; Sumita, T.; Makino, M.; Yokota, T.; Kimura, H.

    2008-12-01

    Shallow seismic reflection surveys were carried out in the central part of the Kanto plain, 40 km northwest of Tokyo, Japan. The survey target ranges about from 50 m to 500 m in depth. The final purpose of the surveys is to reveal the relationship between the subsurface structure and the distribution and flow of the underground water in this area. The survey lines were divided into Kawagoe1(length of CMP line: 8km), Okegawa1(5.3km), Shobu1(8.7km) and Kazo1(6.3km). They line up southwest to northeast from the Iruma upland to the Kazo lowland via the Arakawa lowland and Omiya upland. The survey lines cross the Arakawa fault, the Ayasegawa fault and the Kuki fault. They are considered active, but only the Aysegawa fault has fault topography and is confirmed by subsurface structure. The total length of the lines is about 27km and there is a 2 km long opening between the Okegawa1 and the Shobu1, because of dense population and heavy traffic. Survey parameters are as follows. Seismic source: one EnviroVib or MiniVib or Mini Impactor, shot interval: 2.5m or 10m, sweep frequency: 15-120Hz, sweep length: 13s, receiver: UltraMark2, receiver interval: 10m, elements: 6 bunching, recording instrument: DAS-1, number of channel: 144, listening length: 3.3s, spread: shots from the edge to the 48th point of 144 fixed receiver points, maximum offset: between 1440m and 960m. The data were processed to make seismic sections for each survey line by conventional CMP method. Then the sections were cut and pasted into a series of seismic sections. Many continuous reflectors are imaged between several ten meters and 1 km in depth in the whole seismic section. Reflectors are discontinuous below 1 km, probably because of lack of source energy. In the Iruma upland and Arakawa lowland, the Pliocene and Pleistocene units thicken northeastward, indicating that sedimentation has been synchronous with northeastward tilting of the underlying basement rocks. Undulation and bending of reflectors

  6. Properties of persistent postnatal cortical subplate neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Reveron, Juan; Friedlander, Michael J

    2007-09-12

    Subplate (SP) neurons are important for the proper development of thalamocortical innervation. They are necessary for formation of ocular dominance and orientation columns in visual cortex. During the perinatal period, many SP neurons die. The surviving cohort forms interstitial cells in the white matter (WM) and a band of horizontally oriented cells below layer VI (layer VIb, layer VII, or subplate cells). Although the function of embryonic SP neurons has been well established, the functional roles of WM and postnatal SP cells are not known. We used a combination of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological techniques to explore the dendritic morphology, neurotransmitter phenotype, intrinsic electrophysiological, and synaptic input properties of these surviving cells in the rat visual cortex. The density of SP and WM cells significantly decreases during the first month of life. Both populations express neuronal markers and have extensive dendritic arborizations within the SP, WM, and to the overlying visual cortex. Some intrinsic electrophysiological properties of SP and WM cells are similar: each generates high-frequency slowly adapting trains of action potentials in response to a sustained depolarization. However, SP cells exhibit greater frequency-dependent action potential broadening than WM neurons. Both cell types receive predominantly AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic input that undergoes paired-pulse facilitation as well as NMDA receptor and GABAergic input. Synaptic inputs to these cells can also undergo long-term synaptic plasticity. Thus, surviving SP and WM cells are functional electrogenic neurons integrated within the postnatal visual cortical circuit.

  7. Electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS2 by doping transition-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Wang, Guangtao; Dai, Xianqi; Xia, Congxin; Yang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    We explored the electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS2 doped by transition metal (TM) atom using the first-principles calculation. We doped the transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups in nonmagnetic 1T-HfS2. Numerical results show that the pristine 1T-HfS2 is a semiconductor with indirect gaps of 1.250 eV. Magnetism can be observed for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu doping. The polarized charges mainly arise from the localized 3d electrons of the TM atom. The strong p-d hybridization was found between the 3d orbitals of TM and 3p orbitals of S. The substituted 1T-HfS2 can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Analysis of the band structure and magnetic properties indicates that TM-doped HfS2 (TM = V, Fe, Cu) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors. The formation energy calculations also indicate that it is energetically favorable and relatively easier to incorporate transition metal atom into the HfS2 under S-rich experimental conditions. In contrast, V-doped HfS2 has relatively wide half-metallic gap and low formation energy. So V-doped 1T-HfS2 is ideal for spin injection, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  8. Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity and structural integrity during the aging process in Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jian-Ching; Rebrin, Igor [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Klichko, Vladimir; Orr, William C. [Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275 (United States); Sohal, Rajindar S., E-mail: sohal@usc.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase loses catalytic activity during the aging process. {yields} Abundance of seven nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome c oxidase decreased with age in Drosophila. {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase is specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration. -- Abstract: The hypothesis, that structural deterioration of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity and an increase in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation, was tested in Drosophila melanogaster. CcO activity and the levels of seven different nuclear DNA-encoded CcO subunits were determined at three different stages of adult life, namely, young-, middle-, and old-age. CcO activity declined progressively with age by 33%. Western blot analysis, using antibodies specific to Drosophila CcO subunits IV, Va, Vb, VIb, VIc, VIIc, and VIII, indicated that the abundance these polypeptides decreased, ranging from 11% to 40%, during aging. These and previous results suggest that CcO is a specific intra-mitochondrial site of age-related deterioration, which may have a broad impact on mitochondrial physiology.

  9. High resolution observations of HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 in the disk and outflow of Mrk231 -Detection of vibrationally excited HCN in the warped nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Muller, S; Winters, J M; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E; van der Werf, P; Henkel, C; Costagliola, F; Neri, R

    2014-01-01

    We obtained high resolution (0."25 to 0."90) observations of HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 of the ultraluminous QSO galaxy Mrk231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find luminous HCN and HCO+ 3-2 emission in the main disk and we detect compact (r350 pc) line wings are found for HCN 3-2 with velocities +-750 km/s. Line ratios indicate that the emission is emerging in dense gas n=1e4 - 5e5 cm-3 of elevated HCN abundance X(HCN)=1e-8 to 1e-6. High X(HCN) also allows for the emission to originate in gas of more moderate density. We tentatively detect nuclear emission from the reactive ion HOC+ with HCO+/HOC+=10-20. The HCN v2=1f line emission is consistent with the notion of a hot, dusty, warped inner disk of Mrk231 where the v2=1f line is excited by bright mid-IR 14 micron continuum. We estimate the vibrational temperature T_vib to 200-400 K. We propose that 50% of the main HCN emission may have its excitation affected by the radiation field through IR pumping of the vibrational ground state. The HCN emission ...

  10. Effects of Mo-doping on microstructure and near-infrared shielding performance of hydrothermally prepared tungsten bronzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingjuan; Li, Can; Xu, Wenai; Zhao, Xiaolin; Zhu, Jingxin; Jiang, Haiwei; Kang, Litao; Zhao, Zhe

    2017-03-01

    Both Mo and W belong to VIB-sub-group, and possess similar ionic radii, electronegativity and oxide lattice configuration. Herein, Mo-doped (0-80 at.%) tungsten bronzes, MxWO3, were hydrothermally prepared to systematically explore the influence of Mo-doping on their micro-structure and optical performance. The products adopted a hexagonal structure within 6 at.% Mo-doping, and transformed into a monoclinic phase with higher Mo-doping content. Further tests suggested that 1.5 at.% Mo-doping is beneficial for the formation of pure hexagonal phase and uniform nano-rod morphology. Optical measures showed that all samples exhibited high and comparable visible transmittance (70-80%), but a very different near infrared (NIR) shielding ability. The sample doped with 1.5 at.% Mo demonstrated the best NIR shielding ability with a transmittance minimum of 20% at 1300 nm. Further increase of Mo-doping dosage remarkably deteriorated NIR shielding ability by depressing the absorption of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, the optical absorption from small-polaron was less influenced by the introduction of Mo. As a result, Mo-doping caused an evident blue shift of the infrared absorption peaks from 1350 to 750 nm.

  11. Effects of thermal diffusion on sound attenuation in evaporating and condensing gas-vapor mixtures in tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey; Raspet; Slaton

    2000-03-01

    An investigation of sound propagation in an air-water vapor mixture contained in a cylindrical tube with wet walls was recently presented [Raspet et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 65-73 (1999)]. The formulation of the problem paralleled the "low reduced frequency method" of Tijdeman [J. Sound Vib. 39, 1-33 (1975)]. It was pointed out that a term of reduced frequency order had been neglected in the radial component of the diffusion equation [G. Swift, personal communication (1999)]. This term represents the additional mass diffusion driven by the temperature gradient, or Soret effect, and is proportional to the thermal diffusion ratio. The solution for the complex wave number of the acoustic mode with this additional term is presented here. Numerically calculated predictions for the air-water vapor mixture show little change in acoustic attenuation due to the coupling. Therefore, a description of the acoustic attenuation where the viscous, thermal, and diffusion processes are decoupled is adequate for the specific case previously discussed by Raspet et al.

  12. Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Garcia-Gasca, A; Roque, A; Swings, J

    2004-01-01

    Three Gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Barcelona, Spain, during 1990 and 1991. They were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent O/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of NaCl. They differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees C and utilize L-rhamnose. Cloning of the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain produced two different 16S rRNA gene sequences, which differed by 15 bases (0.99%); comparison of these sequences with those deposited in GenBank showed close relationships with Vibrio proteolyticus (97.6% similarity), Vibrio diazotrophicus (97.9%), Vibrio campbellii (96.8%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (96.8%), among others. DNA-DNA hybridization levels with the closest phylogenetically related Vibrio species were Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain LMG 13240T (=CAIM 525T=VIB 213T).

  13. Ion-exchange behavior of Hf, Ta, and W as homologs of elements 104, 105, and 106 in oxalic-acid and oxalic-acid-HCl solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z.; Guseva, L.I.; Din-Ti-Lien, Domanov, V.P.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, O.; Tikhomirova, G.S.; Hussonnois, M.

    1995-01-01

    Distribution coefficients are determined for Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Cm, Cf, and Lu on ion exchangers in H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} and H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} + HCl solutions as a function of the solution concentrations and ion-exchanger type. Optimal conditions are found for separating Group IV-VIB elements from trivalent transplutonium elements and rare earths on cation exchangers and anion exchangers in H{sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HCl solutions with high separation coefficients (>10{sup 4}-10{sup 5}). Model experiments are performed on the isolation of short-lived isotopes of Hf and W, which were produced by irradiation of natural Gd and {sup 144}Sm with {sup 18}O and {sup 24}Mg, respectively, in the U-400 cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research. The ability to use solutions of oxalic acid to isolate the transactinide elements (104, 105, 106) and to identify them from their daughters is demonstrated.

  14. A MULTISCALE MECHANICAL MODEL FOR MATERIALS BASED ON VIRTUAL INTERNAL BOND THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhennan; Ge Xiurun; Li Yonghe

    2006-01-01

    Only two macroscopic parameters are needed to describe the mechanical properties of linear elastic solids, I.e. The Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. Correspondingly, there should be two microscopic parameters to determine the mechanical properties of material if the macroscopic mechanical properties of linear elastic solids are derived from the microscopic level.Enlightened by this idea, a multiscale mechanical model for material, the virtual multi-dimensional internal bonds (VMIB) model, is proposed by incorporating a shear bond into the virtual internal bond (VIB) model. By this modification, the VMIB model associates the macro mechanical properties of material with the microscopic mechanical properties of discrete structure and the corresponding relationship between micro and macro parameters is derived. The tensor quality of the energy density function, which contains coordinate vector, is mathematically proved. From the point of view of VMIB, the macroscopic nonlinear behaviors of material could be attributed to the evolution of virtual bond distribution density induced by the imposed deformation. With this theoretical hypothesis, as an application example, a uniaxial compressive failure of brittle material is simulated. Good agreement between the experimental results and the simulated ones is found.

  15. Cellular microbiology and molecular ecology of Legionella-amoeba interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Ashley M; Von Dwingelo, Juanita E; Price, Christopher T; Abu Kwaik, Yousef

    2013-05-15

    Legionella pneumophila is an aquatic organism that interacts with amoebae and ciliated protozoa as the natural hosts, and this interaction plays a central role in bacterial ecology and infectivity. Upon transmission to humans, L. pneumophila infect and replicate within alveolar macrophages causing pneumonia. Intracellular proliferation of L. pneumophila within the two evolutionarily distant hosts is facilitated by bacterial exploitation of evolutionarily conserved host processes that are targeted by bacterial protein effectors injected into the host cell by the Dot/Icm type VIB translocation system. Although cysteine is semi-essential for humans and essential for amoeba, it is a metabolically favorable source of carbon and energy generation by L. pneumophila. To counteract host limitation of cysteine, L. pneumophila utilizes the AnkB Dot/Icm-translocated F-box effector to promote host proteasomal degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins within amoebae and human cells. Evidence indicates ankB and other Dot/Icm-translocated effector genes have been acquired through inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer.

  16. The electronic and transport properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides: a complex band structure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Dominik

    Recently, monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted much attention due to their potential use in both nano- and opto-electronics. In such applications, the electronic and transport properties of group-VIB transition metal dichalcogenides (MX2 , where M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) are particularly important. Herein, new insight into these properties is presented by studying the complex band structures (CBS's) of MX2 monolayers while accounting for spin-orbit coupling effects. By using the symmetry-based tight-binding model a nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problem for CBS's is obtained. An efficient method for solving such class of problems is presented and gives a complete set of physically relevant solutions. Next, these solutions are characterized and classified into propagating and evanescent states, where the latter states present not only monotonic but also oscillatory decay character. It is observed that some of the oscillatory evanescent states create characteristic complex loops at the direct band gaps, which describe the tunneling currents in the MX2 materials. The importance of CBS's and tunneling currents is demonstrated by the analysis of the quantum transport across MX2 monolayers within phase field matching theory. Present work has been prepared within the Qatar Energy and Environment Research Institute (QEERI) grand challenge ATHLOC project (Project No. QEERI- GC-3008).

  17. Accurate prediction of DnaK-peptide binding via homology modelling and experimental data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Durme

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones are essential elements of the protein quality control machinery that governs translocation and folding of nascent polypeptides, refolding and degradation of misfolded proteins, and activation of a wide range of client proteins. The prokaryotic heat-shock protein DnaK is the E. coli representative of the ubiquitous Hsp70 family, which specializes in the binding of exposed hydrophobic regions in unfolded polypeptides. Accurate prediction of DnaK binding sites in E. coli proteins is an essential prerequisite to understand the precise function of this chaperone and the properties of its substrate proteins. In order to map DnaK binding sites in protein sequences, we have developed an algorithm that combines sequence information from peptide binding experiments and structural parameters from homology modelling. We show that this combination significantly outperforms either single approach. The final predictor had a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC of 0.819 when assessed over the 144 tested peptide sequences to detect true positives and true negatives. To test the robustness of the learning set, we have conducted a simulated cross-validation, where we omit sequences from the learning sets and calculate the rate of repredicting them. This resulted in a surprisingly good MCC of 0.703. The algorithm was also able to perform equally well on a blind test set of binders and non-binders, of which there was no prior knowledge in the learning sets. The algorithm is freely available at http://limbo.vib.be.

  18. Femtosecond dynamics of correlated many-body states in C60 fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Sergey; Schüler, Michael; Azima, Armin; Jakob, Markus; Lazzarino, Leslie L.; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Przystawik, Andreas; Drescher, Markus; Laarmann, Tim; Berakdar, Jamal

    2016-11-01

    Fullerene complexes may play a key role in the design of future molecular electronics and nanostructured devices with potential applications in light harvesting using organic solar cells. Charge and energy flow in these systems is mediated by many-body effects. We studied the structure and dynamics of laser-induced multi-electron excitations in isolated C60 by two-photon photoionization as a function of excitation wavelength using a tunable fs UV laser and developed a corresponding theoretical framework on the basis of ab initio calculations. The measured resonance line width gives direct information on the excited state lifetime. From the spectral deconvolution we derive a lower limit for purely electronic relaxation on the order of {τ }{el}={10}-3+5 fs. Energy dissipation towards nuclear degrees of freedom is studied with time-resolved techniques. The evaluation of the nonlinear autocorrelation trace gives a characteristic time constant of {τ }{vib}=400+/- 100 fs for the exponential decay. In line with the experiment, the observed transient dynamics is explained theoretically by nonadiabatic (vibronic) couplings involving the correlated electronic, the nuclear degrees of freedom (accounting for the Herzberg-Teller coupling), and their interplay.

  19. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.

  20. Numerical Investigation of Swirl Enhancement for Complete Combustion in an Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Senthil Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, the entire country looks for to keep our environment neat and tidy. All form of wastes has some form of energy; normally it is incinerated to yield energy from it, and can be used to run gas turbines in power generation or mechanical drive applications. Incineration is one of the ways to control pollution, safe disposal of waste and need for landfill. Low emission level is great competitive in this world by burning all the given fuels in Engineering point of view. The work presented here is a numerical simulation of a cylindrical 3D combustion chamber, burning of all the given fuels without any residuals by providing Velocity Normal to Boundary (VNB and Velocity Inclined to Boundary (VIB with different approximations of fuel and oxygen by using CFD software, ANSYS-FLUENTTM. The present work takes incineration gases, Toluene and Benzene as fuel. It is found that creation of swirl inside the chamber and supply of excess amount of oxygen to the chamber, provide a complete combustion of given fuel. The numerical predictions would provide useful information for further analysis in this area.

  1. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives--theophylline, caffeine and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S; Sankari, G; Ponnusamy, S

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Gamma(vib) = 27 A' + 12 A" based on C(s) point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A'' normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F-G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  2. The discovery of a highly polarized bipolar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Ramon D.; Scarrott, S. M.; Menzies, J.

    1989-01-01

    During a search for the optical counterparts of IRAS sources whose flux peaks at 25 microns, a small faint bipolar nebula was discovered in Monoceros at the position of IRAS 07131-0147. The CCD images display the object's considerable structure. The central star seems relatively free of closeby nebulosity: the two lobes have a bow-tie structure with those parts nearest to the star consisting of series of small knots. The outer parts of the lobes seem to be made up of filaments streaming away from knots. On the basis of its optical spectrum, the central star was classified as a M5-6 giant. In the IRAS color classification scheme of Van der Veen and Habing (1988), the central star is VIb which indicates that there are distinct hot and cold components of circumstellar dust and that the mass loss process may have temporarily abated. Therefore, it is proposed that the object is in the post main sequence stage of evolution and is a protoplanetary nebulae. Young protoplanetary nebulae have totally obscured central stars illuminating reflective lobes whereas older ones such as M2-9 have lobes seen in emission from gas ionized by the central hot star which is clearly visible. Since the central object of IRAS07131-0147 is a relatively unobscured late type star and the lobes are seen only by reflection, it is suggested that this nebula is a protoplanetary nebula in an evolutionary stage intermediate between that of CRL2688 and M2-9.

  3. Mutation of a conserved residue enhances the sensitivity of analogue-sensitised kinases to generate a novel approach to the study of mitosis in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ye-Dee; Patel, Avinash; Kaemena, Daniel F; Hagan, Iain M

    2013-11-01

    The chemical genetic strategy in which mutational enlargement of the ATP-binding site sensitises of a protein kinase to bulky ATP analogues has proved to be an elegant tool for the generation of conditional analogue-sensitive kinase alleles in a variety of model organisms. Here, we describe a novel substitution mutation in the kinase domain that can enhance the sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases. Substitution of a methionine residue to phenylalanine in the +2 position after HRDLKxxN motif of the subdomain VIb within the kinase domain markedly increased the sensitivities of the analogue-sensitive kinases to ATP analogues in three out of five S. pombe kinases (i.e. Plo1, Orb5 and Wee1) that harbor this conserved methionine residue. Kinome alignment established that a methionine residue is found at this site in 5-9% of kinases in key model organisms, suggesting that a broader application of this structural modification may enhance ATP analogue sensitivity of analogue-sensitive kinases in future studies. We also show that the enhanced sensitivity of the wee1.as8 allele in a cdc25.22 background can be exploited to generate highly synchronised mitotic and S phase progression at 36°C. Proof-of-principle experiments show how this novel synchronisation technique will prove of great use in the interrogation of the mitotic or S-phase functions through temperature sensitivity mutation of molecules of interest in fission yeast.

  4. Femtosecond dynamics of correlated many-body states in C$_{60}$ fullerenes

    CERN Document Server

    Usenko, Sergey; Azima, Armin; Jakob, Markus; Lazzarino, Leslie L; Pavlyukh, Yaroslav; Przystawik, Andreas; Drescher, Markus; Laarmann, Tim; Berakdar, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    Fullerene complexes may play a key role in the design of future molecular electronics and nanostructured devices with potential applications in light harvesting using organic solar cells. Charge and energy flow in these systems is mediated by many-body effects. We studied the structure and dynamics of laser-induced multi-electron excitations in isolated C$_{60}$ by two-photon photoionization as a function of excitation wavelength using a tunable fs UV laser and developed a corresponding theoretical framework on the basis of ab initio calculations. The measured resonance line width gives direct information on the excited state lifetime. From the spectral deconvolution we derive a lower limit for purely electronic relaxation on the order of $\\tau_\\mathrm{el}=8^{+12}_{-5}$ fs. Energy dissipation towards nuclear degrees of freedom is studied in time-resolved experiments. The evaluation of the non-linear autocorrelation trace gives a characteristic time constant of $\\tau_\\mathrm{vib}=309\\pm31$ fs for the exponenti...

  5. Observations of long-lived H-2 and D-2 ions from non-thermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Liu, Xin; Yang, Xue-Feng

    2007-03-01

    Strong mass signals of H-2 and D-2 ions have been observed from low-pressure dielectric barrier discharge hydrogen and deuterium plasmas via molecular beam mass spectrometry. The observed H-2/H- and D-2/D- ratios (~0.35-0.4) are over five orders of magnitude higher than those observed by other techniques. The kinetic energy of H-2 and D-2 ions sampled from the plasmas was determined to be widely distributed, from a few eV to >100 eV, giving lifetimes greater than ~40 µs for H-2 and ~55 µs for D-2. The highest vib-rotational excitation of neutral H2 species in the plasma was determined to be about J = 0, v = 5 or J = 19, v = 0 via threshold ionization mass spectrometry. The possible pumping mechanisms for generating H-2 with further high J, required by the current high-rotation model, have been proposed. Similar to the lifetime of D-2 determined recently by another group, the H-2 lifetime observed in this work is about two orders of magnitude longer than that predicted by the current theoretical model. To explain these experimental observations regarding the meta-stability of long-lived H-2 and D-2 ions, the improved current high-rotation model or other new models, including the possible existence of some long-lived electronically excited states of H-2/D-2, need to be developed.

  6. The Melting Curve and Premelting of MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, R E

    1996-01-01

    The melting curve for MgO was obtained using molecular dynamics and a non-empirical, many-body potential. We also studied premelting effects by computing the dynamical structure factor in the crystal on approach to melting. The melting curve simulations were performed with periodic boundary conditions with cells up to 512 atoms using the ab-initio Variational Induced Breathing (VIB) model. The melting curve was obtained by computing $% \\Delta H_m$ and agreement with previous estimates and we obtain a reasonable $\\Delta V_m$, but our melting slope dT/dP (114 K/GPa) is three times greater than that of Zerr and Boehler [1994] (35 K/GPa), suggesting a problem with the experimental melting curve, or an indication of exotic, non-ionic behavior of MgO liquid. We computed $S(q,\\omega )$ from simulations of 1000 atom clusters using the Potential Induced Breathing (PIB) model. A low frequency peak in the dynamical structure factor $% S(q,\\omega )$ arises below the melting point which appears to be related to the onset ...

  7. Nonredundant Roles of Iron Acquisition Systems in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Eric D; Wyckoff, Elizabeth E; Mey, Alexandra R; Fisher, Carolyn R; Payne, Shelley M

    2015-12-07

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the severe diarrheal disease cholera, thrives in both marine environments and the human host. To do so, it must encode the tools necessary to acquire essential nutrients, including iron, under these vastly different conditions. A number of V. cholerae iron acquisition systems have been identified; however, the precise role of each system is not fully understood. To test the roles of individual systems, we generated a series of mutants in which only one of the four systems that support iron acquisition on unsupplemented LB agar, Feo, Fbp, Vct, and Vib, remains functional. Analysis of these mutants under different growth conditions showed that these systems are not redundant. The strain carrying only the ferrous iron transporter Feo grew well at acidic, but not alkaline, pH, whereas the ferric iron transporter Fbp promoted better growth at alkaline than at acidic pH. A strain defective in all four systems (null mutant) had a severe growth defect under aerobic conditions but accumulated iron and grew as well as the wild type in the absence of oxygen, suggesting the presence of an additional, unidentified iron transporter in V. cholerae. In support of this, the null mutant was only moderately attenuated in an infant mouse model of infection. While the null mutant used heme as an iron source in vitro, we demonstrate that heme is not available to V. cholerae in the infant mouse intestine. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.

  9. Detection of Luminous Vibrio harveyi in Penaeid Shrimp Through Nested PCR Using Haemolysin Gene Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Abdullah Setiawan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important aquaculture commodity in Indonesia. However, the luminous disease primarily caused by Vibrio harveyi bacteria still becomes an obstacle in penaeid shrimp farming, especially in shrimp hatchery. This study was aimed to identify the presence of V. harveyi in L. vannamei through nested PCR using haemolysin gene primer. First, initial primers were designed using V. harveyi VIB 391 haemolysin gene sequence (accession number: DQ640264, flanking the position 133 to 756. This primer pairs were used to identify haemolysin gene in both V. harveyi MR5339 and V. harveyi 275 strain. Sequencing results from each sample showed 99% similarity with haemolysin gene sequence in Genebank. Furthermore, the sequence of V. harveyi MR5339 haemolysin gene was used to design the nested PCR primers. The first primer pairs of nested PCR have successfully amplified the haemolysin gene fragment of all V. harveyi strains samples from position 52 to 405. The second primer pairs of nested PCR have amplified position 204 to 405 where it can detect all of V. harveyi strains used as sample sources in this study. The application of nested PCR technique in this study was able to identify V. harveyi strains at serial dilution of cells density as low as 100 cfu/mL, which is equal to a single cell or at DNA concentration up to 101 fg/µL.

  10. pE-DB: a database of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered and of unfolded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, Mihaly; Kosol, Simone; Lebrun, Pierre; Valentini, Erica; Blackledge, Martin; Dunker, A. Keith; Felli, Isabella C.; Forman-Kay, Julie D.; Kriwacki, Richard W.; Pierattelli, Roberta; Sussman, Joel; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Wishart, David; Wright, Peter E.; Tompa, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The goal of pE-DB (http://pedb.vib.be) is to serve as an openly accessible database for the deposition of structural ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and of denatured proteins based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and other data measured in solution. Owing to the inherent flexibility of IDPs, solution techniques are particularly appropriate for characterizing their biophysical properties, and structural ensembles in agreement with these data provide a convenient tool for describing the underlying conformational sampling. Database entries consist of (i) primary experimental data with descriptions of the acquisition methods and algorithms used for the ensemble calculations, and (ii) the structural ensembles consistent with these data, provided as a set of models in a Protein Data Bank format. PE-DB is open for submissions from the community, and is intended as a forum for disseminating the structural ensembles and the methodologies used to generate them. While the need to represent the IDP structures is clear, methods for determining and evaluating the structural ensembles are still evolving. The availability of the pE-DB database is expected to promote the development of new modeling methods and leads to a better understanding of how function arises from disordered states. PMID:24174539

  11. Condición física de suelos en diferentes sistemas de manejo agrícolas del centro sur de Córdoba Physical condition of agricultural soils under different management systems in south-central Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltazar Jorge Parra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El suelo del centro sur de la provincia de Córdoba es afectado por diferentes procesos de degradación destacándose entre ellos los físicos como la compactación. Nuestro objetivo fue caracterizar la condición física del suelo, comparándola con una situación de mínima alteración (NAT. Se seleccionaron once sitios: dos de referencia (NAT y nueve que se agruparon en siembra directa (SD; Siembra directa con maní 1 (SDMn1: cultivos bajo SD excepto el maní. Siembra directa con maní 2 (SDMn2: como SDMn1 pero con remociones eventuales y Labranza Reducida (LR. Se determinó: carbono orgánico (CO, densidad aparente (DA, compactación máxima (DAmax, contenido de humedad crítico (HC, velocidad de infiltración básica (VIB, diámetro medio ponderado de agregados estables en agua (DMP y su porcentaje (%AE. Estas variables se analizaron en los horizontes A y Bw, excepto la estabilidad de agregados que solamente se determinó en el A. El CO en SD se concentró en el horizonte superficial. DA fue menor en NAT y en el horizonte Ap, no se observaron diferencias entre sistemas antropizados. En cuanto a la DAmax y HC en general estuvieron vinculadas al CO. La relación entre CO y DAmax se manifestaría solamente con CO mayores que 10 g kg-1. El DMP y el %AE fueron superiores en NAT, y dentro de los sistemas agrícolas en SD aunque el %AE de este sistema no fue estadísticamente diferente de LR. La VIB fue mayor en NAT difiriendo de SDMn2 y SD y estos a su vez de SDMn1 y LR. Los sistemas de manejo agrícolas evaluados afectaron la condición física del suelo del centro sur de Córdoba principalmente a través de un cambio en la distribución del carbono orgánico.Numerous degradation processes affect the soil in the south central province of Córdoba, being physical processes among the most important ones. Our objective was to characterize the physical condition of General Deheza Typic Haplustolls. Eleven sites from the area were selected, two under

  12. The Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the simulation of waves in air and poroelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Jean-Daniel; Perrey-Debain, Emmanuel; Nennig, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    Recently Chazot et al. [J. Sound Vib. 332, 1918-1929 (2013)] applied the Partition of Unity Finite Element Method for the analysis of interior sound fields with absorbing materials. The method was shown to allow a substantial reduction of the number of degrees of freedom compared to the standard Finite Element Method. The work is however restricted to a certain class of absorbing materials that react like an equivalent fluid. This paper presents an extension of the method to the numerical simulation of Biot's waves in poroelastic materials. The technique relies mainly on expanding the elastic displacement as well as the fluid phase pressure using sets of plane waves which are solutions to the governing partial differential equations. To show the interest of the method for tackling problems of practical interests, poroelastic-acoustic coupling conditions as well as fixed or sliding edge conditions are presented and numerically tested. It is shown that the technique is a good candidate for solving noise control problems at medium and high frequency.

  13. AcEST: BP911868 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|Q9KPT3|Q9KPT3_VIBCH Aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio... 34 4.2 tr|A5F5Z0|A5F5Z0_VIBC3 Aminoacyl...-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio... 34 4.2 tr|Q2C665|Q2C665_9GAMM Putative aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase ....4.2 tr|A6Y3A2|A6Y3A2_VIBCH Aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio... 34 4.2 tr|A6XUW2|A6XUW2_VIBCH Aminoa...cyl-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio... 34 4.2 tr|A6AA17|A6AA17_VIBCH Aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio...... 34 4.2 tr|A6A5Y0|A6A5Y0_VIBCH Aminoacyl-histidine dipeptidase OS=Vibrio... 34 4.2 tr|A3H293|A3H293_VIB

  14. Biological and Phylogenetic Characterization of Pigeon Paramyxovirus Serotype 1 Circulating in Wild North American Pigeons and Doves▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L. Mia; King, Daniel J.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; da Rosa, Amelia P. A. Travassos; Bueno, Rudy; Dennett, James A.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2008-01-01

    As part of West Nile virus surveillance programs in Rhode Island and eastern Texas between 2000 and 2007, brain tissue was collected from 5,608 dead birds representing 21 avian orders found in public places or reported by homeowners. Fifteen Newcastle disease virus isolates were recovered only from birds of the order Columbiformes and were positively identified by the USDA-validated real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay targeting the matrix gene and more specifically as pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PPMV-1) by hemagglutinin inhibition with monoclonal antibodies. Based upon partial genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, the newly isolated viruses represent a distinct sublineage within class II genotype VIb. All of the viruses (15/15) were classified as virulent based upon their fusion cleavage site motif (112RRKKRF117) and intracerebral pathogenicity indices of >0.7 (ranging from 0.98 to1.35); however, these viruses escaped detection by the fusion gene-based real-time PCR test for virulence. Modifications introduced to the probe site of the fusion gene-based assay allowed rapid virulence detection within this distinct sublineage. PMID:18716227

  15. An improved multimodal method for sound propagation in nonuniform lined ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, WenPing; Pagneux, Vincent; Lafarge, Denis; Aurégan, Yves

    2007-07-01

    An efficient method is proposed for modeling time harmonic acoustic propagation in a nonuniform lined duct without flow. The lining impedance is axially segmented uniform, but varies circumferentially. The sound pressure is expanded in term of rigid duct modes and an additional function that carries the information about the impedance boundary. The rigid duct modes and the additional function are known a priori so that calculations of the true liner modes, which are difficult, are avoided. By matching the pressure and axial velocity at the interface between different uniform segments, scattering matrices are obtained for each individual segment; these are then combined to construct a global scattering matrix for multiple segments. The present method is an improvement of the multimodal propagation method, developed in a previous paper [Bi et al., J. Sound Vib. 289, 1091-1111 (2006)]. The radial rate of convergence is improved from O(n(-2)), where n is the radial mode indices, to O(n(-4)). It is numerically shown that using the present method, acoustic propagation in the nonuniform lined intake of an aeroengine can be calculated by a personal computer for dimensionless frequency K up to 80, approaching the third blade passing frequency of turbofan noise.

  16. Trajectory study of supercollision relaxation in highly vibrationally excited pyrazine and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziman; Sansom, Rebecca; Bonella, Sara; Coker, David F; Mullin, Amy S

    2005-09-01

    Classical trajectory calculations were performed to simulate state-resolved energy transfer experiments of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (E(vib) = 37,900 cm(-1)) and CO(2), which were conducted using a high-resolution transient infrared absorption spectrometer. The goal here is to use classical trajectories to simulate the supercollision energy transfer pathway wherein large amounts of energy are transferred in single collisions in order to compare with experimental results. In the trajectory calculations, Newton's laws of motion are used for the molecular motion, isolated molecules are treated as collections of harmonic oscillators, and intermolecular potentials are formed by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The calculations qualitatively reproduce the observed energy partitioning in the scattered CO(2) molecules and show that the relative partitioning between bath rotation and translation is dependent on the moment of inertia of the bath molecule. The simulations show that the low-frequency modes of the vibrationally excited pyrazine contribute most to the strong collisions. The majority of collisions lead to small DeltaE values and primarily involve single encounters between the energy donor and acceptor. The large DeltaE exchanges result from both single impulsive encounters and chattering collisions that involve multiple encounters.

  17. Benchmark calculations on the electron detachment energies of MO3* and M2O6* (M = Cr, Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

    2007-11-22

    Neutral and anionic molecules of the monomers and dimers of the group VIB transition metal oxides (MO3 and M2O6) were studied with density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory. Franck-Condon simulations of the photoelectron spectra were carried out for the transition from the ground state of the anion to that of the neutral molecule. Molecular structures from the DFT and CCSD(T) methods are compared. Electron detachment energies reported in the literature were evaluated. The calculated adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies (ADEs and VDEs) were compared with the experimental results. CCSD(T) gives results within 0.12 eV for the ADEs. CCSD(T) predicts VDEs that are in error by as much as 0.3 eV for M = Cr. DFT hybrid functionals were found to give poor results for the ADEs and VDEs for M = Cr due to the substantial amount of multireference character in the wavefunction, whereas the pure DFT functionals give superior results. For M = Mo and W, excellent agreement was found for both CCSD(T) and many DFT fucntionals. The BP86 functional yields the best overall results for the VDEs of all the metal oxide clusters considered. Heats of formation calculated at the CCSD(T) level extrapolated to the complete basis set limit are also in good agreement with available experimental data.

  18. Design and synthesis of 4-substituted quinazolines as potent EGFR inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Magdy, Naja

    2016-09-23

    Cancer is a major health problem to human beings around the world. Many quinazoline derivatives were reported to have potent cytotoxic activity. Our aim in this work is the discovery of potent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors with anti-breast cancer activity containing 4-substituted quinazoline pharmacophore. Novel series of 4-substituted 6,8-dibromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-quinazoline derivatives have been designed and synthesized. New derivatives were tested against MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma cell line) and screened for their inhibition activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK). Most of the tested compounds show potent antiproliferative activity and EGFR-TK inhibitory activity. Compounds VIIIc and VIIIb exerted powerful cytotoxic activity (IC50 3.1 and 6.3 µM) with potent inhibitory percent (91.1 and 88.4%) against EGFR-TK. Compounds IX, VIIa, X, VIIb, VIc, V, IV, VIa and VIb showed promising cytotoxic effects with IC50 range (12-79 µM) with good activity against EGFR-TK with the inhibitory percent (85.4-60.8%). On the other hand, compounds VIIc, VIIIa exerted low cytotoxic effects as revealed from their IC50 value (124 and 144 µM) with low activity against EGFR-TK with inhibitory percent 30.6 and 29.1% respectively.

  19. [Regulation of publicity for children's food as a strategy for promotion of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Patrícia; Sally, Enilce Oliveira; Burlandy, Luciene; Beiler, Renata Mondino

    2012-02-01

    The eating habits of the Brazilian population have been changing in recent decades and publicity is one of the factors contributing to this situation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of food publicity broadcast on television and addressed to children, from the standpoint of regulation. The publicity broadcast on the two major television stations during the school holidays was recorded on VHS tapes. Content analysis techniques were used and eight categories of analysis were defined based on the theoretical benchmark of the eating habits and their determining factors. The proposal for a Technical Regulation of Anvisa was used to conduct this analysis. 1018 advertisements were recorded, of which 132 (12.9%) that advertised foods targeted at children were selected, but only 12 different products were identified. According to the proposed regulation, all the material analyzed violated no less than three articles, among which the 4th, Sections III and VIb stand out. The pressing need for government regulation of the content of food advertisements for children, the consumption of which can be harmful to health, is clearly apparent because of its influence on the decision to purchase, both by the children themselves, and their parents.

  20. A Thermodynamic Framework Bridging the Composition and Temperature Dependence of Bulk Modulus With Enthalpy of Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Subramanian; Saibaba, Saroja

    2017-08-01

    The intrinsic thermodynamic links that exist between thermochemical and thermophysical quantities, especially their temperature, pressure, and composition dependence, have seldom been analyzed in sufficient detail in literature. In this connection, an attempt is made to establish a thermodynamic bridge, relating Δo H mix, the standard enthalpy of mixing with Δo B T , the change in isothermal bulk modulus as a result of alloying and its composition and temperature dependence. In essence, by adopting the standard regular and subregular solution approximations to the composition dependence of mixing enthalpy; and furthermore, incorporating separately the configurational (Δo S conf) and vibrational (Δo S Vib) entropy contributions to mixing Gibbs energy change (Δo G mix), simple models have been derived for the composition and temperature variations of excess bulk modulus Δ B T . In particular, a regular or subregular solution analog of the composition variation of Δ B T is shown to be possible if Δo H mix could be described likewise. The vibrational entropy contribution to Δ B T is found to be important only when the change in Grüneisen parameter during alloying turns to be significant. The practical utility of the theoretical framework developed in this study has been demonstrated by applying it to disordered fcc Cu1- x Ni x alloys, wherein it is shown that Δo H mix and Δo B T are linearly correlated, as predicted by the theory.

  1. Methods of forming single source precursors, methods of forming polymeric single source precursors, and single source precursors formed by such methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert V.; Rodriguez, Rene G.; Pak, Joshua J.; Sun, Chivin; Margulieux, Kelsey R.; Holland, Andrew W.

    2016-04-19

    Methods of forming single source precursors (SSPs) include forming intermediate products having the empirical formula 1/2{L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'X.sub.2}.sub.2, and reacting MER with the intermediate products to form SSPs of the formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2, wherein L is a Lewis base, M is a Group IA atom, N is a Group IB atom, M' is a Group IIIB atom, each E is a Group VIB atom, each X is a Group VIIA atom or a nitrate group, and each R group is an alkyl, aryl, vinyl, (per)fluoro alkyl, (per)fluoro aryl, silane, or carbamato group. Methods of forming polymeric or copolymeric SSPs include reacting at least one of HE.sup.1R.sup.1E.sup.1H and MER with one or more substances having the empirical formula L.sub.2N(.mu.-ER).sub.2M'(ER).sub.2 or L.sub.2N(.mu.-X).sub.2M'(X).sub.2 to form a polymeric or copolymeric SSP. New SSPs and intermediate products are formed by such methods.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  3. Thermoelasticity of hcp-iron up to 1.7 Mbar from the phonon density of states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C. A.; Jackson, J. M.; Sturhahn, W.; Chen, B.

    2011-12-01

    Iron is an important component of minerals throughout the Earth, and it is thought to be the main constituent in the Earth's core. Therefore, studying iron at the appropriate pressure- and temperature-conditions is essential in order to fully understand seismological observations of the deep Earth, and to produce accurate geodynamic models of this region. To further our understanding of iron at core pressures, we directly probed its total phonon density of states (DOS) at 300 K and up to 1.7 Mbar using nuclear resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (NRIXS) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments, performed at beamline 3-ID-B of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Similar NRIXS experiments have previously been performed on hcp-Fe up to 153 GPa (1-5). However, our unique analysis and in situ determination of sample volume with XRD distinguishes this study from previous similar works. In addition, we collected between 8 and 21 NRIXS scans at each of our eleven compression points-a subset of which were conducted with a neon pressure medium-making our high-pressure phonon DOS the most accurate measured to date to 1.7 Mbar. From the phonon DOS, we determined a number of high-pressure thermoelastic parameters for iron. Using the volume-dependence of the phonon DOS, we determined hcp-Fe's vibrational Grüneisen parameter (γvib), which relates thermal pressure to thermal energy per unit volume and is often used to extrapolate available melting data to the inner-core boundary. In addition, we determined the Debye sound velocity from the low-energy region of the phonon DOS, and used its volume dependence to determine the Debye Grüneisen parameter, an approximate form of γvib (7). Finally, we obtained the vibrational free energy and mean-square displacement per 57Fe atom from the integrated phonon DOS (8), and used these parameters to determine hcp-Fe's vibrational thermal pressure and melting behavior to outer-core pressures (9). Combining our

  4. PENINGKATAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS SISWA MELALUI PENDEKATAN INKUIRI TERBIMBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhji Juhji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this research is to investigate the improvement of students’ science process after implementing guided inquiry approach. This research was conducted at the sixth grade of elementary school of SD Islam Al Ikhlas Cipete in 2008/2009 academic year. This research used classroom action research. Moreover, the research instruments consist of lesson planning, students’sheet, and observation sheet. This research measures some skills such as observing, predicting, measuring, using devices, doing exercises, interpreting data, communicating, and summarizing. Meanwhile, data were obtained through test and observation sheet. Furthermore, from this research, there was only one aspect skill which has achieved the indicator of success. Three skills such as observing, measuring and doing exercises had achieved > 70% since the first cycle. Meanwhile, four skills such as predicting, interpreting data, communicating, and summarizing did not improve significantly. It caused by those skills were hard to be mastered by the sixth grade students due to those skills demand students’ high level thinking. Therefore, to improve those skill aspects, the teacher should be more intensive in guiding students in order to students be able to learn general concepts, scientific principles, and developing creativity in solving science problems individually. The average percentage for process skills improve 10.55% from 62.89% to 73.44% with category was good. Thus, students’ science process skills of the sixth grade of SD Islam Al Ikhlas Cipete could be improved by using guided inquiry approach.  Keywords: science process skill, guided inquiry Abstrak Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan keterampilan proses sains siswa setelah diterapkan pendekatan inkuiri  terbimbing. Penelitian dilakukan di kelas VIB SD Islam Al-Ikhlas Cipete tahun pelajaran 2008/2009.Metode penelitian menggunakan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas.Instrumen penelitian

  5. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem Formaciones venosas superficiales de la fosa cubital: aspectos de interés para la práctica de Enfermería Superficial venous formation of the cubital fossa: aspects of interest for nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.El objetivo de esta investigación es contribuir al conocimiento que auxilie al profesional de enfermería en la identificación de los tipos más comunes de formaciones venosas de la fosa cubital, además de advertir sobre la importancia de fijar la atención a los casos poco comunes, como lo aquí reportado. A través de la revisión bibliográfica, clasificamos las formaciones venosas de esta región en cinco tipos más comunes, siendo lo más frecuente el Tipo II. La utilización de la VICo se recomienda como el mejor sitio de punción, seguido por la VIB. Además, describimos una variación anatómica, donde se observó la ausencia de comunicación entre VC y VB a nivel de fosa cubital y VIA drenando en VB, con presencia de la VCA.The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge to assists the nursing staff to identify the most common types of venous formations of the cubital fossa region, and also focus on the importance of always being alert to unusual cases as that reported here. Through a literature review, we found that the venous formations of this region can be classified into five common types, bring the Type II the was most frequent. We also found that MCV is considered the best puncture site, followed by MBV

  6. Regulamentação da propaganda de alimentos infantis como estratégia para a promoção da saúde Regulation of publicity for children's food as a strategy for promotion of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Henriques

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As práticas alimentares da população brasileira vêm se alterando nas últimas décadas e a publicidade é um dos fatores que contribuem para esta situação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o conteúdo das propagandas de alimentos veiculadas na televisão e dirigidas a crianças, sob a ótica da regulação. As propagandas foram gravadas em fitas VHS de duas grandes emissoras de televisão, no período de férias escolares. Foram utilizadas técnicas de análise de conteúdo e definidas oito categorias de análise a partir do referencial teórico sobre as práticas alimentares e seus determinantes. Para subsidiar a análise utilizou-se a proposta de Regulamento Técnico da Anvisa. Foram contabilizadas 1018 propagandas, das quais foram selecionadas as 132 (12,9% que anunciavam alimentos dirigidos para as crianças, sendo identificados somente 12 produtos diferentes. De acordo com o Regulamento proposto, todas as propagandas analisadas infringiam pelo menos três artigos, entre os quais se destaca o 4º, Incisos III e VIb. É nítida a urgência do setor público de regular o conteúdo das propagandas de alimentos infantis, cujo consumo pode ser prejudicial à saúde devido à influência que exercem na decisão pela compra, tanto por parte das próprias crianças, quanto dos pais.The eating habits of the Brazilian population have been changing in recent decades and publicity is one of the factors contributing to this situation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of food publicity broadcast on television and addressed to children, from the standpoint of regulation. The publicity broadcast on the two major television stations during the school holidays was recorded on VHS tapes. Content analysis techniques were used and eight categories of analysis were defined based on the theoretical benchmark of the eating habits and their determining factors. The proposal for a Technical Regulation of Anvisa was used to conduct

  7. Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptor expression in the cerebral cortex studied using genetically modified mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin receptors of the 5-HT2A subtype are robustly expressed in the cerebral cortex where they have been implicated in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of mental disorders and the actions of hallucinogens. Much less is known, however, about the specific cell types expressing 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. In the current study we use immunohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in genetically modified mice to address the expression of the Htr2a gene and 5-HT2A receptors in cortex. We first use an EGFP expressing BAC transgenic mice and identify three main Htr2A gene expressing neuronal populations in cortex. The largest of these cell populations corresponds to layer V pyramidal cells of the anterior cortex, followed by GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers, and nonpyramidal cells of the subplate/Layer VIb. We then use 5-HT2A receptor knockout mice to identify an antibody capable of localizing 5-HT2A receptors in brain and use it to map these receptors. We find strong laminar expression of 5-HT2A receptors in cortex, especially along a diffuse band overlaying layer Va. This band exhibits a strong anteroposterior gradient that closely matches the localization of Htr2A expressing pyramidal cells of layer V. Finally we use electrophysiological and immunohistochemical approaches to show that most, but not all, GABAergic interneurons of the middle layers are parvalbumin expressing Fast-spiking interneurons and that these cells are depolarized and excited by serotonin, most likely through the activation of 5-HT2A receptors. These results clarify and extend our understanding of the cellular distribution of 5-HT2A receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  8. Virtual Prototyping and Validation of Cpps within a New Software Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Neumeyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the growing demand for highly customized and individual products, companies need to enable flexible and intelligent manufacturing. Cyber-physical production systems (CPPS will act autonomously in the future in an interlinked production and enable such flexibility. However, German mid-sized plant manufacturers rarely use virtual technologies for design and validation in order to design CPPS. The research project Virtual Commissioning with Smart Hybrid Prototyping (VIB-SHP investigated the usage of virtual technologies for manufacturing systems and CPPS design. Aspects of asynchronous communicating, intelligent- and autonomous-acting production equipment in an immersive validation environment, have been investigated. To enable manufacturing system designers to validate CPPS, a software framework for virtual prototyping has been developed. A mechatronic construction kit for production system design integrates discipline-specific models and manages them in a product lifecycle management (PLM solution. With this construction kit manufacturing designers are able to apply virtual technologies and the validation of communication processes with the help of behavior models. The presented approach resolves the sequential design process for the development of mechanical, electrical, and software elements and ensures the consistency of these models. With the help of a bill of material (BOM- and signal-based alignment of the discipline-specific models in an integrated mechatronic product model, the communication of the design status and changes are improved. The re-use of already-specified and -designed modules enable quick behavior modeling, code evaluation, as well as interaction with the virtualized assembly system in an immersive environment.

  9. Thermodynamic scaling behavior in genechips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hummelen Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix Genechips are characterized by probe pairs, a perfect match (PM and a mismatch (MM probe differing by a single nucleotide. Most of the data preprocessing algorithms neglect MM signals, as it was shown that MMs cannot be used as estimators of the non-specific hybridization as originally proposed by Affymetrix. The aim of this paper is to study in detail on a large number of experiments the behavior of the average PM/MM ratio. This is taken as an indicator of the quality of the hybridization and, when compared between different chip series, of the quality of the chip design. Results About 250 different GeneChip hybridizations performed at the VIB Microarray Facility for Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The investigation of such a large set of data from the same source minimizes systematic experimental variations that may arise from differences in protocols or from different laboratories. The PM/MM ratios are derived theoretically from thermodynamic laws and a link is made with the sequence of PM and MM probe, more specifically with their central nucleotide triplets. Conclusion The PM/MM ratios subdivided according to the different central nucleotides triplets follow qualitatively those deduced from the hybridization free energies in solution. It is shown also that the PM and MM histograms are related by a simple scale transformation, in agreement with what is to be expected from hybridization thermodynamics. Different quantitative behavior is observed on the different chip organisms analyzed, suggesting that some organism chips have superior probe design compared to others.

  10. Characterization of atmospheric pressure microplasma produced from argon and a mixture of argon–ethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, M., E-mail: ranabashir77@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Rees, Julia M.; Bashir, S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, William B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Kroto Research Institute, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-27

    A non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma generated from pure argon (Ar) and a mixture of argon–ethylenediamine vapors (Ar/EDA) has been characterized in this study. A sinusoidal power supply operating at 30 kHz was used to excite microplasma in a rectangular borosilicate glass capillary (4×0.4 mm{sup 2}). The monomer EDA was mixed with Ar in order to perform plasma polymerization inside the microchannel. The analyses were made by measuring spectroscopic and electrical parameters of the discharge. The effects of EDA mixing on plasma parameters such as electron, excitation and rotational temperatures during the process of surface coating of the microchannel were investigated. These parameters play an important role in the deposition process. The plasma temperatures estimated through spectroscopic measurement were found in the sequence T{sub e}>T{sub exc}>T{sub vib}>T{sub rot}, which indicated the non-thermal characteristics of the proposed DBD microplasma. The parameters of the Ar discharge were also numerically computed using plasma simulations. The numerical predictions of electron temperature (2D simulations) and electron density (3D simulations) were found to be in close agreement to those estimated through experiments. - Highlights: • An atmospheric pressure microplasma was generated in a borosilicate glass capillary. • A pure argon and a mixture of argon–ethylenediamine plasmas were characterized. • Characterization was performed by emission spectrometry and electrical measurements. • Plasma parameters were also predicted by numerical simulations. • The sequence of estimated plasma temperatures indicated its non-thermal behaviour.

  11. Field evidence for a hybrid interfacial-coseismic seismoelectric effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, K. E.; Kulessa, B.; Pugin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In May, 2011, we carried out a field experiment in Leda Clay sediments near Ottawa, Canada to investigate whether seismoelectric conversions might be observed along with the clear P, S and PS converted waves regularly observed during near-surface seismic reflection surveys in that environment. Although high electrical conductivities (~10 Ωm below 6 m depth) were expected to result in weak electrical fields, we were encouraged by the availability of an IVI Minivib 1 vibroseis source, and by the presence of interfacial targets including the top of bedrock at ~23 m depth as well as porosity and textural changes within the overburden revealed by geotechnical logs. Seismic and seismoelectric shot records were acquired separately using both the MiniVib and an in-hole shotgun source. The recording system included 26 grounded dipoles, 4.5 m in length, all equipped with custom-made differential amplifiers. Harmonic subtraction, remote reference subtraction, and stacking of shot records were used to combat electrical noise levels associated with unstable powerline harmonics and apparent AM radio demodulation. Seismic and seismoelectric shot records bear a striking resemblance to each other; direct and refracted P-waves as well as P, S, and PS wave reflections all appear clearly in the seismoelectric records. At first glance, these would appear to be simply co-seismic seismoelectric effects. However, closer inspection reveals that some precede their corresponding seismic arrivals by several milliseconds, and exhibit broader bandwidths (up to 600 Hz) and better coherency. They are inferred to have been generated beneath each dipole receiver by upward travelling P and S-waves arriving at an interface, defined by contrasts in porosity and clay content, 7 m below the surface. These arrivals do not conform to either true co-seismic or true interfacial effects and therefore present a new challenge to our understanding of seismoelectric phenomena.

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS{sub 2} by doping transition-metal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xu, E-mail: zhaoxu@htu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Wang, Tianxing; Wang, Guangtao [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Dai, Xianqi [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Department of Physics, Zhengzhou Normal University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450044 (China); Xia, Congxin [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China); Yang, Lin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Pristine 1T-HfS{sub 2} is a semiconductor with indirect gaps of 1.250 eV • Magnetism can be observed for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu doping. • Strong p–d hybridization was found between TM 3d orbitals and S 3p orbitals. • V-doped 1T-HfS{sub 2} is ideal for spin injection. - Abstract: We explored the electronic and magnetic properties of 1T-HfS{sub 2} doped by transition metal (TM) atom using the first-principles calculation. We doped the transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups in nonmagnetic 1T-HfS{sub 2}. Numerical results show that the pristine 1T-HfS{sub 2} is a semiconductor with indirect gaps of 1.250 eV. Magnetism can be observed for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Cu doping. The polarized charges mainly arise from the localized 3d electrons of the TM atom. The strong p–d hybridization was found between the 3d orbitals of TM and 3p orbitals of S. The substituted 1T-HfS{sub 2} can be a metal, semiconductor or half-metal. Analysis of the band structure and magnetic properties indicates that TM-doped HfS{sub 2} (TM = V, Fe, Cu) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors. The formation energy calculations also indicate that it is energetically favorable and relatively easier to incorporate transition metal atom into the HfS{sub 2} under S-rich experimental conditions. In contrast, V-doped HfS{sub 2} has relatively wide half-metallic gap and low formation energy. So V-doped 1T-HfS{sub 2} is ideal for spin injection, which is important for application in semiconductor spintronics.

  13. Process for the preparation of composite crystalline aluminium silicates and their use as catalyst (carrier)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erp, W.A.; Huizinga, T.; Seelen-Kruijssen, J.

    1989-01-31

    A process is presented for the preparation of a composite crystalline aluminum silicate by maintaining an aqueous alkaline starting mixture comprising one or more silicon compounds, one or more aluminium compounds, one or more compounds of metals from Group Ia of the Periodic Table and organic nitrogen compounds at an elevated temperature, until composite crystalline aluminium silicate has formed. Subsequently, crystalline silicate is separated from the mother liquor, wherein the various compounds are present in the starting mixture in defined molar ratios. These silicates can be used as catalyst or catalyst carrier in dewaxing hydrocarbon oils, to which process this invention further relates. To be used in such a process, the alkali metal content of the composite silicates must be reduced to less than 0.1 wt%. If desired, the performance of the silicates can be improved by using them simultaneously as carrier for one or more catalytically active metals from Groups VIb, VIIb and VIII8 of the Periodic Table or compounds thereof. The hydrocarbon oils which are to be dewaxed are preferably selected from the group consisting of lubricating oils and transformer oils (in order to reduce their pour point), and kerosenes and gas oils (in order to reduce their freezing point). Additionally, this invention relates to hydrocarbon oils which have been dewaxed according to the process of the invention. Furthermore, the invention relates to molecular sieves which comprise a composite crystalline aluminum silicate prepared as hereinbefore described, and to the application of such molecular sieves in a process for separating hydrocarbons. 5 tabs.

  14. Lattice deformation of blue halite from Zechstein evaporite basin: Kłodawa Salt Mine, Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelek, Sylwia M.; Stadnicka, Katarzyna M.; Toboła, Tomasz; Natkaniec-Nowak, Lucyna

    2014-10-01

    Outcrops of natural blue and purple halite crystals have been found in Kłodawa (Poland) salt deposit originating from the Permian (Zechstein) salt formation within tectonic zones. Field works carried out on various levels of Kłodawa Salt Mine indicated differences both in intensity of the hue and in the size of the outcrops. Their occurrence was connected with the presence of epigenetic sediments rich in potassium. For the samples of blue halite, an optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed for both standard mineralogical thin sections and thick plates, indicating a deviation from cubic symmetry. The blue colouration of the halites, described by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, is due to the presence of colour centres. The colour centres have been recently identified as: F, R1 (F3), R2 (F3), M and plasmons (Wesełucha-Birczyńska et al., Vib Spectrosc 60:124-128, 2012). The trace amount of impurities detected in the blue halites by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence techniques were connected mainly with solid inclusions such as K x Na(1 - x)Cl, KMgCl3·6H2O, KCl, orthorhombic sulphur, quartz and some other phases like pyrite. Crystallographic data obtained by X-ray diffraction experiments for the single crystals of the halite from Kłodawa with different saturation of blue or purple colours, as well as for natural colourless halite, revealed lowering of space-group symmetry to monoclinic, orthorhombic, trigonal, tetragonal or even triclinic systems while the space group typical for pure NaCl is Fm-3 m.

  15. Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design optimization and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeulenaere, B.; Spaepen, P.; De Schutter, J.

    2005-05-01

    In a companion paper (Input torque balancing using a cam-based centrifugal pendulum: design procedure and example, J. Sound Vib.), the cam-based centrifugal pendulum (CBCP) was introduced as a simple, cam-based, input torque balancing mechanism. The differential equation that governs the CBCP cam design was derived and a methodology for solving it was developed. Furthermore, in a design example, the CBCP was applied to balance the input torque of a high-speed cam-follower mechanism, driving the sley of a weaving loom. The present paper firstly shows how the design parameters for this particular design example can be optimized, so as to obtain a compact and technologically feasible mechanism. The formulation of the optimization problem is based on a parameterization of the CBCP rotor and coupler shape. Because of its nonconvex nature, the optimization problem is solved using a multi-start sequential quadratic programming (SQP) approach. A design chart, based on an exhaustive analysis, is introduced which (i) allows the designer to perform the design optimization in a quick and approximative way, and (ii) gives considerable insight into the behavior of the SQP-algorithm. Secondly, the CBCP is applied to an industrial case study, that is, a weaving loom. The robustness of the CBCP is illustrated by showing that input torque balancing solely the sley movement enhances the overall dynamic machine behavior, despite the presence of the non-balanced shed motion. A particular contribution of this part is the determination of the weaving loom regime behavior in the frequency domain, an approach which is believed to be novel in mechanism literature.

  16. Duality of β-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert K

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kim Baert,1 Bruno G De Geest,2 Henri De Greve,3,4 Eric Cox,1,* Bert Devriendt1,* 1Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Ghent, Belgium; 3Structural Biology Research Centre, VIB, Brussels, Belgium; 4Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Designing efficient recombinant mucosal vaccines against enteric diseases is still a major challenge. Mucosal delivery of recombinant vaccines requires encapsulation in potent immunostimulatory particles to induce an efficient immune response. This paper evaluates the capacity of β-glucan microparticles (GPs as antigen vehicles and characterizes their immune-stimulatory effects. The relevant infectious antigen FedF was chosen to be loaded inside the microparticles. The incorporation of FedF inside the particles was highly efficient (roughly 85% and occurred without antigen degradation. In addition, these GPs have immunostimulatory effects as well, demonstrated by the strong reactive oxygen species (ROS production by porcine neutrophils upon their recognition. Although antigen-loaded GPs still induce ROS production, antigen loading decreases this production by neutrophils for reasons yet unknown. However, these antigen-loaded GPs are still able to bind their specific β-glucan receptor, demonstrated by blocking complement receptor 3, which is the major β-glucan receptor on porcine neutrophils. The dual character of these particles is confirmed by a T-cell proliferation assay. FedF-loaded particles induce a significantly higher FedF-specific T-cell proliferation than soluble FedF. Taken together, these results show that GPs are efficient antigen carriers with immune-stimulatory properties. Keywords: β-glucan microparticles, FedF, antigen delivery vehicle, immunostimulants

  17. Classical and molecular characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 isolated from backyard poultry – first report in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naletoski Ivancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to characterize pigeon variant of Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolated from backyard poultry using classical and molecular methods. In standard hemagglutination inhibition (HI test both polyclonal NDV antiserum and monoclonal antibodies 161/617 specific for pigeon variants of NDV showed inhibition of heamagglutination of the isolated virus. Intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI has shown that the isolate is mesogenic virus (ICPI = 0.81. One-step RT-qPCR for detection of M gene was performed indicating a presence of NDV and RT-qPCR for discrimination between lentogenic and velogenic strains based on F gene was also performed indicating a presence of virulent NDV. A portion of the F gene was amplified and sequenced for determination of virulence and phylogenetic characterization. The F protein cleavage site sequence of the isolate had multiple basic amino acids at residues 112–116 and a phenyl alanine at residue 117 (112RRQKR*F117 which is typical for velogenic strains. The nucleotide sequence of 374 bp was aligned to begin at nt 47 and finish at 420 immediately after the cleavage site and compared with other reference strains from the region and worldwide. In the phylogenetic tree, the isolate clustered into genotype VIb, typical for PPMV-1. This strain is phylogenetically very similar to other PPMV-1 isolated from pigeons in Macedonia. Poultry infected with PPMV-1 can spread the virus in the absence of clinical signs, thus PPMV-1’s are constant threat to domestic poultry. This is the first report of evidenced spillover of PPMV-1 into poultry in Macedonia.

  18. 豆腐致腐细菌的分离鉴定及控制研究%Separation,identification and control of spoilage bacteria in tofu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明; 陈信宇; 张辉; 冯凤琴

    2014-01-01

    对散装老豆腐及盒装内酯豆腐中腐败细菌进行了分离鉴定,通过致腐细菌回接实验进一步探究了豆腐腐败现象与致腐细菌的关系,同时,测定了单月桂酸甘油酯(GML)、月桂酸蔗糖酯、8-葡萄糖酸内酯、Nisin及其复合体系的最低抑制浓度和协同增效作用.结果表明,导致豆腐腐败的细菌主要为短芽孢杆菌属(Bre vib ac illus)、肠杆菌属(Enterobacter)、乳杆菌属(Lactobacillus)和明串珠菌属(Le uconos toc);发酵乳杆菌、梨形肠杆菌及肠膜明串珠菌分别导致豆腐发粘、涨袋及质构变软;GML对上述4种致腐细菌的抑制效果最佳;GML与Nisin复配增效效果最明显,对类短短芽孢杆菌、发酵乳杆菌及肠膜明串珠菌均有协同增效作用.本文为研发添加于豆腐类产品的新型高效保鲜剂,延长其保质期奠定了基础.

  19. Ab initio study of Fermi surface and dynamical properties of Ni{sub 2}XAl (X = Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa Reddy, P.V.; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Electronic structure properties studied at ambient as well as under compression. • Mechanical properties are predicted for the first time. • Vibrational properties are studied at ambient as well as under compression. • Ni{sub 2}TiAl is found to have the lowest C{sub v}, S, and higher U, F{sub vib} and linear thermal expansion coefficient. • T{sub c} of Ni{sub 2}NbAl is calculated and a non-monotonic variation in the T{sub c} is observed under compression. - Abstract: A detailed study on the pressure and temperature effects on ternary Ni-based inter-metallic compounds Ni{sub 2}XAl (X = Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta) have been carried out using density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with experiments for all the investigated compounds. The band structures and Fermi surface topology is found to be quite similar for all the compounds except for Ni{sub 2}NbAl, where we find an extra band to cross the Fermi level under compression resulting in a new electron pocket at X-point. Ni{sub 2}NbAl is found to be a superconductor with superconducting transition temperature of 3.1 K which agrees quite well with the experimental value and the calculated T{sub c} is found to vary non-monotonically under pressure. From the calculated phonon dispersion relation, we find all the investigated Ni-based Heusler compounds to be dynamically stable, until high pressure. The ductile nature of these compounds is confirmed from the calculated Cauchy’s pressure, Pugh’s ratio and Poisson’s ratio. In addition, the thermodynamic properties show Ni{sub 2}TiAl to have lower specific heat and entropy but higher internal energy and free energy among all the investigated compounds.

  20. Numerical simulation of the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. D.; Gao, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper an axisymmetric computational aeroacoustic procedure is developed to investigate the generation mechanism of axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones. The axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations and the two equations standard k-ɛ turbulence model modified by Turpin and Troyes ["Validation of a two-equation turbulence model for axisymmetric reacting and non-reaction flows," AIAA Paper No. 2000-3463 (2000)] are solved in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system. A generalized wall function is applied in the nozzle exit wall region. The dispersion-relation-preserving scheme is applied for space discretization. The 2N storage low-dissipation and low-dispersion Runge-Kutta scheme is employed for time integration. Much attention is paid to far-field boundary conditions and turbulence model. The underexpanded axisymmetric supersonic jet screech tones are simulated over the Mach number from 1.05 to 1.2. Numerical results are presented and compared with the experimental data by other researchers. The simulated wavelengths of A0, A1, A2, and B modes and part of simulated amplitudes agree very well with the measurement data by Ponton and Seiner ["The effects of nozzle exit lip thickness on plume resonance," J. Sound Vib. 154, 531 (1992)]. In particular, the phenomena of modes jumping have been captured correctly although the numerical procedure has to be improved to predict the amplitudes of supersonic jet screech tones more accurately. Furthermore, the phenomena of shock motions are analyzed. The predicted splitting and combination of shock cells are similar with the experimental observations of Panda ["Shock oscillation in underexpanded screeching jets," J. Fluid. Mech. 363, 173 (1998)]. Finally, the receptivity process is numerically studied and analyzed. It is shown that the receptivity zone is associated with the initial thin shear layer, and the incoming and reflected sound waves.

  1. Van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of Atomic Layered HfS2 Crystals for Ultrasensitive Near-Infrared Phototransistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Wang, Feng; Wu, Bin; Wu, Nian; Huang, Wei; Wang, Hanlin; Jin, Chuanhong; Zhuang, Lin; He, Jun; Fu, Lei; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-08-01

    As a member of the group IVB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) family, hafnium disulfide (HfS2 ) is recently predicted to exhibit higher carrier mobility and higher tunneling current density than group VIB (Mo and W) TMDs. However, the synthesis of high-quality HfS2 crystals, sparsely reported, has greatly hindered the development of this new field. Here, a facile strategy for controlled synthesis of high-quality atomic layered HfS2 crystals by van der Waals epitaxy is reported. Density functional theory calculations are applied to elucidate the systematic epitaxial growth process of the S-edge and Hf-edge. Impressively, the HfS2 back-gate field-effect transistors display a competitive mobility of 7.6 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an ultrahigh on/off ratio exceeding 10(8) . Meanwhile, ultrasensitive near-infrared phototransistors based on the HfS2 crystals (indirect bandgap ≈1.45 eV) exhibit an ultrahigh responsivity exceeding 3.08 × 10(5) A W(-1) , which is 10(9) -fold higher than 9 × 10(-5) A W(-1) obtained from the multilayer MoS2 in near-infrared photodetection. Moreover, an ultrahigh photogain exceeding 4.72 × 10(5) and an ultrahigh detectivity exceeding 4.01 × 10(12) Jones, superior to the vast majority of the reported 2D-materials-based phototransistors, imply a great promise in TMD-based 2D electronic and optoelectronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Differential roles of phospholipases A2 in neuronal death and neurogenesis: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Evelin L; da Silva, Emanuelle R; Novaes, Barbara de A; Skaf, Heni D; Gattaz, Wagner F

    2010-12-01

    The involvement of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) in Alzheimer disease (AD) was first investigated nearly 15 years ago. Over the years, several PLA(2) isoforms have been detected in brain tissue: calcium-dependent secreted PLA(2) or sPLA(2) (IIA, IIC, IIE, V, X, and XII), calcium-dependent cytosolic PLA(2) or cPLA(2) (IVA, IVB, and IVC), and calcium-independent PLA(2) or iPLA(2) (VIA and VIB). Additionally, numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested the role of different brain PLA(2) in both physiological and pathological events. This review aimed to summarize the findings in the literature relating the different brain PLA(2) isoforms with alterations found in AD, such as neuronal cell death and impaired neurogenesis process. The review showed that sPLA(2)-IIA, sPLA(2)-V and cPLA(2)-IVA are involved in neuronal death, whereas sPLA(2)-III and sPLA(2)-X are related to the process of neurogenesis, and that the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups can be involved in both neuronal death and neurogenesis. In AD, there are reports of reduced activity of the cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) groups and increased expression of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA. The findings suggest that the inhibition of cPLA(2) and iPLA(2) isoforms (yet to be determined) might contribute to impaired neurogenesis, whereas stimulation of sPLA(2)-IIA and cPLA(2)-IVA might contribute to neurodegeneration in AD.

  3. Characterisation of the circulating acellular proteome of healthy sheep using LC-MS/MS-based proteomics analysis of serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemonges, Saul; Gupta, Rajesh; Mills, Paul C; Kopp, Steven R; Sadowski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Unlike humans, there is currently no publicly available reference mass spectrometry-based circulating acellular proteome data for sheep, limiting the analysis and interpretation of a range of physiological changes and disease states. The objective of this study was to develop a robust and comprehensive method to characterise the circulating acellular proteome in ovine serum. Serum samples from healthy sheep were subjected to shotgun proteomic analysis using nano liquid chromatography nano electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS) on a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (TripleTOF® 5600+, SCIEX). Proteins were identified using ProteinPilot™ (SCIEX) and Mascot (Matrix Science) software based on a minimum of two unmodified highly scoring unique peptides per protein at a false discovery rate (FDR) of 1% software by searching a subset of the Universal Protein Resource Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) database (http://www.uniprot.org). PeptideShaker (CompOmics, VIB-UGent) searches were used to validate protein identifications from ProteinPilot™ and Mascot. ProteinPilot™ and Mascot identified 245 and 379 protein groups (IDs), respectively, and PeptideShaker validated 133 protein IDs from the entire dataset. Since Mascot software is considered the industry standard and identified the most proteins, these were analysed using the Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) classification tool revealing the association of 349 genes with 127 protein pathway hits. These data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004989. These results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of characterising the ovine circulating acellular proteome using nanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS. This peptide spectral data contributes to a protein library that can be used to identify a wide range of proteins in ovine serum.

  4. Assessing Genetic Diversity among Brettanomyces Yeasts by DNA Fingerprinting and Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, Sam; Zhu, Bo; Steensels, Jan; Busschaert, Pieter; De Samblanx, Gorik; Marchal, Kathleen; Willems, Kris A.

    2014-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts, with the species Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis being the most important one, are generally reported to be spoilage yeasts in the beer and wine industry due to the production of phenolic off flavors. However, B. bruxellensis is also known to be a beneficial contributor in certain fermentation processes, such as the production of certain specialty beers. Nevertheless, despite its economic importance, Brettanomyces yeasts remain poorly understood at the genetic and genomic levels. In this study, the genetic relationship between more than 50 Brettanomyces strains from all presently known species and from several sources was studied using a combination of DNA fingerprinting techniques. This revealed an intriguing correlation between the B. bruxellensis fingerprints and the respective isolation source. To further explore this relationship, we sequenced a (beneficial) beer isolate of B. bruxellensis (VIB X9085; ST05.12/22) and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of two wine spoilage strains (AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499). ST05.12/22 was found to be substantially different from both wine strains, especially at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, there were major differences in the genome structures between the strains investigated, including the presence of large duplications and deletions. Gene content analysis revealed the presence of 20 genes which were present in both wine strains but absent in the beer strain, including many genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and vice versa, no genes that were missing in both AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 were found in ST05.12/22. Together, this study provides tools to discriminate Brettanomyces strains and provides a first glimpse at the genetic diversity and genome plasticity of B. bruxellensis. PMID:24814796

  5. Assessing genetic diversity among Brettanomyces yeasts by DNA fingerprinting and whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, Sam; Zhu, Bo; Steensels, Jan; Busschaert, Pieter; De Samblanx, Gorik; Marchal, Kathleen; Willems, Kris A; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Lievens, Bart

    2014-07-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts, with the species Brettanomyces (Dekkera) bruxellensis being the most important one, are generally reported to be spoilage yeasts in the beer and wine industry due to the production of phenolic off flavors. However, B. bruxellensis is also known to be a beneficial contributor in certain fermentation processes, such as the production of certain specialty beers. Nevertheless, despite its economic importance, Brettanomyces yeasts remain poorly understood at the genetic and genomic levels. In this study, the genetic relationship between more than 50 Brettanomyces strains from all presently known species and from several sources was studied using a combination of DNA fingerprinting techniques. This revealed an intriguing correlation between the B. bruxellensis fingerprints and the respective isolation source. To further explore this relationship, we sequenced a (beneficial) beer isolate of B. bruxellensis (VIB X9085; ST05.12/22) and compared its genome sequence with the genome sequences of two wine spoilage strains (AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499). ST05.12/22 was found to be substantially different from both wine strains, especially at the level of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In addition, there were major differences in the genome structures between the strains investigated, including the presence of large duplications and deletions. Gene content analysis revealed the presence of 20 genes which were present in both wine strains but absent in the beer strain, including many genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and vice versa, no genes that were missing in both AWRI 1499 and CBS 2499 were found in ST05.12/22. Together, this study provides tools to discriminate Brettanomyces strains and provides a first glimpse at the genetic diversity and genome plasticity of B. bruxellensis. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Determination of bond energies by mass spectrometry. Some transition metal carbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michels, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of transition metal carbonyls have been studied, M(CO)/sub 6/ and M(CO)/sub 5/CS complexes of the Group VIB metals and M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/ complexes of the Group VIIB metals. Results for the hexacarbonyl complexes indicate that the measured fragmentation energies are in error by 0.25 +- 0.02 eV per CO produced. This is attributed to excitation of CO to the first vibrational state. Least-squares dissociation energies calculated from corrected data for M(CO)/sub 5/CS complexes indicate that the M--CS bond is 3 to 4 times stronger than the M--CO bonds. Substitution of CS for CO in going from M(CO)/sub 6/ to M(CO)/sub 5/CS weakens the remaining M--CO bonds by an average of 0.2 eV. Previously unreported MnTc(CO)/sub 10/ and TcRe(CO)/sub 10/ are prepared by halide substitution of Tc(CO)/sub 5/Br and Re(CO)/sub 5/Br with Mn(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ and Tc(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, respectively. In the positive ion, metal and mixed-metal decacarbonyls are considered as (CO)/sub 5/M/sup +/--M(CO)/sub 5/ complexes possessing five strong and five weak M--CO bonds. For Mn/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/ and Re/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/, M/sup +/--M dissociation energies are 3.0 +- 0.1 and 4.0 +- 0.3 eV, respectively. These energies are 2.5 times greater than those reported for homolytic cleavage to M(CO)/sub 5//sup +/ and M(CO)/sub 5/.

  7. A model problem for sound radiation by an installed jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Petrônio A. S.; Cavalieri, André V. G.; Jordan, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A model for sound generation by a jet in the vicinity of a flat plate, mimicking an exhaust jet installed near an aircraft wing, is presented. An earlier model (Cavalieri et al. J. Sound Vib. 333 (2014) 6516-6531) is further simplified by considering that the sound source is an axially-extended, cylindrical wavepacket concentrated on the jet lipline, and that this source is scattered by the trailing edge of a semi-infinite flat plate; the model is shown to match earlier results and considerably simplifies the analysis. It is used to evaluate how the parameters of the problem influence sound radiation by subsonic jets. We show that the axisymmetric mode of the source is the most acoustically efficient, similarly to what is seen for free jets; but unlike the latter problem, the sound scattered by the trailing edge is only weakly dependent on the details of the wavepacket envelope and on the two-point coherence of the source, the wavepacket phase speed being the salient feature for installed jet noise. We then use the model to evaluate how geometrical parameters of jet-plate configurations modify the radiated sound. The acoustic radiation is particularly sensitive to the jet-plate distance due to the exponential radial decay of near-field disturbances; the relative axial position of jet and trailing edge is shown to play a comparably minor role. Finally, changes in the angle of attack of the plate and in the sweep angle of the trailing edge considerably modify the radiated sound, leading to significant reductions of the acoustic intensity in some directions. The various properties of installed jet noise are further explored by appealing to the wavenumber transform of the tailored Green's function used to compute the scattered field; insight is thus provided on how jet-wing configurations might be designed so as to reduce installation noise.

  8. Establishment of basal diameter relevant models and volume table for Quercus variabilis in northern China.%华北地区栓皮栎根径相关模型及材积表研建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑聪慧; 贾黎明; 孙操稳; 魏松坡; 段劼

    2015-01-01

    Based on the data of 149 analytical sample trees, we established three well-performed independent models:1) a linear model between diameter at breast height outside bark ( DBHob ) and basal diameter inside bark (BDib) (DBHob-BDib), 2) a power function model between DBHob and tree height (H) (DBHob-H), and 3) a linear model between DBHob, H and volume inside bark (Vib) (DBHob, H-Vib) based on the variables after natural logarithmic transformation. Then, based on these three independent models, a compatible BDib-DBHob-H-Vib model system was established with the method of simultaneous equations with error variables, and thus compatible volume equations ( table) based on BDib-DBHob and DBHob-H were obtained. According to the results of six statistical indexes, residual plots, Shapiro Wilk tests and independent data tests for each model, heteroscedasticities were not detected in these models and residuals of these models followed a normal distribution. Ranges of residuals of these models in fitting and testing phases were very narrow, compared with the ranges of dependent variables. The volume table had promising precisions, thus they could be used for estimating Quercus variabilis volume and can provide support for dealing with illegal logging or deforestation cases of cork oak forests in northern China. As an important component of forest growth and yield model system, DBHob-H model can be used to estimate average tree height given a known DBHob, and on this basis, forest volume and biomass could be calculated eventually. Therefore, the DBHob-H model is very important in forest survey. We should point out that models established in this study are only applicable for cork oak trees in northern China with a DBHob range of 5-21 cm.%基于华北地区149株栓皮栎解析木的数据,先建立了3个表现良好的独立模型,包括带皮胸径- 去皮根径线性模型、带皮胸径-树高幂函数模型和基于自然对数转换变量的带皮胸径、树高-去皮

  9. Micro-Raman spectroscopy a powerful technique to identify crocidolite and erionite fibers in tissue sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudo, C.; Croce, A.; Allegrina, M.; Baris, I. Y.; Dogan, A.; Powers, A.; Rivera, Z.; Bertino, P.; Yang, H.; Gaudino, G.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    .I. Baris, P. Bertino, B. Brass, S. Comertpay, A.U. Dogan et al. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci U S A 2011;108 (33), 13618. A.U. Dogan, Y.I.Baris, M. Dogan, S. Emri, I. Steele, A.G. Elmishad et al. Cancer Res. 2006,66 (10), 5063. M. Dogan. Scanning. 2012, 34 (1), 37. C. Rinaudo, M. Allegrina, E. Fornero, M. Musa, A. Croce, D. Bellis. J. Raman Spectrosc. 2010, 41 (1), 27. C. Rinaudo, A. Croce, M. Musa, E. Fornero, M. Allegrina, P. Trivero, et al. Appl. Spectrosc. 2010, 64 (6), 571. M. Musa, A. Croce, M. Allegrina, C. Rinaudo, E. Belluso, D. Bellis, et al. Vib. Spectrosc. 2012, 61, 66.

  10. On the Bending, Vibration and Stability of Laminated Rectangular Plates With Transversely Isotropic Layers%横观各向同性层合矩形板弯曲、振动 和稳定的三维精确分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁皓江; 陈伟球; 徐荣桥

    2001-01-01

    针对四边简支的横观各向同性矩形板的弯曲 、 振动和稳定给出了新的状态空间分析方法从横观各向同性弹性力学的三维基本方程出发, 通过引入位移函数和应力函数, 构造了两类相互独立的状态空间方程, 不仅使原方程得到解耦而且降低了阶数,十分有利于具体问题的求解对于四边简支的矩形板, 建立了层合板上下表面状态变量间的关系式特别针 对矩形板的自由振动(稳定)问题, 发现存在两类彼此无关的形式, 一类对应板的纯面内振动(稳定), 而另一类则是一般意义上的板的弯曲振动(稳定)给出了数值结果, 并考察了相关参数的影响%A method based on newly presented state space formulations is developed for analyzing the bending, vibratio n and stability of laminated transversely isotropicrectangular plates with simp ly supported edges. By introducing two displacement functions and two stress fun ctions, two independent state equations were constructed based on the three-dime n sional elasticity equations for transverse isotropy. The original differential e quations are thus decoupled with the order reduced that will facilitate obtainin g solutions of various problems. For the simply supported rectangular plate, two relations between the state variables at the top and bottom surfaces were estab l ished. In particular, for the free vibration (stability) problem, it is found th at there exist two independent classes: One corresponds to the pure in-plane vib ration (stability) and the other to the general bending vibration (stability). N umerical examples are finally presented and the effects of some parameters are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of Slaughtered lambs Results from Varamini Ewes Crossing with Shal, Afshar, Moghani and Varamini Rams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza seyedsharifi

    2016-08-01

    not significant. Finally, male had more significantly cross surface than female. Average percentage for lion, thigh, flank, brisket, neck, longissmus muscle area and carcass length, full and empty digestive system in different genetic group has no significant difference, also, average for, shoulder, legs, tail, heat, lean percentage and bone in 10-12 vibs sample and skin and fat percentage in this sample was significantly different in various groups. Sex effect on total removable fat and percentage of various carcass sections expect of thigh, lion and neck percentages, other carcass sections have significant differences in two finishing periods.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and vibrational spectroscopic study of Co, Mg co-doped LiMnPO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sronsri, Chuchai; Noisong, Pittayagorn; Danvirutai, Chanaiporn

    2016-01-01

    The isostructural olivine-like LiM(II)PO4 compounds [M(II) = Mn, Mn0.9Co0.1, Mn0.8Co0.1Mg0.1] were successfully generated through the solid state reaction from the synthesized NH4M(II)PO4• H2O precursors. The TG/DTG/DTA, AAS/AES, FTIR and XRD methods were employed to confirm both NH4M(II)PO4• H2O and LiM(II)PO4 compounds. Their morphologies were studied by SEM method. The shift of two theta angle of XRD to higher values was observed in metal doping compounds, which indicate the formation of the single phase of isodivalent doping of Co2 + and Mg2 + ions according to the change in the lattice parameters and cell volumes. Their infrared spectra are reported and discussed with respect to the normal vibrations of NH4+, PO43 -, P2O74 - and H2O molecules using factor group analysis. The correlation field splitting analysis of PO43 - in NH4M(II)PO4• H2O (orthorhombic system, Pmn21, C2v7 and Z = 2, [(3 × 5) - 6] × 2 = 18 internal modes) symbolized as Td - Cs - C2v7 suggested the number of vibrational modes to be: ΓVib = A1(6) + A2(3) + B1(6) + B2(3) and A1(6) + A2(3) + B1(3) + B2(6) for zx and yz plane respectively. While, LiM(II)PO4 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system the space group Pnma (D2h16), Z = 4 and the site symmetry of PO43 - is Cs. The correlation field splitting of type Td - Cs - D2h16 were reported in relation to [(3 × 5) - 6] × 4 = 36 internal modes for PO43 - unit in the structure.

  13. Vibrio Variations in Caged-Culture Waters and Its Neighboring Region in Dayawan Bay%大亚湾网箱养殖水体弧菌种类组成及变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建平; 蔡创华; 周毅频; 吴灶和

    2006-01-01

    研究了海水网箱养殖海域弧菌数量变化、种类组成及其相关因素,探讨弧菌数量的变化与鱼病的关系.结果表明:网箱内水体弧菌数量为390~230 mL-1,平均为20.6×102 mL-1,网箱外水体为130~1450 mL-1,平均为530 mL-1,非养殖对照海区为10~390 mL-1,平均为190 mL-1.养殖海区弧菌数量呈现明显的季节性变化,尤其是网箱水体,对照海区只在9月数量较高,其他时间变化不大.平均数量网箱内大于网箱外,网箱外大于对照海区.水体中出现的弧菌种类有河流弧菌Vibrio fluvialis,创伤弧菌Vibrio vulnifgicus,霍乱弧菌Vibrio cholerae,副溶血弧菌Vibrio parahaemolyticus,溶藻弧菌Vibrio alginolyticus,美人鱼弧菌Vibrio damsela,拟态弧菌Vibrio mimicus和好利斯弧菌Vibrio hollisae,美人鱼弧菌、溶藻弧菌和霍乱弧菌占有较大优势.弧种数量与海水温度、盐度及营养盐有相关性,但其相关性因不同种和不同点而不同.检测期间,网箱养殖鱼类无明显流行病发生,但弧菌的高峰期明显与报道的鱼病高峰期相吻合.

  14. Spectroscopic study of low pressure, low temperature H2-CH4-CO2 microwave plasmas used for large area deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films. Part II: on plasma chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Baudrillart, B.; Hamann, S.; Bénédic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a distributed antenna array (DAA) reactor, microwave H2 plasmas with admixtures of 2.5% CH4 and 1% CO2 used for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films have been studied by infrared laser absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and pressure at relatively low pressures, up to 0.55 mbar, and power values, up to 3 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, of five stable molecules, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H6, and of vibrationally excited CO in the first and second hot band was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and an external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. OES was applied simultaneously to obtain complementary information about the degree of dissociation of the H2 precursor and of its gas temperature. The experimental results are presented in two separate parts. In Part I, the first paper in a two-part series, the measurement of the gas (T gas), rotational (T rot) and vibrational (T vib) temperatures of the various species in the complex plasma was the main focus of interest. Depending on the different plasma zones the gas temperature was found to range between about 360 and 1000 K inside the DAA reactor (Nave et al 2016 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 25 065002). In Part II, the present paper, taking into account the temperatures determined in the first paper, the concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in a range between 1011 and 1015 cm-3, are the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power and pressure on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the carbon precursor gases including their fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products has been

  15. The collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited molecules: Glimpses of the energy transfer mechanism and distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Chris Arthur

    The relaxation of highly vibrationally excited donor molecules, C4H4N2 and C6F6, (E vib ~ 5 eV), by collisions with a bath of CO2 is investigated using high resolution, infrared transient absorption spectroscopy. The vibrationally hot donor molecules are formed by 248 nm excimer laser pumping, followed by rapid radiationless decay to the ground electronic state. This technique yields the nascent bath quantum state distributions following a single donor/bath collision. Absolute energy transfer rates are measured along with the partitioning of energy among the bath degrees of freedom. These measurements provide insight into the nature of the intermolecular forces mediating the energy transfer and allow the construction of energy transfer distribution functions, P(E,E') for these systems. Pyrazine/CO2 collisions which result in the excitation of bath vibrational modes, including the anti- symmetric stretch (0001), the Fermi-mixed symmetric stretch/bending overtone (1000 r1 and 1000 r2) and the unmixed bending overtone (0220), are studied. The vibrational energy transfer is accompanied by very little rotational and translational excitation and displays the characteristic strong, inverse temperature dependence (probability of transfer increases with decreasing temperature) expected of energy transfer mediated by a long range attractive interaction. Collisions between highly vibrationally excited C6F6 and CO2, which result in significant excitation of the bath rotational and translational degrees of freedom, are examined. This type of energy transfer is mediated by the short range repulsive region of the C6F6/CO2 intermolecular potential. A gap law model is used to fit the weak temperature dependence of these scattering processes in an effort to quantify the energy transfer magnitudes. A prescription for mapping bath quantum state resolved energy transfer rate constants onto an energy transfer probability distribution function, P(E,E') is described in detail. Analysis of

  16. Optics and Optoelectronics of Two-dimensional Semiconducting Monolayers and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jason Solomon

    Until recently, the physics of truly two-dimensional (2D) excitons could only be explored theoretically. Following the discovery of graphene, many 2D materials were quickly identified and isolated, one system being the semiconducting Group VI-B transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). These semiconductors are the first air-stable materials that are atomically thin (three atomics thick), and yet can be produced in arbitrarily large lateral sheets. They have a direct band gap in which confinement leads to large spatial overlap of electrons and holes resulting in strongly coupled excitonic transitions that dominate light-matter interactions. The direct band-gap of monolayer TMDs occurs at the corners of the hexagonal Brillouin zone, referred to as the K valleys. Entirely unique to these materials, excitons in adjacent K valleys selectively couple to light of opposite circular polarization, i.e. the K (K') valley is selective to right (left) circularly polarized photons. This property offers the possible realization of novel devices that will manipulate the valley index, known as valleytronics. Further, creating a stacked heterostructure (HS) of two TMD monolayers of different molecular species can exhibit type-II band alignment leading to the first atomically sharp built-in p-n junction and a bright interlayer exciton with long lifetimes. Being flat 2D sheets, it is easy to couple these materials to nearby systems such as microfabricated electrodes and photonic crystal cavities allowing for unique modulation and device schemes. Here, I employ both optical and electronic techniques to study the unique physics of 2D excitons in TMDs as well as demonstrate some of their first optoelectronic and valleytronic devices. The most notable achievement is perhaps the first demonstrations of both atomically thin and 2D heterostructure light emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Other breakthroughs include the first demonstration of exciton charging tunability in a 2D system

  17. The C3-bending vibrational levels of the C3-Kr and C3-Xe van der Waals complexes studied by their Ã-X̃ electronic transitions and by ab initio calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jun-Mei; Tham, Keng Seng; Zhang, Guiqiu; Merer, Anthony J; Hsu, Yen-Chu; Hu, Wei-Ping

    2011-02-21

    Fluorescence excitation spectra and wavelength-resolved emission spectra of the C(3)-Kr and C(3)-Xe van der Waals (vdW) complexes have been recorded near the 2(2-)(0), 2(2+)(0), 2(4-)(0), and 1(1)(0) bands of the Ã(1)Π(u)-X̃(1)Σ(g)(+) system of the C(3) molecule. In the excitation spectra, the spectral features of the two complexes are red-shifted relative to those of free C(3) by 21.9-38.2 and 34.3-36.1 cm(-1), respectively. The emission spectra from the à state of the Kr complex consist of progressions in the two C(3)-bending vibrations (ν(2), ν(4)), the vdW stretching (ν(3)), and bending vibrations (ν(6)), suggesting that the equilibrium geometry in the X̃ state is nonlinear. As in the Ar complex [Zhang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 120, 3189 (2004)], the C(3)-bending vibrational levels of the Kr complex shift progressively to lower energy with respect to those of free C(3) as the bending quantum number increases. Their vibrational structures could be modeled as perturbed harmonic oscillators, with the dipole-induced dipole terms of the Ar and Kr complexes scaled roughly by the polarizabilities of the Ar and Kr atoms. Emission spectra of the Xe complex, excited near the Ã, 2(2-) level of free C(3), consist only of progressions in even quanta of the C(3)-bending and vdW modes, implying that the geometry in the higher vibrational levels (υ(bend) ≥ 4, E(vib) ≥ 328 cm(-1)) of the X̃ state is (vibrationally averaged) linear. In this structure the Xe atom bonds to one of the terminal carbons nearly along the inertial a-axis of bent C(3). Our ab initio calculations of the Xe complex at the level of CCSD(T)∕aug-cc-pVTZ (C) and aug-cc-pVTZ-PP (Xe) predict that its equilibrium geometry is T-shaped (as in the Ar and Kr complexes), and also support the assignment of a stable linear isomer when the amplitude of the C(3) bending vibration is large (υ(4) ≥ 4).

  18. Infrared spectroscopy of nonclassical ions and their complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boo, Doo Wan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes an infrared spectroscopic study on the structures and dynamics of the nonclassical ions and their complexes, using ion trap vibrational predissociation spectroscopy. Chapter One provides an introduction to the experimental apparatus used in this work. Chapter Two describes the previous theoretical and experimental works on the carbonium ion CH5+ and infrared spectroscopic and theoretical works on CH5+. CH5+ was predicted to scramble constantly without possessing a stable structure. In Chapter Three, the infrared spectroscopy for the molecular hydrogen solvated carbonium ions CH5+(H2)n (n=1-6) in the frequency region of 2700-4200 cm-1 are presented and compared with the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on CH5+(H2)n (n=0-3). The results suggested that the scrambling of CH5+ slowed down considerably by the stabilization effects of the solvent H2 molecules, and it was completely frozen out when the first three H2 molecules were bound to the core CH5+. Chapter Four presents the complete infrared spectra for the solvated carbonium ions, CH5+(A)x(B)y (A,B=H2, Ar, N2, CH4;x,y=0-5) in the frequency region of 2500-3200 cm-1. As the binding affinities of the solvent molecules and the number of the solvent molecules in the clusters increased, the scrambling of CH5+ slowed down substantially. The structures of the solvated carbonium ions and the evidence for rapid proton transfer in CH5+(CH4) were also presented. Chapter Five presents the vib-rotational spectrum for the H-H stretching mode of the silanium ion SiH5+. The results suggested that Si

  19. Spectroscopic study of low pressure, low temperature H2-CH4-CO2 microwave plasmas used for large area deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films. Part I: on temperature determination and energetic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Baudrillart, B.; Hamann, S.; Bénédic, F.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-12-01

    In a distributed antenna array (DAA) reactor, microwave H2 plasmas with admixtures of 2.5% CH4 and 1% CO2 used for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films have been studied by infrared absorption and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and pressure at relatively low pressures, up to 0.55 mbar, and power values, up to 3 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of five stable molecules, CH4, CO2, CO, C2H2 and C2H6, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ infrared laser absorption spectroscopy using lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. OES was applied simultaneously to obtain complementary information about the degree of dissociation of the H2 precursor gas and of its gas temperature. The experimental results are presented in two separate parts. In Part I, the present paper, the measurement of the gas (T gas), rotational (T rot) and vibrational (T vib) temperatures of the various species in the complex plasma was the main focus of interest. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the rotational and vibrational temperatures in the plasma hot zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, five different methods based on the emission and absorption spectroscopy data of H2, CH4, CH3 and CO have been used. In these, line profile analysis has been combined with Boltzmann plot methods. Based on the wide tuning range of the EC-QCL, a variety of CO lines in the ground and three excited states was measured enabling extensive temperature analysis providing new insight into the energetic aspects of this multi-component plasma. Depending on the different plasma zones the gas temperature was found to range between about 360 and 1000 K inside the DAA reactor

  20. Sequencing and Analysis Genome of a Ⅵb Subgenotype of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Semi-Muscovy Duck%基因Ⅵb亚型半番鸭源新城疫病毒基因组测序及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秋芳; 孙敏华; 陈少莺; 吕殿红; 董嘉文; 尚毅; 吴玄光; 胡奇林

    2012-01-01

    Based on the genome sequence of newcastle disease virus(NDV) published in GenBank,nine pairs of gene-specific primers were designed to amplify cDNA of FJ-SMD-03 strain isolated from Semi-Muscovy duck in Fuzhou, Fujian ,then sequecing and analysis were performed. The results showed that FJ-SMD-03 was 15 192 nucleotides in length which consisted of six ORFs in the order of 3'leader-NP-P-M-F-HN-L-5 'trailer and it had six nucleotides longer than Lasota strain in non-coding region of NP gene. The genome shared the highest similarity of the nucleotide with 1.3, carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008, pi-geon/Italy/1166/00, AV324/96 and dove/Italy/2736/00 (94.9% - 98. 5% ), and shared the lowest similarity of the nucleotide with vaccine strain Lasota, Mukteswar and Bl (80. 7% -83. 3% ) , whereas it shared lower similarity of the nucleotide with strain F^Eg and Muscovy duck/China ( Fujian )/FPl/02, Subgenotype Vlld, velogenic, isolated from Muscovy duck in Fujian during 2002 for 82. 5% and 87. 1% respectively. The motif of cleavage site region of F gene was "2 R-R-Q-K-R-F117, which was the sequencesignature of virulent strain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FJ-SMD-03 belonged to subgenotype Vib, Class II , which was the first report of the subgenotype Vib virulent NDV strain isolated from Semi-Muscovy duck. FJ-SMD-03 was closely associated with 1. 3 , carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008 and pigeon/Ita-ly/1166/00 and formed a secondary branch in the phylogenetic tree with carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/ 2008,which suggested that FJ-SMD-03,carrier-pigeon/Guangdong/2008 and pigeon/Italy/1166/00 came from the same origin, which might be due to virus carried by pigeons.%根据GenBank上发布的新城疫病毒基因组序列,设计了9对引物,对从福建福州地区发病半番鸭场分离的新城疫病毒FJ-SMD-03株进行了基因组cDNA扩增测序和分析.结果表明:FJ-SMD-03的基因组序列由15 192 nt组成,在NP基因非编码区比Lasota株多了6

  1. Laboratory analysis on 4 cases of sporadic Vibrio vulnificus infection in Shantou City%汕头地区4例散发创伤弧菌感染的实验室诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐川; 朱红军; 周泽妍; 柯永坚; 陈钏文

    2016-01-01

    目的 了解汕头市某院创伤弧菌(VV)感染患者的病原微生物学特征及药物敏感性.方法 回顾性分析汕头市某院2013年6月—2014年6月收治的4例VV感染患者,采集患者血标本进行培养,采集患者疱液或棉拭子采集伤口分泌物接种于血平板、麦康凯平板及TCBS平板,对分离的菌株进行鉴定和药敏试验.结果 4例VV感染患者,其中死亡3例,治愈1例;分别因进食腌蟹、蒸扇贝或外伤后接触海产品,而引起原发性败血症及下肢感染.患者A、B疱液,患者C伤口分泌物,患者D血培养均分离出氧化酶阳性、TCBS平板上生长呈绿色的革兰阴性菌,均鉴定为VV.VV对头孢唑林耐药或中介,对头孢替坦均为中介,1株VV对头孢吡肟耐药.结论 4例VV感染患者病死率高(3/4),疱液或伤口分泌物培养阳性率较血培养高;及时就诊、尽早开始抗菌药物治疗及积极清创有助于治疗该病.%Objective To analyze characteristics of pathogenic microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vib-rio vulnificus (V.vulnificus)causing infection in patients at a hospital in Shantou City. Methods Four patients with V.vulnificus infection admitted to a hospital between June 2013 and June 2014 were analyzed retrospectively, blood specimens of patients were collected for culture,blister fluid and wound secretion were taken and inoculated on blood agar plates,MacConkey agar plates,and thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS)plates,isolated strains were identified and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Among 4 patients with V. vulnificus infection,3 died,1 was cured;patients developed primary septicemia and lower extremity infection be-cause of eating pickled crab,steamed scallop,or contacting with seafood products after trauma. Blister fluid from patients A and B,wound secretion from patient C,and blood from patient D were all isolated oxidase-positive gram-negative bacteria which produced green colonies

  2. Application of well characterized e - beam evaporated WSe2 thin films in Schottky Barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayurkumar M.

    structural, optical, electrical properties of pWSe2 thin film and its applications in thin film Schottky diode. Tungsten Diselenide (WSe2) is the sparkling member of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides (TMDC) materials of group VIA and VIB which have received considerable attention because of its diverse semiconducting properties along with anisotropic characteristics arising from their layered structure, which is widely studied and reported by many scientists in both single crystals and thin film form. Due to its anisotropic natures of X - M - X (where X - chalcogen, M - metal) can be easily cleaved along c - axis which makes it the most potential candidate for flexible electronic devices like Schottky barrier devices, MESFETs, solar cells etc. Looking towards the wide applications reported by many scientists, it was proposed in the present case to study the growth and characterization of tungsten diselenide - WSe2 in thin film form and its applications in Schottky barrier diode. The results of the studies have been presented in the thesis written in seven chapters. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  3. Core-level spectra and binding energies of transition metal nitrides by non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy through capping layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greczynski, G.; Primetzhofer, D.; Lu, J.; Hultman, L.

    2017-02-01

    We present the first measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE:s) for the widely-applicable group IVb-VIb polycrystalline transition metal nitrides (TMN's) TiN, VN, CrN, ZrN, NbN, MoN, HfN, TaN, and WN as well as AlN and SiN, which are common components in the TMN-based alloy systems. Nitride thin film samples were grown at 400 °C by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets in Ar/N2 atmosphere. For XPS measurements, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched to remove surface oxides resulting from the air exposure during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, or (ii) in situ capped with a few nm thick Cr or W overlayers in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument. Film elemental composition and phase content is thoroughly characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and x-ray diffraction. High energy resolution core level XPS spectra acquired with monochromatic Al Kα radiation on the ISO-calibrated instrument reveal that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer that substantially affects the extracted binding energy values. These spectra-modifying effects of Ar+ ion bombardment increase with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing nitrogen-to-metal sputter yield ratio. The superior quality of the XPS spectra obtained in a non-destructive way from capped TMN films is evident from that numerous metal peaks, including Ti 2p, V 2p, Zr 3d, and Hf 4f, exhibit pronounced satellite features, in agreement with previously published spectra from layers grown and analyzed in situ. In addition, the N/metal concentration ratios are found to be 25-90% higher than those obtained from the corresponding ion-etched surfaces, and in most cases agree very well with the RBS and ToF-E ERDA values. The N 1 s BE:s extracted from

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy characterizations of micro-air plasma used for simulation of cell membrane poration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrouki, A.; Motomura, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Jinno, M.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-07-01

    K. Then, \\text{N}2+ (FNS) for (0,0) and (1,1) head bands spectra at 391.4 nm and 388.4 nm allowed estimation of the vibrational temperature T vib from around 3000 K near the tip electrode up to about 6500 K near the plate. Last, the spatial variation along the z axis of the nitrogen ion density has been determined, with an error bar of about 50%, from the relative intensities of the same close wavelength spectra (N2(SPS) at 394.3 nm and \\text{N}2+ (FNS) at 391.4 nm) when assuming a prior calibration of 1015 cm-3 at z  =  0 mm taken from literature streamer dynamics simulations. The present experimental plasma characteristics are used to better understand the mechanisms and the processes involved during plasma gene transfections in a Monte Carlo poration model previously developed to simulate the membrane permeabilization and pore formation when the cells are impacted by the present micro-air plasma fluxes.

  5. Perdas de solo e água em plantio de Acacia mangium wild e savana em Roraima, norte da Amazônia Soil and water losses in Acacia mangium wild plantations and natural savanna in Roraima, northern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantios florestais de Acacia mangium constituem uma alternativa cada vez mais adotada em áreas de savanas do norte da Amazônia (Roraima e podem causar alterações significativas de características do solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar perdas de solo e de água por erosão, que ocorrem em escoamento superficial (run off em savana nativa e plantios de acácia na região Amazônica. Para isso, foram instaladas em duas fazendas, Santa Rita e Araçá, localizadas no município de Bonfim, na região da Serra da Lua, calhas coletoras de sedimentos, acopladas a caixas d'água, em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram determinadas a granulometria, a densidade aparente (Dap, a resistência à penetração (RP e a velocidade de infiltração (VIB, bem como parâmetros físicos relacionados a perdas de solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos: cobertura natural de savana (SV, plantio de Acacia mangium com um ano de idade (P1 e plantio de Acacia mangium com quatro anos de idade (P4, em três repetições. O experimento teve a duração de 12 meses (setembro de 2006 a agosto de 2007. Os resultados indicaram maiores perdas de solo e de água no plantio mais recente de acácia (P1, de savana nativa e do plantio com 4 anos (P4. Os resultados foram atribuídos à exposição do solo no período inicial de desenvolvimento da planta, ao selamento superficial e à coesão do solo. O pico de perdas de solo ocorreu nos meses de abril a agosto, sendo o tipo de cobertura vegetal o fator determinante para redução das perdas de solo e de água por erosão, sendo que as práticas de plantio no sentido do declive provavelmente agravaram as perdas de solo nos plantios de Acácia. Neste trabalho, a densidade do solo e o teor de matéria orgânica não representaram bons indicadores do tipo de manejo adotado na área.As an alternative land use of savanna areas in Roraima, commercial forest stands of

  6. Application of DetectingVibrio Cholerae Combined with Serum Agglutination and Gene Sequencing%血清凝集、基因测序联合检测群霍乱弧菌的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万静; 王多春; 唐倩

    2015-01-01

    Objective To avoid false positive detection ofVibrio cholerae and improve the detection correct rate.Methods 1~7 months of 2013 were randomly selected,the national various provinces and cities CDC to China cholera CDC positive screening 14 strains.LB nutrient agar 12 hours,take single colony to Vibrio cholera serum agglutination,extraction of strain DNA at the same time boiled template method.For Vibrio 16SrDNA sequence and design primers for PCR detection of Vib-rio,16SrDNA,electrophoresis were used to observe the 16SrDNA products,16SrDNA positive products sent to sequencing company sequencing,sequencing results were Blast comparison on the NCBI website for the analysis and comparison of ser-um agglutination and Blast alignment.Results 12 strains was positive for agglutination and 2 strains of non agglutination in 14 strains.The Vibrio 16SrDNA amplification,electrophoresis were used to observe the 14 isolates that were amplified frag-ment corresponding,that the selected strains were vibrio.The 16SrDNA positive products were 14 strains,and the sequen-cing the Blast results:2 strains of bacteria were Vibrio harveyi for non agglutination,in 12 positive strains of serum aggluti-nation;1 strains was Vibrio natriegen and 11 strains wereVibrio cholerae .Conclusion Detection ofVibrio cholerae cholerae combined with serum agglutination and gene sequencing can avoid false positive result ofVibrio cholerae ,and improve cor-rect rate of the detection.%目的:避免霍乱弧菌检测假阳性,提高检测正确率。方法随机选取2013年1~7月,全国各省市 CDC 送往中国CDC 霍乱初筛阳性菌株14株;用 LB 营养琼脂培养12 h,挑取单菌落进行霍乱弧菌血清凝集,同时水煮模板法提取菌株的DNA。针对弧菌属16SrDNA 序列设计引物,进行弧菌16SrDNA PCR 检测,电泳观察16SrDNA 产物,将16SrDNA 阳性产物送测序公司测序,测序结果在 NCBI 网站上进行 Blast 比对,分析比较血清凝集和 Blast

  7. Analysis of leader and trailer sequence of genotype Ⅲ , Ⅵb and Ⅶd Newcastle disease virus determined by modified rapid amplification of Cdna ends (RACE) strategy%简化cDNA末端快速扩增技术测定基因Ⅲ、Ⅵb和Ⅶ d型新城疫病毒基因组末端序列及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇旭升; 孙庆; 王伟伟; 董丽; 吴双; 胡顺林; 吴艳涛; 刘秀梵

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this research is to establish a simple rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy for direct mapping of the 3' end and 5' end of the genomic RNA of Newcastle disease virus ( NDV) , and to analyze the leader and trailer sequence of NDV strains belonging to different genotypes. [Methods] Classic RNA Iigase Mediated Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RLM-RACE) was specifically modified for mapping both ends of the NDV genome. 3'-RACE was carried out by genomic RNA ligation with 5' end phosphated adaptor CL + , and the 5' end was obtained by first strand cDNA with adaptor CL+ . [Results] A modified RLM-RACE strategy was established in this paper, which proved simple, low-cost, repetitive and could be specifically used to map genome ends of NDV. By using this method, the leader and trailer sequence of 5 NDV strains, termed JS/5/05/Go, JS/07/04/Pi, JS/07/16/Pi, JS/7/05/Ch and JS/9/05/Go, belonging to genotype Ⅲ , VI and VII was determined, respectively. [Conclusion] The initial 8nt at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome of genotype I-VI NDV strains were complementary, whereas, the complementary sequences of strain JS/5/05/Go were up to 9 nt due to a mutation from T to C at the 9th nt in the 5' end. The 3' end of NDV genomic and anti-genomic RNA was predicted to form a potential hairpin structure. The U→C(T→C)mutation was located in the circle part of the hairpin in the 5' end of anti-genomic RNA, and had no visible influence on the formation of RNA secondary structure. However, the sequence of the circle part of the hairpin was changed from 3'-UUUC-5' to 3'-UCUC-5', more similar to the 3'-UCUUA-5* in the hairpin of genomic RNA.%[目的]简化cDNA末端快速扩增技术(Rapid amplification of cDNA ends,fLAcE)流程,测定基因Ⅲ、VIb)和VIId型新城疫病毒(Newcastle disease virus,NDV)基因组两侧末端序列,并对NDV的leader和trailer进行分析.[方法]利用T4 RNA连接酶将特定寡聚核苷酸片段的连接于病毒

  8. Soil compaction and eucalyptus growth in response to forwarder traffic intensity and load Compactação do solo e crescimento de eucalipto influenciados pela intensidade de tráfego e carga de um forwarder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ricardo da Silva

    2008-06-01

    tratamentos, nas camadas de 0-5 e 5-10 cm de profundidade, foram: densidade do solo e agregados estáveis em água. Determinou-se, ainda, a velocidade de infiltração básica (VIB pelo método do infiltrômetro de cilindro. Após 441 dias, estas mensurações foram realizadas novamente, sendo acrescidas de outras análises: COT, N total, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, porosidade e resistência à penetração. Nas plantas, foram mensurados altura, diâmetro à altura do peito e matéria seca de tronco. Verificou-se que o trânsito do forwarder aumentou a densidade, microporosidade e a resistência do solo à penetração e reduziu o diâmetro médio geométrico, a porosidade total, a macroporosidade e a infiltração de água no solo. Não houve efeito da compactação sobre a produção de matéria seca de tronco e altura das plantas. A maior parte dos efeitos da compactação foi manifestada por apenas duas passadas do forwarder. Os efeitos da compactação ainda permaneciam no solo após 441 dias do trânsito do forwarder.