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Sample records for hormone treatment modulates

  1. The incretin approach for diabetes treatment: modulation of islet hormone release by GLP-1 agonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Ørskov, Cathrine

    2004-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 is a gut hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, gene expression, and beta-cell growth. Together with the related hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), it is responsible for the incretin effect, the augmentation of insulin secretion after ora...

  2. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Wiley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  3. Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Does, D. van der; Zamioudis, C.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Wees, A.C.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling

  4. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended.

  5. Emerging hormonal treatments for menopausal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Andrea R; Komm, Barry S; Pickar, James H

    2015-03-01

    The majority of women experience bothersome symptoms postmenopause (e.g., hot flushes, vaginal symptoms). Estrogen receptor agonists remain the most effective options for ameliorating menopausal symptoms. However, use of hormonal therapies has declined in the wake of issues raised by the Women's Health Initiative trials. As a result, there is a need for new safe and effective alternatives to estrogen-progestogen hormone therapy. We review the efficacy and safety profile of hormonal menopausal therapies that are in Phase III clinical trials or recently approved. Investigational treatments discussed include two new vaginal estrogen products (TX-004HR, WC-3011); the first combination of estradiol and progesterone, and a novel combination of dehydroepiandrosterone and acolbifene. We also review a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), ospemifene, recently approved for treatment of dyspareunia related to menopause, and conjugated estrogens plus bazedoxifene, an estrogens/SERM combination, recently approved for moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis. New and emerging hormonal treatments for managing menopausal symptoms may have improved safety and efficacy profiles compared with traditional estrogen-progestogen therapy; however, long-term safety data will be needed.

  6. Short-term treatment with olanzapine does not modulate gut hormone secretion: olanzapine disintegrating versus standard tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsdottir, Solrun; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Streefland, Trea

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with olanzapine (atypical antipsychotic drug) is frequently associated with various metabolic anomalies, including obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. Recent data suggest that olanzapine orally disintegrating tablets (ODT), which dissolve instantaneously in the mouth......, might cause less weight gain than olanzapine standard oral tablets (OST). DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten healthy men received olanzapine ODT (10 mg o.d., 8 days), olanzapine OST (10 mg o.d., 8 days), or no intervention in a randomized crossover design. At breakfast and dinner, blood samples were taken...

  7. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  8. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  9. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-28

    Jul 28, 2011 ... cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and ...

  10. The thyroid hormone receptors modulate the skin response to retinoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura García-Serrano

    Full Text Available Retinoids play an important role in skin homeostasis and when administered topically cause skin hyperplasia, abnormal epidermal differentiation and inflammation. Thyroidal status in humans also influences skin morphology and function and we have recently shown that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs are required for a normal proliferative response to 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate (TPA in mice.We have compared the epidermal response of mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor binding isoforms TRα1 and TRβ to retinoids and TPA. Reduced hyperplasia and a decreased number of proliferating cells in the basal layer in response to 9-cis-RA and TPA were found in the epidermis of TR-deficient mice. Nuclear levels of proteins important for cell proliferation were altered, and expression of keratins 5 and 6 was also reduced, concomitantly with the decreased number of epidermal cell layers. In control mice the retinoid (but not TPA induced parakeratosis and diminished expression of keratin 10 and loricrin, markers of early and terminal epidermal differentiation, respectively. This reduction was more accentuated in the TR deficient animals, whereas they did not present parakeratosis. Therefore, TRs modulate both the proliferative response to retinoids and their inhibitory effects on skin differentiation. Reduced proliferation, which was reversed upon thyroxine treatment, was also found in hypothyroid mice, demonstrating that thyroid hormone binding to TRs is required for the normal response to retinoids. In addition, the mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 and the chemotactic proteins S1008A and S1008B were significantly elevated in the skin of TR knock-out mice after TPA or 9-cis-RA treatment and immune cell infiltration was also enhanced.Since retinoids are commonly used for the treatment of skin disorders, these results demonstrating that TRs regulate skin proliferation, differentiation and inflammation in response to

  11. Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

  12. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  13. Insulin sensitivity modulates the growth response during the first year of high-dose growth hormone treatment in short prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Thomas, Muriel; Tenoutasse, Sylvie; De Waele, Kathleen; Lebrethon, Marie-Christine; Beckers, Dominique; Francois, Inge; Maes, Marc; Rooman, Raoul; de Beaufort, Carine; Massa, Guy; De Schepper, Jean

    2012-01-01

    To study the relationship between insulin sensitivity and growth response in short children born small for gestational age (SGA) treated with growth hormone (GH). Randomized, open-label, 24-month intervention study in 40 short prepubertal SGA children [age (mean ± SD) 5.3 ± 1.5 years], who either remained untreated (n = 20) or were treated with GH (66 µg/kg/day; n = 20). Changes in fasting glucose, insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), IGF-1 and leptin after 1 and 2 years were studied. Mean height SDS increased from -3.3 ± 0.7 to -2.3 ± 0.7 after 1 year, and to -1.9 ± 0.7 after 2 years of treatment. QUICKI decreased significantly (p = 0.008) in the first year of GH treatment and stabilized in the second year. Baseline QUICKI was positively associated (r = 0.40; p growth response to GH, and could be a promising parameter in selecting prepubertal short SGA children for GH treatment. However, this finding needs to be confirmed in larger studies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Synthesis of Analogues of Thyroid Hormones: Nuclear Receptor Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Vieira de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are essential for the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. This work reports the synthesis of some synthetic structural analogues of thyroid hormones, which may be modulators of the thyroid hormone receptor. The known compounds GC-1 (Sobetirome and CG-24 were successfully prepared and two novel analogous molecules were also synthesized by a new and efficient synthetic methodology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i3.739  

  15. Role of insulin hormone in modulation of inflammatory phenomena

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    Antonio Di Petta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence demonstrates the involvement of hormones in thedevelopment of inflammatory response. Inflammation evokes markedstructural alterations of microvasculature, besides migration ofleukocytes from microcirculation to the site of lesion. These alterations are caused primarily by release or activation of endogenous mediators, in which hormones play an integral role in this regulatory system. Binding sites for many hormones may be characterized by vascular structures and hematogenous cells involved with the inflammatory response. Quantitative alterations of inflammatory events involving the decrease in microvascular response to inflammatory mediators, deficiency in the leukocyte-endothelium interaction, reduction of cell concentration in the inflammatory exudate, and failure of the phagocyte function of mononuclear cells were observed in insulindeficient states. Therefore, inflammation is not merely a local response, but rather a process controlled by hormones in which insulin plays an essential role in modulation of these phenomena, and assures tissue repair and remodeling within the limits of normality.

  16. Thyroid hormone differentially modulates Warburg phenotype in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhane, Sonal; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2011-10-14

    Sustenance of cancer cells in vivo critically depends on a variety of genetic and metabolic adaptations. Aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect has been a defining biochemical hallmark of transformed cells for more than five decades although a clear molecular basis of this observation is emerging only in recent years. In this study, we present our findings that thyroid hormone exerts its non-genomic and genomic actions in two model human breast cancer cell lines differentially. By laying a clear foundation for experimentally monitoring the Warburg phenotype in living cancer cells, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone-induced modulation of bioenergetic profiles in these two model cell lines depends on the degree of Warburg phenotype that they display. Further we also show that thyroid hormone can sensitize mitochondria in aggressive, triple-negative breast cancer cells favorably to increase the chemotherapeutic efficacy in these cells. Even though the role of thyroid hormone in modulating mitochondrial metabolism has been known, the current study accentuates the critical role it plays in modulating Warburg phenotype in breast cancer cells. The clinical significance of this finding is the possibility to devise strategies for metabolically modulating aggressive triple-negative tumors so as to enhance their chemosensitivity in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  18. Hormonal and nonhormonal treatment of vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Miriam S; Nakajima, Steven T

    2015-03-01

    This article focuses on the cause, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis of, and treatment options for vasomotor symptoms. In addition, it summarizes important points for health care providers caring for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with regard to health maintenance, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and vaginal atrophy. Treatment options for hot flashes with variable effectiveness include systemic hormone therapy (estrogen/progestogen), nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, clonidine, gabapentin), and nonpharmacologic therapy options (behavioral changes, acupuncture). Risks and benefits as well as contraindications for hormone therapy are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypoxia-Related Hormonal Appetite Modulation in Humans during Rest and Exercise: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease.

  20. Hormonal modulation of phonotaxis and advertisement-call preferences in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Noah M.; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Hormonal levels fluctuate during the breeding season in many anurans, but the identity of the hormones that modulate breeding behavior and their effects remain unclear. We tested the influence of a combined treatment of progesterone and prostaglandin on phonotaxis, the key proceptive reproductive behavior of female anurans. First, we found that female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) treated with progesterone and prostaglandin exhibited phonotaxis to synthetic male advertisement signals significantly more often than animals treated with ringers vehicle or uninjected controls. Responsive females had greater levels of plasma progesterone and estradiol compared to both control groups, suggesting that these steroids may be promoting phonotaxis. Second, we found that the selectivity of hormonally-induced phonotaxis in H. versicolor was similar to that observed in freshly captured breeding animals. Females made the same choices between acoustic signals after hormone treatments in tests of frequency, call rate and pulse rate, compared to their responses without treatment immediately after collection from the breeding chorus. The preference for a longer call was, however, significantly weaker after hormone induction of phonotaxis. Hormonally primed females were also less likely to respond in any test and took longer to respond than did freshly collected females. Consequently, our study shows how progesterone-prostaglandin induced phonotaxis in female treefrogs influences both the quality and quantity of phonotaxis, relative to that exhibited by naturally breeding females. PMID:18926827

  1. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sala, Michael S.; Hurtado, Maria D.; Brown, Alicia R.; Bohórquez, Diego V.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Herzog, Herbert; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Dotson, Cedrick D.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the peripheral taste system may be modulated in the context of an animal's metabolic state. One purported mechanism for this phenomenon is that circulating gastrointestinal peptides modulate the functioning of the peripheral gustatory system. Recent evidence suggests endocrine signaling in the oral cavity can influence food intake (FI) and satiety. We hypothesized that these hormones may be affecting FI by influencing taste perception. We used immunohistochemistry along with genetic knockout models and the specific reconstitution of peptide YY (PYY) in saliva using gene therapy protocols to identify a role for PYY signaling in taste. We show that PYY is expressed in subsets of taste cells in murine taste buds. We also show, using brief-access testing with PYY knockouts, that PYY signaling modulates responsiveness to bitter-tasting stimuli, as well as to lipid emulsions. We show that salivary PYY augmentation, via viral vector therapy, rescues behavioral responsiveness to a lipid emulsion but not to bitter stimuli and that this response is likely mediated via activation of Y2 receptors localized apically in taste cells. Our findings suggest distinct functions for PYY produced locally in taste cells vs. that circulating systemically.—La Sala, M. S., Hurtado, M. D., Brown, A. R., Bohórquez, D. V., Liddle, R. A., Herzog, H., Zolotukhin, S., Dotson, C. D. Modulation of taste responsiveness by the satiation hormone peptide YY. PMID:24043261

  2. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer | Abdulkareem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although tamoxifen is the established drug for hormonal treatment of breast cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to ...

  3. Thyroid hormone: the modulator of erectile function in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possible role of thyroid hormones in the Nitric Oxide (NO)- mediated response to sexual stimulation, and on prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and Sildenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction was investigated using the corpus cavernosum of the New Zealand rabbit animal model. The parameters studied were penile ...

  4. [Recent advances in the hormonal treatment of sterility (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanard, A; Picazo, J J

    1975-01-01

    The present trends in the utilization of hormones in the treatment of sterility are reviewed, special reference being made to the utilization of gonadotrophins, hypothalamic hormones and gonadal hormones as well as other substances (clomiphene, epimestrol, cyclophenyl) that are also utilized in this type of treatments.

  5. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM)prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1 ppm),4 h/day for 1 or 2days. Ozone exposure significantly changed the expression of over 2300 genes in lungs of SHAM rats, and these changes were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats. SHAM surgery but not DEMED or ADREX resulted in activation of multiple ozone-responsive pathways, including glucocorticoid, acute phase response, NRF2, and Pl3K-AKT.Predicted targets from sequencing data showed a similarity between transcriptional changes induced by ozone and adrenergic and steroidal modulation of effects in SHAM but not ADREX rats. Ozone-induced Increases in lung 116 in SHAM rats coincided with neutrophilic Inflammation, but were diminished in DEMED and ADREX rats. Although ozone exposure in SHAM rats did not significantly alter mRNA expression of lfny and 11-4, the IL-4 protein and ratio of IL-4 to IFNy (IL-4/IFNy) proteins increased suggesting a tendency for a Th2 response. This did not occur

  6. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  7. Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Hormonal priming is a pre-sowing treatment that improves seed germination performance and stress tolerance. To understand the physiology of hormonal priming and its association with post priming stress tolerance, we investigated the effect of hormonal priming with increasing gibberellic acid (GA3).

  8. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  9. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  10. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Pablo J; Oddo, Elisabet M; Toledo, Jorge E; Martin, Rodolfo S; Ibarra, Fernando R; Arrizurieta, Elvira E

    2013-01-01

    The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG) that follows uninephrectomy (uNx) is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa) were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50%) while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/ min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p protein or RNA/DNA) was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content) was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  11. Kisspeptin signaling in the amygdala modulates reproductive hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comninos, Alexander N; Anastasovska, Jelena; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Shengyun; Hu, Minghan; Jayasena, Channa N; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Matthews, Paul M; O'Byrne, Kevin T; Bell, Jimmy D; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2016-05-01

    Kisspeptin (encoded by KISS1) is a crucial activator of reproductive function. The role of kisspeptin has been studied extensively within the hypothalamus but little is known about its significance in other areas of the brain. KISS1 and its cognate receptor are expressed in the amygdala, a key limbic brain structure with inhibitory projections to hypothalamic centers involved in gonadotropin secretion. We therefore hypothesized that kisspeptin has effects on neuronal activation and reproductive pathways beyond the hypothalamus and particularly within the amygdala. To test this, we mapped brain neuronal activity (using manganese-enhanced MRI) associated with peripheral kisspeptin administration in rodents. We also investigated functional relevance by measuring the gonadotropin response to direct intra-medial amygdala (MeA) administration of kisspeptin and kisspeptin antagonist. Peripheral kisspeptin administration resulted in a marked decrease in signal intensity in the amygdala compared to vehicle alone. This was associated with an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. In addition, intra-MeA administration of kisspeptin resulted in increased LH secretion, while blocking endogenous kisspeptin signaling within the amygdala by administering intra-MeA kisspeptin antagonist decreased both LH secretion and LH pulse frequency. We provide evidence for the first time that neuronal activity within the amygdala is decreased by peripheral kisspeptin administration and that kisspeptin signaling within the amygdala contributes to the modulation of gonadotropin release and pulsatility. Our data suggest that kisspeptin is a 'master regulator' of reproductive physiology, integrating limbic circuits with the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and reproductive hormone secretion.

  12. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  13. Hormonal treatment for endometriosis associated pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shun Felix Wong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Endometriosis is a common gynecological problem associated with chronic pelvic pain. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of current hormonal treatments of endometriosis associated pain.Materials and Methods: Randomized Controlled studies identified from databases of Medline and Cochrane Systemic Review groups were pooled. 7 RCTs were recruited for evaluation in this review. Data from these studies were pooled and meta-analysis was performed in three comparison groups: 1 Progestogen versus GnRHa; 2 Implanon versus Progestogen (injection; 3 Combined oral contraceptive pills versus placebo and progestogen. Response to treatment was measured as a reduction in pain score. Pain improvement was defined as improvement ≥1 at the end of treatment. Results: There was no significant difference between treatment groups of progestogen and GnRHa (RR: 0.036; CI:-0.030-0.102 for relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. Long acting progestogen (Implanon and Mirena are not inferior to GnRHa and depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA (RR: 0.006; CI:-0.142-0.162. Combined oral contraceptive pills demonstrated effective treatment of relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain when compared with placebo groups (RR:0.321CI-0.066-0.707. Progestogen was more effective than combined oral contraceptive pills in controlling dysmenorrhea (RR:-0.160; CI:-0.386-0.066, however, progestogen is associated with more side effects like spotting and bloating than the combined contraceptive pills. Conclusion: Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCP, GnRHa and progestogens are equally effective in relieving endometriosis associated pelvic pain. COCP and progestogens are relatively cheap and more suitable for long-term use as compared to GnRHa. Long-term RCT of medicated contraceptive devices like Mirena and Implanon are required to evaluate their long-term effects on relieving the endometriosis associated pelvic pain

  14. Hormone Therapy and Other Treatments for Symptoms of Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D Ashley; Crider, Mark; Hill, Susan R

    2016-12-01

    The results of large clinical trials have led physicians and patients to question the safety of hormone therapy for menopause. In the past, physicians prescribed hormone therapy to improve overall health and prevent cardiac disease, as well as for symptoms of menopause. Combined estrogen/progestogen therapy, but not estrogen alone, increases the risk of breast cancer when used for more than three to five years. Therefore, in women with a uterus, it is recommended that physicians prescribe combination therapy only to treat menopausal symptoms such as vasomotor symptoms (hot flashes) and vaginal atrophy, using the smallest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration. Although estrogen is the most effective treatment for hot flashes, nonhormonal alternatives such as low-dose paroxetine, venlafaxine, and gabapentin are effective alternatives. Women with a uterus who are using estrogen should also take a progestogen to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. Women who cannot tolerate adverse effects of progestogens may benefit from a combined formulation of estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene. There is no highquality, consistent evidence that yoga, paced respiration, acupuncture, exercise, stress reduction, relaxation therapy, and alternative therapies such as black cohosh, botanical products, omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and dietary Chinese herbs benefit patients more than placebo. One systematic review suggests modest improvement in hot flashes and vaginal dryness with soy products, and small studies suggest that clinical hypnosis significantly reduces hot flashes. Patients with genitourinary syndrome of menopause may benefit from vaginal estrogen, nonhormonal vaginal moisturizers, or ospemifene (the only nonhormonal treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for dyspareunia due to menopausal atrophy). The decision to use hormone therapy depends on clinical presentation, a thorough evaluation of the risks and

  15. Primary hormone treatment in postmenopausal women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá Escalante, S; Pons Sanz, V; Rodríguez Lescure, A; Ballester Navarro, I; Carrato Mena, A

    2006-05-01

    Clinical benefits of hormone therapy in patients with hormone-sensitive tumors have been clearly established. Postmenopausal women with positive hormone receptors represent the largest group of patients in whom early stage breast cancer is diagnosed. Third-generation aromatase inhibitors (letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane) are active and well tolerated in postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive metastasic or locally advanced breast cancer as first or second line treatment. These are also valuable agents in the neoadjuvant setting in postmenopausal women, and even as single treatment in localized breast tumors in women not amenable to surgery.

  16. Selective modulation of postmenopausal women: cutting the Gordian knot of hormone replacement therapy with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2003-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven and presumable benefits for women desiring postmenopausal health preservation. Among HRT-associated risks, the fear of breast carcinoma intimidates women and physicians contemplating hormonal treatment and limits long-term compliance. Identifying effective alternative medications that are not associated with breast carcinoma or that even may prevent its development would be a major advance. This article discusses the clinical perspective of HRT and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in light of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of estrogen and progesterone action on the breast. Emphasis is placed on the potential of selective receptor modulation as the future of postmenopausal treatment. Current epidemiologic evidence suggests that HRT is associated with a small but substantial increase in the risk of breast carcinoma, and combined estrogen-progesterone regimens further increase this hazard. Ample biologic data support this clinical association and propose multiple molecular mechanisms for the effects of estrogen and progesterone on breast cells. SERMs are a novel class of drugs that demonstrate estrogen agonistic and antagonistic actions in a tissue specific manner. SERMs act by binding the estrogen receptor and selectively modulating its effect on gene transcription at target tissues. SERMs offer an alternative to HRT that can successfully circumvent the intimidating side-effect of breast carcinoma. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of SERM action may enable the development of agents with improved target-tissue selectivity. Identifying selective modulators with unique pharmacologic properties would facilitate the creation of individualized treatment for the postmenopausal woman according to her particular predisposition for menopause-related morbidities and her overall clinical profile. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11049

  17. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena

    2012-11-01

    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  18. Hormones in pain modulation and their clinical implications for pain control: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wang, Xiangrui

    2016-07-01

    Recently, more and more studies have found that pain generation, transmission and modulation are under hormonal regulation. Indeed, hormonal dysregulation is a common component of chronic pain syndromes. Studies have attempted to determine whether the relationship between the pain and its perception and hormones is a causative relationship and how these processes interrelate. This review summarizes and analyzes the current experimental data and provides an overview of the studies addressing these questions. The relationship between pain perception and endocrine effects suggests that hormones can be used as important biomarkers of chronic pain syndromes and/or be developed into therapeutic agents in the fight against pain.

  19. Hormonal treatment of obstructed kidneys in patients with prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honnens de Lichtenberg, M; Miskowiak, J; Rolff, H

    1993-01-01

    A review of 1288 patients with previously untreated prostatic cancer revealed 209 patients (16%) with ureteric obstruction; the obstruction was bilateral in 36%. The effect of hormonal treatment was assessed in 88 patients with 120 obstructed kidneys: 77 patients had androgen deprivation...... or hormonal medication alone and 11 patients needed percutaneous nephrostomy or ureteric catheters in addition. Drainage improved in 58% of the kidneys. The diverting catheter was withdrawn in 9 of the 11 patients after a median of 4 weeks. In all, 95% of patients were discharged. The patients with hormonal...

  20. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...... protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 25-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she...... became pregnant after donor insemination. The GH treatment was continued until variant GH production from the placenta was evident. Serum levels of GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured monthly during pregnancy after 3 days off GH therapy. Abdominal ultrasound was performed five times. Hormonal levels were...

  1. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...

  2. Crosstalk between secondary messengers, hormones and MAPK modules during abiotic stress signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smékalová, Veronika; Doskočilová, Anna; Komis, George; Samaj, Jozef

    2014-01-01

    The crosstalk between second messengers, hormones and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in plant signalling systems facilitates adaptation and survival in the face of diverse environmental stresses. This review focuses on the transduction of second messenger and hormone signals by MAPK modules in plant abiotic stress responses. We discuss how this crosstalk regulates gene expression (e.g. by controlling transcription factor activity) and other cellular and physiological responses to enable adaptation and/or resistance to abiotic stresses. © 2013.

  3. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...

  4. Growth Hormone differentially modulates chemoresistance in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilin, Erica; Minoia, Mariella; Bondanelli, Marta; Tagliati, Federico; Degli Uberti, Ettore C; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Growth Hormone may influence neoplastic development of endometrial epithelium towards endometrial adenocarcinoma, which is one of the most occurring tumors in acromegalic patients. Since chemoresistance often develops in advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma, we investigated whether Growth Hormone might influence the development of chemoresistance to drugs routinely employed in endometrial adenocarcinoma treatment, such as Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, and Paclitaxel. Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone receptor expression was assessed by immunofluorescence in two endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines, AN3 CA and HEC-1-A cells. Growth Hormone effects were assessed investigating cell viability, caspase3/7 activation, ERK1/2, and protein kinase C delta protein expression. AN3 CA and HEC-1-A cells display Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone receptor. Growth Hormone does not influence cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly reduces caspase 3/7 activation in AN3 CA cells, an effect blocked by a Growth Hormone receptor antagonist. Growth Hormone rescues AN3 CA cells from the inhibitory effects of Doxorubicin and Cisplatin on cell viability, while it has no effect on Paclitaxel. Growth Hormone does not influence the pro-apoptotic effects of Doxorubicin, but is capable of rescuing AN3 CA cells from the pro-apoptotic effects of Cisplatin. On the other hand, Growth Hormone did not influence the effects of Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel on HEC-1A cell viability. The protective action of Growth Hormone towards the effects of Doxorubicin may be mediated by ERK1/2 activation, while the pro-apoptotic effects of Cisplatin may be mediated by protein kinase C delta inhibition. All together our results indicate that Growth Hormone may differentially contribute to endometrial adenocarcinoma chemoresistance. This may provide new insights on novel therapies against endometrial adenocarcinoma chemoresistant aggressive tumors.

  5. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....

  6. Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on germination percentage and antioxidant activities in lettuce seedlings. Mahmoudi Hela, Zargouni Hanen, Tarchoune Imen, Baatour Olfa, Nasri Nawel, Ben Massoud Raouia, Zaghdoudi Maha, Abidi wissal, Huang Jun, Hannoufa Abdelali, Lachaâl Mokhtar, Ouerghi ...

  7. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Loche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 1985 growth hormone (GH was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD. With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, deletions/mutations of the SHOX gene, as well as in short children born small for gestational age and with idiopathic short stature. Available data from controlled trials indicate that GH treatment increases adult height in patients with Turner syndrome, in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and in short children born small for gestational age. Patients with SHOX deficiency seem to respond to treatment similarly to Turner syndrome. GH treatment in children with idiopathic short stature produces a modest mean increase in adult height but the response in the individual patient is unpredictable. Uncontrolled studies indicate that GH treatment may be beneficial also in children with Noonan syndrome. In patients with Prader-Willi syndrome GH treatment normalizes growth and improves body composition and cognitive function. In any indication the response to GH seems correlated to the dose and the duration of treatment. GH treatment is generally safe with no major adverse effects being recorded in any condition.

  9. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  10. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  11. Emerging pollutant treatments in wastewater: Cases of antibiotics and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Erika; González-Fuentes, Miguel A; Rebollar-Perez, Georgette; Méndez-Albores, Alia; Torres, Eduardo

    2017-02-23

    Because of the intensive use of pharmaceutical substances in human life, studies on the detection of these chemical compounds and their metabolites as pollutants in water bodies are continuously reported. Some pharmaceutical agents are associated with adverse effects to aquatic life, even at very low concentrations (ng L-1 to μg L-1). For instance, the presence of antibiotics and hormones has been associated with increasing proliferation of antibiotic resistant pathogens and feminization and masculinization of some aquatic organisms. Currently, new attempts are being made to minimize or fully remove these types of pollutants from aquatic systems to protect the environment and human health. In this regard, physicochemical and biological treatments are among the most promising technologies for the treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceutical pollutants. These treatments are green alternatives for the degradation of hazardous organic compounds into nontoxic by-products. Here, we review some of the physicochemical and biological treatment methods used for the removal of the most extensively used antibiotics and hormones. Enzymatic oxidation, photocatalysis and electrochemical oxidation are described in terms of the aforementioned pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). The use of membrane technologies to separate different groups of antibiotics and hormones prior to biologic or physicochemical treatment methods is also addressed.

  12. Hormones in the mentally disturbed brain: steroids and peptides in the development and treatment of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George Townsend; Maloney, Susan; Dearborn, Joshua; Weiss, Juergen

    2009-12-01

    One of the more fascinating recent discoveries in neuroscience is the widespread influence of hormones on brain regions and functions underlying pathological behaviors. A story is unfolding that points to critical roles played by hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal (HPA) axes on a startling array of mental disorders, from depression to dementia. The influence of peptides and steroids does not end with hormones released from the two axes, however. It is now clear that the brain has adapted, "highjacked" is more descriptive, HPG and HPA hormones for uses unrelated to their original functions in reproduction and responses to stress. Findings of neuromodulatory effects of HPA and HPG hormones on monoamine, GABA, glutamate and opioid pathways and of hormone receptors and enzymes involved in hormone synthesis, particularly of steroids, in the hippocampus, amygdala and other subcortical brain regions provide the brain with multiple evolutionary means to adapt to new functions. The complexity of the metabolic cascade for the steroids also leaves open mechanisms by which endogenous errors and exogenous chemicals could be involved in the etiology of psychopathologies. The planned review will examine the recent literature for evidence of steroidal and peptidergic influences on basic biological functions and on mood disorders, anxiety and PTSD, schizophrenia, substance abuse and dementia. Emphasis will be placed on animal models, although findings with patient populations will be prominently included. Special attention will be paid to novel pathways by which the precursors and metabolites of sex steroids can influence psychopathologies. We also will speculate on promising treatments with hormone modulators that may be useful in mollifying the symptomology of the mental disorders.

  13. FATE OF SEX HORMONES IN TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS: CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of seven sex hormones (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), ethinylestradiol (EE2), testosterone, androstenedione, and progesterone) was determined in two pilot-scale wastewater treatment plants operated under conventional loading conditions. The levels of hormon...

  14. Melanin concentrating hormone modulates oxytocin-mediated marble burying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanathara, Nayna M; Garau, Celia; Alachkar, Amal; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Xu, Xiangmin; Civelli, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Repetitive and perseverative behaviors are common features of a number of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Angelman's syndrome, Tourette's syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. The oxytocin system has been linked to the regulation of repetitive behavior in both animal models and humans, but many of its downstream targets have still to be found. We report that the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is a target of the oxytocin system in regulating one repetitive behavior, marble burying. First we report that nearly 60% of MCH neurons express oxytocin receptors, and demonstrate using rabies mediated tract tracing that MCH neurons receive direct presynaptic input from oxytocin neurons. Then we show that MCH receptor knockout (MCHR1KO) mice and MCH ablated animals display increased marble burying response while central MCH infusion decreases it. Finally, we demonstrate the downstream role of the MCH system on oxytocin mediated marble burying by showing that central infusions of MCH and oxytocin alone or together reduce it while antagonizing the MCH system blocks oxytocin-mediated reduction of this behavior. Our findings reveal a novel role for the MCH system as a mediator of the role of oxytocin in regulating marble-burying behavior in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Steroid Hormones on the Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Dietary Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones, such as sex hormones and glucocorticoids, have been demonstrated to play a role in different cellular processes in the central nervous system, ranging from neurodevelopment to neurodegeneration. Environmental factors, such as calorie intake or fasting frequency, may also impact on such processes, indicating the importance of external factors in the development and preservation of a healthy brain.The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucocorticoid activity play a role in neurodegenerative processes, including in disorders such as in Alzheimer´s and Parkinson´s diseases. Sex hormones have also been shown to modulate cognitive functioning. Inflammation is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders, and sex hormones/glucocorticoids can act to regulate inflammatory processes. Intermittent fasting can protect the brain against cognitive decline that is induced by an inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, obesity increases susceptibility to inflammation, whilst metabolic syndromes, like diabetes, are associated with neurodegeneration. Consequently, given that gonadal and/or adrenal steroids may significantly impact on the pathophysiology of neurodegeneration, via their effect on inflammatory processes, this review focuses on how environmental factors, like calorie intake and intermittent fasting, acting through their modulation of steroid hormones, impact on inflammation that contributes to cognitive and neurodegenerative processes.

  16. Women's hormone levels modulate the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyi; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2014-12-01

    The physical attractiveness of faces is positively correlated with both behavioral and neural measures of their motivational salience. Although previous work suggests that hormone levels modulate women's perceptions of others' facial attractiveness, studies have not yet investigated whether hormone levels also modulate the motivational salience of facial characteristics. To address this issue, we investigated the relationships between within-subject changes in women's salivary hormone levels (estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio) and within-subject changes in the motivational salience of attractiveness and sexual dimorphism in male and female faces. The motivational salience of physically attractive faces in general and feminine female faces, but not masculine male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high testosterone levels. Additionally, the reward value of sexually dimorphic faces in general and attractive female faces, but not attractive male faces, was greater in test sessions where women had high estradiol-to-progesterone ratios. These results provide the first evidence that the motivational salience of facial attractiveness and sexual dimorphism is modulated by within-woman changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth Hormone Treatment in Turner's Syndrome: A Real World Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda; Sreedevi, P.; Arun, G.; P Srinivas Rao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS). Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH) on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. Methods: This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of H...

  18. Compliance and persistence with treatment with parathyroid hormone for osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Anne-Luise; Vestergaard, Peter; Eiken, Pia

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Medical intervention is important in the treatment of osteoporosis, and compliance with medical treatment is essential for an optimal outcome. Based on Danish national registers, we found that compliance with parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment is high and associated with marital status......, working status, and type of PTH treatment. PURPOSE: Compliance and persistence are essential for an optimal outcome during medical treatment of osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate compliance and persistence with treatment with PTH in daily clinical practice in Danish patients and to describe factors...... was calculated by using medication possession ratio (MPR). RESULTS: In the study period, 3702 patients were exclusively treated with teriparatide and 579 were exclusively treated with rhPTH(1-84). We found that for patients persistent with therapy for at least 18 months and with MPR >0.8, 83 % of the patients...

  19. Follicle stimulating hormone modulates ovarian stem cells through alternately spliced receptor variant FSH-R3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hiren; Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Gunjal, Pranesh; Yedurkar, Snehal; Bhatt, Mithun

    2013-01-01

    We have earlier reported that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modulates ovarian stem cells which include pluripotent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and their immediate descendants 'progenitors' termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs), lodged in adult mammalian ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). FSH may exert pleiotropic actions through its alternatively spliced receptor isoforms. Four isoforms of FSH receptors (FSHR) are reported in literature of which FSH-R1 and FSH-R3 have biological activity. Present study was undertaken to identify FSHR isoforms mediating FSH action on ovarian stem cells, using sheep OSE cells culture as the study model. Cultures of sheep OSE cells (a mix of epithelial cells, VSELs, OGSCs and few contaminating red blood cells) were established with and without FSH 5IU/ml treatment. Effect of FSH treatment on self-renewal of VSELs and their differentiation into OGSCs was studied after 15 hrs by qRT-PCR using markers specific for VSELs (Oct-4A, Sox-2) and OGSCs (Oct-4). FSH receptors and its specific transcripts (R1 and R3) were studied after 3 and 15 hrs of FSH treatment by immunolocalization, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR. FSHR and OCT-4 were also immuno-localized on sheep ovarian sections, in vitro matured follicles and early embryos. FSH treatment resulted in increased stem cells self-renewal and clonal expansion evident by the appearance of stem cell clusters. FSH receptors were expressed on ovarian stem cells whereas the epithelial cells were distinctly negative. An increase in R3 mRNA transcripts was noted after 3 hrs of FSH treatment and was reduced to basal levels by 15 hrs, whereas R1 transcript expression remained unaffected. Both FSHR and OCT-4 were immuno-localized in nuclei of stem cells, showed nuclear or ooplasmic localization in oocytes of primordial follicles and in cytoplasm of granulosa cells in growing follicles. FSH modulates ovarian stem cells via FSH-R3 to undergo potential self-renewal, clonal

  20. Enhancement of tomato allergenicity after treatment with plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Callejo, A; Díaz-Perales, A; Martín-Gil, F J; Salcedo, G

    2003-01-01

    Practical applications to enhance the productivity of agriculture by using plants with improved resistance to pathogens are expected to increase in the near future. Although tomato has been widely investigated for breeding purposes, there have been no studies on tomato allergenicity after plant hormones treatments. Prick by prick tests were carried out with different tomato samples (fruits grown under biological conditions without addition of chemical products, and treated with ethylene and salicylic acid) in eight patients with ages between 12 and 27 years who suffered from anaphylaxis episodes after eating raw tomatoes. An immunoblot experiment with the different tomato extracts was performed using sera from these eight patients and controls. The wheals obtained in prick tests were significantly higher with the extracts of tomato treated with ethylene and SAA (chi(2) = 31.3, p skin tests were those who had more severe episodes of anaphylaxis. Neither the protein stain nor the IgE immunodetection patterns clearly varied between the untreated and the hormone-treated samples. In the case of anaphylaxis induced by tomato, the treatment with plant hormones induced a higher cutaneous response than with non-treated tomato, but the "in vitro" response was similar.

  1. Gut hormones: implications for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, Marianne T; Batterham, Rachel L

    2009-10-01

    Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for patients with morbid obesity. This is no solution to the present obesity pandemic however. Currently licensed non-surgical pharmaceuticals are of limited efficacy and alternatives are needed. Harnessing the body's own appetite-regulating signals is a desirable pharmacological strategy. The gastrointestinal tract has a prime role in sensing and signalling food intake to the brain. Gut hormones are key mediators of this information, including: peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), ghrelin, amylin and cholecystokinin (CCK). This review summarises the latest knowledge regarding the physiological and pathophysiological role of gut hormones in regulating our food intake and how this knowledge could guide, or has guided, the development of weight-loss drugs. Up-to-date outcomes of clinical trials are evaluated and directions for the future suggested.

  2. Structural Basis for Prereceptor Modulation of Plant Hormones by GH3 Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Corey S.; Zubieta, Chloe; Herrmann, Jonathan; Kapp, Ulrike; Nanao, Max H.; Jez, Joseph M. (WU); (EMBL); (ESRF)

    2013-04-08

    Acyl acid amido synthetases of the GH3 family act as critical prereceptor modulators of plant hormone action; however, the molecular basis for their hormone selectivity is unclear. Here, we report the crystal structures of benzoate-specific Arabidopsis thaliana AtGH3.12/PBS3 and jasmonic acid-specific AtGH3.11/JAR1. These structures, combined with biochemical analysis, define features for the conjugation of amino acids to diverse acyl acid substrates and highlight the importance of conformational changes in the carboxyl-terminal domain for catalysis. We also identify residues forming the acyl acid binding site across the GH3 family and residues critical for amino acid recognition. Our results demonstrate how a highly adaptable three-dimensional scaffold is used for the evolution of promiscuous activity across an enzyme family for modulation of plant signaling molecules.

  3. Follicle stimulating hormone modulates ovarian stem cells through alternately spliced receptor variant FSH-R3

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Hiren; Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Gunjal, Pranesh; Yedurkar, Snehal; Bhatt, Mithun

    2013-01-01

    Background We have earlier reported that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) modulates ovarian stem cells which include pluripotent, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and their immediate descendants ?progenitors? termed ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs), lodged in adult mammalian ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). FSH may exert pleiotropic actions through its alternatively spliced receptor isoforms. Four isoforms of FSH receptors (FSHR) are reported in literature of which FSH-R1 and FS...

  4. Recombinant growth hormone treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Melmed, S; Sherman, B; Frane, J; Munsat, T L; Festoff, B W

    1993-06-01

    Based on the known trophic effects of growth hormone (GH) on nerve and muscle 75 patients with ALS were treated for up to 18 months with synthetic human growth hormone (Protropin) or a placebo. The course of ALS was assessed serially using a quantitative (TQNE) neuromuscular and manual exam (MRC) and laboratory chemistries. Average insulin-related growth factor (IGF-I) values increased from 1.2 to 2.3 U/mL in the treated group. Surprisingly, serum insulin levels did not increase. Hyperglycemia was noted in only 2 patients of the 38 patients receiving hGH, and this resolved with cessation of treatment. Over the 12 months of treatment there were 11 deaths (6 controls, 5 treated). Survival analysis, performed approximately 12 months following cessation of treatment, did not reveal a difference between the treatment and placebo group. The TQNE scores declined inexorably in both the control and treated group. Retrospective analysis of the TQNE data indicated a poor prognosis for patients who lost arm strength early. A correlation between the TQNE and MRC scores was evident at early stages of motor unit loss, less so when muscle weakness was advanced.

  5. [Repigmentation of gray hair after thyroid hormone treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, P; Guzmán, M; Marquina, M; Pretel, M; Aguado, L; Lloret, P; Gorrochategui, A

    2007-11-01

    Darkening of gray and white hairs occurred in 2 patients with increased exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) due to treatment of myxedema coma in one case and iatrogenic hyperthyroidism in the other. We hypothesized that thyroid hormone may affect the homeostasis of hair follicles. To test our hypothesis and investigate the influence of thyroid hormone on the hair cycle, we used an in vivo murine model and an in vitro model based on culture of follicular units. We used the standard C57BL/6 murine model of the hair cycle. T3 (0.5 microg) dissolved in ethanol was applied topically once daily for 10 days to a depilated area in the telogen phase on the backs of the mice. Follicular units, obtained from hair transplant interventions, were cultured in vitro with different concentrations of T3. On day 5, all T3-treated mice entered the anagen phase, whereas the anagen phase started spontaneously in control mice on day 9, and not until day 15 had all controls entered this phase. In the in vitro experiment, follicular units treated with 100 nmol/L T3 grew significantly larger compared to the control group. These data suggest that follicles in the telogen phase can be induced to enter the anagen phase by the topical application of T3. This thyroid hormone may reverse graying of the terminal hair. In the in vitro experiments, T3 stimulated hair shaft growth. Follicular melanocytes may be the target cell for these actions.

  6. A systematic review of non-hormonal treatments of vasomotor symptoms in climacteric and cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Drewe, Juergen; Bucher, Kathleen A; Zahner, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The cardinal climacteric symptoms of hot flushes and night sweats affect 24-93% of all women during the physiological transition from reproductive to post-reproductive life. Though efficacious, hormonal therapy and partial oestrogenic compounds are linked to a significant increase in breast cancer. Non-hormonal treatments are thus greatly appreciated. This systematic review of published hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for climacteric, and breast and prostate cancer-associated hot flushes...

  7. [Controversies in the substitute hormonal treatment of menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavero Núñez, José Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recent publications in magazines of the maximum impact raise serious and big doubts among the gynecologists. Of a side, the substitute hormonal therapy (THS) doesn't seem to have value like preventive of the heart attack neither of the osteoporosis. Of other, it can carry thrombosis in the first months of treatment, besides the already acquaintance increment of the mamma cancer risk starting from the fifth year of THS. In the present communication the systematic one is exposed continued so far, and the possible alternatives that we should adopt to avoid presumed complications, and the subsequent reclamations that the patients could file.

  8. Modulation of primary cilia length by melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Akie; Yamato, Shogo; Katoh, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazuhisa; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Takeda, Sen; Kobayashi, Yuki; Saito, Yumiko

    2016-06-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 (MCHR1) is a class A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The MCH-MCHR1 system has been implicated in the regulation of feeding, emotional processing, and sleep in rodents. Recent work revealed that MCHR1 is selectively expressed in neuronal primary cilia of the central nervous system. Cilia have various chemosensory functions in many types of cell, and ciliary dysfunction is associated with ciliopathies such as polycystic kidney disease and obesity. Although dynamic modulation of neuronal cilia length is observed in obese mice, the functional interaction of neuronal ciliary GPCR and its endogenous ligand has not yet been elucidated. We report here that MCH treatment significantly reduced cilia length in hTERT-RPE1 cells (hRPE1 cells) transfected with MCHR1. Quantitative analyses indicated that MCH-induced cilia shortening progressed in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 lower than 1nM when cells were treated for 6h. Although the assembly and disassembly of primary cilia are tightly coupled to the cell cycle, cell cycle reentry was not a determinant of MCH-induced cilia shortening. We confirmed that MCH elicited receptor internalization, Ca(2+) mobilization, ERK and Akt phosphorylation, and inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in MCHR1-expressing hRPE1 cells. Among these diverse pathways, we revealed that Gi/o-dependent Akt phosphorylation was an important component in the initial stage of MCH-induced cilia length shortening. Furthermore, induction of fewer cilia by Kif3A siRNA treatment significantly decreased the MCH-mediated phosphorylation of Akt, indicating the functional importance of the MCHR1-Akt pathway in primary cilia. Taken together, the present data suggest that the MCH-MCHR1 axis may modulate the sensitivity of cells to external environments by controlling the cilia length. Therefore, further characterization of MCHR1 as a ciliary GPCR will provide a potential molecular mechanism to link cilia length

  9. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  10. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HORMONAL AND NON-HORMONAL METHODS OF TREATMENT OF EARLY MANIFESTATIONS OF CLIMACTERIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Виктор Евсеевич Радзинский; Анна Андреевна Костромина

    2017-01-01

    Early manifestations of climacteric syndrome (hot flashes, night sweats, depression, and others) are widespreadin middle-aged women. Hot flashes , in particular, dramatically reduce the quality of life of these women, which in many cases requires treatment. Selection of individual adequate and affordable therapy is one of the main issues of modern gynecology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different hormonal and non-hormonal methods of managing of of climacteric...

  11. Non‑Hormonal treatment of BPH/BOO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir I Osman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the use of non-hormonal pharmacotherapies in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS due to presumed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A search of the PUBMED database was conducted for the terms BPH, LUTS, bladder outlet obstruction, alpha-adrenoceptor blockers, anti-muscarinics, and phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors. Results: Medical therapy has long been established as the accepted standard of care in the treatment of male LUTS. The aim of treatment is improvement in symptoms and quality of life whilst minimizing adverse effects. The agents most widely used as 1 st line therapy are alpha-blockers (AB, as a standalone or in combination with 2 other classes of drug; 5-α reductase inhibitors and anti-muscarinics. AB have rapid efficacy, improving symptoms and flow rate in a matter of days, these effects are then maintained over time. AB do not impact on prostate size and do not prevent acute urinary retention or the need for surgery. Anti-mucarinics, alone or in combination with an AB are safe and efficacious in the treatment of bothersome storage symptoms associated with LUTS/BPH. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are an emerging treatment option that improve LUTS without improving flow rates. Conclusions: AB are the most well-established pharmacotherapy in the management of men with LUTS/BPH. The emergence of different classes of agent offers the opportunity to target underlying pathophysiologies driving symptoms and better individualize treatment.

  12. Does growth hormone treatment influence pubertal development in short children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Anna-Karin; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Tuvemo, Torsten; Jonsson, Björn; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Ritzén, E Martin

    2011-01-01

    To study the influence of growth hormone (GH) treatment on the initiation and progression of puberty in short children. This prospective, randomized, controlled study included 124 short children (33 girls) who received GH treatment (Genotropin®; Pfizer Inc.) from a mean age of 11 years until near adult height [intent-to-treat (ITT) population]. Children were randomized into three groups: controls (n = 33), GH 33 μg/kg/day (n = 34) or GH 67 μg/kg/day (n = 57). Prepubertal children at study start constituted the per-protocol (PP) population (n = 101). Auxological measurements were made and puberty was staged every 3 months. Serum sex-steroid concentrations were assessed every 6 months. No significant differences were found between the groups, of both PP and ITT populations, in time elapsed from start of treatment until either onset of puberty, age at start of puberty or age at final pubertal maturation in either sex. In the ITT population, pubertal duration was significantly longer in GH-treated girls, and maximum mean testicular volume was significantly greater in GH-treated boys than controls, but there were no differences in testosterone levels between the groups. GH treatment did not influence age at onset of puberty and did not accelerate pubertal development. In boys, GH treatment appeared to increase testicular volume. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hormonal Aspects of the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Holt, Rune; de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    (Ad spermatogonia) is essential for later fertility. Bilateral cryptorchid patients have a high risk of later infertility, even though they undergo early surgery for cryptorchidism. It is possible today to distinguish-to a certain extent-between three different groups of cryptorchid patients based...... on testicular histology, gonadotropins, and inhibin B at the time of early surgery: Group 1, patients suspected of prepubertal transient hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular hypofunction and a high risk of later infertility; Group 2, patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and a primary testicular dysfunction......; and Group 3, patients with normal histology and normal serum levels of inhibin B and gonadotropins at the time of early surgery and a low risk of later infertility. Given the potential adverse effects of hormonal treatment, attention should be directed toward small doses of adjuvant gonadotropin...

  14. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Osachoff, Heather [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Wigmore, Heidi [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Clapson, David J. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Gunderson, Mark P. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Van Aggelen, Graham [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)]. E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca

    2006-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) {alpha} and {beta}, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan and injected with 1 x 10{sup -11} mol/g body weight 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were determined. mRNA abundance was also examined in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T{sub 3}. Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concentrations as low as 0.15 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body weight following T{sub 3} administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T{sub 3}-mediated TR{beta} mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T{sub 3} treatment whereas TR{alpha} and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor {alpha} transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient weight loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T{sub 3} plus nominal concentrations of triclosan as low as 0.03 {mu}g/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development.

  15. The hormonal Zeitgeber melatonin: Role as a circadian modulator in memory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver eRawashdeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine substance melatonin is a hormone synthesized rhythmically by the pineal gland under the influence of the circadian system and alternating light/dark cycles. Melatonin has been shown to have broad applications, and consequently becoming a molecule of great controversy. Undoubtedly, however, melatonin plays an important role as a time cue for the endogenous circadian system. This review focuses on melatonin as a regulator in the circadian modulation of memory processing. Memory processes (acquisition, consolidation and retrieval are modulated by the circadian system. However, the mechanism by which the biological clock is rhythmically influencing cognitive processes remains unknown. We also discuss, how the circadian system by generating cycling melatonin levels can implant information about daytime into memory processing, depicted as day and nighttime differences in acquisition, memory consolidation and/or retrieval.

  16. The corticosteroid hormone induced factor: a new modulator of KCNQ1 channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2006-01-01

    . To study a potential regulatory effect of the CHIF subunit on KCNQ1 channels, co-expression experiments were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and mammalian CHO-K1 cells. Electrophysiological characterization was obtained by two-electrode voltage-clamp and patch-clamp, respectively. In both expression...... systems, we find that CHIF drastically modulates the KCNQ1 current; in the presence of CHIF, the KCNQ1 channels open at all membrane potentials. Thereby, CHIF is the first accessory subunit shown to be capable of modulating both the Na,K-pump and an ion channel. To find a possible physiological function...... of the constitutively open KCNQ1/CHIF complex, the precise localization of KCNQ1 and CHIF in distal colon and kidney from control and salt-depleted rats was determined by confocal microscopy. However, in these tissues, we did not detect an obvious overlap in expression between KCNQ1 and CHIF. In conclusion, the hormone...

  17. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-05-01

    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Effect of Price Increase of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Treatment Practices of Infantile Spasms

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Carter D.; Benke, Timothy A

    2010-01-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an “orphan drug,” made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-...

  19. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  20. The role of hormonal treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam SK

    2015-02-01

    agents, active and frequent participation of diabetes educator, and involvement of multidisciplinary team. The objective of this review is to highlight recent trends in hormonal treatment and to explore new and innovative therapeutic modalities in the management of T2DM.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, hormonal treatment, early insulinization, glycosylated hemoglobin, ketoacidosis, hyperglycemia, hypoglycaemia

  1. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing...

  2. Growth hormone treatment in Turner's syndrome: A real world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS. Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. Methods: This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. The data such as height, weight, and bone age of 16 patients who are diagnosed with TS on GH therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. All the patients were treated with human recombinant GH at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 12.7 years. The mean height at the start of GH therapy was 1.26 m, and mean height standard deviation score (HSDS was-0.61 when compared to Turner's specific reference data. With a mean duration of GH therapy of 25 months, the mean height at the end of therapy was 1.37 m and the mean height as per HSDS was + 0.37 resulting in a mean height gain of + 0.99 HSDS. Conclusion: Our observation shows that girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with GH.

  3. Growth Hormone Treatment in Turner's Syndrome: A Real World Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Danda, Vijay Sheker; Sreedevi, P; Arun, G; Rao, P Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS). Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH) on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. The data such as height, weight, and bone age of 16 patients who are diagnosed with TS on GH therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. All the patients were treated with human recombinant GH at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week administered as daily subcutaneous injections. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.7 years. The mean height at the start of GH therapy was 1.26 m, and mean height standard deviation score (HSDS) was-0.61 when compared to Turner's specific reference data. With a mean duration of GH therapy of 25 months, the mean height at the end of therapy was 1.37 m and the mean height as per HSDS was + 0.37 resulting in a mean height gain of + 0.99 HSDS. Our observation shows that girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with GH.

  4. EFFECT OF GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT ON CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH IN TURNERS SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; VANDERBORN, E; PRAHLANDERSEN, B; VONTEUNENBROEK, A; MANESSE, P; OTTEN, BJ; VANDERTWEEL, [No Value; KUIJPERSJAGTMAN, AM; VANDERWAAL, HAD; DRAYER, NM; WIT, JM; VANDERBRANDE, JL

    A cephalometric study was performed in 19 patients with Turner's syndrome, aged 8.7-16.5 years. A lateral roentgencephalogram was taken before and after two years of treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone in a dose of 24 IU/m2/week. During two years of growth hormone treatment, the mandibular

  5. Hormone treatment of gender identity disorder in a cohort of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Paul, Campbell; Kasiannan, Porpavai; Grover, Sonia R; Newman, Louise K; Warne, Garry L

    2012-05-21

    To describe the experience of hormone treatment of gender identity disorder (GID) in children and adolescents within a specialist clinic. Cohort study by medical record review of children aged 0-17 years referred during 2003-2011 for management at the GID clinic in a tertiary paediatric referral centre - the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria. Clinical characteristics of the patient population, hormone treatment provided, frequency of referrals with time. Thirty-nine children and adolescents were referred for gender dysphoria. Seventeen individuals were pubertal with persistent GID, and were considered eligible for hormone treatment. Seven patients, comprising three biological males and four biological females, had legally endorsed hormone treatment. In this group, gender dysphoria was first noted at 3-6 years of age. Hormone treatment with GnRH analogue to suppress pubertal progression (phase 1) was given at 10-16 years of age. Treatment with cross-sex hormones (phase 2) was given at 15.6-16 years. One patient purchased cross-sex hormone treatment overseas. One patient received oestrogen and progesterone for menstrual suppression before phase 1. The annual frequency of new referrals increased continuously over the study period. Hormone treatment for pubertal suppression and subsequent gender transition needs to be individualised within stringent protocols in multidisciplinary specialist units.

  6. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  7. Brown kelp modulates endocrine hormones in female sprague-dawley rats and in human luteinized granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibola, Christine F; Curry, John D; VandeVoort, Catherine; Conley, Alan; Smith, Martyn T

    2005-02-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that populations consuming typical Asian diets have a lower incidence of hormone-dependent cancers than populations consuming Western diets. These dietary differences have been mainly attributed to higher soy intakes among Asians. However, studies from our laboratory suggest that the anti-estrogenic effects of dietary kelp also may contribute to these reduced cancer rates. As a follow-up to previous findings of endocrine modulation related to kelp ingestion in a pilot study of premenopausal women, we investigated the endocrine modulating effects of kelp (Fucus vesiculosus) in female rats and human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGC). Kelp administration lengthened the rat estrous cycle from 4.3 +/- 0.96 to 5.4 +/- 1.7 d at 175 mg . kg(-1) body wt . d(-1) (P = 0.05) and to 5.9 +/- 1.9 d at 350 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1) (P = 0.002) and also led to a 100% increase in the length of diestrus (P = 0.02). Following 175 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1) treatment for 2 wk, serum 17beta-estradiol levels were reduced from 48.9 +/- 4.5 to 40.2 +/- 3.2 ng/L (P = 0.13). After 4 wk, 17beta-estradiol levels were reduced to 36.7 +/- 2.2 ng/L (P = 0.02). In hLGC, 25, 50, and 75 micromol/L treatment reduced 17beta-estradiol levels from 4732 +/- 591 to 3632 +/- 758, 3313 +/- 373, and 3060 +/- 538 ng/L, respectively. Kelp treatment also led to modest elevations in hLGC culture progesterone levels. Kelp extract inhibited the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptor alpha and beta and that of progesterone to the progesterone receptor, with IC(50) values of 42.4, 31.8, and 40.7 micromol/L, respectively. These data show endocrine modulating effects of kelp at relevant doses and suggest that dietary kelp may contribute to the lower incidence of hormone-dependent cancers among the Japanese.

  8. Do hormone treatments for prostate cancer cause anxiety and depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F; Christie, David R H; Bitsika, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between hormone therapy (HT) and incidence of anxiety and depression among prostate cancer patients (PCa). 526 PCa patients completed a survey about their cancer status, treatment received, anxiety, and depression status. Total scores on anxiety and depression inventories, plus symptom profiles that discriminated between patients with current HT, past HT, and never having received HT, were compiled for analysis. Patients who were currently receiving HT had significantly higher total anxiety and depression scores than patients who had previously received HT or who had never received HT. Analysis of the symptoms of anxiety and depression which distinguished between these groups of patients suggested that patients who had never received HT had significantly lower scores than current or past HT patients. Although several symptoms could be directly allocated to PCa and/or HT, symptom profiles were indicative of clinically significant anxiety and/or depression in patients who were currently receiving, or who had previously received, HT. Current HT may lead to symptoms of anxiety and/or depression which require clinical attention. These effects seem to decrease after completion of HT.

  9. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  10. Effect of modulated ultrahigh frequency field on behavior and hormone level in female rats under emotional stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasulov, M.M.

    The effect of a modulated electromagnetic field (MEMF) (field frequency of 40 MHz and modulated frequency of 50 Hz, 1 h exposure daily for 30 days) on behavior and level of sexual hormones, determined from the length of the estrous cycle and of its separate phases, was studied in female Wistar rats subjected to sexual deprivation. The ratio of frequency of running to number of vertical positions (R:V) was used as an index. Activity of rats declined during the 1-h exposure to MEMF; this may indicate the direct effect of MEMF on the central nervous system. Analysis of behavior after MEMF treatments ceased showed that the R:V ratio increased from 3.2:1 to 3:1 in month 3 and reached 2:1 in month 5. The relative significance of sexual behavior (lordosis, licking of perineum) more than double in comparison with the initial level. The findings support the existence of individual differences in sensitivity to a UHF field. The data on the estrous cycle indicate the tranquilizing effect of a UHF field on the neuroendocrine system and the greater resistance of individual animals exposed to MEMF to the development of sexual neurosis. 12 references, 2 figures.

  11. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Csikasz, Robert I.; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Diéguez, Carlos; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; López, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Classically, metabolic effects of thyroid hormones (THs) have been considered to be peripherally mediated, i.e. different tissues in the body respond directly to thyroid hormones with an increased metabolism. An alternative view is that the metabolic effects are centrally regulated. We have examined here the degree to which prolonged, centrally infused triiodothyronine (T3) could in itself induce total body metabolic effects and the degree to which brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis was essential for such effects, by examining uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) KO mice. Methods Wildtype and UPC1 KO mice were centrally-treated with T3 by using minipumps. Metabolic measurements were analyzed by indirect calorimetry and expression analysis by RT-PCR or western blot. BAT morphology and histology were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results We found that central T3-treatment led to reduced levels of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and elevated body temperature (0.7 °C). UCP1 was essential for the T3-induced increased rate of energy expenditure, which was only observable at thermoneutrality and notably only during the active phase, for the increased body weight loss, for the increased hypothalamic levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and for the increased food intake induced by central T3-treatment. Prolonged central T3-treatment also led to recruitment of BAT and britening/beiging (“browning”) of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). Conclusions We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents. PMID:27069867

  12. Stanniocalcin-1 Hormone in Nonpreeclamptic and Preeclamptic Pregnancy: Clinical, Life-Style, and Genetic Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhanson, Peeter; Rull, Kristiina; Kikas, Triin; Laivuori, Hannele; Vaas, Pille; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Seppo; Laan, Maris

    2016-12-01

    The study represents the first comprehensive analysis of Stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) hormone in human pregnancy, assessing clinical, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of circulating STC1 at term. Participants included women with (n = 50) and without (n = 316) preeclampsia (PE) at delivery, recruited in the REPROgrammed fetal and/or maternal METAbolism (REPROMETA) study (2006-2011, Estonia). Genetic association analysis combined PE cases (n = 597) and controls (n = 623) from the REPROMETA and Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium (2008-2011) studies. Maternal postpartum plasma STC1 was measured by ELISA (n = 366) and placental STC1 gene expression by TaqMan quantitative RT-PCR (n = 120). Genotyping was performed using Sequenom MassArray. Significantly higher STC1 plasma level was measured for the PE (median, 1952 pg/mL; 1030-4284 pg/mL) compared with non-PE group (median, 1562 pg/mL; 423-3781 pg/mL; P = 3.7 × 10(-4), Mann-Whitney U test). Statistical significance was enhanced after adjustment for cofactors (linear regression, P = 1.8 × 10(-6)). STC1 measurements were negatively correlated with maternal smoking. Prepregnancy body mass index had a positive correlation with STC1 only among PE patients (r = 0.45; P = .001). The strongest genetic association with hormone concentrations was detected for STC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3758089 (C allele: minor allele frequency, 5%; linear regression: β = 249.2 pg/mL; P = .014) and rs12678447 (G allele: minor allele frequency, 7%; β = 147.0 pg/mL; P = .082). rs12678447 placental genotypes were significantly associated with STC1 gene expression (P = .014). The REPROMETA/Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium meta-analysis suggested an increased risk to develop late-onset PE for the rs12678447 G allele carriers (P = .05; odds ratio = 1.38 [0.98-1.93]). Increased STC1 hormone represents a hallmark of late-onset PE. STC1 gene variants modulate placental gene expression and maternal hormone levels.

  13. Gonadal hormone modulation of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and metabolism in female versus male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, R M; Haas, A E; Wiley, J L; Yu, Z; Clowers, B H

    2017-01-01

    The gonadal hormones testosterone (T) in adult males and estradiol (E2) in adult females have been reported to modulate behavioral effects of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study determined whether activational effects of T and E2 are sex-specific, and whether hormones modulate production of the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and the inactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). Adult male and female rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and treated with nothing (0), T (10-mm Silastic capsule/100g body weight), or E2 (1-mm Silastic capsule/rat). Three weeks later, saline or the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (25mg/kg; to block THC metabolism and boost THC's effects) was injected i.p.; 1h later, vehicle or THC (3mg/kg females, 5mg/kg males) was injected i.p., and rats were tested for antinociceptive and motoric effects 15-240min post-injection. T did not consistently alter THC-induced antinociception in males, but decreased it in females (tail withdrawal test). Conversely, T decreased THC-induced catalepsy in males, but had no effect in females. E2 did not alter THC-induced antinociception in females, but enhanced it in males. The discrepant effects of T and E2 on males' and females' behavioral responses to THC suggests that sexual differentiation of THC sensitivity is not simply due to activational effects of hormones, but also occurs via organizational hormone or sex chromosome effects. Analysis of serum showed that proadifen increased THC levels, E2 increased 11-OH-THC in GDX males, and T decreased 11-OH-THC (and to a lesser extent, THC) in GDX females. Thus, hormone modulation of THC's behavioral effects is caused in part by hormone modulation of THC oxidation to its active metabolite. However, the fact that hormone modulation of metabolism did not alter THC sensitivity similarly on all behavioral measures within each sex suggests that other mechanisms also play a role in gonadal hormone modulation of THC sensitivity in adult rats

  14. Severe acute malnutrition in childhood: hormonal and metabolic status at presentation, response to treatment, and predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Sarah; Mody, Aaloke; Hornik, Christoph; Bain, James; Muehlbauer, Michael; Kiyimba, Tonny; Kiboneka, Elizabeth; Stevens, Robert; Bartlett, John; St Peter, John V; Newgard, Christopher B; Freemark, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. To identify and target those at highest risk, there is a critical need to characterize biomarkers that predict complications prior to and during treatment. We used targeted and nontargeted metabolomic analysis to characterize changes in a broad array of hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and metabolites during treatment of severe childhood malnutrition. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were studied at presentation to Mulago Hospital and during inpatient therapy with milk-based formulas and outpatient supplementation with ready-to-use food. We assessed the relationship between baseline hormone and metabolite levels and subsequent mortality. Seventy-seven patients were enrolled in the study; a subset was followed up from inpatient treatment to the outpatient clinic. Inpatient and outpatient therapies increased weight/height z scores and induced striking changes in the levels of fatty acids, amino acids, acylcarnitines, inflammatory cytokines, and various hormones including leptin, insulin, GH, ghrelin, cortisol, IGF-I, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY. A total of 12.2% of the patients died during hospitalization; the major biochemical factor predicting mortality was a low level of leptin (P = .0002), a marker of adipose tissue reserve and a critical modulator of immune function. We have used metabolomic analysis to provide a comprehensive hormonal and metabolic profile of severely malnourished children at presentation and during nutritional rehabilitation. Our findings suggest that fatty acid metabolism plays a central role in the adaptation to acute malnutrition and that low levels of the adipose tissue hormone leptin associate with, and may predict, mortality prior to and during treatment.

  15. Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women : pharmacological intervention and female sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, Esmé Aurelia

    2008-01-01

    Effects of hormone treatment on sexual functioning in postmenopausal women. Pharmacological intervention and female sexuality: a complex, controversial clinical and social issue. The studies presented in this thesis have been conducted to investigate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) and tibolone

  16. Cognitive and Adaptive Advantages of Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Roof, Elizabeth; Hunt-Hawkins, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) typically have mild to moderate intellectual deficits, compulsivity, hyperphagia, obesity, and growth hormone deficiencies. Growth hormone treatment (GHT) in PWS has well-established salutatory effects on linear growth and body composition, yet cognitive benefits of GHT, seen in other patient…

  17. Hormonal consequences, replacement therapy, and lost workdays after cervical cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hallqvist Everhov, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Uterine cervical cancer affects women of all ages and has a generally favorable prognosis. Many survivors live long with the consequences of the disease and its treatment, and therefore it is important to characterize potential treatment-induced morbidity. Aims: To investigate different hormonal aspects and work loss among cervical cancer survivors, by treatment modality. Methods: In a pilot study, we analyzed serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle-stimu...

  18. Long-term evaluation of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Mueller, Sven; Weyers, Steven; Van Caenegem, Eva; Roef, Greet; Heylens, Gunter; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2012-10-01

    Long-term effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons are not well known. The aim of this study is to describe the effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone therapy in both transsexual men and women. Hormone levels were measured by immunoassays. Physical health was assessed by physical examination and questionnaires on general health and specific side effects, areal bone parameters by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single center cross-sectional study in 100 transsexual persons post-sex reassignment surgery and on average 10 years on cross-sex hormone therapy. Transsexual men did not experience important side effects such as cardiovascular events, hormone-related cancers, or osteoporosis. In contrast, a quarter of the transsexual women had osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and radius. Moreover, 6% of transsexual women experienced a thromboembolic event and another 6% experienced other cardiovascular problems after on average 11.3 hormone treatment years. None of the transsexual women experienced a hormone-related cancer during treatment. Cross-sex hormone treatment appears to be safe in transsexual men. On the other hand, a substantial number of transsexual women suffered from osteoporosis at the lumbar spine and distal arm. Twelve percent of transsexual women experienced thromboembolic and/or other cardiovascular events during hormone treatment, possibly related to older age, estrogen treatment, and lifestyle factors. In order to decrease cardiovascular morbidity, more attention should be paid to decrease cardiovascular risk factors during hormone therapy management. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Stress Hormones Epinephrine and Corticosterone Selectively Modulate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 Productive Infections in Adult Sympathetic, but Not Sensory, Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Angela M; Bertke, Andrea S

    2017-07-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect and establish latency in peripheral neurons, from which they can reactivate to cause recurrent disease throughout the life of the host. Stress is associated with the exacerbation of clinical symptoms and the induction of recurrences in humans and animal models. The viruses preferentially replicate and establish latency in different subtypes of sensory neurons, as well as in neurons of the autonomic nervous system that are highly responsive to stress hormones. To determine if stress-related hormones modulate productive HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections within sensory and autonomic neurons, we analyzed viral DNA and the production of viral progeny after treatment of primary adult murine neuronal cultures with the stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone. Both sensory trigeminal ganglion (TG) and sympathetic superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons expressed adrenergic receptors (activated by epinephrine) and the glucocorticoid receptor (activated by corticosterone). Productive HSV infection colocalized with these receptors in SCG but not in TG neurons. In productively infected neuronal cultures, epinephrine treatment significantly increased the levels of HSV-1 DNA replication and production of viral progeny in SCG neurons, but no significant differences were found in TG neurons. In contrast, corticosterone significantly decreased the levels of HSV-2 DNA replication and production of viral progeny in SCG neurons but not in TG neurons. Thus, the stress-related hormones epinephrine and corticosterone selectively modulate acute HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in autonomic, but not sensory, neurons. IMPORTANCE Stress exacerbates acute disease symptoms resulting from HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections and is associated with the appearance of recurrent skin lesions in millions of people. Although stress hormones are thought to impact HSV-1 and HSV-2 through immune system suppression, sensory and autonomic neurons that become

  20. Anti-melanin-concentrating hormone treatment attenuates chronic experimental colitis and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Gras-Miralles, Beatriz; Mustafa, Sarah; Geiger, Brenda M; Najarian, Robert M; Nagel, Jutta M; Flier, Sarah N; Popov, Yury; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Kokkotou, Efi

    2013-05-15

    Fibrosis represents a major complication of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Treatment of IBD remains a clinical challenge despite several recent therapeutic advances. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide shown to regulate appetite and energy balance. However, accumulating evidence suggests that MCH has additional biological effects, including modulation of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of an MCH-blocking antibody in treating established, dextran sodium sulfate-induced experimental colitis. Histological and molecular analysis of mouse tissues revealed that mice receiving anti-MCH had accelerated mucosal restitution and lower colonic expression of several proinflammatory cytokines, as well as fibrogenic genes, including COL1A1. In parallel, they spared collagen deposits seen in the untreated mice, suggesting attenuated fibrosis. These findings raised the possibility of perhaps direct effects of MCH on myofibroblasts. Indeed, in biopsies from patients with IBD, we demonstrate expression of the MCH receptor MCHR1 in α-smooth muscle actin(+) subepithelial cells. CCD-18Co cells, a primary human colonic myofibroblast cell line, were also positive for MCHR1. In these cells, MCH acted as a profibrotic modulator by potentiating the effects of IGF-1 and TGF-β on proliferation and collagen production. Thus, by virtue of combined anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, blocking MCH might represent a compelling approach for treating IBD.

  1. Conjectures Concerning Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment of Aging Transsexual Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooren, L.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people are now in place. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of treatment suitability for older people. Does existing treatment need to be adapted as subjects age, and does it make a difference if treatment is

  2. Gut hormones - Novel tools in the treatment of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlevliet, Edwin Tijmen

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has now become a global epidemic. The past decade hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have gained much interest as potential new therapeutic drugs in the battle against this disease. Gut peptides play an important role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis.

  3. The Language of Journalism in Treatments of Hormone Replacement News

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Susan Peck

    2005-01-01

    Researchers studying science communication have criticized the sensationalism that often appears in journalistic accounts of science news. This article looks at the linguistic sources of that sensationalism by analyzing the journalistic coverage of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study of hormone replacement research, which was abruptly…

  4. Comparative study of the influence of pregnancy and hormonal treatment on mammary carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, I. H.; Koszalka, M.; Russo, J

    1991-01-01

    Since it has been shown that pregnancy protects the mammary gland from chemically induced carcinogenesis, this study was designed with the dual purpose of determining whether treatment of young virgin rats with the placental hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics pregnancy-induced changes in the tumourigenic response of the mammary gland and also whether the effect induced by both pregnancy and hormonal treatments was transitory, or a more permanent one, exerting the same effect when the...

  5. Steroid hormone may modulate hepatic somatomedin C production in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxam, V; Davicco, M J; Durand, D; Bauchart, D; Opmeer, F; Barlet, J P

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the possible influence of steroid hormones and a beta-agonist (clembuterol) on hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production in young calves. For this purpose nine 20- to 40-day-old Holstein X Friesian male calves were fitted with chronically indwelling catheters in hepatic and portal veins and hepatic artery. Estradiol induced a simultaneous increase in plasma growth hormone (GH nmol/l) and IGF1 (nmol/l) levels (0.35 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.01 in control calves; 9.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 5.9 +/- 0.5 in controls, respectively). In the same way, 90 min after starting testosterone treatment, plasma GH levels increased from 0.21 +/- 0.08 to 1.30 +/- 0.40 while plasma IGF1 concentrations began to rise only 240 min after starting infusion (8.4 +/- 1.0) to reach maximal values at 300 min (10.7 +/- 1.1). Cortisol and clembuterol did not significantly modify either plasma GH levels or plasma IGF1 concentrations. Our results indicate that in young calves gonadal steroids exert their anabolic action through GH and IGF1.

  6. Parents' views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for

  7. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Visfeldt, J

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone...... after surgery alone (p = 0.06). Gonadotropin releasing hormone and HCG influenced germ cells equally. CONCLUSIONS: In 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin releasing hormone or HCG given for testicular descent may suppress the number of germ cells....

  8. Magnesium modulates parathyroid hormone secretion and upregulates parathyroid receptor expression at moderately low calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ortiz, Maria E; Canalejo, Antonio; Herencia, Carmen; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M; Peralta-Ramírez, Alan; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Navarro-González, Juan F; Rodríguez, Mariano; Peter, Mirjam; Gundlach, Kristina; Steppan, Sonja; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Almaden, Yolanda

    2014-02-01

    The interest on magnesium (Mg) has grown since clinical studies have shown the efficacy of Mg-containing phosphate binders. However, some concern has arisen for the potential effect of increased serum Mg on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Our objective was to evaluate the direct effect of Mg in the regulation of the parathyroid function; specifically, PTH secretion and the expression of parathyroid cell receptors: CaR, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and FGFR1/Klotho. The work was performed in vitro by incubating intact rat parathyroid glands in different calcium (Ca) and Mg concentrations. Increasing Mg concentrations from 0.5 to 2 mM produced a left shift of PTH-Ca curves. With Mg 5 mM, the secretory response was practically abolished. Mg was able to reduce PTH only if parathyroid glands were exposed to moderately low Ca concentrations; with normal-high Ca concentrations, the effect of Mg on PTH inhibition was minor or absent. After 6-h incubation at a Ca concentration of 1.0 mM, the expression of parathyroid CaR, VDR, FGFR1 and Klotho (at mRNA and protein levels) was increased with a Mg concentration of 2.0 when compared with 0.5 mM. Mg reduces PTH secretion mainly when a moderate low calcium concentration is present; Mg also modulates parathyroid glands function through upregulation of the key cellular receptors CaR, VDR and FGF23/Klotho system.

  9. Hormonal influence on the effect of mirabegron treatment for overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallner, Helena Kopp; Elmér, Caroline; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Altman, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if levels of gonadotropic and sex steroidal hormones influence the efficacy of mirabegron in the treatment of overactive bladder. We included 58 female participants who received treatment with mirabegron 50 mg once daily and provided a blood sample for hormone profiling before treatment was initiated. Serum hormone concentrations for estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, FSH, LH, TSH, and T4 were analyzed. Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI), (overactive bladder domain: UDIOAB), and the short form Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) were used to assess subjective outcomes. There were significant overall improvements in UDI, UDIOAB, and the PFIQ from baseline to the 2 months of follow-up (P = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.008, respectively). The magnitude of the mean difference of improvements was similar between pre- and postmenopausal women. Estrogen levels were nonsignificantly lower in participants who experienced an improvement in UDI and UDIOAB at 2 months of follow-up as compared with those that did not (P = 0.7). There were no other clinically relevant differences in hormone levels in relation to improvements in UDI, UDIOAB, or PFIQ. In logistic regression analysis there were no associations between UDIOAB outcomes and age, previous use of anticholinergic drugs, parity, menopause, and local estrogen treatment. Estradiol, gonadotropic hormones, thyroid hormones, and testosterone levels did not influence the clinical effects of mirabegron in women with overactive bladder. Menopause status should not be a determinant for mirabegron treatment.

  10. Long-term results of growth hormone treatment in France in children of short stature: population, register based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Coste, J.; Letrait, M.; Carel, J C; Tresca, J. P.; Chatelain, P; Rochiccioli, P.; Chaussain, J. L.; Job, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the growth of children treated with growth hormone and to evaluate the prognostic factors for height at the end of treatment. DESIGN: Register based cohort study. SETTING: French national register of all children treated with growth hormone. SUBJECTS: 3233 short stature children (3165 of whom were deficient in growth hormone) who were treated with growth hormone (excluding children with Turner's syndrome) and whose treatment started between 1973 and 1989, last data bei...

  11. Conjectures concerning cross-sex hormone treatment of aging transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis; Lips, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people are now in place. However, little attention has been paid to the issue of treatment suitability for older people. Does existing treatment need to be adapted as subjects age, and does it make a difference if treatment is only started when the subject is already older? To assess the necessity of adapting cross-sex hormone administration for elderly transsexual people. Risks/benefits of continued use of cross-sex hormones with regard to bone health, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Due to lack of data on the subject population, sex hormone treatment of other conditions in older non-transsexual people has been taken as the best available analogy to determine the extent to which these might be applicable to comparable transsexual persons. Findings in transsexual people receiving cross-sex hormone treatment sometimes modified the above approach of applying guidelines for the elderly to the aging transsexual population. Testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexual persons (FtoM) carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. For those with high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency the dose can be reduced. Administration of estrogens to male-to-female transsexual persons (MtoF), particularly when combined with progestins, does significantly increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (almost a twofold incidence compared with the general population). This may require dose adjustment or changing from oral to safer transdermal estrogens. Tumors of the breasts, prostate and pituitary may occur. In FtoM, breast cancer can occur even after breast ablation. Older subjects can commence cross-sex hormone treatment without disproportionate risks. Cross-sex hormones may be continued into old age but monitoring for cardiovascular disease and malignancies, both of the old and new sex, is recommended. MtoF will have more health complications in old age than Fto

  12. Hormone-Related Migraine Headaches and Mood Disorders: Treatment with Estrogen Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Julia K; Cohen, Lawrence J; Blumenthal, Harvey; Hammond, Jordan E

    2017-01-01

    Because estrogens and the trigeminal system are inherently linked, prescribers who are treating a woman with a hormonally related mood disorder and migraine headaches should consider hormonal options to optimize the patient's treatment. This article discusses the interrelationships of estrogen, serotonin, and the trigeminal system as they relate to menstrual migraine occurrence and hormone-related mood symptoms. In addition, clinical examples are provided to facilitate the prescribers treating women during reproductive transitions in which declining estrogens are related to their suffering. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  13. The fate of estrogenic hormones in an engineered treatment wetland with dense macrophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.L.; Sedlak, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the estrogenic hormones 17??-estradiol (E2) and 17??-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) have been detected in municipal wastewater effluent and surface waters at concentrations sufficient to cause feminization of male fish. To evaluate the fate of steroid hormones in an engineered treatment wetland, lithium chloride, E2, and EE 2 were added to a treatment wetland test cell. Comparison of hormone and tracer data indicated that 36% of the E2 and 41% of the EE 2 were removed during the cell's 84-h hydraulic retention time (HRT). The observed attenuation was most likely the result of sorption to hydrophobic surfaces in the wetland coupled with biotransformation. Sorption was indicated by the retardation of the hormones relative to the conservative tracer. Biotransformation was indicated by elevated concentrations of the E2 metabolite, estrone. It may be possible to improve the removal efficiency by increasing the HRT or the density of plant materials.

  14. Modulation of fear extinction by stress, stress hormones and estradiol: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula eStockhorst

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear acquisition and extinction are valid models for the etiology and treatment of anxiety, trauma- and stressor-related disorders. These disorders are assumed to involve aversive learning under acute and/or chronic stress. Importantly, fear conditioning and stress share common neuronal circuits. The stress response involves multiple changes interacting in a time-dependent manner: (a the fast first-wave stress response (with central actions of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, plus increased sympathetic tone and peripheral catecholamine release and (b the second-wave stress response (with peripheral release of glucocorticoids after activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Control of fear during extinction is also sensitive to these stress-response mediators. In the present review, we will thus examine current animal and human data, addressing the role of stress and single stress-response mediators for successful acquisition, consolidation and recall of fear extinction. We report studies using pharmacological manipulations targeting a number of stress-related neurotransmitters and neuromodulators (monoamines, opioids, endocannabinoids, neuropeptide Y, oxytocin, glucocorticoids and behavioral stress induction. As anxiety, trauma- and stressor-related disorders are more common in women, recent research focuses on female sex hormones and identifies a potential role for estradiol in fear extinction. We will thus summarize animal and human data on the role of estradiol and explore possible interactions with stress or stress-response mediators in extinction. This also aims at identifying time-windows of enhanced (or reduced sensitivity for fear extinction, and thus also for successful exposure therapy.

  15. Effect of growth hormone treatment on craniofacial growth in children: Idiopathic short stature versus growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Fan, Dong; Hwang, Mi-Soo; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated craniofacial growth in boys and girls with idiopathic short stature (ISS) during growth hormone (GH) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GH treatment on craniofacial growth in children with ISS, compared with those with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study included 36 children (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.8 years) who were treated with GH consecutively. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed before and 2 years after start of GH treatment. There were no significant differences in age and sex between ISS and GHD groups and the reference group from semilongitudinal study (10 boys and 8 girls from each group). Before treatment, girls with ISS showed a skeletal Class II facial profile compared with the GHD and reference groups (p = 0.003). During GH treatment, the amount of maxillary length increased beyond norm in the ISS and GHD groups in boys (p = 0.035) > 3 standard deviation score (SDS). Meanwhile, mandibular ramus height (p = 0.001), corpus length, and total mandibular length (p = 0.007 for both) increased more in girls with ISS than in girls with GHD. Lower and total anterior facial heights increased more in girls with ISS than in girls with GHD (p = 0.021 and p = 0.007, respectively), > 7-11 SDS. GH should be administered carefully when treating girls with ISS, because GH treatment has great effects on vertical overgrowth of the mandible and can result in longer face. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of price increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone on treatment practices of infantile spasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Carter D; Benke, Timothy A

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an "orphan drug," made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 +/- 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 +/- 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth hormone is protective against acute methadone-induced toxicity by modulating the NMDA receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Erik; Grönbladh, Alfhild; Zelleroth, Sofia; Diwakarla, Shanti; Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-12-17

    Human growth hormone (GH) displays promising protective effects in the central nervous system after damage caused by various insults. Current evidence suggests that these effects may involve N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function, a receptor that also is believed to play a role in opioid-induced neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to examine the acute toxic effects of methadone, an opioid receptor agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist, as well as to evaluate the protective properties of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on methadone-induced toxicity. Primary cortical cell cultures from embryonic day 17 rats were grown for 7days in vitro. Cells were treated with methadone for 24h and the 50% lethal dose was calculated and later used for protection studies with rhGH. Cellular toxicity was determined by measuring mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, and caspase activation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor subunits were investigated following methadone and rhGH treatment using quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. A significant protective effect was observed with rhGH treatment on methadone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and in methadone-induced LDH release. Furthermore, methadone significantly increased caspase-3 and -7 activation but rhGH was unable to inhibit this effect. The mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1, GluN2a, and GluN2b increased following methadone treatment, as assessed by qPCR, and rhGH treatment effectively normalized this expression to control levels. We have demonstrated that rhGH can rescue cells from methadone-induced toxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function, cellular integrity, and NMDA receptor complex expression. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Aquiloni

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8: both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS; (2 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9: the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9: the opposite of (2. We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii higher glycemic levels, and (iii lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans.

  20. Growth hormone STAT5-mediated signaling and its modulation in mice liver during the growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; Ratner, Laura D; Matos, Marina N; González, Lorena; Rulli, Susana B; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal growth exhibits two instances of rapid growth in mice: the first is perinatal and independent of growth hormone (GH), the second is peripuberal and GH-dependent. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is the main GH-signaling mediator and it is related to IGF1 synthesis and somatic growth. The aim of this work was to assess differential STAT5 sensitivity to GH during the growth period in mouse liver of both sexes. Three representative ages were selected: 1-week-old animals, in the GH-independent phase of growth; 2.5-week-old mice, at the onset of the GH-dependent phase of growth; and 9-week-old young adults. GH-signaling mediators were assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation is low at one-week and maximal at 2.5-weeks of age when compared to young adults, accompanied by higher protein content at the onset of growth. Suppressor CIS and phosphatase PTP1B exhibit high levels in one-week animals, which gradually decline, while SOCS2 and SOCS3 display higher levels at adulthood. Nuclear phosphorylated STAT5 is low in one-week animals while in 2.5-week animals it is similar to 9-week control; expression of SOCS3, an early response GH-target gene, mimics this pattern. STAT5 coactivators glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) abundance is higher in adulthood. Therefore, GH-induced STAT5 signaling presents age-dependent activity in liver, with its maximum coinciding with the onset of GH-dependent phase of growth, accompanied by an age-dependent variation of modulating factors. This work contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms implicated in GH responsiveness during growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Auxological outcome of growth hormone therapy at cessation of treatment in a cohort of growth hormone deficient Sri Lankan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, K S H; Muhandiram, M E C

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been available free in the state hospitals of Sri Lanka since 2009. The aims were to compare height standard deviation scores (SDS) before and after treatment and compare heights at final assessment in relation to the target height (TH) and TH range. Patients with confirmed GHD followed up at the University Unit of the Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo were studied. Anthropometric data were prospectively recorded from presentation to cessation of therapy. The height SDS before and after treatment were calculated and the heights at final assessment were compared with the TH and TH range. Sixteen patients (15 boys) had completed treatment. The mean age at diagnosis was 145.38 (SD=34.28) months with a mean skeletal age of 97.5 (SD=42.85) months. Mean ages at commencement was 164.75 (SD=36.81) months and at cessation of therapy 212.06 (SD=30.12) months duration of therapy was 47.31 (SD=23.99) months.Majority had isolated GHD and 8 patients had pituitary hypoplasia on neuro-imaging. The height SDS improved significantly with treatment from -4.438 (1.18) to -3.37 (0.81), p<0.001. When finally assessed at ages ranging from 15 years 10 months to 26 years 9 months, one patient had reached the TH while six were in the TH range. Auxological response to therapy was significant although treatment was started late due to financial constraints.

  2. Dual-hormone treatment with insulin and glucagon in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiband, H K; Schmidt, S; Ranjan, Ajenthen

    2015-01-01

    Intensive insulin treatment in type 1 diabetes reduces the incidence and slows the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications; however, it is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. In this review, we propose dual-hormone treatment with insulin...

  3. EXPERIENCE OF ADMINISTRATION OF GROWTH HORMONE IN TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MICROSOMIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Peterkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities of receiving of genetically engineered medications, e.g. somatotropic hormone (STG are almost unrestricted, and treatment and monitoring of patients with different types of microsomia can be held on modern, new level with the help of it. STG provides normal stature and valuable quality of life in these patients. Treatment with growth hormone influences on hormonal, metabolic and psychical status of patient. Metabolic effects are: increasing of muscle strength, improving of renal blood flow, increasing of cardiac output, absorbability of calcium in intestines and mineralization of bones. The level of blood cholesterol, lipoproteins is descended; blood alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, urine and fatty acid are increased. Patients' vitality and quality of life are normalized. Besides somatotropic insufficiency, growth hormone is widely used in growth_stimulating treatment of different types of dwarism in children: microsomia due to pre_natal growth delay, genetic syndromes: Silwer–Russell, Shereshevsky–Turner, Nunan, Prader–Willi, and microsomia in patients with chronic renal disease.Key words: children, microsomia, somatotropic hormone, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:86-93

  4. Modulation of Sleep Homeostasis by Corticotropin Releasing Hormone in REM Sleep-Deprived Rats

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    Ricardo Borges Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that sleep recovery following different protocols of forced waking varies according to the level of stress inherent to each method. Sleep deprivation activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH impairs sleep. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate how manipulations of the CRH system during the sleep deprivation period interferes with subsequent sleep rebound. Throughout 96 hours of sleep deprivation, separate groups of rats were treated i.c.v. with vehicle, CRH or with alphahelical CRH9−41, a CRH receptor blocker, twice/day, at 07:00 h and 19:00 h. Both treatments impaired sleep homeostasis, especially in regards to length of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and theta/delta ratio and induced a later decrease in NREM and REM sleep and increased waking bouts. These changes suggest that activation of the CRH system impact negatively on the homeostatic sleep response to prolonged forced waking. These results indicate that indeed, activation of the HPA axis—at least at the hypothalamic level—is capable to reduce the sleep rebound induced by sleep deprivation.

  5. Global situation of growth hormone treatment in growth hormone- deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria and treatment modalities were investigated through questionnaires from eleven countries and compared with those in Japan. All countries but Australia, where the patients can be treated with GH judged by only auxological data, use the combination of auxological data and peak GH value in provocation tests. GH value is still gold standard, but the cut off value differs among countries. Apart from the differences in cut off value, since it is well-known that GH concentrations vary according to the assay methods and measurement kits, standardization of the measurement kits is mandatory. GH dose ranges between 0.5 and 0.7 IU/kg/week in most countries. The lowest dose (fixed dose of 0.5 IU/kg/week) is used in Japan and the heightest dose (1.05 IU/kg/week) is used in the USA. The costs for GH treatment are most expensive in Japan. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment

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    Eleni Loukianou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily. Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended.

  7. Hormonal treatment reduces psychobiological distress in gender identity disorder, independently of the attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Pace, Valeria; Todarello, Orlando

    2013-12-01

    Gender identity disorder may be a stressful situation. Hormonal treatment seemed to improve the general health as it reduces psychological and social distress. The attachment style seemed to regulate distress in insecure individuals as they are more exposed to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system dysregulation and subjective stress. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the presence of psychobiological distress and insecure attachment in transsexuals and to study their stress levels with reference to the hormonal treatment and the attachment pattern. We investigated 70 transsexual patients. We measured the cortisol levels and the perceived stress before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We studied the representation of attachment in transsexuals by a backward investigation in the relations between them and their caregivers. We used blood samples for assessing cortisol awakening response (CAR); we used the Perceived Stress Scale for evaluating self-reported perceived stress and the Adult Attachment Interview to determine attachment styles. At enrollment, transsexuals reported elevated CAR; their values were out of normal. They expressed higher perceived stress and more attachment insecurity, with respect to normative sample data. When treated with hormone therapy, transsexuals reported significantly lower CAR (P stress (P stress in untreated transsexuals (P stress by attachment. Our results suggested that untreated patients suffer from a higher degree of stress and that attachment insecurity negatively impacts the stress management. Initiating the hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect in reducing stress levels, whatever the attachment style may be. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. The role of steroid hormone supplementation in non-assisted reproductive technology treatments for unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaas, Alexander M; Hansen, Karl R

    2016-12-01

    Fertility treatment strategies are evolving, with a more rapid transition to assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments after unsuccessful non-ART treatments. This trend increases the potential importance of adjuvant treatments in non-ART cycles, such as steroid hormone supplementation. It has been established that success rates of ART treatments are increased with the use of luteal support with progesterone. In the setting of non-ART cycles, however, the evidence is less clear, and clinical practices vary widely between providers and clinics. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of the current evidence for the use of steroid hormone supplementation, including progesterone for luteal support, estrogens, androgens, and mineralocorticoids, in the setting of non-ART treatments for ovulatory women. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  10. Essential role of UCP1 modulating the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayte Alvarez-Crespo

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that UCP1 is essential for mediation of the central effects of thyroid hormones on energy balance, and we suggest that similar UCP1-dependent effects may underlie central energy balance effects of other agents.

  11. Current Practice in Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood: A Survey from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Poyrazo?lu, ??kran; Ak?ay, Teoman; Arslano?lu, ?lknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, ?ffet; B?ber, Ece; Can, ?ule; Cesur, Ya?ar; Darcan, ??kran; Demir, Korcan; D?ndar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment o...

  12. Hormones and Antibiotics in Nature: A Laboratory Module Designed to Broaden Undergraduate Perspectives on Typically Human-Centered Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn F. Weber

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bringing discovery-based research into undergraduate laboratory courses increases student motivation and learning gains over traditional exercises that merely teach technique or demonstrate well-documented phenomena. Laboratory experiences are further enhanced when they are designed to challenge student perspectives on topics relevant to their lives. To this end, a laboratory module on antibiotics and hormones, which are generally discussed in the context of human health, was developed for students to explore the multifaceted roles of antibiotics and hormones in nature (e.g. interspecies communication via reading primary scientific literature and performing discovery-based experiments. The main objective of this module was to increase the general biological literacy of students as determined by their ability to connect the Five Core Concepts of Biological Literacy (American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and Change in Undergraduate Education: A Call to Action, 2011 to the topics “hormones” and “antibiotics” in pre- and postmodule surveys. After discussing unpublished research findings, cell biology students performed experiments demonstrating that: 1 fungi may promote fern growth via hormone production, 2 novel bacterial isolates in the genus Streptomyces produce antifungal compounds, and 3 subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations may enhance soil bacterial growth. The third finding provided evidence supporting a hypothesis framed in a scientific article that students read and discussed. Student perspectives on premodule surveys focused on roles of hormones and antibiotics in the human body (e.g. development, fighting infection, but their broadened postmodule perspectives encompassed the roles of these molecules in organismal communication and possibly the evolution of multicellularity.

  13. Adult height after growth hormone treatment in Japanese children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: analysis from the KIGS Japan database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Takano, Kazue; Chihara, Kazuo; Seino, Yoshiki; Irie, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors affecting adult height in Japanese patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD), who received growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood. A retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study of the effect of GH treatment on adult height standard deviation scores (SDS) was conducted in 374 Japanese patients with idiopathic GHD. During childhood, GH (0.146 +/- 0.023 mg/kg/week) was administered for a mean of 6.4 +/- 2.6 years. The mean adult height was 160.6 +/- 6.3 cm (-1.75 SD; n = 232) in boys and 146.9 +/- 7.3 cm (-2.20 SD; n = 158) in girls after GH therapy. The mean increases in height SDS in boys and girls with severe GHD were 2.13 SD and 1.66 SD, respectively (p < 0.05). These increases were greater than those observed in patients with moderate GHD and mild GHD. The mean adult height of male patients with GHD and gonadotropin deficiency (166.8 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of isolated GHD patients who were either receiving (159.1 cm) or not receiving (160.5 cm) gonadal suppression therapy. The mean adult heights of female patients were 149.6, 146.7, and 146.9 cm, respectively, and these values did not significantly differ. Linear multiple regression analyses of Japanese patients with severe GHD (n = 61) revealed three independent variables that influenced adult height: gonadotropin deficiency, initial height SDS and height velocity during the first year after the initiation of GH therapy.

  14. International Comparison of Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Limitations of Growth Hormone Treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. GH treatment for GHD is considered as a replacement therapy and in fact, a dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week is slightly higher than GH secretion in prepubertal healthy children but nearly the same as that of pubertal children. Although the same growth rate as that of healthy children is expected in response to replacement therapy, the catch-up growth observed for the first 1 to 2 years of GH treatment was misinterpreted as an effect of the GH replacement therapy. The real effect of the GH replacement therapy was the growth rate appeared after more than 3 years of GH therapy, when patients showed nearly the same growth rate as healthy children. Therefore, children with GHD can have a higher growth rate than healthy children only for the first 1 to 2 years of GH therapy, after which their growth rate begins to wane. In the United States and Europe, the various therapeutic doses and high-dose treatment are accepted and the SD score of adult height after treatment is higher than that in Japan. The improvement degree of the height SD score and the adult height SD score with GH therapy are lower in Japan compared with other countries that administer a similar therapeutic dose. This suggests that the response to GH can be affected by race. Actual comparison of the response to GH between Japanese and Caucasian patients using KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data showed that both the short-term response and the effect on adult height were reduced in Japanese patients. As there is a strong positive correlation between adult height and height at the onset of puberty, treatment methods that can increase pubertal growth will be considered in the future for patients with GDH who enter puberty with short stature. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  15. Activity-dependent modulation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurone activity by acute oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Nicola; Herbison, Allan E

    2012-10-01

    Oestradiol (E₂) exerts potent feedback actions upon gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and part of this feedback action may occur through the rapid action of E₂. Using a transgenic GnRH-Pericam mouse line that allows real-time intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca²⁺](i)) to be monitored in adult GnRH neurones in a brain slice preparation, we examined the acute effects of 100 pM-100 nM E₂ on [Ca²⁺](i) transients in spontaneously active GnRH neurones. Approximately 30% of GnRH neurones exhibit spontaneous [Ca²⁺](i) transients at a frequency greater than two transients/15 min in adult female mice. In these cells, treatment with an incremental 1, 10, 100 nM E₂ protocol or 100 pM E₂ alone resulted in the suppression or complete cessation of [Ca²⁺](i) transients in 15 of 18 (83%) GnRH neurones. This effect was mimicked by E₂ bound to albumin, suggesting a membrane site of action, and was maintained in oestrogen receptor β knockout mice, indicating that this receptor is not essential for the rapid suppression of [Ca²⁺](i) transients. These findings contrast with those GnRH neurones exhibiting very few or no [Ca²⁺](i) transients (neurone burst firing and that E₂ suppression or activation of [Ca²⁺](i) transients was mirrored by a depression or initiation of burst firing. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the acute actions of E₂ on GnRH neurones are critically dependent upon their pattern of burst firing. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  16. Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Sävendahl, Lars; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH) treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), born small for gestational age (SGA), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). The aim of this analysis of data......, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd...

  17. Growth hormone treatment improves vitality and behavioural issues in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Ritzén, E Martin; Lindgren, Ann Christin

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder, with characteristics such as obesity, short stature, muscular weakness, intellectual deficiencies and deviant social behaviour. This study evaluated whether growth hormone treatment of children with Prader-Willi syndrome resulted in possible and lasting effects on their cognition and behaviour. We randomised six girls and 13 boys to either a treatment group or a control group. The treatment group received growth hormone (Genotropin(®) 0.033 mg/kg/day) for 2 years, while the control group did not receive treatment in the first year and then received a double dose in the second year. Treatment was then stopped in both groups for 6 months. Both groups showed the same intellectual disabilities at the start of the study, and no difference was found after the first and second years. The parents reported that the children showed increased vitality during treatment. When treatment was stopped, the children showed a marked exacerbation of behavioural problems, a significant increase in body fat and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. We believe this is the first study to show that abrupt-ceasing growth hormone treatment led to a successive deterioration in behavioural problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A review on distribution and monitoring of hormones in the environment and their removal in wastewater treatment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Kafaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones of the Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC are steroid hormones, which cause negative effects on human health, animals and ecosystems balance, have become a major concern in modern societies. In recent years numerous studies have performed on hormone distribution in the environment, especially in aquatic environments and the ways that they have been removed. Hormones entrance into the environment primarily is through wastewater, municipal wastewater treatment sludge, hospital wastewater and livestock activity. Measured values in the wastewater treatment influent, livestock lagoons, surface water and groundwater, showed different concentrations of hormones in the range of ng/L. But it is important to know even in trace concentration of ng/L, hormones can have adverse effects on environment. By biodegradation, biosorption and biotransformation, hormones will be degraded and their activities will be decreased. Wastewater treatment processes includes preliminary, primary, secondary and advanced treatment, that are the most important ways to prevent the entrance of hormonal compounds to the environment. Sludge should be cleaned by available technology before entering the environment. Wastewater processes in both liquid and sludge phase, under various operating conditions, show different range of hormones removal. In this paper authors try to discuss about the problem and different environmental aspects of hormones.

  19. Potential of Treatment-Specific Protein Biomarker Profiles for Detection of Hormone Abuse in Cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.; Smits, N.G.E.; Cannizzo, F.T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Targeted protein biomarker profiling is suggested as a fast screening approach for detection of illegal hormone treatment in meat production. The advantage of using biomarkers is that they mark the biological response and, thus, are responsive to a panel of substances with similar effects. In a

  20. Treatment of intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak of patients with hormone active pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yu Grigoriev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative nasal cerebrospinal fluid leak are common during the transnasal transsphenoidal interven tions. In certain cases, it is a feature of these interventions. However, its amplification needs a mandatory treatment. In this article, we describe the technique for closure dural defects that have developed during the transnasal removal of hormone active pituitary adenomas, using thrombin and fibrinogen containing colla genic sponge.

  1. Hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism--hCG or GnRH--a multicentre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S

    1992-01-01

    In a modified, double-blind controlled study, 163 prepubertal boys (aged 1.8-13.0 years) with bilateral and 94 (aged 1.5-13.1 years) with unilateral cryptorchidism were allocated to treatment with either human chorionic gonadotrophin (im), gonadotrophin releasing hormone (intranasally) or placebo...

  2. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  3. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  4. The role of hormone therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis | Davey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concerns raised by the findings of the Women's Health Initiative study resulted in many practitioners no longer considering the use of menopausal hormone therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis. Subsequent re-analyses of this study, recent publications on the use of lower doses and different modes of delivery of ...

  5. Gut hormones in the treatment of short-bowel syndrome and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approval of teduglutide, a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 2, by the US Food and Drug Administration (Gattex) and the European Medicines Agency (Revestive) has illustrated the potential of selected gut hormones as treatments in patients with short......-bowel syndrome and intestinal failure. Gut hormones may improve the structural and functional intestinal adaptation following intestinal resection by decreasing a rapid gastric emptying and hypersecretion, by increasing the intestinal blood flow, and by promoting intestinal growth. This review summarizes...

  6. Role of Hormonal Treatment in Prostate Cancer Patients with Nonmetastatic Disease Recurrence after Local Curative Treatment : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; van Casteren, Niels J.; van den Broeck, Thomas; Fordyce, Eve R.; Gietzmann, William K. M.; Stewart, Fiona; MacLennan, Steven; Dabestani, Saeed; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Bolla, Michel; Briers, Erik; Cornford, Philip; Joniau, Steven; Mason, Malcolm D.; Matveev, Vsevolod; Van Der Poel, Henk G.; van der Kwast, Theo H.; Rouvière, Olivier; Wiegel, Thomas; Lam, Thomas B; Mottet, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Context The relative benefits and harms of hormonal treatment (HT) versus no or deferred HT in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa) relapse after primary curative therapy are controversial. Objective To assess the effectiveness of HT for nonmetastatic PCa relapse, prognostic factors for

  7. Treatment of Turner's syndrome with recombinant human growth hormone (somatrem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippe, B; Rosenfeld, R G; Hintz, R L; Johanson, A J; Frane, J; Sherman, B

    1988-01-01

    This report extends to 3 years the prospective study of the effects of somatrem alone or in combination with oxandrolone on growth in Turner's syndrome. Sixty-seven patients completed the 1-year study period during which all treatment groups had statistically increased height velocities as compared to the control group. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin responses remained unchanged after 1 year of somatrem treatment. The group receiving oxandrolone experienced an increase in integrated glucose response and the group receiving combined therapy an increase in both integrated glucose and insulin responses. During the second and third years the somatrem group remained on the same dose and treatment schedule and grew at mean velocities of 5.4 +/- 1.1 and 4.6 +/- 1.4 cm/year. The dose of oxandrolone was reduced by 50% during the second and third years for the combination group. The somatrem dose remained unchanged. This group had height velocities of 7.4 +/- 1.4 cm and 6.1 +/- 1.5 cm/year. The control group and the group treated with oxandrolone alone were converted to combined therapy at the lowered oxandrolone dose. Their growth rates during the second year were 8.3 +/- 1.2 and 7.1 +/- 1.6 cm/year, respectively. Using bone age determinations and the methods of Bayley and Pinneau, all groups currently show predicted increases in final adult height.

  8. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone in strategy of surgical treatment of a primary hyperparathyreosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Kuznetsov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Problem of surgical treatment of patients with a primary hyperparathyreosis – normalisation of level of a parathyroid hormone and calcium after operation. Any of diagnostics methods before operation does not allow to prognosticate authentically necessary volume of an operative measure in each specific case in this connection, was considered obligatory bilateral intraoperative revision of regions of a typical locating of parathyroids. Appearance of a method of definition of an quick parathyroid hormone during operation has allowed to estimate adequacy of a surgical intervention already on an operating table. Besides, it is a method allows to minimise an operational trauma and duration of a surgical intervention, and also widely to use the video-assisted operative measures in treatment of a primary hyperparathyreosis. We make the retrospective analysis of results of definition intraoperative parathyroid hormone at 230 patients with the primary hyperparathyreosis, operated in Endocrinologic centre of science in Moscow (Russia from 2006 for 2009. Depending on success of the operative measure, all patients are parted on 4 bunches, according to the received results of concordance and research discordance. The analysed results have shown high sensitivity (93.3%, high specificity (85.7%, and also high predictive value of a positive take (99.5% definitions intraoperative parathyroid hormone that allows to be oriented on its indexes at a choice of operational strategy in surgical treatment of a primary hyperparathyreosis.

  9. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kristensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal or late (postpubertal time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS controls (P<0.001. GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp. than the GHS controls (P<0.001. Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P<0.05. Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD.

  10. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo determination of thyroid hormone modulating activity of benzothiazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in vitro assays are increasingly used to screen chemicals for their potential to produce endocrine disrupting adverse effects, it is important to understand their predictive capacity. The potential for a set of six benzothiazoles to affect endpoints related to thyroid hormone ...

  11. Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Barbara D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development, and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies.

  12. Administration of interferon-gamma in healthy subjects does not modulate thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Metz, J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Corssmit, E. P.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL-2), IL-6, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), alter human thyroid hormone metabolism and may be involved in the pathogenesis the euthyroid sick syndrome. Experimental data suggest that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) could be

  13. Hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 expression in the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Zenclussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the Heme Oxygenase-1 (Hmox1 locus in mice results in intrauterine lethality. The expression of the heme catabolyzing enzyme encoded by this gene, namely HO 1, is required to successfully support reproductive events. We have previously observed that HO-1 acts at several key events in reproduction ensuring pregnancy. HO-1 defines ovulation, positively influences implantation and placentation and ensures fetal growth and survival. Here, we embarked on a study aimed to determine whether hormonal changes during the estrous cycle in the mouse define HO-1 expression, thus influencing receptivity. We analyzed the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen by ELISA and HO-1 mRNA expression in uterus by real time RT-PCR at the metestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Further, we studied the HO-1 protein expression by Western Blot upon hormone addition to cultured uterine AN3 cells. We observed that HO-1 variations in uterine tissue correlated to changes in hormonal levels at different phases of the estrus cycle. In vitro, HO-1 protein levels in AN3 cells augmented after the addition of physiological concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, which confirmed our in vivo observations. Our data suggest an important role for hormones in HO-1 regulation in uterus that has a significant impact in receptivity and later on blastocyst implantation.

  14. Steroid Hormone (20-Hydroxyecdysone) Modulates the Acquisition of Aversive Olfactory Memories in Pollen Forager Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Lisa H.; McQuillan, H. James; Aiken, Alastair; Vergoz, Vanina; Mercer, Alison R.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we examine effects of the steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), on associative olfactory learning in the honeybee, "Apis mellifera." 20-E impaired the bees' ability to associate odors with punishment during aversive conditioning, but did not interfere with their ability to associate odors with a food reward (appetitive…

  15. Is the growth outcome of children with idiopathic short stature and isolated growth hormone deficiency following treatment with growth hormone and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist superior to that obtained by GH alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Ana; González, Laura; Gunczler, Peter; Lanes, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy with growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) on the near-final height (NFH) of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in early puberty. A retrospective analysis of 20 patients with ISS and 9 patients with GHD treated with combined therapy was undertaken. Twelve children with ISS and ten with GHD, treated with GH alone, served as controls. Patients were matched at baseline for chronological age, bone age, height standard deviation score (SDS), and pubertal development. Patients with ISS or GHD treated with combined therapy improved both their predicted adult height (PAH) at 2 years of therapy (ISS, p children, an increase of 7.9 +/- 4.9 cm with combined therapy vs. 7.3 +/- 6.0 cm with GH; GHD children, an increase of 6.8 +/- 7.8 cm with combined therapy vs. 5 +/- 5.9 cm with GH). The total height gain SDS was higher in patients treated with GH alone compared with those with combined therapy, but the difference was not significant (ISS children, a gain of 2.4 SDS with GH vs. 0.8 SDS with combined therapy; GHD children, a gain of 1.8 SDS with GH vs. 0.6 SDS with combined therapy). Although 2 years of combined treatment with GH and LHRHa improved the PAH and the NFH of ISS and GHD patients in early puberty, this improvement was not significant compared with that observed in similar subjects treated with GH alone.

  16. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals’ mental health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Colizzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect) for the hormonal treatment-induced better mental well-being. In conclusion, this review indicates that gender dysphoria-related mental distress may benefit from hormonal treatment intervention, suggesting a transient reaction to the nonsatisfaction connected to the incongruent body

  17. Kinetin modulates physio-hormonal attributes and isoflavone contents of Soybean grown under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Irshad, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Iqbal, Amjad; Ullah, Nazif; Rehman, Gauhar; Kim, Ho-Youn; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Crop productivity continues to decline due to a wide array of biotic and abiotic stresses. Salinity is one of the worst abiotic stresses, as it causes huge losses to crop yield each year. Kinetin (Kn) has been reported as plant growth regulator since long, but its role in improving plant growth and food quality under saline conditions through mediating phytohormonal cross-talk is poorly studied. Current study was designed to evaluate the impact of exogenously applied Kn on growth, isoflovones and endogenous phytohormones of soybean grown under NaCl induced salt stress. Soybean plants were grown in perlite (semi hydroponic), and under controlled green-house conditions. Elevated levels of exogenous Kn significantly mitigated the adverse effect of NaCl and rescued plant growth attributes, i.e., plant height, fresh and dry biomass of soybean plants grown in all treatments. Higher diadzen, glycitin, and genistin contents were observed in plants treated with elevated Kn in the presence or absence of NaCl induce salt stress. The gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated by Kn as the bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents were significantly higher in Kn treated plants, as compared to control, while GAs level reduced in NaCl treated plants. Contrary to GAs, the abscisic acid contents declined with Kn but promoted in NaCl stressed soybean plants. The endogenous jasmonic acid and salicylic acid contents of soybean enhanced with elevated Kn application, but they showed an antagonistic response under salt stress. Current study supports the active role of Kn to ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on the growth and food quality of soybean. The favorable role of Kn toward soybean growth under salt stress may be attributed to its potential to modulate cross-talk between the various phytohormones involved in soybean growth and its resistance to salinity stress.

  18. Kinetin modulates physio-hormonal attributes and isoflavone contents of soybean grown under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar eHussain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity continues to decline due to a wide array of biotic and abiotic stresses. Salinity is one of the worst abiotic stresses, as it causes huge losses to crop yield each year. Kinetin has been reported as plant growth regulator since long, but its role in improving plant growth and food quality under saline conditions through mediating phytohormonal cross-talk is poorly studied. Current study was designed to evaluate the impact of exogenously applied kinetin on growth, isoflovones and endogenous phytohormones of soybean grown under NaCl induced salt stress. Soybean plants were grown in perlite (semi hydroponic, and under controlled green-house conditions. Elevated levels of exogenous kinetin significantly mitigated the adverse effect of NaCl and rescued plant growth attributes i.e. plant height, fresh and dry biomass of soybean plants grown in all treatments. Higher diadzen, glycitin and genistin contents were observed in plants treated with elevated kinetin in the presence or absence of NaCl induce salt stress. The gibberellins (GAs biosynthesis pathway was up-regulated by kinetin as the bioactive GA1 and GA4 contents were significantly higher in kinetin treated plants, as compared to control, while GAs level reduced in NaCl treated plants. Contrary to gibberellins, the abscisic acid contents declined with kinetin but promoted in NaCl stressed soybean plants. The endogenous jasmonic acid and salicylic acid contents of soybean enhanced with elevated kinetin application, but they showed an antagonistic response under salt stress. Current study supports the active role of kinetin to ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress on the growth and food quality of soybean. The favourable role of kinetin towards soybean growth under salt stress may be attributed to its potential to modulate cross-talk between the various phytohormones involved in soybean growth and its resistance to salinity stress.

  19. Effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on cortical thickness in transsexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Junque, Carme; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Guillamon, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Untreated transsexuals have a brain cortical phenotype. Cross-sex hormone treatments are used to masculinize or feminize the bodies of female-to-male (FtMs) or male-to-female (MtFs) transsexuals, respectively. A longitudinal design was conducted to investigate the effects of treatments on brain cortical thickness (CTh) of FtMs and MtFs. This study investigated 15 female-to-male (FtMs) and 14 male-to-female (MtFs) transsexuals prior and during at least six months of cross-sex hormone therapy treatment. Brain MRI imaging was performed in a 3-Tesla TIM-TRIO Siemens scanner. T1-weighted images were analyzed with FreeSurfer software to obtain CTh as well as subcortical volumetric values. Changes in brain CTh thickness and volumetry associated to changes in hormonal levels due to cross-sex hormone therapy. After testosterone treatment, FtMs showed increases of CTh bilaterally in the postcentral gyrus and unilaterally in the inferior parietal, lingual, pericalcarine, and supramarginal areas of the left hemisphere and the rostral middle frontal and the cuneus region of the right hemisphere. There was a significant positive correlation between the serum testosterone and free testosterone index changes and CTh changes in parieto-temporo-occipital regions. In contrast, MtFs, after estrogens and antiandrogens treatment, showed a general decrease in CTh and subcortical volumetric measures and an increase in the volume of the ventricles. Testosterone therapy increases CTh in FtMs. Thickening in cortical regions is associated to changes in testosterone levels. Estrogens and antiandrogens therapy in MtFs is associated to a decrease in the CTh that consequently induces an enlargement of the ventricular system. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. GROWTH HORMONE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SHORT STATURE LIVED IN SAMARA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Mikhailova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition in children is heterogeneous state, and it may accompany many endocrine, somatic, genetic and chromosome diseases. Generally recognized medications for treatment of somatotropic insufficiency in present times are biosynthetic analogs of human growth hormone (hGH, obtained with DNA-recombinant technology. This article presents the results of estimation of effectiveness of hGH in treatment of children with short stature (n=77 with isolated deficiency of growth hormone, panhypopituitarism, Turner's syndrome, treated with hGH during 3 years. All patients had significant positive dynamics of clinical status, the velocity of grouth increased from 1.9 cm (initial per year to 11.0 cm (the end of first year, with following decrease to 5.3 cm per year. SDS index of growth had stable tendency to increase: medium SDS index of growth initially was -3.9 SD, on the end of third year – -2.0 SD. It was shown, that treatment with hGH is effective in any types of short stature.Key words: children, short stature, treatment, human growth hormone.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:108-113

  1. Modulation of thyroid hormone-dependent gene expression in Xenopus laevis by INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Caren C; Wagner, Mary J; Pettem, Katherine; Johnston, Jill; Heimeier, Rachel A; Veldhoen, Nik; Jirik, Frank R; Shi, Yun-Bo; Browder, Leon W

    2011-01-01

    INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins belong to a large family of plant homeodomain finger-containing proteins important in epigenetic regulation and carcinogenesis. We have previously shown that ING1 and ING2 expression is regulated by thyroid hormone (TH) during metamorphosis of the Xenopus laevis tadpole. The present study investigates the possibility that ING proteins modulate TH action. Tadpoles expressing a Xenopus ING2 transgene (Trans(ING2)) were significantly smaller than tadpoles not expressing the transgene (Trans(GFP)). When exposed to 10 nM 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)), premetamorphic Trans(ING2) tadpoles exhibited a greater reduction in tail, head, and brain areas, and a protrusion of the lower jaw than T(3)-treated Trans(GFP) tadpoles. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) demonstrated elevated TH receptor β (TRβ) and TH/bZIP transcript levels in Trans(ING2) tadpole tails compared to Trans(GFP) tadpoles while TRα mRNAs were unaffected. In contrast, no difference in TRα, TRβ or insulin-like growth factor (IGF2) mRNA abundance was observed in the brain between Trans(ING2) and Trans(GFP) tadpoles. All of these transcripts, except for TRα mRNA in the brain, were inducible by the hormone in both tissues. Oocyte transcription assays indicated that ING proteins enhanced TR-dependent, T(3)-induced TRβ gene promoter activity. Examination of endogenous T(3)-responsive promoters (TRβ and TH/bZIP) in the tail by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that ING proteins were recruited to TRE-containing regions in T(3)-dependent and independent ways, respectively. Moreover, ING and TR proteins coimmunoprecipitated from tail protein homogenates derived from metamorphic climax animals. We show for the first time that ING proteins modulate TH-dependent responses, thus revealing a novel role for ING proteins in hormone signaling. This has important implications for understanding hormone influenced disease states and suggests that the

  2. Epigenetic Modulation in the treatment Atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaela M Byrne

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the single largest cause of death in the western world and its incidence is on the rise globally. Atherosclerosis, characterised by the development of atheromatus plaque, can trigger luminal narrowing and upon rupture result in myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. Epigenetic mechanisms are a source of considerable research interest due to the role they play in gene regulation. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been identified as potential drug targets in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. miRNAs are known to play a role in gene silencing, which has been widely investigated in cancer. In comparison, the role they play in cardiovascular disease and plaque rupture is not well understood. Nutritional epigenetic modifiers from dietary components, for instance sulforaphane found in broccoli, have been shown to suppress the pro-inflammatory response through transcription factor activation. This review will discuss current and potential epigenetic therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, focusing on the use of miRNAs and dietary supplements such as sulforaphane and protocatechuic aldehyde.

  3. Impact of hormonal modulation at proestrus on ovarian responses and uterine gene expression of suckled anestrous beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Francisco de Sá Filho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the impact of hormonal modulation at the onset of proestrus on ovarian response and uterine gene expression of beef cows. Methods A total of 172 anestrous beef cows were assigned to one of four groups according to the treatment with estradiol cypionate (ECP and/or equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG [CON (n = 43, ECP (n = 43, eCG (n = 44 and ECP + eCG (n = 42]. Results ECP-treated cows (ECP and ECP + eCG groups presented greater occurrence of estrus (44.6% vs. 65.4%; P = 0.01 and pregnancy per AI [47.1% vs. 33.3%; P = 0.07], but similar progesterone (P4 concentration at subsequent diestrus than cows not treated with ECP (CON and eCG groups. Nonetheless, eCG-treated cows (eCG and ECP + eCG groups presented larger follicle at timed AI (12.6 ± 0.3 vs. 13.5 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.03, greater ovulation rate (96.5% vs. 82.6%; P = 0.008 and greater P4 concentration at d 6 (3.9 ± 0.2 vs. 4.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001 than cows not treated with eCG (CON and ECP groups. Next, cows with a new corpus luteum 6 d after TAI were submitted to uterine biopsy procedure. Uterine fragments [CON (n = 6, ECP (n = 6] were analyzed by RNA-Seq and a total of 135 transcripts were differentially expressed between groups (73 genes up-regulated by ECP treatment. Subsequently, uterine samples were analyzed by qPCR (genes associated with cell proliferation. ECP treatment induced greater abundance of PTCH2 (P = 0.07 and COL4A1 (P = 0.02, whereas suppressed EGFR (P = 0.09 expression. Conversely, eCG treatment increased abundance of HB-EGF (P = 0.06, ESR2 (P = 0.09, and ITGB3 (P = 0.05, whereas it reduced transcription of ESR1 (P = 0.05. Collectively, supplementation with ECP or eCG at the onset of proestrous of anestrous beef cows influenced ovarian responses, global and specific endometrial gene expression. Conclusion Proestrus estradiol regulate the endometrial transcriptome, particularly

  4. Effect of long term glucocorticoid treatment on human growth hormone secretion in children and adolescents and the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li; Dian-Chi, Zhang; Qi-Yong, Wu; Hui-Juan, Zhu; Feng-Yang, Gong; Hui, Pan; Zi-meng, Jin; Jie-ying, Deng; Yi-fan, Shi

    2011-02-01

    Long term glucocorticoid (prednisolone) treatment on human growth hormone (hGH) secretion in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. Twelve patients (age: 10.4∓1.2 years) who were treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 1999 to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. All of them had taken prednisolone with a dose of 0.5∓2.0 mg/(kg.d) for 6~18 months. Two different hGH stimulating tests was done and their growth and development was evaluated at regular intervals. Seven patients were given rhGH with a dose of 0.1 U/(kg.d) for 6~12 months to improve their growth and development after half a year of prednisolone withdrawal when their disease conditions were improved. The growth speed of these 12 children decreased significantly during prednisolone treatment compared with before prednisolone treatment (1.2∓0.3cm/year vs.3.7∓1.2 cm/year,P12 months than those with a 6~12 months course (P0.05). The growth speed of seven children who received rhGH therapy for half a year were increased from 2.2∓0.1cm/year to 7.8∓0.5cm/year (Pgrowth and development in these children after their primary diseases are improved and glucocorticoids are withdrawn.

  5. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  6. Mechanisms for the bone anabolic effect of parathyroid hormone treatment in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Derya; Dahl Andersen, Mille; Gede, Lene Bjerring

    2012-01-01

    . However, development of the biochemical measurement of PTH in the 1980s led us to understand the regulation of PTH secretion and calcium metabolism which subsequently paved the way for the use of PTH as an anabolic treatment of osteoporosis as, when given intermittently, it has strong anabolic effects......Intermittent low-dose treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogues has become widely used in the treatment of severe osteoporosis. During normal physiological conditions, PTH stimulates both bone formation and resorption, and in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss is frequent...

  7. Hormonal changes after localized prostate cancer treatment. Comparison between external beam radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, J; Celma, A; Placer, J; Maldonado, X; Trilla, E; Salvador, C; Lorente, D; Regis, L; Cuadras, M; Carles, J; Morote, J

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of radical prostatectomy (RP) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on the hypothalamic pituitary axis of 120 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with RP or EBRT exclusively. 120 patients with localized prostate cancer were enrolled. Ninety two patients underwent RP and 28 patients EBRT exclusively. We measured serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), total testosterone (T), free testosterone, and estradiol at baseline and at 3 and 12 months after treatment completion. Patients undergoing RP were younger and presented a higher prostate volume (64.3 vs. 71.1 years, p<0.0001 and 55.1 vs. 36.5 g, p<0.0001; respectively). No differences regarding serum hormonal levels were found at baseline. Luteinizing hormone and FSH levels were significantly higher in those patients treated with EBRT at three months (luteinizing hormone 8,54 vs. 4,76 U/l, FSH 22,96 vs. 8,18 U/l, p<0,0001) while T and free testosterone levels were significantly lower (T 360,3 vs. 414,83ng/dl, p 0,039; free testosterone 5,94 vs. 7,5pg/ml, p 0,018). At 12 months FSH levels remained significantly higher in patients treated with EBRT compared to patients treated with RP (21,01 vs. 8,51 U/l, p<0,001) while T levels remained significantly lower (339,89 vs. 402,39ng/dl, p 0,03). Prostate cancer treatment influences the hypothalamic pituitary axis. This influence seems to be more important when patients with prostate cancer are treated with EBRT rather than RP. More studies are needed to elucidate the role that prostate may play as an endocrine organ. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraocular pressure: modulation as treatment for glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Joseph; Varma, Rohit

    2011-09-01

    To review the role of intervisit intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation as an independent risk factor for glaucoma. Perspective after literature review. Analysis of pertinent publications in the peer-reviewed literature. Disparate findings regarding the role of intervisit IOP variation have been published. IOP variation was a significant risk factor in the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study (AGIS), the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study, and other smaller studies. These studies have in common low IOPs (often after surgery) and moderately advanced disease. In the AGIS, when patients were stratified by mean IOP, only those patients with low IOPs showed the detrimental effects of IOP variation. IOP variation was not a significant risk factor in the Early Manifest Glaucoma Treatment Trial, and in 2 separate studies of ocular hypertensives. These studies have in common generally higher IOPs and an earlier stage of glaucoma (or no glaucoma at all). We believe these results are complementary rather than contradictory: existing data suggest that the effects of IOP variation depend on the characteristics of the patient, the baseline IOP, their stage of damage, the type of glaucoma, and other as-yet unknown factors. Practitioners should consider whether patients who are progressing at low mean IOP may benefit from having IOP variation reduced. Single elevated measures of IOP may not be an anomaly or may not be related to compliance, but may identify patients who are at high risk for progressive glaucomatous damage, and thus should be monitored more carefully and potentially treated more aggressively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  10. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring and low dose combined oral hormonal pill for the treatment of idiopathic chronic pelvic pain: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Khushboo; Rajaram, Shalini; Goel, Neerja

    2016-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and acceptability of combined hormonal vaginal ring with combined oral hormonal pill in women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain. Randomised prospective interventional trial conducted in 60 women with idiopathic chronic pelvic pain. Women were randomised into two groups of 30 each. In each group, treatment was given for 84 days using either combined vaginal ring or combined oral hormonal pill. Hormonal vaginal ring releases 15mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 120mcg of the etonogestrel per day while the hormonal pill contained 30mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150mcg of levonorgestrel. There was no ring or pill free week. After every 28 days, pain relief was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS), and verbal rating score (VRS) calculated by summing dysmenorrhea, non-cyclic pelvic pain (NCCP) and deep dyspareunia scores. Side effects, compliance, satisfaction, and user acceptability were also measured. Data was analyzed using various parametric and non-parametric tests. Reduction in mean VAS score at end of treatment in ring group was 6.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.45-7.01; ppill group (95% CI, 4.83-6.23; ppill users (95% CI, 3.63-5.10; ppill group at end of one month after stopping treatment. Compliance, satisfaction, and user acceptability were higher in ring users (80%) than pill users (70%) and a higher incidence of nausea was seen in pill group. Present study demonstrates for first time that both vaginal and oral hormonal therapy are effective in treatment of idiopathic chronic pelvic pain and vaginal ring may be a better choice with higher satisfaction rate and fewer side effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of long-term prednisone treatment on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Oosting, H.; Endert, E.

    1996-01-01

    Due to a lack of longitudinal data the precise effect of long-term corticosteroid treatment on serum levels of the anabolic hormones Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) is unknown. Therefore, we prospectively followed GH and IGF-1 levels over a six month period in 18

  12. Cross-sex hormonal treatment and body uneasiness in individuals with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Castellini, Giovanni; Bandini, Elisa; Casale, Helen; Fanni, Egidia; Benni, Laura; Ferruccio, Naika; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina; Manieri, Chiara; Gualerzi, Anna; Jannini, Emmanuele; Oppo, Alessandro; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-03-01

    Cross-sex hormonal treatment (CHT) used for gender dysphoria (GD) could by itself affect well-being without the use of genital surgery; however, to date, there is a paucity of studies investigating the effects of CHT alone. This study aimed to assess differences in body uneasiness and psychiatric symptoms between GD clients taking CHT and those not taking hormones (no CHT). A second aim was to assess whether length of CHT treatment and daily dose provided an explanation for levels of body uneasiness and psychiatric symptoms. A consecutive series of 125 subjects meeting the criteria for GD who not had genital reassignment surgery were considered. Subjects were asked to complete the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT) to explore different areas of body-related psychopathology and the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R) to measure psychological state. In addition, data on daily hormone dose and length of hormonal treatment (androgens, estrogens, and/or antiandrogens) were collected through an analysis of medical records. Among the male-to-female (MtF) individuals, those using CHT reported less body uneasiness compared with individuals in the no-CHT group. No significant differences were observed between CHT and no-CHT groups in the female-to-male (FtM) sample. Also, no significant differences in SCL score were observed with regard to gender (MtF vs. FtM), hormone treatment (CHT vs. no-CHT), or the interaction of these two variables. Moreover, a two-step hierarchical regression showed that cumulative dose of estradiol (daily dose of estradiol times days of treatment) and cumulative dose of androgen blockers (daily dose of androgen blockers times days of treatment) predicted BUT score even after controlling for age, gender role, cosmetic surgery, and BMI. The differences observed between MtF and FtM individuals suggest that body-related uneasiness associated with GD may be effectively diminished with the administration of CHT even without the use of genital surgery for Mt

  13. Breast cancer development in transsexual subjects receiving cross-sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; van Trotsenburg, Michael A A; Giltay, Erik J; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Transsexual people receive cross-sex hormones as part of their treatment, potentially inducing hormone-sensitive malignancies. To examine the occurrence of breast cancer in a large cohort of Dutch male and female transsexual persons, also evaluating whether the epidemiology accords with the natal sex or the new sex. Number of people with breast cancer between 1975 and 2011. We researched the occurrence of breast cancer among transsexual persons 18-80 years with an exposure to cross-sex hormones between 5 to >30 years. Our study included 2,307 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual persons undergoing androgen deprivation and estrogen administration (52,370 person-years of exposure), and 795 female-to-male (FtM) subjects receiving testosterone (15,974 total years of exposure). Among MtF individuals one case was encountered, as well as a probable but not proven second case. The estimated rate of 4.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-13.0) was lower than expected if these two cases are regarded as female breast cancer, but within expectations if viewed as male breast cancer. In FtM subjects, who were younger and had shorter exposure to cross-sex hormones compared with the MtF group, one breast cancer case occurred. This translated into a rate of 5.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.5-27.4), again lower than expected for female breast cancer but within expected norms for male breast cancer. The number of people studied and duration of hormone exposure are limited but it would appear that cross-sex hormone administration does not increase the risk of breast cancer development, in either MtF or FtM transsexual individuals. Breast carcinoma incidences in both groups are comparable to male breast cancers. Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of malignant breast development. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. Maintenance hormonal therapy after treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for patients with atypical polypoid adenomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Hidetaka; Sugiyama, Yuko; Tanigawa, Terumi; Matoda, Maki; Okamoto, Sanshiro; Omatsu, Kohei; Kanao, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Utsugi, Kuniko; Takeshima, Nobuhiro

    2018-01-17

    As atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) has been reported to be a hormone-related tumor, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of maintenance hormonal therapy after fertility-preserving treatment of these patients with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Data were retrospectively analyzed from patients with APA who were treated with a fertility-preserving regimen including MPA between October 2001 and December 2011. Eighteen patients were treated with MPA and 14 (77.8%) achieved either a complete or a partial response after the planned treatment. Five patients took progestin for maintenance therapy. Eighteen patients were treated for a mean observation period of 96.7 months. While taking the maintenance therapy, no patient had APA relapse. One patient developed well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma 18 months after she stopped taking maintenance progestin. Eleven patients without maintenance therapy underwent hysterectomy, andnine of them developed well-differentiated endometrial cancer. Through univariate analysis, there was a significant difference in time to hysterectomy between patients with and without maintenance therapy (P = 0.015). Through multivariate analysis, body mass index (BMI), menstrual status before protocol therapy, maintenance treatment, and pregnancy were found to be significantly associated with a lower risk of hysterectomy. No patient had a recurrence of APA after hysterectomy during the observation period (median, 54 months; range, 2-148 months). No patient showed progression while receiving hormonal therapy, including initial protocol therapy. Maintenance hormonal therapy after treatment with MPA was highly effective and safe, particularly in patients with BMI ≧24 kg/m2 and irregular menstruation cycle.

  15. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome.

  16. Hormonal therapy in the treatment of mandibular metastasis of breast carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlinger, P.; Peeters, L.C.; Fossion, E. (Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium)); Servais, J. (Department of Oncology and Radiation Therapy, Algemeen Ziekenhuis Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium))

    1993-01-01

    We present the clinical history of a 39-year-old woman, who has survived for over 10 years with metastatic breast cancer. After combined surgery and radiotherapy of the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes, all bone metastases gradually disappeared under chemotherapy and continuing hormonal treatment. This complete remission included a large mandibular metastasis, which had received additional radiotherapy of 21 Gy. Spontaneous reossification was observed in this location. (au) (7 refs.).

  17. Dienogest Therapy as a Treatment for Catamenial Pneumothorax: Case Report and Review of Hormonal Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Shifana; Black, Amanda; Hodge, Meryl C; Tulandi, Togas; Chen, Innie

    2017-09-01

    Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare but serious condition for women of reproductive age. We describe a trial of dienogest as hormonal therapy for catamenial pneumothorax and review the literature on hormonal suppressive therapy for this condition. A 39-year-old female, gravida 0 para 0, presented with recurrent pneumothoraces coinciding with her menses. After surgical therapy, she was started on leuprolide acetate injections for 6 months to reduce recurrence. To reduce long-term side effects of leuprolide acetate, the patient was started on dienogest 4 mg orally once daily instead of leuprolide acetate for hormonal suppression and experienced resolution of recurrent pneumothoraces. For women with recurrent catamenial pneumothorax, dienogest may be an effective hormonal treatment option and alternative to long-term GnRH agonist therapy for long-term suppression. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulo Sperduto Dezonne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

  19. Is growth hormone treatment in children associated with weight gain?--longitudinal analysis of KIGS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Thomas; Lindberg, Anders; Koltowska-Häggström, Maria; Ranke, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) increases lean body mass and reduces fat mass. However, the long-term changes in weight status during growth hormone treatment, according to age and weight status at onset of treatment, have not previously been reported in large data sets. Changes in BMI-SDS between starting GH treatment and attaining near adult height (NAH) were analysed in 2643 children with idiopathic GH deficiency (IGHD), 281 children small for gestational age (SGA), 1661 girls with Turner syndrome (TS), and 142 children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in the KIGS database. BMI-SDS increased significantly between onset of GH treatment and NAH (IGHD:+0·29, SGA:+0·69, TS:+0·48) except in PWS (-0·02). These increases were greater in children with younger age at onset of GH treatment (significant in all indications) and with lower doses of GH treatment (significant in IGHD & TS) in multiple linear regression analyses also including gender, duration of GH treatment, BMI-SDS and height-SDS at onset of treatment, and birth weight-SDS. Obese children at onset of GH treatment decreased their BMI-SDS, while underweight and normal weight children at onset of GH treatment increased their BMI-SDS independently of GH treatment indication. Long-term GH treatment was associated with changes in weight status, which were beneficial for underweight and obese children independent of the indication for GH. However, the increase in BMI-SDS in normal weight children treated with GH needs to be investigated in future prospective longitudinal studies to analyse whether this represents an increase of fat mass, lean body mass or both. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  1. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Mwangi, Raphael; McCoy, Rozalina G; Yao, Xiaoxi; Sangaralingham, Lindsey R; Singh Ospina, Naykky M; O'Keeffe, Derek T; De Ycaza, Ana E Espinosa; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Coddington, Charles C; Stan, Marius N; Brito, Juan P; Montori, Victor M

    2017-01-25

     To estimate the effectiveness and safety of thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.  Retrospective cohort study.  Large US administrative database between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014.  5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as untreated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration 2.5-10 mIU/L.  Thyroid hormone therapy.  Pregnancy loss and other pre-specified maternal and fetal pregnancy related adverse outcomes.  Among 5405 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, 843 with a mean pre-treatment TSH concentration of 4.8 (SD 1.7) mIU/L were treated with thyroid hormone and 4562 with a mean baseline TSH concentration of 3.3 (SD 0.9) mIU/L were not treated (PPregnancy loss was significantly less common among treated women (n=89; 10.6%) than among untreated women (n=614; 13.5%) (Ppregnancy loss (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.82) but higher odds of preterm delivery (1.60, 1.14 to 2.24), gestational diabetes (1.37, 1.05 to 1.79), and pre-eclampsia (1.61, 1.10 to 2.37); other pregnancy related adverse outcomes were similar between the two groups. The adjusted odds of pregnancy loss were lower in treated women than in untreated women if their pre-treatment TSH concentration was 4.1-10 mIU/L (odds ratio 0.45, 0.30 to 0.65) but not if it was 2.5-4.0 mIU/L (0.91, 0.65 to 1.23) (Ppregnancy loss among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, especially those with pre-treatment TSH concentrations of 4.1-10 mIU/L. However, the increased risk of other pregnancy related adverse outcomes calls for additional studies evaluating the safety of thyroid hormone treatment in this patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS as outcome measure for hormone treatment? A validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnitker Jörg

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The Menopause Rating Scale is a health-related Quality of Life scale developed in the early 1990s and step-by-step validated since then. No methodologically detailed work on the utility of the scale to assess health-related changes after treatment was published before. Method We analysed an open, uncontrolled post-marketing study with over 9000 women with pre- and post-treatment data of the MRS scale to critically evaluate the capacity of the scale to measure the health-related effects of hormone treatment independent from the severity of complaints at baseline. Results The improvement of complaints during treatment relative to the baseline score was 36% in average. Patients with little/no complaints before therapy improved by 11%, those with mild complaints at entry by 32%, with moderate by 44%, and with severe symptoms by 55% – compared with the baseline score. We showed that the distribution of complaints in women before therapy returned to norm values after 6 months of hormone treatment. We also provided weak evidence that the MRS results may well predict the assessment of the treating physician. Limitations of the study, however, may have lead to overestimating the utility of the MRS scale as outcome measure. Conclusion The MRS scale showed some evidence for its ability to measure treatment effects on quality of life across the full range of severity of complaints in aging women. This however needs confirmation in other and better-designed clinical/outcome studies.

  3. Sex differences in Parkinson's disease: Features on clinical symptoms, treatment outcome, sexual hormones and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Coronel, Juan Camilo; Cabezas, Ricardo; Ávila Rodríguez, Marco Fidel; Echeverria, Valentina; García-Segura, Luis Miguel; Barreto, George E

    2017-09-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Sex is an important factor in the development of PD, as reflected by the fact that it is more common in men than in women by an approximate ratio of 2:1. Our hypothesis is that differences in PD among men and women are highly determined by sex-dependent differences in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, which arise from environmental, hormonal and genetic influences. Sex hormones, specifically estrogens, influence PD pathogenesis and might play an important role in PD differences between men and women. The objective of this review was to discuss the PD physiopathology and point out sex differences in nigrostriatal degeneration, symptoms, genetics, responsiveness to treatments and biochemical and molecular mechanisms among patients suffering from this disease. Finally, we discuss the role estrogens may have on PD sex differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormonal and surgical treatment in trans-women with BRCA1 mutations: a controversial topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebunders, Britt; T'Sjoen, Guy; Weyers, Steven; Monstrey, Stan

    2014-10-01

    Male-to-female transgender persons (trans-women) receive livelong cross-sex hormonal treatment in order to induce and maintain secondary female characteristics. One of the concerns of long-term estrogen treatment is the induction of carcinomas of estrogen-sensitive tissues such as the breast. BRCA1 mutations have been shown to account for a large proportion of inherited predispositions to breast cancer. The aim of this case report is to discuss the hormonal and surgical options in the treatment of trans-women with a genetic predisposition for breast cancer. We describe a case of a trans-woman who was found to be a carrier of a BRCA1 mutation. The patient underwent a breast augmentation. She refused a prophylactic mastectomy followed by a primary breast reconstruction. She also underwent a vaginoplasty and a bilateral castration. Androgen blocking treatment was stopped after surgery; estradiol treatment however was continued. This case points to the importance of routine investigation of family history in trans-women. Trans-women with BRCA mutations should be carefully monitored and if cancers develop, this should be reported. Follow-up should be according to the guidelines for breast cancer screening in biological women, and the guidelines for prostate cancer and colon cancer screening in men. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Interactive effects of dietary composition and hormonal treatment on reproductive development of cultured female European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa; Støttrup, Josianne Gatt; Kjørsvik, Elin

    2016-01-01

    weight (BW) and ii) a variable hormone dosage that increased from 12.5mg SPE/kg initial BW to 25mg SPE/kg initial BW. Results showed a significant interaction between diets and hormonal treatments on gonadosomatic index (GSI), indicating that the effect of broodstock diets on ovarian development depends......) in the plasma did not differ between diets and hormonal treatments, but was significantly correlated with ovarian developmental stage. In conclusion, increasing dietary levels of n-3 PUFAs seemed to promote oocyte growth, leading to a more rapid progression of ovarian development in European eel subjected...

  6. Modulating the levels of plant hormone cytokinins at the host-pathogen interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseem, Muhammad; Shams, Shabana; Roitsch, Thomas Georg

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinins are adenine and non-adenine derived heterogeneous class of regulatory molecules that participate in almost every aspect of plant biology. They also affect plant defense responses as well as help microbial pathogens to establish pathogenesis. The functional approaches that ensure desired...... and subtle modulations in the levels of plant cytokinins are highly instrumental in assessing their functions in plant immunity. Here, we describe a detailed working protocol regarding the enhanced production of cytokinins from plants that harbor isopentenyltransferase (IPT) enzyme gene under the control...... of 4xJERE (jasmonic acid and elicitor-responsive element) pathogen-inducible promoter. Our devised expression system is a context-dependent solution when it comes to investigating host-pathogen interactions under the modulated conditions of plant cytokinins....

  7. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P V) over dotO(2max) did not change significantly in either group after the treatment period. Time to exhaustion at 90% of (V) over dotO(2max) was significantly shorter in the treatment group (P ... a maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dotO(2max)) test and a prolonged exercise test, consisting of 60 min of submaximal cycling followed by exercise to fatigue at 90% of (V) over dotO(2max). Main Outcome Measures: (V) over dotO(2max) was measured before and after the treatment period. Hormonal and metabolic...... responses and time to exhaustion during prolonged exercise were determined. Results: Resting serum IGF-I concentration decreased by 20% in the GHR antagonist-treated group (P

  8. Scar-modulating treatments for central nervous system injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dingding; Wang, Xiaodong; Gu, Xiaosong

    2014-12-01

    Traumatic injury to the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) leads to complex cellular responses. Among them, the scar tissue formed is generally recognized as a major obstacle to CNS repair, both by the production of inhibitory molecules and by the physical impedance of axon regrowth. Therefore, scar-modulating treatments have become a leading therapeutic intervention for CNS injury. To date, a variety of biological and pharmaceutical treatments, targeting scar modulation, have been tested in animal models of CNS injury, and a few are likely to enter clinical trials. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the scar-modulating treatments according to their specific aims: (1) inhibition of glial and fibrotic scar formation, and (2) blockade of the production of scar-associated inhibitory molecules. The removal of existing scar tissue is also discussed as a treatment of choice. It is believed that only a combinatorial strategy is likely to help eliminate the detrimental effects of scar tissue on CNS repair.

  9. Symptomatic meningioma induced by cross-sex hormone treatment in a male-to-female transsexual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergoglio, Marina T; Gómez-Balaguer, Marcelino; Almonacid Folch, Elena; Hurtado Murillo, Felipe; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    Transsexualism is defined as a strong conviction of belonging to the opposite sex in individuals without any physical intersex condition. Cross-sex hormone therapy is an important component of medical treatment of transexuals but it is not exempt from adverse effects. We report a case of a meningioma in a male-to-female transsexual patient treated with estrogens and cyproterone acetate for the past 4 years. He claimed recently severe headache and visual impairment. Blood tests showed normal results. A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan revealed a mass in the tuberculum sellae consistent with a meningioma. Treatment was discontinued and tumor resection was performed. Histologic diagnosis confirmed strongly progesterone receptor-positive and estrogen negative meningioma. After surgery, the patient rejected the possibility of continuing with the treatment of estrogens and cyproterone, and so triptorelin (GnRH agonist) was initiated. At 1-year follow-up the patient's symptoms had ameliorated and a MRI scan revealed no recurrence of the tumor. This is the third case reported in the literature of a meningioma after treatment with estrogens and cyproterone acetate. We consider extremely important a long-term follow-up observation of male-to-female transsexual undergoing cross-sex hormone therapy in order to detect as soon as possible the adverse effects that can be derived from this therapy. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of infertility treatment and pregnancy-related hormones on breast cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Anne; Matthews, Laura; Zelivianski, Stanislav; Hardy, Ashley; Jeruss, Jacqueline S

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer development involves a series of mutations in a heterogeneous group of proto-oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes that alter mammary cells to create a microenvironment permissive to tumorigenesis. Exposure to hormones during infertility treatment may have a mutagenic effect on normal mammary epithelial cells, high-risk breast lesions and early-stage breast cancers. Our goal was to understand the association between infertility treatment and normal and cancerous breast cell proliferation. MCF-10A normal mammary cells and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 [estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, well differentiated] and HCC 1937 (ER-negative, aggressive, BRCA1 mutation) were treated with the weak ER activator clomiphene citrate and hormones that are increased during infertility treatment. Direct effects of treatment on cell proliferation and colony growth were determined. While clomiphene citrate had no effect on MCF-10A cells or MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it decreased proliferation of HCC 1937 versus untreated cells (P= 0.003). Estrogen had no effect on either MCF-10A or HCC 1937 cells but, as expected, increased cell proliferation (20-100 nM; P≤0.002) and colony growth (10-30 nM; Pinfertility regimens on ER-positive breast cancer cells and validate the potential protective effect of pregnancy-related exposure to hCG.

  11. Modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors and their effects in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serock, Michelle R; Wells, Amanda K; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of estrogen in improving vascular function and reducing vascular injury. However, clinical trials including HERS I, HERS II, WHI and WISDOM have demonstrated minimal beneficial vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in postmenopausal women with CVD. The discrepancies between the experimental findings and clinical data may be related to the vascular estrogen receptors (ER), the type, route of administration, or dosage of MHT, and subject's age. Vascular ERs mediate both genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and extracellular matrix (ECM). Postmenopausal changes in vascular ER structure, polymorphisms, amount, subcellular location, affinity or signaling could modify their responsiveness to estrogen and thereby the outcome of MHT. Recent investigations and patents have been centered on developing new ER modulators and alternatives for the traditional natural and synthetic forms of MHT which carry the risk of invasive breast cancer and venous thromoboembolism. Phytoestrogens may have similar effects as traditional MHT and have not demonstrated harmful side effects. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and tamoxifen have also been tested. ER agonists that selectively target ERalpha, ERbeta and perhaps GPR30 may modify specific vascular signaling pathways. Also, the dose, route of administration, and timing of MHT are integral to optimizing the beneficial effects and minimizing the side effects of MHT. Progesterone, testosterone and modulators of their specific receptors may also affect the overall vascular effects of MHT in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  13. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for

  14. Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T

    2018-02-01

    Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulates cholesterol synthesis and steroidogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Fabiana; Sturli, Niccolò; Cungi, Maria Chiara; Morello, Matteo; Villanelli, Fabio; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Finocchi, Claudia; Peri, Alessandro; Serio, Mario; Danza, Giovanna

    2011-04-01

    Neurosteroids are involved in Central Nervous System development, brain functionality and neuroprotection but little is known about regulators of their biosynthesis. Recently gonadotropins, Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) and their receptors have been localized in different brain regions, such as hippocampus and cortex. Using human neuronal-like cells we found that GnRH up-regulates the expression of key genes of cholesterol and steroid synthesis when used in a narrow range around 1.0 nM. The expression of Hydroxysterol D24-reductase (seladin-1/DHCR24), that catalyzes the last step of cholesterol biosynthesis, is increased by 50% after 90 min of incubation with GnRH. StAR protein and P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) are up-regulated by 3.3 times after 90 min and by 3.5 times after 3 h, respectively. GnRH action is mediated by LH and 1.0 nM GnRH enhances the expression of LHβ as well. A two fold increase of cell cholesterol is induced after 90 min of GnRH incubation and 17β-estradiol (E2) production is increased after 24, 48 and 72 h. These data indicate for the first time that GnRH regulates both cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis in human neuronal-like cells and suggest a new physiological role for GnRH in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Interplay Between Sugar and Hormone Signalling Pathways Modulate Floral Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianis G. Matsoukas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions are major determinants of plant reproductive success and adaptation to the local environment. Understanding the intricate molecular genetic and physiological machinery by which environment regulates juvenility and floral signal transduction has significant scientific and economic implications. Sugars are recognized as important regulatory molecules that regulate cellular activity at multiple levels, from transcription and translation to protein stability and activity. Molecular genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated different aspects of carbohydrate involvement and its interactions with other signal transduction pathways in regulation of the juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions. Sugars regulate juvenility and floral signal transduction through their function as energy sources, osmotic regulators and signalling molecules. Interestingly, sugar signalling has been shown to involve extensive connections with phytohormone signalling. This includes interactions with phytohormones that are also important for the orchestration of developmental phase transitions, including gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene and brassinosteroids. This article highlights the potential roles of sugar-hormone interactions in regulation of floral signal transduction, with particular emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutant phenotypes, and suggests possible directions for future research.

  17. Interplay between sugar and hormone signaling pathways modulate floral signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsoukas, Ianis G

    2014-01-01

    NOMENCLATURE The following nomenclature will be used in this article: Names of genes are written in italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of proteins are written in non-italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of mutants are written in italicized lower-case letters, e.g., abi4. The juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions are major determinants of plant reproductive success and adaptation to the local environment. Understanding the intricate molecular genetic and physiological machinery by which environment regulates juvenility and floral signal transduction has significant scientific and economic implications. Sugars are recognized as important regulatory molecules that regulate cellular activity at multiple levels, from transcription and translation to protein stability and activity. Molecular genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated different aspects of carbohydrate involvement and its interactions with other signal transduction pathways in regulation of the juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions. Sugars regulate juvenility and floral signal transduction through their function as energy sources, osmotic regulators and signaling molecules. Interestingly, sugar signaling has been shown to involve extensive connections with phytohormone signaling. This includes interactions with phytohormones that are also important for the orchestration of developmental phase transitions, including gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids. This article highlights the potential roles of sugar-hormone interactions in regulation of floral signal transduction, with particular emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutant phenotypes, and suggests possible directions for future research.

  18. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults Patient Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs English ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of ...

  19. Penile growth in response to hormone treatment in children with micropenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B Nerli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Micropenis is defined as a stretched penile length 2.5 standard deviations less than the mean for age without the presence of any other penile anomalies, such as hypospadias. The term refers to a specific disorder that has a known set of causative factors and defined treatment modalities. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hormonal therapy on the gonadal response and penile growth in children who presented with micropenis. Materials and Methods: Children (<18 years who met the criteria for micropenis were included in this study. Children more than 11 years old were treated using a standard protocol of 1,500 to 2,000 IU human chorionic gonadotrophin administrated intramuscularly, once per week, for 6 weeks. Children less than 11 years old were treated with parenteral testosterone enanthate 25 mg once a month for 3 months. Response was evaluated in terms of change in testosterone levels and size of penis. Results: Serum testosterone levels at baseline and after 8 weeks of hormonal treatment were <20 and 449.4 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.0001 in all children more than 11 years old. Stretched penile length after hormonal treatment increased from 15.54 to 37.18 mm in children less than 11 years old and from 26.42 to 64.28 mm in children more than 11 years old (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Management of isolated micropenis revolves around testosterone (direct administration or encouraging the patient′s body to make its own, and results with respect to increase in penile length are promising.

  20. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment affects hippocampus gene expression without changing spatial orientation in young sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Wojniusz, Slawomir; Ropstad, Erik; Krogenæs, Anette; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold

    2013-04-01

    Normal brain maturation is the result of molecular changes that can be modulated by endocrine variables associated with brain plasticity and results in sex- and age specific changes in cognitive performance. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors results in increased sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control. In this study we explore effects of this treatment regime on hippocampal gene expression and spatial orientation. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs, half of which were treated with the GnRH analog (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until 50 weeks of age. Animals were tested in their spatial orientation ability at 48 weeks of age. Quantitative real time PCR analysis was conducted to examine effects of treatment on the expression of genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere specific changes in mRNA expression for some of the genes studied. The treatment had no significant effect on spatial orientation. However, there was a tendency that females performed better than males in spatial orientation. Our results indicate that GnRH directly and/or indirectly, is involved in the regulation of sex- and side-specific expression patterns of genes. Hence, these results should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Retinoid X Receptor Modulators for the Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Pinaire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of obesity is a fundamental contributor to the growing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Rexinoids, a class of compounds that selectively bind and activate RXR, are being studied as a potential option for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. These compounds have glucose-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, and antiobesity effects in animal models of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, undesirable side effects such as hypertriglyceridemia and suppression of the thyroid hormone axis also occur. This review examines and compares the effects of four RXR-selective ligands: LGD1069, LG100268, AGN194204, and LG101506, a selective RXR modulator. Similar to selective modulators of other nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor (SERMs, LG101506 binding to RXR selectively maintains the desirable characteristic effects of rexinoids while minimizing the undesirable effects. These recent findings suggest that, with continued research efforts, RXR-specific ligands with improved pharmacological profiles may eventually be available as additional treatment options for the current epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and all of the associated metabolic sequelae.

  2. Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Bach; Laurberg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting......, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally...

  3. Cardioselective Dominant-negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Δ337T) Modulates Myocardial Metabolism and Contractile Dfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Olson, Aaron; Ge, Ming; Ning, Xue-Han; Buroker, Norman E.; Chung, Youngran; Jue, Thomas; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-06-03

    Dominant- negative thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) show elevated expression relative to ligand-binding TRs during cardiac hypertrophy. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of a dominant-negative TR alters cardiac metabolism and contractile efficiency (CE). We used mice expressing the cardioselective dominant-negative TRβ1 mutation Δ337T. Isolated working Δ337T hearts and nontransgenic control (Con) hearts were perfused with 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate (ACAC), lactate, and glucose at physiological concentrations for 30 min. 13C NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer analyses were used to determine substrate flux and fractional contributions (Fc) of acetyl-CoA to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Δ337T hearts exhibited rate depression but higher developed pressure and CE, defined as work per oxygen consumption (MV˙ O2). Unlabeled substrate Fc from endogenous sources was higher in Δ337T, but ACAC Fc was lower. Fluxes through CAC, lactate, ACAC, and FFA were reduced in Δ337T. CE and Fc differences were reversed by pacing Δ337T to Con rates, accompanied by an increase in FFA Fc. Δ337T hearts lacked the ability to increase MV˙ O2. Decreases in protein expression for glucose transporter-4 and hexokinase-2 and increases in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-2 and -4 suggest that these hearts are unable to increase carbohydrate oxidation in response to stress. These data show that Δ337T alters the metabolic phenotype in murine heart by reducing substrate flux for multiple pathways. Some of these changes are heart rate dependent, indicating that the substrate shift may represent an accommodation to altered contractile protein kinetics, which can be disrupted by pacing stress.

  4. The rationale and design of TransCon Growth Hormone for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennett Sprogøe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge of developing a long-acting growth hormone (LAGH is to create a more convenient growth hormone (GH dosing profile while retaining the excellent safety, efficacy and tolerability of daily GH. With GH receptors on virtually all cells, replacement therapy should achieve the same tissue distribution and effects of daily (and endogenous GH while maintaining levels of GH and resulting IGF-1 within the physiologic range. To date, only two LAGHs have gained the approval of either the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the European Medicines Agency (EMA; both released unmodified GH, thus presumably replicating distribution and pharmacological actions of daily GH. Other technologies have been applied to create LAGHs, including modifying GH (for example, protein enlargement or albumin binding such that the resulting analogues possess a longer half-life. Based on these approaches, nearly 20 LAGHs have reached various stages of clinical development. Although most have failed, lessons learned have guided the development of a novel LAGH. TransCon GH is a LAGH prodrug in which GH is transiently bound to an inert methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG carrier. It was designed to achieve the same safety, efficacy and tolerability as daily GH but with more convenient weekly dosing. In phase 2 trials of children and adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD, similar safety, efficacy and tolerability to daily GH was shown as well as GH and IGF-1 levels within the physiologic range. These promising results support further development of TransCon GH.

  5. Steroid hormones modulate galectin-1 in the trophoblast HTR-8/SVneocell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Trbojević Žanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of steroids on galectin-1 (gal-1 were studied in HTR-8/SVneo cells by immunocytochemistry, cell-based ELISA, the MTT proliferation test and the Matrigel TM invasion test. Dexamethasone (DEX, progesterone (PRG, and mifepristone (RU486 were used. Gal-1 was modulated in a steroid- and dose-dependent manner by DEX, which mildly but significantly stimulated production at low concentrations (0.1-10 nM, and inhibited it at 100 nM, while the effects of PRG and RU486 were opposite. HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion of Matrigel was significantly decreased in the presence of DEX and lactose. The obtained data support the proposed regulatory role of steroids in trophoblast gal-1 production.

  6. Acute gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment enhances extinction memory in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, L Y; Taha, M B; Cover, K K; Glynn, S S; Murillo, M; Lebron-Milad, K; Milad, M R

    2017-08-01

    Leuprolide acetate (LEU), also known as Lupron, is commonly used to treat prostate cancer in men. As a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonist, it initially stimulates the release of gonadal hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol. This surge eventually suppresses these hormones, preventing the further growth and spread of cancer cells. Individuals receiving this treatment often report anxiety and cognitive changes, but LEU's effects on the neural mechanisms that are involved in anxiety during the trajectory of treatment are not well known. In this study, we examined the acute effects of LEU on fear extinction, hypothesizing that increased T levels following a single administration of LEU will facilitate extinction recall by altering neuronal activity within the fear extinction circuitry. Two groups of naïve adult male rats underwent a 3-day fear conditioning, extinction, and recall experiment. The delayed group (n=15) received a single injection of vehicle or LEU (1.2mg/kg) 3weeks before behavioral testing. The acute group (n=25) received an injection one day after fear conditioning, 30min prior to extinction training. Following recall, the brains for all animals were collected for c-fos immunohistochemistry. Blood samples were also collected and assayed for T levels. Acute administration of LEU increased serum T levels during extinction training and enhanced extinction recall 24h later. This enhanced extinction memory was correlated with increased c-fos activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala, which was not observed in the delayed group. These results suggest that the elevation in T induced by acute administration of LEU can influence extinction memory consolidation, perhaps through modification of neuronal activity within the infralimbic cortex and amygdala. This may be an important consideration in clinical applications of LEU and its effects on anxiety and cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on gender dysphoria individuals' mental health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosalia Costa,1 Marco Colizzi2 1Gender Identity Development Service, Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, Tavistock Centre, 2Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: Cross-sex hormonal treatment represents a main aspect of gender dysphoria health care pathway. However, it is still debated whether this intervention translates into a better mental well-being for the individual and which mechanisms may underlie this association. Although sex reassignment surgery has been the subject of extensive investigation, few studies have specifically focused on hormonal treatment in recent years. Here, we systematically review all studies examining the effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health and well-being in gender dysphoria. Research tends to support the evidence that hormone therapy reduces symptoms of anxiety and dissociation, lowering perceived and social distress and improving quality of life and self-esteem in both male-to-female and female-to-male individuals. Instead, compared to female-to-male individuals, hormone-treated male-to-female individuals seem to benefit more in terms of a reduction in their body uneasiness and personality-related psychopathology and an amelioration of their emotional functioning. Less consistent findings support an association between hormonal treatment and other mental health-related dimensions. In particular, depression, global psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning difficulties appear to reduce only in some studies, while others do not suggest any improvement in these domains. Results from longitudinal studies support more consistently the association between hormonal treatment and improved mental health. On the contrary, a number of cross-sectional studies do not support this evidence. This review provides possible biological explanation vs psychological explanation (direct effect vs indirect effect

  8. Prevention and treatment of cancers by immune modulating nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Madka, Venkateshwar; Kumar, Gaurav; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory data support the protective effects of bioactive nutrients in our diets for various diseases. Along with various factors, such as genetic history, alcohol, smoking, exercise, and dietary choices play a vital role in affecting an individual's immune responses toward a transforming cell, by either preventing or accelerating a neoplastic transformation. Ample evidence suggests that dietary nutrients control the inflammatory and protumorigenic responses in immune cells. Immunoprevention is usually associated with the modulation of immune responses that help in resolving the inflammation, thus improving clinical outcome. Various metabolic pathway-related nutrients, including glutamine, arginine, vitamins, minerals, and long-chain fatty acids, are important components of immunonutrient mixes. Epidemiological studies related to these substances have reported different results, with no or minimal effects. However, several studies suggest that these nutrients may have immune-modulating effects that may lower cancer risk. Preclinical studies submit that most of these components may provide beneficial effects. The present review discusses the available data, the immune-modulating functions of these nutrients, and how these substances could be used to study immune modulation in a neoplastic environment. Further research will help to determine whether the mechanistic signaling pathways in immune cells altered by nutrients can be exploited for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. INCREASED RATES OF SMOKING CESSATION OBSERVED AMONG TRANSGENDER WOMEN RECEIVING HORMONE TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steven C; Safer, Joshua D

    2017-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, while 68% of adult smokers nationally desire to quit, only 6.2% successfully quit in a given year. Transgender women seen for hormone therapy at Boston Medical Center (BMC) are strongly advised to quit smoking before the start of treatment, not only due to general health benefits, but also because of the concern for increased thromboembolic events with estrogen therapy. Transgender men are given the same recommendation regarding tobacco as any patient. We retrospectively examined 156 patients' charts, 120 transgender women and 36 transgender men, from the Transgender Center at BMC. Thirty-five charts were excluded, as they did not contain smoking data (29 transgender women and 6 transgender men). Twenty-eight transgender women (31%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 64% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Of the 30 transgender men included in this study, 8 (27%) were current smokers when they began treatment. Of those, 25% quit smoking over the course of initiating treatment. Although others report that discussing tobacco use with a healthcare provider can increase rates of smoking cessation as seen with transgender men at our center, the substantially increased rate of smoking cessation among our transgender women suggests that greater impact can be achieved when a life-changing event is leveraged. Further, while some physicians raise concern over morbidity from hormone therapy, in our experience, good health habits initiated with care in our system more than outweigh the modest risks currently described. Abbreviation: BMC = Boston Medical Center.

  10. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A TNF variant that associates with susceptibility to musculoskeletal disease modulates thyroid hormone receptor binding to control promoter activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Kiss-Toth

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF is a powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine and immuno-regulatory molecule, and modulates susceptibility to musculoskeletal diseases. Several meta-analyses and replicated association studies have implicated the minor 'A' variant within the TNF promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs361525 (-238A/G as a risk allele in joint related disorders, including psoriatic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and osteolysis after joint arthroplasty. Here we characterized the effect of this variant on TNF promoter function. A transcriptional reporter, encoding the -238A variant of the TNF promoter, resulted in 2.2 to 2.8 times greater transcriptional activation versus the 'G' variant in murine macrophages when stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a putative binding site for thyroid hormone receptor (TR for the -238A but not the -238G allele. Overexpression of TR-α induced promoter expression 1.8-fold in the presence of the 'A' allele only. TR-α expression both potentiated and sensitized the -238A response to LPS or a titanium particulate stimulus, whilst siRNA knockdown of either THRA or THRB impaired transcriptional activation for the -238A variant only. This effect was independent of receptor-ligand binding of triiodothyronine. Immunohistochemical analysis of osteolysis interface membranes from patients undergoing revision surgery confirmed expression of TR-α within osteoclast nuclei at the resorption surface. The 'A' allele at rs361525 confers increased transcriptional activation of the TNF promoter and influences susceptibility to several arthritic conditions. This effect is modulated, at least in part, by binding of TR, which both sensitizes and potentiates transcriptional activation of the 'A' variant independent of its endogenous ligand.

  12. A TNF variant that associates with susceptibility to musculoskeletal disease modulates thyroid hormone receptor binding to control promoter activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss-Toth, Endre; Harlock, Edward; Lath, Darren; Quertermous, Thomas; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a powerful pro-inflammatory cytokine and immuno-regulatory molecule, and modulates susceptibility to musculoskeletal diseases. Several meta-analyses and replicated association studies have implicated the minor 'A' variant within the TNF promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs361525 (-238A/G) as a risk allele in joint related disorders, including psoriatic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and osteolysis after joint arthroplasty. Here we characterized the effect of this variant on TNF promoter function. A transcriptional reporter, encoding the -238A variant of the TNF promoter, resulted in 2.2 to 2.8 times greater transcriptional activation versus the 'G' variant in murine macrophages when stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli. Bioinformatic analysis predicted a putative binding site for thyroid hormone receptor (TR) for the -238A but not the -238G allele. Overexpression of TR-α induced promoter expression 1.8-fold in the presence of the 'A' allele only. TR-α expression both potentiated and sensitized the -238A response to LPS or a titanium particulate stimulus, whilst siRNA knockdown of either THRA or THRB impaired transcriptional activation for the -238A variant only. This effect was independent of receptor-ligand binding of triiodothyronine. Immunohistochemical analysis of osteolysis interface membranes from patients undergoing revision surgery confirmed expression of TR-α within osteoclast nuclei at the resorption surface. The 'A' allele at rs361525 confers increased transcriptional activation of the TNF promoter and influences susceptibility to several arthritic conditions. This effect is modulated, at least in part, by binding of TR, which both sensitizes and potentiates transcriptional activation of the 'A' variant independent of its endogenous ligand.

  13. Hormone and Microorganism Treatments in the Cultivation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Plants

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    Aynur Ozkul Acikgoz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficult cultivation of the saffron plant (Crocus Sativus L. make the spice of the same name made from its dried stigmas very valuable. It is estimated that some 75,000 blossoms or 225,000 hand-picked stigmas are required to make a single pound of saffron, which explains why it is the world’s most expensive spice. The aim of this study was to identify ways of increasing the fertility and production of saffron. For this purpose, the treatment of saffron bulbs with a synthetic growth hormone – a mixture of Polystimulins A6 and K – and two different microorganism based materials – biohumus or vermicompost and Effective Microorganisms™ (EM – in four different ways (hormone alone, biohumus alone, EM alone and EM+biohumus was investigated to determine whether these treatments have any statistically meaningful effects on corms and stigmas. It has been shown that EM + biohumus was the most effective choice for improved saffron cultivation.

  14. Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders in Sexual Offenders or Men With a Risk of Sexual Offending With Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonists: An Updated Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2018-01-01

    Different pharmacologic agents are used in the treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders or men with a risk of sexual offending, with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists being the agents introduced more recently to treatment regimens. To summarize the relevant literature concerning LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders and update the previously published systematic review by Briken et al (J Clin Psychiatry 2003;64:890-897). The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched for literature published from January 2003 through October 2017 using the following key words: LHRH agonists, GnRH agonists, antiandrogens AND paraphilia, pedophilia, sex offenders. Evaluation of the effectiveness and side effects of LHRH agonist treatment of paraphilic disorders in sexual offenders. After screening for duplicates and applying specific selection criteria, the search yielded 24 eligible studies reporting on a sample of 256 patients. There is increasing evidence that LHRH agonists are more effective than steroidal antiandrogens in lowering paraphilic sexual thoughts and behaviors. Current research also is based on methods that might be less susceptible to faking (eg, eye-tracking, brain imaging, and viewing-time measures). Side effects occurring most frequently are fatigue, hot flashes, depressive mood, weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, gynecomastia, loss of erectile function, and loss of bone mineral density. Although LHRH agonists seem to be the most effective drugs in the treatment of paraphilic fantasies and behaviors, they should be reserved for patients with a paraphilic disorder and the highest risk of sexual offending because of their extensive side effects. This systematic review considers all types of research on LHRH agonist treatment in patients with paraphilic disorders, thereby providing a complete overview of the current state of research. However, most studies are case reports or observational

  15. Central Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Neuropeptides and Energy-Sensing Hormones during Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Ruiz, Roger; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Camacho, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS. Saturated fatty acids from the diet have been pointed out as powerful candidates to trigger immune response in peripheral system and in the CNS. However, how central immunity communicates to peripheral immune response remains to be clarified. Recently there has been a great interest in the neuropeptides, POMC derived peptides, ghrelin, and leptin, due to their capacity to suppress or induce inflammatory responses in the brain, respectively. These may be potential candidates to treat different pathologies associated with autoimmunity and inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the role of lipotoxicity associated with positive energy balance during obesity in proinflammatory response in microglia, B and T lymphocytes, and its modulation by neuropeptides.

  16. Central Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Neuropeptides and Energy-Sensing Hormones during Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maldonado-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS senses energy homeostasis by integrating both peripheral and autonomic signals and responding to them by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides release. Although it is previously considered an immunologically privileged organ, we now know that this is not so. Cells belonging to the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, can be recruited into the CNS to face damage or infection, in addition to possessing resident immunological cells, called microglia. In this way, positive energy balance during obesity promotes an inflammatory state in the CNS. Saturated fatty acids from the diet have been pointed out as powerful candidates to trigger immune response in peripheral system and in the CNS. However, how central immunity communicates to peripheral immune response remains to be clarified. Recently there has been a great interest in the neuropeptides, POMC derived peptides, ghrelin, and leptin, due to their capacity to suppress or induce inflammatory responses in the brain, respectively. These may be potential candidates to treat different pathologies associated with autoimmunity and inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the role of lipotoxicity associated with positive energy balance during obesity in proinflammatory response in microglia, B and T lymphocytes, and its modulation by neuropeptides.

  17. A cross-sectional study of hormone treatment and hippocampal volume in postmenopausal women: Evidence for a limited window of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Chaddock, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of hormone treatment on brain and cognition in postmenopausal women has been a controversial topic. Contradictory patterns of results have prompted speculation that a critical period, or a limited window of opportunity, exists for hormone treatment to protect against cognitive and neural decline in older women. Consistent with this hypothesis, studies in both humans and rodents indicate that the latency between the time of menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment is an important factor in determining whether hormone treatment will prevent or exacerbate cognitive impairment. In this cross-sectional study of 102 postmenopausal women, we examined whether hippocampal, amygdala, or caudate nucleus volumes and spatial memory performance were related to the interval between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment. Consistent with a critical period hypothesis, we found that shorter intervals between menopause and the initiation of hormone treatment, as determined by self-report, were associated with larger hippocampal volumes compared with longer intervals between menopause and treatment initiation. Initiation of hormone treatment at the time of menopause was also associated with larger hippocampal volumes when compared to peers who had never used hormone treatment. Furthermore, these effects were independent from potentially confounding factors such as age, years of education, the duration of hormone treatment, current or past use of hormone therapy, the type of therapy, and the age at menopause. Larger hippocampal volumes in women who initiated hormone treatment at the time of menopause failed to translate to improved spatial memory performance. There was no relationship between the timing of hormone initiation, spatial memory performance, and amygdala or caudate nucleus volume. Our results provide support for the idea that there is a limited window of opportunity at the time of menopause for hormone treatment to influence hippocampal

  18. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sacral nerve modulation in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martellucci, J; Naldini, G; Carriero, A

    2012-07-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition that significantly compromises the quality of life of affected patients. Unfortunately, despite treatment procedures, the results are often ineffective and symptoms persist for years. For these reasons, the search for less aggressive treatment options with fewer negative consequences leading to minimally invasive techniques was conducted. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of sacral nerve modulation in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. Moreover, we aimed to identify potential predictors of positive results of sacral neuromodulation through the comparison between failed and successful patients. From January 2004 to December 2009, all consecutive patients suffering from chronic pelvic pain and tested for sacral nerve modulation in three pelvic floor dedicated centers were evaluated. Severity of symptoms were analyzed by a visual analog scale (VAS) RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (2 males; mean age, 53 years) were tested for sacral nerve modulation in the screening period and were included in the present study. The mean duration of pain was 51 months (range, 10-132 months). The mean preoperative VAS was 7.8 (range, 5-10). Previous pelvic surgery was reported in 18 patients (66.5%). Sixteen patients (59%) fulfil the successful criteria and were definitively implanted. The mean follow-up was 37 months (range, 12-71 months). The mean preoperative VAS was 8.1 (range, 6-8) and decreased to 2.1 ± 1.2 at 6-month follow-up (p pelvic pain, and the effect persists over time. A positive screening phase and a positive response to gabapentin or pregabalin showed to be predictors of a successful response. Multiple localizations of pelvic pain and pain occurred after stapler surgery seem to be negative factors for the success of the treatment.

  20. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1 and secretion of interleukin-8 in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; Schulte, U; Kalden, H; Luger, T A

    1999-10-20

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) has evolved as a mediator of diverse biological activities in an ever-growing number of non-melanocytic cell types. One mechanism by which alpha-MSH exerts its effects is modulation of AP-1 and NF-kappa B. These two transcription factors also play an important role in fibroblasts, in extracellular matrix composition, and in cytokine expression. By use of electric mobility shift assays, we demonstrate that alpha-MSH (10(-6) to 10(-14) M) activates AP-1 in human dermal fibroblasts, whereas coincubation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) results in suppression of its activation. alpha-MSH also induces activation of NF-kappa B but does not modulate DNA binding on costimulation with IL-1 beta. Since AP-1 and NF-kappa B are key elements in controlling interleukin-8 (IL-8) transcription, human fibroblasts were treated with alpha-MSH and IL-1 beta for 24 hours, and cytokine levels in the supernatants were measured by ELISA. alpha-MSH alone had little effect, whereas coincubation with IL-1 beta led to marked downregulation of IL-8 secretion (at most 288 +/- 152 ng/mL) when compared to treatment with IL-1 beta alone (919 +/- 157 ng/mL). Our results indicate that alpha-MSH exerts modulatory effects on the activation of NF-kappa B and AP-1, and that it can regulate chemokine secretion in human dermal fibroblasts. These effects of alpha-MSH may have important regulatory functions in extracellular matrix composition, wound healing, or angiogenesis.

  1. Is the Post-Radical Prostatectomy Gleason Score a Valid Predictor of Mortality after Neoadjuvant Hormonal Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehner, Michael; Propping, Stefan; Koch, Rainer; Borkowetz, Angelika; Liebeheim, Dorothea; Toma, Marieta; Baretton, Gustavo B; Wirth, Manfred P

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of the Gleason score after neoadjuvant hormonal treatment as predictor of disease-specific mortality after radical prostatectomy. A total of 2,880 patients with a complete data set and a mean follow-up of 10.3 years were studied; 425 of them (15%) had a history of hormonal treatment prior to surgery. The cumulative incidence of deaths from prostate cancer was determined by univariate and multivariate competing risk analysis. Cox proportional hazard models for competing risks were used to study combined effects of the variables on prostate cancer-specific mortality. A higher portion of specimens with a history of neoadjuvant hormonal treatment were assigned Gleason scores of 8-10 (28 vs. 17%, p Gleason score strata Gleason score of 8-10 was an independent predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality; the hazard ratio was, however, somewhat lower than in patients without neoadjuvant hormonal treatment. This study suggests that the prognostic value of the post-radical prostatectomy Gleason score is not meaningfully jeopardized by heterogeneous neoadjuvant hormonal treatment in a routine clinical setting. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Concomitant psychiatric problems and hormonal treatment induced metabolic syndrome in gender dysphoria individuals: a 2 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Scaramuzzi, Francesca; Palumbo, Claudia; Tyropani, Margarita; Pace, Valeria; Quagliarella, Luca; Brescia, Francesco; Natilla, Lilia Carmen; Loverro, Giuseppe; Todarello, Orlando

    2015-04-01

    Several studies indicate increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among patients with psychiatric disorders as well as among individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) treated by cross-sex hormonal treatment. However, the MetS prevalence among hormone treated GD individuals suffering from psychiatric problems has not been detected. From a sample of 146 GD patients we selected 122 metabolically healthy individuals in order to investigate the prevalence of MetS after the beginning of the cross-sex hormonal treatment in a 2 year follow-up assessment. Furthermore, we assessed differences in MetS prevalence between hormone treated GD patients with and without concomitant psychiatric problems. When treated with hormone therapy, GD patients reported changes in several parameters which are clustered in MetS, with statistically significant differences compared to baseline. Glyco-insulinemic alterations were more pronounced in male to female patients (MtFs). However, weight gain, waist circumference increases, blood pressure increases, and lipid alterations were similar in MtFs and female to male patients (FtMs). 14.8% of the sample at year 1 and 17.2% at year 2 developed MetS. Among patients with concomitant psychiatric problems, 50% at year 1 and 55% at year 2 developed MetS against 8% at year 1 and 10% at year 2 of patients without concomitant psychiatric problems. This study indicates that sex hormones induce MetS in a relatively low proportion of healthy GD individuals and especially during the first year of hormonal treatment. Most importantly, concomitant psychiatric problems are associated with considerably greater MetS prevalence in hormone treated GD individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ACAN Gene Mutations in Short Children Born SGA and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Manouk; Pfundt, Rolph; Maas, Stephan J W H; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M; Odink, Roelof J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2017-05-01

    Some children born small for gestational age (SGA) show advanced bone age (BA) maturation during growth hormone (GH) treatment. ACAN gene mutations have been described in children with short stature and advanced BA. To determine the presence of ACAN gene mutations in short SGA children with advanced BA and assess the response to GH treatment. BA assessment in 290 GH-treated SGA children. ACAN sequencing in 29 children with advanced BA ≥0.5 years compared with calendar age. Four of 29 SGA children with advanced BA had an ACAN gene mutation (13.8%). Mutations were related to additional characteristics: midface hypoplasia (P = 0.003), joint problems (P = 0.010), and broad great toes (P = 0.003). Children with one or fewer additional characteristic had no mutation. Of children with two additional characteristics, 50% had a mutation. Of children with three additional characteristics, 100% had a mutation. All GH-treated children with a mutation received gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) treatment for 2 years from onset of puberty. At adult height, one girl was 5 cm taller than her mother and one boy was 8 cm taller than his father with the same ACAN gene mutation. This study expands the differential diagnosis of genetic variants in children born SGA and proposes a clinical scoring system for identifying subjects most likely to have an ACAN gene mutation. ACAN sequencing should be considered in children born SGA with persistent short stature, advanced BA, and midface hypoplasia, joint problems, or broad great toes. Our findings suggest that children with an ACAN gene mutation benefit from GH treatment with 2 years of GnRHa.

  4. [Growth hormone treatment in small for gestational age children in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial Rodríguez, José Manuel; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Bosch Muñoz, Jordi; Cabanas Rodríguez, Paloma; Cañete Estrada, Ramón; Díez López, Ignacio; Hawkins Solís, María Magdalena; Martínez-Aedo Ollero, María José; Rodríguez Dehli, Ana Cristina; Ibáñez Toda, Lourdes

    2017-05-01

    Since its approval by the European Medicines Agency, a great number of patients born small for gestational date have received recombinant growth hormone treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to analyse its outcome in the setting of ordinary clinical practice. Information was gathered from the registers of the assessment boards that authorise all growth hormone treatments prescribed in public hospitals in six autonomic communities (regions). Valid data from 974 patients was obtained. All of them complied with criteria established by the European Medicines Agency. Patients in the sample were smaller in length than weight at birth, with their median target height being below 1 standard deviation (SD), and 23% of them had been delivered prematurely. Treatment was started at 7.2±2.8 years (mean±SD). The mean patient height at start was -3.1±0.8 SD. They gained 0.7±0.2 SD in the first year, and 1.2±0.8 SD after two years. Final height was attained by 8% of the sample, reaching -1.4±0.7 SD. These results are similar to other Spanish and international published studies, and are representative of the current practice in Spain. Despite treatment being started at a late age, adequate growth is observed in the short term and in the final height. Up to a 24% of patients show a poor response in the first year. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variations associated with the effect of testicular cancer treatment on gonadal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschim, E L; Oldenburg, J; Kristiansen, W; Giwercman, A; Witczak, O; Fosså, S D; Haugen, T B

    2014-12-01

    Do genetic variations in the testosterone pathway genes modify the effect of treatment on the levels of testosterone and LH in long-term testicular cancer (TC) survivors (TCSs)? Variations in LH receptor (LHR) and in 5α-reductase II (SRD5A2) genes may modify the effect of TC treatment on testosterone levels, whereas genetic variations in the androgen receptor (AR) may modify the effect on LH levels. TCSs experience variable degrees of long-term reduction in gonadal function after treatment. This variability can in part be explained by treatment intensity, but may also be due to individual variations in genes involved in the function and metabolism of reproductive hormones. Cross-sectional study on testosterone and LH levels in 637 Norwegian TCSs in relation to genetic variants and TC treatment. The single nucleotide polymorphisms LHR Asn291Ser (rs12470652) and Ser312Asn (rs2293275), as well as SRD5A2 Ala49Thr (rs9282858) and Val89Leu (rs523349) were analyzed by allele-specific PCR. The insertion polymorphism LHR InsLQ (rs4539842) was analyzed by sequencing. The numbers of AR CAG and GGN repeats were determined by capillary electrophoresis. Blood samples were collected 5-21 years after diagnosis (median 11 years) and serum total testosterone and LH were analyzed by commercial immunoassays. The TCSs were divided into four groups according to their treatment; surgery only, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ≤850 or >850 mg of cisplatin. Polymorphisms presenting P differences between the hormone levels in homozygotes for the wild type and carriers of at least one polymorphic allele for the investigated polymorphisms. Three of the polymorphisms showed signs of interaction with treatment, i.e. LHR InsLQ, SRD5A2 A49T and the AR CAG repeat. Follow-up analyses revealed three situations where only one of the genotypes of the polymorphism where associated with significantly different hormone levels after surgery compared with after additional cytotoxic treatment: For LHR

  6. Estramustine phosphate in the treatment of hormone escape prostatic carcinoma - a 3 year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf H Syed

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A recent literature review has shown rekin-dled interest in the use of estramustine phosphate (EMP inpatients with advanced prostatic cancer. This led us to assess prostate specific antigen (PSA response and drug tolerability following EMP therapy inpatients with hor-mone refractory prostate cancer Patients and Methods: Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 73.5 years (range 49 to 85 years received EMP for hormone insensitive prostate cancer from January 1996 onwards. They were received at 6 weeks initially followed by 3 monthly intervals to monitor further progression of disease. At each visit clinical examination and blood chem-istry (PSA, etc was done and further investigations, i.e., bone scan, CT scan, etc. were requested if thought neces-sary. Results: According to the WHO score of pain 71 %found immediate symptomatic relief following EMP treatment but only 29% were pain free after one year PSA level showed a persistent decline of> 50% of pre-treatment value in 16 patients (64% at 6 weeks. However, at 1 year 22% had either a still declining PSA or had reached a stable nadir PSA level while the rest showed rising PSA suggesting in-sensitivity to EMP. Three out of 5 patients (excluding I patient with intolerance at 2 months with> 80% decrease in PSA at 6 weeks had longer period of progression free interval (1 year in 2 and 2 years in 1 patient. The treat-ment was generally well tolerated (72% as only 7 patients had to discontinue EMP because of severe side ef-fects. Conclusions: EMP treatment in patients with hormone escaped prostatic cancer does produce immediate PSA response which is reflected simultaneously in pain improve-ment in the majority of cases but overall the benefit is shortlived. Patients who have> 80% reduction in pre-treat-ment PSA value at 6 weeks may have longer period of pro-gressionfree intervals. However EMP was generally well tolerated.

  7. Metabolic Health of Children Born SGA: Influence of parental health, prematurity, genetic polymorphisms and growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.K. de Kort (Sandra)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSince 1991 our research group and others have investigated children with short stature who were born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). Because of these efforts and the positive results, GH treatment was licensed for

  8. Growth hormone treatment for Turner syndrome in Australia reveals that younger age and increased dose interact to improve response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Ian P.; Choong, Catherine S.; Harris, Mark; Ambler, Geoffrey R.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cowell, Chris T.; Werther, George; Cotterill, Andrew; Davies, Peter S. W.

    P>Objective To investigate response to growth hormone (GH) in the first, second and third years of treatment in the total clinical cohort of Turner syndrome (TS) patients in Australia. Context Short stature is the most common clinical manifestation of TS. GH treatment improves growth. Design

  9. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin®) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (padult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (164.3 cm) than in the untreated group (156.9 cm) (padult height of 160 cm or taller was 90.5% (19/21) in the combination treatment group, and it was 13.8% (4/29) in the untreated group (pincreased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone. PMID:23926409

  10. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A modulates the anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone in mouse bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Kari B; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic therapy for bone, and several studies have implicated local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in mediating this effect. The IGF system is complex and includes ligands and receptors, as well as IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGFBP proteases. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a metalloprotease expressed by osteoblasts in vitro that has been shown to enhance local IGF action through cleavage of inhibitory IGFBP-4. This study was set up to test two specific hypotheses: 1) Intermittent PTH treatment increases the expression of IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A in bone in vivo, thereby increasing local IGF activity. 2) In the absence of PAPP-A, local IGF activity and the anabolic effects of PTH on bone are reduced. Wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knock-out (KO) mice were treated with 80 μg/kg human PTH 1-34 or vehicle by subcutaneous injection five days per week for six weeks. IGF-I, IGFBP-4 and PAPP-A mRNA expression in bone were significantly increased in response to PTH treatment. PTH treatment of WT mice, but not PAPP-A KO mice, significantly increased expression of an IGF-responsive gene. Bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DEXA, was significantly decreased in femurs of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. Volumetric BMD, as measured by pQCT, was significantly decreased in femoral midshaft (primarily cortical bone), but not metaphysis (primarily trabecular bone), of PAPP-A KO compared to WT mice with PTH treatment. These data suggest that stimulation of PAPP-A expression by intermittent PTH treatment contributes to PTH bone anabolism in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment in children with hypochondroplasia: comparison with an historical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Graziella; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Baujat, Geneviève; Fresneau, Laurence; Viaud, Magali; Souberbielle, Jean Claude; Pineau, Jean Claude; Polak, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Hypochondroplasia (HCH) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature. The aims of the study are to evaluate efficacy and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) therapy in HCH children, when compared with a historical cohort of untreated HCH children. Nineteen HCH patients with an initial height standard deviation score (SDS) ≤-2 and a mean age of 9.3 ± 3.1 years were treated with a mean r-hGH dose of 0.053 mg/kg/day over 3 years. Growth charts were derived from the historical cohort (n = 40). Height gain in the treated population was +0.62 ± 0.81 SDS greater than in the general population, and +1.39 ± 0.9 SDS greater than in the historical untreated HCH cohort (mean gain of 7.4 ± 6.6 cm gain). A negative correlation between height gain and age at treatment initiation was reported (p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in response between patients with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutations and those without. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. r-hGH treatment is well tolerated and effective in improving growth in HCH patients, particularly when started early. The treatment effect varies greatly and must be evaluated for each patient during treatment to determine the value of continued therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. PERİODONTAL TREATMENT OUTCOMES IN POST MENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇEKİCİ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy(HRT on periodontal treatment outcomes in a group of postmenopausal women with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: 23 post-menopausal chronic periodontitis patients were included in this study. The test group(n=11 consisted of women who started HRT with this study and received conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesteron. The control group(n=12 was women not taking any HRT or supplement therapy. Study groups received the same periodontal treatment. All subjects examiend by recording the following: plaque index (PI, sulcus bleeding index (SBI, periodontal pocket depth (PD and relative attachment level (RAL from 6 sites in each tooth. Measurements were recorded at the baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following periodontal treatment. Serum estrogene level and bone mineral density was recorded at baseline and 6 months following periodontal treatment. Results: The GI change was greater in the control group. There wasn’t significant difference by means of PD, the attachment gain was significantly greater in the HRT receiving group. Conclusion: HRT seems to have a positive effect on periodontal treatment outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of modulated Arc treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young Kyu; Kim, Yeon Sil; Choi, Byung Ock; Nam, Sang Hee; Park, Hyeong Wook; Kim, Shin Wook; Shin, Hun Joo; Lee, Jae Choon; Kim, Ji Na; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Jin Young; Kang, Young-Nam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of modulated arc (mARC) treatment techniques. The mARC treatment plans of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were performed in order to verify the clinical usefulness of mARC. A pre study was conducted to find the most competent plan condition of mARC treatment and the usefulness of mARC treatment plan was evaluated by comparing it with the other Arc treatment plans such as Tomotherapy and RapidArc. In the case of mARC, the optimal condition for the mARC plan was determined by comparing the dosimetric performance of the mARC plans with the use of various parameters. The various parameters includes the photon energies (6 MV, 10 MV), optimization point angle (6{\\deg}-10{\\deg} intervals), and total segment number (36-59 segment). The best dosimetric performance of mARC was observed at 10 MV photon energy and the point angle 6 degree, and 59 segments. The each treatment plans of three different techniques were compared with the followin...

  14. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Hardin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical controversies remain regarding the diagnosis of GHD, dosing of GH, duration of therapy and expected outcomes. Areas which also require consensus include management of pubertal patients, transitioning pediatric patients to adulthood, management of children with idiopathic short stature and the role of recombinant IGF-1 in treatment. Additionally, studies have demonstrated anabolic benefits of GH in children who have inflammatory-based underlying disease and efficacy of GH in overcoming growth delays in people treated chronically with corticosteroids. These areas are open for possible new uses of this drug. This review summarizes current indications for GH use in children and discusses areas of clinical debate and potential anabolic uses in chronic illness.Keywords: somatotropin, growth hormone deficiency, children, short stature

  15. Melatonin treatment following stroke induction modulates L-arginine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiva M; Rahman, Rosanna M A; Clarkson, Andrew N; Sutherland, Brad A; Taurin, Sebastien; Sammut, Ivan A; Appleton, Ian

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of melatonin treatment in experimental stroke has been established. Some of the neuroprotective properties have been attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and cyclooxygenases (COX) are considered to have a significant role in the inflammatory milieu occurring in acute stroke. While previous reports have shown that pretreatment with melatonin in a stroke model can modulate NOS isoforms, the effect of post-treatment with melatonin on l-arginine metabolism has not been investigated. This study initially examined the effect of melatonin (1 nm-1 mm) on l-arginine metabolism pathways in human fibrosarcoma fibroblasts (HT-1080) fibroblasts. Evidence of neuroprotection with melatonin was evaluated in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Animals were treated with three daily doses of 5 mg/kg i.p., starting 1 hr after the onset of ischemia. Constitutive NOS activity but not expression was significantly increased by in vitro exposure (72 hr) to melatonin. In addition, melatonin treatment increased arginase activity by increasing arginase II expression. In vivo studies showed that melatonin treatment after MCAO significantly inhibited inducible NOS activity and attenuated expression of the inducible isoform, resulting in decreased total NOS activity and tissue nitrite levels. COX activity was significantly reduced with melatonin treatment. The neuroprotective anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin were consistent with the substantial reduction in infarct volume throughout the cortex and striatum and recovery of mitochondrial enzyme activities. The evidence presented here suggests that modulation of l-arginine metabolism by melatonin make it a valuable neuroprotective therapy for stroke. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Human metastatic melanoma cell lines express high levels of growth hormone receptor and respond to GH treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sustarsic, Elahu G. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Junnila, Riia K. [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Kopchick, John J., E-mail: kopchick@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, 1 Watertower Drive, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Most cancer types of the NCI60 have sub-sets of cell lines with high GHR expression. •GHR is highly expressed in melanoma cell lines. •GHR is elevated in advanced stage IV metastatic tumors vs. stage III. •GH treatment of metastatic melanoma cell lines alters growth and cell signaling. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence implicates the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in carcinogenesis. While multiple studies show evidence for expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR mRNA in human cancer tissue, there is a lack of quantification and only a few cancer types have been investigated. The National Cancer Institute’s NCI60 panel includes 60 cancer cell lines from nine types of human cancer: breast, CNS, colon, leukemia, melanoma, non-small cell lung, ovarian, prostate and renal. We utilized this panel to quantify expression of GHR, GH, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and prolactin (PRL) mRNA with real-time RT qPCR. Both GHR and PRLR show a broad range of expression within and among most cancer types. Strikingly, GHR expression is nearly 50-fold higher in melanoma than in the panel as a whole. Analysis of human metastatic melanoma biopsies confirmed GHR gene expression in melanoma tissue. In these human biopsies, the level of GHR mRNA is elevated in advanced stage IV tumor samples compared to stage III. Due to the novel finding of high GHR in melanoma, we examined the effect of GH treatment on three NCI60 melanoma lines (MDA-MB-435, UACC-62 and SK-MEL-5). GH increased proliferation in two out of three cell lines tested. Further analysis revealed GH-induced activation of STAT5 and mTOR in a cell line dependent manner. In conclusion, we have identified cell lines and cancer types that are ideal to study the role of GH and PRL in cancer, yet have been largely overlooked. Furthermore, we found that human metastatic melanoma tumors express GHR and cell lines possess active GHRs that can modulate multiple signaling pathways and alter cell proliferation. Based on

  17. Cyclic AMP Modulation of Estrogen-Induced Effects: A Novel Mechanism for Hormonal Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    muscle cells. J Physiol (Lond) 61:530-546 58. Gaddum JH 1926 The action of adrenalin and ergota- mine on the uterus of the rabbit J Physiol (Lond) 61...action of the steroid hormones (such as estrogens, androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and the insect steroid hormone ecdysone), as well...dimerize with the retinoid X receptor [12,20]. The recep- tor for the insect steroid hormone ecdysone, on the other hand, is active only as a

  18. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Lacrosse, Amber L; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Olive, M Foster

    2013-02-06

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  19. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foster Olive

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  20. Orthodontic treatment for a mandibular prognathic girl of short stature under growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yun Pan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, and facial asymmetry, undergoing growth hormone (GH therapy due to idiopathic short stature. Children of short stature with or without GH deficiency have a deviating craniofacial morphology with overall smaller dimensions; facial retrognathism, especially mandibular retrognathism; and increased facial convexity. However, a complete opposite craniofacial pattern was presented in our case of a skeletal Class III girl with idiopathic short stature. The orthodontic treatment goal was to inhibit or change the direction of mandibular growth and stimulate the maxillary growth of the girl during a course of GH therapy. Maxillary protraction and mandibular retraction were achieved using occipitomental anchorage (OMA orthopedic appliance in the first stage of treatment. In the second stage, the patient was treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance using a modified multiple-loop edgewise archwire technique of asymmetric mechanics and an active retainer of vertical chin-cup. The treatment led to an acceptable facial profile and obvious facial asymmetry improvement. Class I dental occlusion and coincident dental midline were also achieved. A 3½-year follow-up of the girl at age 18 showed a stable result of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment. Our case shows that the OMA orthopedic appliance of maxillary protraction combined with mandibular retraction is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with midface deficiency and mandibular prognathism in growing children with idiopathic short stature undergoing GH therapy.

  1. Growth hormone (GH) and atherosclerosis: changes in morphology and function of major arteries during GH treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B

    1999-04-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and reduced arterial distensibility. The effect of 2 years of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on these parameters was studied in 11 GH-deficient men (age range, 24-49 years) with hypopituitarism and compared with 12 healthy, age-matched men with no evidence of pituitary or vascular disease. Before treatment the intima-media of the common carotid arteries and the carotid bifurcations were significantly thicker in patients (P < 0.001) than in the control group. Treatment with GH normalized the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery within 6 months and of the carotid bifurcation within 3 months. The changes in intima-media thickness of the carotid artery were negatively correlated with changes in serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I during treatment. There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent dilation of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6, 18 and 24 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). Thus, GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient men reverses early morphological and functional atherosclerotic changes in major arteries, and may reduce rates of vascular morbidity and mortality.

  2. Reversion of Hormone Treatment Resistance with the Addition of an mTOR Inhibitor in Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Martin-Liberal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS are a subtype of gynaecological sarcomas characterized by the overexpression of hormone receptors. Hormone treatment is widely used in ESS but primary or acquired resistance is common. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway has been suggested to play a key role in the mechanisms of hormone resistance. Recent studies in breast and prostate cancer demonstrate that this resistance can be reversed with the addition of an mTOR inhibitor. This phenomenon has never been reported in ESS. Methods. We report the outcome of one patient with pretreated, progressing low grade metastatic ESS treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate in combination with the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Results. Partial response was achieved following the addition of sirolimus to the hormone treatment. Response has been maintained for more than 2 years with minimal toxicity and treatment is ongoing. Conclusion. This case suggests that the resistance to the hormone manipulation in ESS can be reversed by the addition of an mTOR pathway inhibitor. This observation is highly encouraging and deserves further investigation.

  3. Growth hormone treatment for short stature in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heike; Rosilio, Myriam; Blum, Werner F; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2008-10-01

    Children born small for gestational age (SGA) who do not show catch-up in the first 2 years generally remain short for life. Although the majority of children born SGA are not growth hormone (GH) deficient, GH treatment is known to improve average growth in these children.Early studies using GH in children born SGA demonstrated increased height velocity, but these effects tended to be short-term with effects decreasing when GH treatment stopped. With refined GH regimens, significant effects on height have been shown, with gains of approximately 1 standard deviation score after 2 years. Studies have also shown that long-term continuous GH therapy can significantly increase final height to within the normal range. GH treatment of children born SGA does not appear to unduly affect bone age or pubertal development. Growth prediction models have been used to identify various factors involved in the response to GH therapy with age at start, treatment duration, and GH dose showing strong effects. Genetic factors such as the exon 3 deletion of the GH receptor may contribute to short stature of children born SGA and may also be involved in the responsiveness to GH treatment, but there remain other unknown genetic and/or environmental factors. No unexpected safety concerns have arisen in GH therapy trials. In particular, no long-term adverse effects have been seen for glucose metabolism, and positive effects have been shown for lipid profiles and blood pressure.GH treatment in short children born SGA has shown a beneficial, growth-promoting effect in both the short-and long-term, and has become a recognized indication in both the US and Europe. Further studies on individualized treatment regimens and long-term safety are ongoing.

  4. Systemic but no local effects of combined zoledronate and parathyroid hormone treatment in experimental autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresten Krarup Keller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. RESULTS: Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. CONCLUSIONS: No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated.

  5. Fractures in pituitary adenoma patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Varsseveld, N C; van Bunderen, C C; Franken, A A M; Koppeschaar, H P F; van der Lely, A J; Drent, M L

    2016-08-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on fracture risk in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients with different etiologies of pituitary GHD are not well known, due to limited data. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and fracture occurrence at start of (baseline) and during long-term GH replacement therapy in GHD adults previously treated for Cushing's disease (CD) or acromegaly, compared to patients with previous nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). From the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults, a nationwide surveillance study in severe GHD adults, all patients using ≥30 days of GH replacement therapy with previous NFPA (n = 783), CD (n = 180) and acromegaly (n = 65) were selected. Patient characteristics, fractures and potential influencing factors were investigated. At baseline, patients with previous CD were younger, more often female and had more often a history of osteopenia or osteoporosis, whereas patients with previous acromegaly had more often received cranial radiotherapy and a longer duration between treatment of their pituitary tumor and start of adult GH replacement therapy. During follow-up, a fracture occurred in 3.8 % (n = 39) of all patients. Compared to patients with previous NFPA, only patients with previous acromegaly had an increased fracture risk after 6 years of GH replacement therapy. During GH replacement therapy, an increased fracture risk was observed in severe GHD adult patients previously treated for acromegaly, but not in those previously treated for CD, compared to severe GHD adult patients using GH replacement therapy because of previous NFPA. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  6. Retrospective analysis of the efficacy of different hormone treatments of cystic ovarian disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, A S; Ward, W R; Williams, P C; Dobson, H

    1988-02-13

    Cystic ovarian disease in cows was treated either with a single intramuscular injection of 500 micrograms cloprostenol, a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, in 77 cases of luteal cysts or with 500 micrograms gonadorelin or 20 micrograms buserelin, gonadotrophin releasing hormone or its analogue (GnRH), in 116 cases of follicular cysts. Recovery was defined as the absence of cysts and the formation of a corpus luteum either with or without observed oestrus within 10 days after treatment with cloprostenol and 15 days after treatment with GnRH. Recovery occurred in 65 per cent and 52.6 per cent of cases, respectively, in average times of 4.9 and 19 days. Fifteen days after treatment with GnRH, 20 cows with luteinised cysts were treated with cloprostenol and 15 recovered in a mean of 20.4 days, while 10 which still had follicular cysts, were given GnRH and one recovered 31 days after the beginning of treatment. Another 27 cows, in which cysts became luteinised, were treated with cloprostenol seven days after treatment with GnRH to give quicker (average 11.5 days) but poor (48 per cent) recovery and with a higher rate (33 per cent) of recurrence of cysts. A progesterone releasing intrauterine device was used in 25 cases of cystic ovarian disease, some of which had been previously treated. Sixty-eight per cent recovered in an average of 15 days. The proportions of cows becoming pregnant to one to three inseminations after the different methods of treatment were similar (77 to 94 per cent).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Does growth hormone replacement therapy reduce mortality in adults with growth hormone deficiency? Data from the Dutch national registry of growth hormone treatment in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bunderen, C.C.; van Nieuwpoort, I.C.; Arwert, L.I.; Heijmans, M.W.; Franken, A.A.M.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; van der Lely, A.J.; Drent, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Adults with GH deficiency (GHD) have a decreased life expectancy. The effect of GH treatment on mortality remains to be established. Objective: This nationwide cohort study investigates the effect of GH treatment on all-cause and cause-specific mortality and analyzes patient characteristics

  8. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment in short children with renal disease: Our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Dimitrijeva Brankica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth retardation is a hallmark of chronic illnesses such as chronic kidney disease in children, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The growth hormone (GH resistance observed in uraemia can be overcome by supraphysiological doses of exogenous GH. Objective. We would like to present our first results of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment, mainly in children on haemodialysis. Methods. Sixteen children, aged 4.5-17.1 years (mean age 11.25±3.57 with height below -2.0 standard deviation score (SDS for age or height velocity below -2.0 SDS for age, were selected to receive rhGH therapy at our Nephrology and Haemodialysis Department. Most of them were on haemodialysis (14 children with mean spent time 2.88±2.68 years (0-9 years before the initiation of rhGH therapy. One half of patients were prepubertal (8 children and the second half were in early puberty (testicular volume between 4 and 8 ml for boys and breast development B2 or B3 in girls. All patients received 28-30IU/m² rhGH per week by daily subcutaneous injection. The year before rhGH therapy served as a control period. Results. During the first year of treatment, mean height velocity in haemodialysis patients increased from 2.25 cm/year to 6.59 cm/year (p<0.0001 and in the second year it was 5.25 cm/ year (p=0.004. The mean height SDS in haemodialysis children did not improve significantly during the first year of rhGH treatment (from -3.01 SDS to -2.77 SDS, p=0.063. Neither weight nor the body mass index varied compared with the pretreatment period. Two patients developed worsened secondary hyperparathyroidism and were excluded from the study, but the relationship with rhGH remains uncertain. Conclusion. Mean height velocity significantly improved during rhGH therapy in haemodialysis patients. No significant side-effects were observed in children during three-year treatment with GH.

  9. A prospective study of hormonal treatment and anxiety disorders in community-dwelling elderly women (the Esprit Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scali, Jacqueline; Ryan, Joanne; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2009-05-01

    The impact of hormone therapy use on late-life anxiety disorder in elderly women has not been evaluated. Anxiety disorders were evaluated in 838 community-dwelling postmenopausal women aged 65 years and over, randomly recruited from electoral rolls. Anxiety disorders were assessed using a standardized psychiatric examination based on DSM-IV criteria, at baseline and as part of the 2- and 4-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, measures of physical health and cognitive impairment, as well as current depressive symptomatology indicated no significant association between hormone therapy and anxiety disorders at baseline or after the 4-year follow-up period, regardless of type of treatment. Compared to women who have never taken hormonal therapy, no significant difference was observed for women taking continuously hormone therapy over the follow-up or those who stopped their treatment. The use of hormone therapy was not associated with improved anxiety symptomatology in elderly postmenopausal women.

  10. The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists in the treatment of patients with advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Derek J; Davey, Patrick; Green, James; Greene, Damien; Turner, Bruce; Payne, Heather; Kirby, Mike

    2016-12-01

    Comparing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists and agonists as androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PC). This article stems from a round-table meeting in December 2014 to compare the properties of GnRH agonists and antagonists in the published literature in order to identify the patient groups most likely to benefit from GnRH antagonist therapy. A broad PubMed and congress abstract search was carried out in preparation for the meeting to ensure that the latest data and opinion were available for the discussions. In randomised, controlled trials, GnRH antagonist therapy provides more rapid suppression of luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone than GnRH agonist treatment. Compared with the GnRH agonist, there is evidence of improved disease control by a GnRH antagonist, with longer interval to prostate-specific antigen progression and greater reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase. In a post hoc analysis of six randomised trials, the risk of cardiac events within 1 year of initiating therapy was significantly lower among men receiving GnRH antagonist than agonist. Pre-clinical laboratory data suggest a number of mechanisms whereby GnRH antagonist therapy may benefit men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most plausible hypothesis being that, unlike GnRH agonists, GnRH antagonists do not activate T lymphocytes, which act to increase atherosclerotic plaque rupture. When making treatment decisions, clinicians should consider comorbidities, particularly CVD, in addition to effects on PC. GnRH antagonists may be appropriate in patients with significant CV risk, existing osteopenia, lower urinary tract symptoms and significant metastatic disease.

  11. Anti-Müllerian Hormone as a Predictor of IVF Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mehrafza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH is secreted from granulosa cells of growing follicles and is a useful marker of ovarian reserve. Fertility in women is determined by the quality and quantity of follicle pool and ovarian follicular reserve positively correlates with AMH. In this study we aimed to determine if AMH can predict ovarian response in IVF treatments.Methods: In this retrospective observational study undertaken in Mehr Institute during 2010 to 2011, we studied the medical records of 101 patients and recorded the concentrations of AMH, day two or three FSH, LH, basal estradiol (E2, E2 on day of HCG administration and the number of metaphase II oocytes. Having undergone ovarian hyperstimulation, the women were divided into three groups: poor responders (retrieved oocytes ?3, normal responders (retrieved oocytes 4 to 15 and high responders (retrieved oocytes ?16.Results: Overall, 20% of patients were defined as poor responders, 71% as average responders and 10% as high responders. There were significant differences in the concentration of AMH, E2 on day of HCG administration, FSH, the number of metaphase II oocytes and age between the three groups. MII oocyte count correlated positively with AMH (r=0.487, basal E2 (r=0.275 and LH (r=0.07 but it did negatively with FSH (r=-0.26 and age (r=-0.04. The areas under curve for AMH, FSH, LH, E2 and age were 0.799, 0.32, 0.429, 0.558 and 0.304, respectively. We determined the 0.85 ng/ml AMH concentration as the cut-off point with 71% specificity and 79% sensitivity for the prediction of poor responders. Conclusion: anti-müllerian hormone is an appropriate predicator of ovarian response following induction of ovulation.

  12. DETERMINATION OF SEX HORMONES AND NONYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN THE AQUEOUS MATRIXES OF TWO PILOT-SCALE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two analytical methods were developed and refined for the detection and quantitation of two groups of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the liquid matrixes of two pilot-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants. The targeted compounds are seven sex hormones (estradiol, ...

  13. Methylphenidate and the response to growth hormone treatment in short children born small for gestational age.

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    Judith S Renes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH treatment has become a frequently applied growth promoting therapy in short children born small for gestational age (SGA. Children born SGA have a higher risk of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Treatment of ADHD with methylphenidate (MP has greatly increased in recent years, therefore more children are being treated with GH and MP simultaneously. Some studies have found an association between MP treatment and growth deceleration, but data are contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of MP treatment on growth in GH-treated short SGA children METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were performed in 78 GH-treated short SGA children (mean age 10.6 yr, 39 of whom were also treated with MP (SGA-GH/MP. The SGA-GH/MP group was compared to 39 SGA-GH treated subjects. They were matched for sex, age and height at start of GH, height SDS at start of MP treatment and target height SDS. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 levels were yearly determined. Growth, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels during the first three years of treatment were analyzed using repeated measures regression analysis. RESULTS: The SGA-GH/MP group had a lower height gain during the first 3 years than the SGA-GH subjects, only significant between 6 and 12 months of MP treatment. After 3 years of MP treatment, the height gain was 0.2 SDS (± 0.1 SD lower in the SGA-GH/MP group (P = 0.17. Adult height was not significantly different between the SGA-GH/MP and SGA-GH group (-1.9 SDS and -1.9 SDS respectively, P = 0.46. Moreover, during the first 3 years of MP treatment IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: MP has some negative effect on growth during the first years in short SGA children treated with GH, but adult height is not affected.

  14. Cell-specific modulation of surfactant proteins by ambroxol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifart, Carola; Clostermann, Ursula; Seifart, Ulf; Müller, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus; von Wichert, Peter; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2005-02-15

    Ambroxol [trans-4-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzylamino)-cyclohexanole hydrochloride], a mucolytic agent, was postulated to provide surfactant stimulatory properties and was previously used to prevent surfactant deficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are not exactly clear. Because surfactant homeostasis is regulated by surfactant-specific proteins (SP), we analyzed protein amount and mRNA expression in whole lung tissue, isolated type II pneumocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage of Sprague-Dawley rats treated with ambroxol i.p. (75 mg/kg body weight, twice a day [every 12 h]). The methods used included competitive polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Northern blotting, Western immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry. In isolated type II pneumocytes of ambroxol-treated animals, SP-C protein and mRNA content were increased, whereas SP-A, -B and -D protein, mRNA, and immunoreactivity remained unaffected. However, ambroxol treatment resulted in a significant increase of SP-B and in a decrease of SP-D in whole lung tissue with enhanced immunostaining for SP-B in Clara Cells. SP-A and SP-D were significantly decreased in BAL fluid of ambroxol-treated animals. The data suggest that surfactant protein expression is modulated in a cell-specific manner by ambroxol, as type II pneumocytes exhibited an increase in SP-C, whereas Clara cells exhibited an increase in the immunoreactivity for SP-B accounting for the increased SP-B content of whole lung tissue. The results indicate that ambroxol may exert its positive effects, observed in the treatment of diseases related to surfactant deficiency, via modulation of surfactant protein expression.

  15. Bone mineral density and body composition in short children born SGA during growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Annemieke J; van der Kaay, Danielle C M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2013-01-01

    Postponement of puberty by GnRH analog (GnRHa) in addition to GH treatment might increase adult height (AH) in short adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA). GnRHa treatment is thought to have negative effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition. The objective of the study was to assess the BMD of total body (BMD(TB)), lumbar spine (BMD(LS)), bone mineral apparent density lumbar spine (BMAD(LS)), lean body mass, fat mass, and fat distribution during GH treatment, with or without an additional 2 yr of GnRHa. This was a prospective GH trial involving short SGA adolescents (≥8 yr). Eighty-eight children (50 girls) were treated until AH (GH randomized 1 or 2 mg/m(2) · d during puberty); 52 of these children received additional GnRHa. BMD and body composition were longitudinally assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Baseline BMD(TB) sd score (SDS) and BMD(LS) SDS were significantly reduced (both P -2 and < +2 SDS). From the start until AH, lean body mass SDS(height) and fat mass SDS increased significantly toward zero (both P <0.001). Multiple regression analyses showed that additional GnRHa treatment had no adverse effect on the changes in BMD and body composition during GH treatment, also after correction for influencing variables. Untreated short SGA adolescents had reduced BMD(TB) and BMD(LS) but normal bone size-corrected BMAD(LS). During GH treatment, BMD(TB) and BMD(LS) increased significantly, leading to a normal adult BMD in almost all patients. Two years of GnRHa in addition to GH treatment had no adverse effect on BMD or body composition.

  16. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

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    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  17. Growth hormone treatment in the United States: demographic and diagnostic features of 2331 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, G P; Lippe, B M; Blethen, S L; Rosenfeld, R G; Seelig, S A; Johanson, A J; Compton, P G; Frane, J W; McClellan, B H; Sherman, B M

    1990-06-01

    Demographic, diagnostic, and baseline clinical data were collected for a large cohort (N = 2331) of children who started treatment with biosynthetic human growth hormone (GH) between October 1985 and October 1987. Eighty-one percent met classic criteria for GH deficiency and were classified as having idiopathic GH deficiency (59%), organic GH deficiency (18%), or septo-optic dysplasia (4%). The remaining 19.8% had short stature of varied causes. Height standard deviation score at diagnosis, maximum GH response to stimulation, and heights of parents were examined according to gender, race, age at diagnosis, and previous treatment history. The predominance of boys in all subgroups except septooptic dysplasia, and the observation that girls with idiopathic GH deficiency were comparatively shorter than boys at diagnosis, suggest ascertainment bias. Black children with idiopathic GH deficiency were shorter than white children at diagnosis, and their low overall representation (6.0%) compared with their percentage in the at-risk population (12.9%) also suggest ascertainment bias among races. These data provide a profile of GH deficiency as it is currently defined and expose possible inherent biases in the diagnostic process. Now that GH supply is no longer limited, criteria for its use should be formulated to avoid apparent underascertainment or late diagnosis of GH deficiency in girls and black children.

  18. Brain Recovery after a Plane Crash: Treatment with Growth Hormone (GH and Neurorehabilitation: A Case Report

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    Jesús Devesa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the results obtained after growth hormone (GH treatment and neurorehabilitation in a young man that suffered a very grave traumatic brain injury (TBI after a plane crash. Methods: Fifteen months after the accident, the patient was treated with GH, 1 mg/day, at three-month intervals, followed by one-month resting, together with daily neurorehabilitation. Blood analysis at admission showed that no pituitary deficits existed. At admission, the patient presented: spastic tetraplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, very severe cognitive deficits and joint deformities. Computerized tomography scanners (CT-Scans revealed the practical loss of the right brain hemisphere and important injuries in the left one. Clinical and blood analysis assessments were performed every three months for three years. Feet surgery was needed because of irreducible equinovarus. Results: Clinical and kinesitherapy assessments revealed a prompt improvement in cognitive functions, dysarthria and dysphagia disappeared and three years later the patient was able to live a practically normal life, walking alone and coming back to his studies. No adverse effects were observed during and after GH administration. Conclusions: These results, together with previous results from our group, indicate that GH treatment is safe and effective for helping neurorehabilitation in TBI patients, once the acute phase is resolved, regardless of whether or not they have GH-deficiency (GHD.

  19. Height Outcome of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment in Achondroplasia Children: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Mario; Bertelloni, Silvano; Massart, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Although recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is not approved to treat short stature of achondroplasia (ACH), some studies suggested growth improvement during short-term rhGH treatment. A meta-analysis of rhGH therapy efficacy in ACH children was performed. From 12 English-language studies, 558 (54.0% males) rhGH-treated ACH children were enrolled. Administration of rhGH (median dosage 0.21 mg/kg/ week; range 0.16-0.42 mg/kg/week) improved height (Ht) from baseline [-5.069 standard deviation score (SDS; 95% CI -5.109 to -5.029); p < 0.0001] to 12 [-4.325 SDS (95% CI -4.363 to -4.287); p < 0.0001] and 24 months [-4.073 SDS (95% CI -4.128 to -4.019); p < 0.0001]. Then, Ht remained approximately constant up to 5 years [-3.941 SDS (95% CI -4.671 to -3.212); p < 0.0001]. In ACH children, rhGH treatment increased Ht from -5.0 to -4.0 SDS during 5 years, but insufficient data are available on both the adult Ht and the changes of body proportions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. A review of the physical and metabolic effects of cross-sex hormonal therapy in the treatment of gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Leighton J

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect that cross-gender sex steroid therapy has on metabolic and hormonal parameters. There is an emphasis on those changes that result in significant clinical effects such as the positive effects of the development of secondary sexual characteristics and negative effects such as haemostatic effects and thromboembolism in transwomen or dyslipidaemia in transmen. There is also a description of the current hormonal regimens used at the largest UK gender identity clinic. The overall safety of these treatments in the context of long-term outcome data is reviewed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

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    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  2. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones

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    Taylor Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG, progesterone (P4 and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20 was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013, as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant. Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071, but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD, changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure

  3. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, T S; Lima, P R; Carvalho, K M M B; Fontenele, T M; Solon, F R N; Tomé, A R; de Lemos, T L G; da Cruz Fonseca, S G; Santos, F A; Rao, V S; de Queiroz, M G R

    2017-01-05

    Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20-25 g (n=6-8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05) decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  4. Ferulic acid lowers body weight and visceral fat accumulation via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory changes in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. de Melo

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20–25 g (n=6–8 per group were fed a normal diet (ND or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg or sibutramine (10 mg/kg for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1 were analyzed. Results revealed that FA could effectively suppress the HFD-associated increase in visceral fat accumulation, adipocyte size and body weight gain, similar to sibutramine, the positive control. FA also significantly (P<0.05 decreased the HFD-induced elevations in serum lipid profiles, amylase and lipase activities, and the levels of blood glucose and insulin hormone. The markedly elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin levels seen in HFD-fed control mice were significantly (P<0.05 reversed by FA treatment, almost reaching the values seen in ND-fed mice. Furthermore, FA demonstrated significant (P<0.05 inhibition of serum levels of inflammatory mediators TNF-α, and MCH-1. These results suggest that FA could be beneficial in lowering the risk of HFD-induced obesity via modulation of enzymatic, hormonal and inflammatory responses.

  5. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2006-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide...... and act as competitive inhibitors. We therefore conclude that fat and protein may serve as exogenous regulators of secretion and inactivation of the incretin hormones with beneficial influences on glucose metabolism....

  6. DOES GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TURNERS SYNDROME CAUSE AN ABNORMAL BODY SHAPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DRAYER, NM; VANES, A

    The effect of human growth hormone on the body shape of 51 patients with Turner's syndrome (aged 6-19 years) was evaluated. Biosynthetic growth hormone was given in a dose of 24 IU/m2 body surface/week for two years. Karyotype analysis on peripheral blood was performed. Patients older than 12 years

  7. Serotonin receptor modulators in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

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    Mohammad Fayyaz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Fayyaz, Jeffrey M LacknerDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo School of Medicine, SUNY, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: The aim of this article is to review the pathophysiology and clinical role of serotonin receptor modulators used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin is an important monoamine neurotransmitter that plays a key role in the initiation of peristaltic and secretory reflexes, and in modulation of visceral sensations. Several serotonin receptor subtypes have been characterized, of which 5HT3, 5HT4, and 5HT1b are the most important for GI function. 5HT4 agonists (eg, tegaserod potentiate peristalsis initiated by 5HT1 receptor stimulation. 5HT4 agonists are therefore useful in constipation predominant form of IBS and in chronic constipation. 5HT3 antagonists (Alosetron and Cilansetron prevent the activation of 5HT3 receptors on extrinsic afferent neurons and can decrease the visceral pain associated with IBS. These agents also retard small intestinal and colonic transit, and are therefore useful in diarrhea-predominant IBS. Tegaserod has been demonstrated in several randomized, placebo controlled trials to relieve global IBS symptoms as well as individual symptoms of abdominal discomfort, number of bowel movements and stool consistency. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that alosetron relieves pain, improves bowel function, and provides global symptom improvement in women with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, ischemic colitis and severe complications of constipation have been major concerns leading to voluntary withdrawal of Alosetron from the market followed by remarketing with a comprehensive risk management program.Keywords: serotonin, irritable bowel syndrome, tegaserod

  8. Early growth hormone treatment start in childhood growth hormone deficiency improves near adult height: analysis from NordiNet® International Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Michel; Blair, Jo; Kotnik, Primoz; Pournara, Effie; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Rohrer, Tilman R

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of age at growth hormone (GH) treatment start on near adult height (NAH) in children with isolated GH deficiency (GHD). NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (Nbib960128), a non-interventional, multicentre study, evaluates the long-term effectiveness and safety of Norditropin® (somatropin) (Novo Nordisk A/S) in the real-life clinical setting. Patients ( n  = 172) treated to NAH (height at ≥18 years, or height velocity start (early (girls, 10; boys, >11)) and GHD severity (start (as a categorical and continuous variable) on NAH standard deviation score (SDS). Age at treatment start had a marked effect on NAH SDS; NAH SDS achieved by patients starting treatment early ( n  = 40 (boys, 70.0%); least squares mean (standard error) -0.76 (0.14)) exceeded that achieved by those starting later (intermediate, n  = 42 (boys, 57.1%); -1.14 (0.15); late, n  = 90 (boys, 68.9%); -1.21 (0.10)). Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between NAH SDS and age at treatment start ( P  start. Early initiation of GH treatment in children with isolated GHD improves their chance of achieving their genetic height potential. © 2017 The authors.

  9. Accurate long-term prediction of height during the first four years of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency or Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Brosz, Mathias; Kaspers, Stefan; Loftus, Jane; Wollmann, Hartmut; Kołtowska-Haggstrom, Maria; Roelants, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to develop and validate models for long-term prediction of growth in prepubertal children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or Turner syndrome (TS) for optimal, cost-effective growth hormone (GH) therapy. Height was predicted by sequential application of annual prediction algorithms for height velocity in cohorts of GHD (n = 664) and TS (n = 607) as documented within KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). As height prediction models also require an estimate of weight, new algorithms for weight increase during the first to fourth prepubertal years on GH were developed. When height was predicted from the start of GH treatment, the predicted and observed mean (SD) gain over 4 years was 30.4 (3.4) cm and 30.1 (4.9) cm, respectively, in GHD patients, and 27.2 (2.2) cm and 26.6 (3.5) cm, respectively, in TS patients. For all 4 years, gains of weight SD scores (SDS) were accurately described as a function of weight SDS and observed gain in height SDS (R(2) > 0.89). In GHD and TS patients treated with GH, an accurate prepubertal long-term prediction of height development in groups is possible. Based on this, an optimal individual height outcome could be simulated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [Direct and indirect costs of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogues in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Valeria; Maratea, Dario

    2015-12-01

    When analyzing the use of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues for different clinical indications, current available evidence does not support a presumed drug class effect among the various LHRH in the treatment of prostate cancer. The following search key words were entered in the PubMed database and the NICE and FDA websites: “LHRH agonist AND prostatic cancer”, “androgen deprivation therapy”, “androgen suppression”, “buserelin”, “leuprorelin”, “goserelin”,“triptorelin”, “degarelix”. The direct costs included the following items: follow-up visits, diagnostic exams (e.g. prostate-specific antigen PSA) and drug costs. The indirect costs included working days lost by the patient. With intermittent therapy as a reference, leuprorelin injectable solution of 22,25 mg was associated with the lowest cost and degarelix with the highest cost. However, given the mandatory presence of a nurse for drug injection, the buserelin depot formulation was associated with the lowest cost. If the costs for hospital visits were added to drug costs, differences between the various therapeutic strategies were less remarkable. Our study showed how various factors (e.g. route of administration, frequency of administration, presence of a nurse for drug reconstitution and injection) should be taken into account by decision makers in addition to the price of drugs.

  11. Impact of overweight on effectiveness of treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficient children: analysis of German KIGS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, T; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S; Bettendorf, M; Doerr, H-G; Gohlke, B; Hauffa, B P; Kaspers, S; Land, C; Mehls, O; Schwab, K-O; Stahnke, N; Ranke, M B

    2011-10-01

    We hypothesized that overweight children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate a lower response to growth hormone (GH) as a result of a misclassification since obesity is associated with lower GH peaks in stimulation tests. Anthropometric data, response, and responsiveness to GH in the first year of treatment were compared in 1.712 prepubertal children with GHD from the German KIGS database according to BMI (underweight=group A, normal weight=group B, overweight=group C) (median age: group A, B, C: 7.3, 7.28, and 8.4 years). Maximum GH levels to tests (median: group A, B, C: 5.8, 5.8, and 4.0 µg/ml) were significantly lower in group C. IGF-I SDS levels were not different between the groups. Growth velocity in the first year of GH treatment was significantly lower in the underweight cohort (median: group A, B, C: 8.2, 8.8, and 9.0 cm/yr), while the gain in height was not different between groups. The difference between observed and predicted growth velocity expressed as Studentized residuals was not significantly different between groups. Separating the 164 overweight children into obese children (BMI>97th centile; n=71) and moderate overweight children (BMI>90th to 97th centile, n=93) demonstrated no significant difference in any parameter. Overweight prepubertal children with idiopathic GHD demonstrated similar levels of responsiveness to GH treatment compared to normal weight children. Furthermore, the IGF-I levels were low in overweight children. Therefore, a misclassification of GHD in overweight prepubertal children within the KIGS database seems unlikely. The first year growth prediction models can be applied to overweight and obese GHD children. © J. A. Barth Verlag in George Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone modulates ethanol self-administration in posterior ventral tegmental area through melanocortin-4 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelkar, Gajanan P; Kale, Atmaram D; Singh, Uday; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Kokare, Dadasaheb M

    2015-03-01

    Although the role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in alcohol seeking behaviour in rats has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Herein, we test the hypothesis that α-MSH might have a permissive effect in promoting the reward action of ethanol. Rats were implanted with cannulae targeted at the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA), because the site is sensitive to reinforcing effects of ethanol. These rats were trained to self-administer ethanol in standard two-lever (active/inactive) operant chamber test. Each active lever press resulted in self-administration of 100 nl of ethanol (100-300 mg%) containing solution. Over a period of 7 days, ethanol significantly increased the number of lever presses, which was considered as a measure of reward. Because ethanol at 200 mg% resulted in maximum number of lever presses (∼18-20 lever presses/30-minute session), the dose was employed in further studies. While prior administration of melanocortin (MC) agonists, α-MSH or [Nle4,D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH into pVTA, resulted in an 89% increase in lever presses, the response was attenuated following pre-treatment with MC4 receptors (MC4R) antagonist, HS014. In an immunohistochemical study, the brains of rats that were trained to self-infuse ethanol showed significantly increased α-MSH immunoreactivity in the nucleus accumbens shell, bed nucleus of stria terminalis and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In the pVTA, α-MSH fibres were found to run close to the dopamine cells, labelled with tyrosine hydroxylase antibodies. We suggest that α-MSH-MC4R system in the pVTA might be a part of the neuroadaptive mechanism underlying ethanol addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Effect of two virus inactivation methods. Electron beam irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment on determination of reproductive hormones in equine plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyvsgaard, N.C.; Nansen, P. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Danish Centre for Experimental Parasitology, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Hoeier, R.; Brueck, I. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Clinical Studies, Section of Reproduction, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    Ionizing irradiation and binary ethylenimine treatment have previously been shown to be effective for in-vitro inactivation of virus in biological material. In the present study the 2 methods were tested for possible effects on measurable concentrations of reproductive hormones in equine plasma (luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), progesterone (P{sub 4}), and oestradiol-17 {beta} (E{sub 2})). The inactivation methods were electron beam irradiation with a dose from 11 to 44 kGy or treatment with binary ethylenimine (BEI) in concentrations of 1 and 5 mmol/L. Generally, there was a close correlation (r>0.8, p<0.001) between pre- and post-treatment hormone levels. Thus, the different phases of the oestrous cycle could be distinguished on the basis of measured hormone concentrations of treated samples. However, both treatments significantly changed hormone concentrations of the plasma samples. For LH, FSH, and E{sub 2} the effect of irradiation and BEI treatment was depressive and dose-dependant. For P{sub 4} the effect of irradiation was also depressive and dose-dependant. However, the highest dose of BEI resulted in an increase of measured P{sub 4} concentration, which may be attributed to changes in the plasma matrix due to the treatment. Although the treatments affected measured hormone concentrations, the close correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment measurements means that the diagnostic value will remain unchanged. (au). 17 refs.

  14. Risk of Diabetes Treated in Early Adulthood After Growth Hormone Treatment of Short Stature in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poidvin, Amélie; Weill, Alain; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Coste, Joel; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2017-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is known to be diabetogenic, but the risk of diabetes in individuals treated with GH in childhood has been little evaluated, and conflicting results have been obtained. To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and gestational diabetes in a population-based cohort of patients treated with GH for short stature in childhood in France. Participants were a population-based cohort of 5100 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency, idiopathic short stature, or short stature in children born short for gestational age who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Data on the delivery of diabetes drugs in 2009 and 2010 were obtained from the French national health insurance database. Cases in patients and controls were identified from diabetes drugs deliveries. The prevalence of diabetes was calculated and compared with that in the general population, determined on the basis of data from the same source, with the same definition. At a mean age of 30 years, no difference in the prevalence of treated diabetes (oral drugs or insulin) was found between subjects treated with GH and the general population in France, regardless of sex. Similarly, the risk of insulin-treated gestational diabetes was similar in patients and in the reference population. No difference in the risk of diabetes was found between GH-treated patients and the reference population. These results are reassuring, but further studies with a longer follow-up are required to evaluate the risk of diabetes with age in these patients.

  15. Effect of supplemental beta-carotene on incidence and responsiveness of ovarian cysts to hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcek, J M; Appell, L H; Hoffman, C C; Moredick, P T; Swanson, L V

    1985-01-01

    Sixty-two multiparous and 35 primiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at 10 days postpartum to receive a ration with or without 300 mg beta-carotene/cow per day. Multiparous and primiparous cows were grouped separately and group-fed complete rations once daily. Incidence of ovarian cysts (26% by rectal palpation) was not affected by beta-carotene fed. Multiparous cows had greater incidence (39%) of ovarian cysts than primiparous cows (11%). Fifty-seven percent of cysts were classified follicular by rectal palpation. Progesterone concentration of milk also was used for diagnosis of type of cyst. Cows with ovarian cysts and with progesterone concentrations in milk less than 1 ng/ml were classified follicular, and those having concentration greater than 1 ng/ml were classified luteal. As determined by milk progesterone, rectal palpation was more accurate for diagnosis of luteal cysts than for diagnosis of follicular cysts. Progesterone concentrations of milk for animals with luteal and follicular cysts were 10.66 +/- 1.29 and .37 +/- .07 ng/ml. beta-Carotene did not affect response or days to respond to treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Supplemental beta-carotene was not beneficial for reducing incidence of ovarian cysts in cows receiving an adequate supply of beta-carotene in their diet.

  16. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  17. Growth Hormone Treatment Increases Plasma Irisin Concentration in Patients with Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikiera, B; Zawadzka, K; Łaczmański, Ł; Słoka, N; Bolanowski, M; Basiak, A; Noczyńska, A; Daroszewski, J

    2017-02-01

    Irisin (Ir) deficiency may be a contributing factor in metabolic disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect of supraphysiological doses of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on Ir plasma concentration in relation to metabolic disorders, including obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. We studied 36 girls with Turner syndrome (mean age 8.2 years) treated with rhGH (0.05 mg/kg/day). Anthropometric data and fasting blood levels [e. g., Ir, insulin, glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), IGF-1, IGFBP-3, cholesterol, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and β-cell function (HOMA-β)] were analyzed prior to and following rhGH therapy [mean (SD) follow-up of 1.47 (0.89) years]. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) was calculated before and after the glucose load. Following rhGH therapy, an increase in IGF-1 [mean (SD) of 119.40 (62.47) ng/ml to 439.08 (209.91) ng/ml, p=0.000], Ir [2.10 (1.03) μg/ml to 2.48 (0.78) μg/ml, p=0.036], HOMA-IR [median (IQR) of 0.64 (0.45-1.30) to 0.92 (0.67-2.36), p=0.0206], and HOMA-β values [45.00 (27.69-72.00) to 81.53 (51.43-132.00), p=0.0447] were observed. Multiple regression analysis yielded no associations between Ir and metabolic and hormonal parameters before rhGH treatment; however, on rhGH, the model (R2=0.56, adjusted R2=0.45) showed positive associations between Ir and IGF-1 standard deviation score and HbA1c, and negative associations between Ir and fasting blood glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Despite manifestation of insulin resistance, rhGH application had a positive effect on Ir regulation, and restored physiological conditions of lipid and glucose metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Modulation of growth factors by growth hormone in children with chronic renal failure. The Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D R; Liu, F; Baker, B K; Hintz, R L; Lee, P D; Durham, S K; Brewer, E D; Frane, J W; Watkins, S L; Hogg, R J

    1997-06-01

    Anthropometric measurements and circulating growth factors were studied serially in 44 prepubertal children with growth failure and chronic renal failure (GFR = 10 to 40 ml/min/1.73 m2) who were randomized to receive either recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; N = 30) or no treatment (N = 14). RhGH was given as Nutropin, 0.05 mg/kg/day, and the studies were carried out at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. At baseline, serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and -2 levels were, while IGFBP-3 levels were not, higher than those of children with normal renal function. In addition, height SDS at baseline correlated inversely with serum IGFBP-2 levels (r = -0.461, P = 0.0016), but did not correlate significantly with any other factor. After 12 months of study, the 30 children receiving rhGH showed: (i) greater increase in height (9.1 +/- 2.8 vs. 5.5 +/- 1.9 cm, P < 0.0001); (ii) increases in serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, free IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and acid labile subunit (ALS); (iii) a greater decrease in serum IGFBP-1 levels; and (iv) no significant difference in serum IGFBP-2 levels, when compared to the 14 control patients. The change in height SDS after 12 months of rhGH (+0.8) in the 30 treated children correlated significantly and positively with serum ALS, IGFBP-3, total IGF, IGF-I, IGF-II and free IGF-I levels measured during treatment. These observations suggest that, in children with growth failure associated with chronic renal failure: (i) IGFBP-2, and not IGFBP-3, is likely to be a growth inhibitor; (ii) rhGH stimulates catch-up growth in part by increasing serum levels of IGF peptides; and (iii) linear growth is influenced by the balance between growth stimulating IGFs and growth inhibitory IGFBPs.

  19. Systemic intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment improves osseointegration of press-fit inserted implants in cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Andreassen, Troels Torp; Lamberg, Anders; Bechtold, Joan Elisabeth; Soballe, Kjeld

    2012-08-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has an anabolic effect on bone, as confirmed in human osteoporosis studies, distraction osteogenesis, and fracture healing. PTH in rat models leads to improved fixation of implants in low-density bone or screw insertion transcortically. We examined the effect of human PTH (1-34) on the cancellous osseointegration of unloaded implants inserted press-fit in intact bone of higher animal species. 20 dogs were randomized to treatment with human PTH (1-34), 5 μg/kg/day subcutaneously, or placebo for 4 weeks starting on the day after insertion of a cylindrical porous coated plasma-sprayed titanium alloy implant in the proximal metaphyseal cancellous bone of tibia. Osseointegration was evaluated by histomorphometry and fixation by push-out test to failure. Surface fraction of woven bone at the implant interface was statistically significantly higher in the PTH group by 1.4 fold with (median (interquartile range) 15% (13-18)) in the PTH group and 11% (7-13) in control. The fraction of lamellar bone was unaltered. No significant difference in bone or fibrous tissue was observed in the circumferential regions of 0-500, 500-1,000, and 1,000-2,000 μm around the implant. Mechanically, the implants treated with PTH showed no significant differences in total energy absorption, maximum shear stiffness, or maximum shear strength. Intermittent treatment with PTH (1-34) improved histological osseointegration of a prosthesis inserted press-fit at surgery in cancellous bone, with no additional improvement of the initial mechanical fixation at this time point.

  20. Do menopausal status and use of hormone therapy affect antidepressant treatment response? Findings from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Toups, Marisa; Rush, A John; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Thase, Michael E; Luther, James; Warden, Diane; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2013-02-01

    Menopausal status and use of hormonal contraception or menopausal hormone therapy (HT) may affect treatment response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This report evaluates whether menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT affect outcome in women treated with citalopram. In the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, 896 premenopausal and 544 postmenopausal women were treated with citalopram for 12-14 weeks. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were used in adjusted analysis of the effect of menopausal status and use of hormonal contraceptives or menopausal HT on outcomes. Remission was defined as final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD(17)) ≤7 or Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (QIDS-SR(16)) score ≤5 and response as ≥50% decrease from the baseline QIDS-SR(16) score. Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differed in multiple clinical and demographic baseline variables but did not differ in response or remission rates. Premenopausal women taking hormonal contraceptives had significantly greater unadjusted remission rates on the HRSD(17) and the QIDS-SR(16) than women not taking contraception. Response and remission rates were not different between postmenopausal women taking vs. not taking HT. Adjusted results showed no significant difference in any outcome measure across menopause status in women who were not taking contraception/HT. There were no significant differences in adjusted results across HT status in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. In this study, citalopram treatment outcome was not affected by menopausal status. Hormonal contraceptives and HT also did not affect probability of good outcome.

  1. Nonpeptide and peptide growth hormone secretagogues act both as ghrelin receptor agonist and as positive or negative allosteric modulators of ghrelin signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Brandt, Erik; Bach, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Two nonpeptide (L692,429 and MK-677) and two peptide [GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6 and ghrelin] agonists were compared in binding and in signal transduction assays: calcium mobilization, inositol phosphate turnover, cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and serum-responsive element (SRE) controlled...... lower apparent affinity for ghrelin binding and surprisingly acted as a positive allosteric receptor modulator by increasing ghrelin's potency 4- to 10-fold. In contrast, the potency of GHRP-6 varied 600-fold (0.1-61 nm) depending on the signal transduction assay, and it acted as a negative allosteric...... modulator of ghrelin signaling. Unexpectedly, the maximal signaling efficacy for ghrelin was increased above what was observed with the hormone itself during coadministration with the nonendogenous agonists. It is concluded that agonists for the ghrelin receptor vary both in respect of their intrinsic...

  2. Role of leptin in modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and luteinizing hormone secretion in the prepuberal gilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, C R; Barrett, J B; Kraeling, R R

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to test the hypothesis that leptin modulates LH, GnRH, and neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) leptin injections and blood samples were collected. In EXP II, anterior pituitary cells from prepuberal gilts in primary culture were challenged with 10(-14), 10(-13), 10(-12), 10(-11), 10(-10), 10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7), or 10(-6) M leptin individually or in combinations with 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8) M GnRH. In EXP III, hypothalamic-preoptic area (HYP-POA) explants were placed in perfusion system and exposed to 0 (n=5), 10(-12) M (n=4), 10(-10) M (n=4), 10(-8) M (n=4), or 10(-6) M (n=5) human recombinant leptin (LEP) for 30 min. In EXP I, serum LH concentrations were unaffected by leptin treatment. In EXP II, all doses of leptin increased LH secretion except for 10(-12) and 10(-7) M. Only 10(-7), or 10(-13) M leptin in combination with 10(-8) or 10(-9) M GnRH, respectively, suppressed LH secretion. In EXP III, prior to leptin, media GnRH concentrations were similar across treatments. Media GnRH concentrations increased after 10(-12), 10(-10), and 10(-8) M leptin compared to control. Leptin treatment failed to influence NPY secretion across treatments. These results indicate that components of the neuroendocrine axis that regulate GnRH and LH secretion are functional and leptin sensitive before the onset of puberty. Other neural peptides in addition to NPY may mediate the acute effects of leptin on the GnRH-LH system and lastly, the inability of i.c.v. leptin treatment to increase LH secretion may in part be related to stage of sexual maturation and associated change in negative feedback action of estradiol on LH secretion.

  3. Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency in childhood: a survey from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazoğlu, Şükran; Akçay, Teoman; Arslanoğlu, İlknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, İffet; Böber, Ece; Can, Şule; Cesur, Yaşar; Darcan, Şükran; Demir, Korcan; Dündar, Bumin; Ersoy, Betül; Esen, İhsan; Güven, Ayla; Kara, Cengiz; Keskin, Mehmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Memioğlu, Nihal; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Özgen, Tolga; Sarı, Erkan; Şıklar, Zeynep; Şimşek, Enver; Turan, Serap; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Yüksel, Bilgin; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2015-03-01

    Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment of GHD was sent out to all pediatric endocrinology centers. Twenty-four centers returned the questionnaire. The most frequently used GH stimulation test was L-dopa, followed by clonidine. Eighteen centers used a GH cut-off value of 10 ng/mL for the diagnosis of GHD; this value was 7 ng/mL in 4 centers and 5 ng/mL in 2 centers. The most frequently used assay was immunochemiluminescence for determination of GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 concentrations. Sex steroid priming in both sexes was used by 19 centers. The most frequently used starting dose of recombinant human GH (rhGH) in prepubertal children was 0.025-0.030 mg/kg/day and 0.030-0.035 mg/kg/day in pubertal children. Growth velocity was used in the evaluation for growth response to rhGH therapy in all centers. Anthropometric measurements of patients every 3-6 months, fasting blood glucose, bone age and thyroid panel evaluation were used by all centers at follow-up. Main indications for cessation of therapy were decreased height velocity and advanced bone age. Fourteen centers used combined treatment (rhGH and gonadotropin-releasing analogues) to increase final height. Although conformity was found among centers in Turkey in current practice, it is very important to update guideline statements and to modify, if needed, the approach to GHD over time in accordance with new evidence-based clinical studies.

  4. Modulation by steroid hormones of a ''sexy'' acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybak Fanny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  5. Hormone therapy modulates ET(A) mRNA expression in the aorta of ovariectomised New Zealand White rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susan Helene; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Pedersen, Nina Gros

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) alone and in combination with norethisterone acetate (NETA) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits were treated with E(2), CEE, E(2) +......(A) receptor. The effect was maintained with the co-administration of NETA, but not MPA. The differential effects of specific hormone components may explain the variable effects of hormone therapy on the arterial wall....

  6. Modulation by steroid hormones of a "sexy" acoustic signal in an Oscine species, the Common Canary Serinus canaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Fanny; Gahr, Manfred

    2004-06-01

    The respective influence of testosterone and estradiol on the structure of the Common Canary Serinus canaria song was studied by experimentally controlling blood levels of steroid hormones in males and analyzing the consequent effects on acoustic parameters. A detailed acoustic analysis of the songs produced before and after hormonal manipulation revealed that testosterone and estradiol seem to control distinct song parameters independently. The presence of receptors for testosterone and estradiol in the brain neural pathway controlling song production strongly suggests that the observed effects are mediated by a steroid action at the neuronal level.

  7. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  8. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD. The findings were published online in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Using bone density scans of the hip and lower spine, researchers measured the effects of two hormone replacement ...

  9. Receipt of thyroid hormone deficiency treatment and risk of herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Chung V. Hsia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Together these findings support the hypothesis that a constant level of TH will provide a degree of protection from contracting HZ. More studies are underway to evaluate the laboratory data for an analysis of hormonal effects on individuals.

  10. Melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1) antagonists - Still a viable approach for obesity treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, T.; Frimurer, T.M.; Sasmal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic associated with multiple severe diseases. Several pharmacotherapies have been investigated including the melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and its receptor 1. The development of MCHR1 antagonists are described with a specific perspective on different chemotypes...

  11. A Review on the Importance of Hormones Monitoring and Their Removal in Conventional Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: According to the current study, further studies are needed to determine the entry routes of steroid hormones into aquatic environment, the detection techniques and measurements, as well as the best removal method in Iran.

  12. Plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones during ranitidine treatment for two years in men with duodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of treatment for 2 years with the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 or 200 mg b.d. for 6 weeks followed by 100 or 200 mg daily) on plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones in ten men with duodenal ulcer have been investigated. Stimulation tests with TRH...... 200 micrograms i.v. and LHRH 100 micrograms i.v. were performed before, during (6 and 24 months), and at least 6 months after treatment. Basal and TRH-stimulated prolactin (PRL) secretion was marginally reduced after treatment for 6 months, but not for 24 months. The LH response to LHRH was slightly...

  13. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plosz, Benedek Gy., E-mail: benedek.plosz@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Leknes, Henriette [Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  14. Growth hormone and IGF-I modulate local cerebral glucose utilization and ATP levels in a model of adult-onset growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, William E; Bennett, Colleen; Ingram, Rhonda; Donahue, Ashley; Ingraham, Jeremy; Chen, Haiying; Moore, Tracy; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K; Riddle, David

    2006-09-01

    Decreases in plasma IGF-I levels that occur with age have been hypothesized to contribute to the genesis of brain aging. However, support for this hypothesis would be strengthened by evidence that growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I deficiency in young animals produces a phenotype similar to that found in aged animals. As a result, we developed a unique model of adult-onset GH/IGF-I deficiency by using dwarf rats specifically deficient in GH and IGF-I. The deficiency in plasma IGF-I is similar to that observed with age (e.g., 50% decrease), and replacement of GH restores levels of IGF-I to that found in young animals with normal GH levels. The present study employs this model to investigate the effects of circulating GH and IGF-I on local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU). Analysis of LCGU indicated that GH/IGF-I-deficient animals exhibit a 29% decrease in glucose metabolism in many brain regions, especially those involved in hippocampally dependent processes of learning and memory. Similarly, a high correlation between plasma IGF-I levels and glucose metabolism was found in these areas. The deficiency in LCGU was not associated with alterations in GLUT1, GLUT3, or hexokinase activity. A 15% decrease in ATP levels was also found in hippocampus of GH-deficient animals, providing compelling data that circulating GH and IGF-I have significant effects on the regulation of glucose utilization and energy metabolism in the brain. Furthermore, our results provide important data to support the conclusion that deficiencies in circulating GH/IGF-I contribute to the genesis of brain aging.

  15. Cross-sex hormone treatment in male-to-female transsexual persons reduces serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K

    2015-01-01

    Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Hormone treatment, estrogen receptor polymorphisms and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Ryan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between hormone treatment (HT and mortality remains controversial. This study aimed to determine whether the risk of mortality associated with HT use varies depending on the specific characteristics of treatment and genetic variability in terms of the estrogen receptor. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective, population-based study of 5135 women aged 65 years and older who were recruited from three cities in France and followed over six years. Detailed information related to HT use was obtained and five estrogen receptor polymorphisms were genotyped. The total follow-up was 25,436 person-years and during this time 352 women died. Cancer (36.4% and cardiovascular disease (19.3% were the major causes of death. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, education, centre, living situation, comorbidity, depression, physical and mental incapacities, indicated no significant association between HT and mortality, regardless of the type or duration of treatment, or the age at initiation. However, the association between HT and all-cause or cancer-related mortality varied across women, with significant interactions identified with three estrogen receptor polymorphisms (p-values = 0.004 to 0.03 in adjusted analyses. Women carrying the C allele of ESR1 rs2234693 had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality with HT (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18-0.97, while in stark contrast, those homozygous for the T allele had a significantly increased risk of cancer-related mortality (HR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.23-8.20. The findings were similar for ESR1 rs9340799 and ESR2 rs1271572. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The risk of mortality was not associated with HT duration, type or age at initiation. It was however not equal across all women, with some women appearing genetically more vulnerable to the effects of HT in terms of their estrogen receptor genotype. These findings, if confirmed in another independent study, may help explain the

  17. [Study on growth hormone treatment in small for gestational age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zahonero, Julia; López García, María José

    2017-02-01

    To analyse the effectiveness of growth hormone (GH) therapy in short-stature children born small for gestational age (SGA) without catch-up growth (height at the beginning of treatment<-2.5 SDS), in Valencia (Spain), between 01/01/2003 and 12/31/2013; and to compare our findings with previously published data. Anthropometric data from the SGA children were obtained from the database of the «Ministry of Health of Valencia». These data were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 115 SGA children, with a mean age of 8.10±2.75 years and height of -3.14±0.59 SDS started treatment (dose: 0.035±0.004mg/kg/day) between January 1st, 2003 and March 31st, 2013. After 2 years of therapy (n=115, age: 10.50±2.72 years) the height SDS was -2.11±0.66; and after 4 years (n = 96, age: 12.65±2.46 years) of -1.76±0.75 SDS. This latest improvement in stature matches ages at which the growth spurt usually occurs. Only 35 out of 115 children reached adult height, although impaired (-2.22±0.86 SDS), and failed to achieve their target height (-1.72 ±0.75 SDS). However, this sub-group grew to near the height of the shorter parent (-1.95 ±1.28 SDS), and 42,9% of these 35 cases increased their stature by more than 1 SDS. The studied sample did not achieve satisfactory growth results, as in other published series. Our findings might be improved by starting treatment earlier, and with doses individualised according to patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  19. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

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    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  20. Biomechanical properties of osteoporotic rat femurs after different hormonal treatments: genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone

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    Azboy İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the study is to compare the effects of genistein, estradiol, estradiol/progesterone combination on the bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of ovariectomized rats’ bone. Methods: 50 female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Bilaterally ovaeriectomy were performed in all groups except the sham-operated group. Groups were a sham-operated group and a control group (water was given, estradiol treated group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg per day, genistein treated group (genistein 10 mg/kg per day, and an estradiol/progesterone combination group (17-β estradiol 0.015 mg/kg plus drosperinone 0.028 mg/kg per day. The water or hormones were implemented in relevant groups for eight weeks by orogasthric catheter. The bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of the femur were analyzed. Results: Genistein, estradiol, and estradiol/progesterone groups increased bone mineral density significantly compared to the control group. In diaphysis and metaphysis bending test, all groups had higher peak load values than the control group. There were statistically significant differences between the estrogen/progesterone group and control group in diaphysis bending with regard to peak load. There were statistically significant differences between the estradiol and control groups in metaphysis bending with regard to peak load. In axial rotation test, all groups had higher peak torque values than the control groups. Conclusions: Genistein, estradiol and estrogen/progesterone combination improved the biomechanical properties of the ovariectomized rat bone. Genistein which has less side effects may be considered as an alternative in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  1. Determinants of and Barriers to Hormonal and Surgical Treatment Receipt Among Transgender People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineath, R Craig; Woodyatt, Cory; Sanchez, Travis; Giammattei, Shawn; Gillespie, Theresa; Hunkeler, Enid; Owen-Smith, Ashli; Quinn, Virginia P; Roblin, Douglas; Stephenson, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick S; Tangpricha, Vin; Goodman, Michael

    Purpose: Medical gender confirmation therapy (GCT) plays an important role in transgender health; however, its prevalence and determinants constitute an area of uncertainty. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from an online survey distributed from October 2012 through the end of 2013 among persons who visited the social media sites of a transgender education and social networking meeting. Eligible respondents (n=280) were persons whose gender identity was different from their sex assigned at birth and who responded to questions about previously received or planned hormonal therapy (HT), chest reconstruction, or genital surgery. Multivariable logistic regression models examined how receipt and plans to receive different GCT types were associated with participants' characteristics and gender identity. Results: The respective percentages of ever and current HT were 58% and 47% for transwomen and 63% and 57% for transmen. Genital surgery was reported by 11 participants; all transwomen. Relative to transmen, transwomen were thrice more likely to report plans to undergo genital surgery. By contrast, transmen were more than 10 times as likely as transwomen to have had or planned chest surgery. Older participants and those who were in a committed relationship were less likely to plan future GCT. Having health insurance was not associated with GCT receipt. Treatment cost was named as the main problem by 23% of transwomen and 29% of transmen. Accessing a qualified healthcare provider for transgender-related care was listed as the primary reason for not receiving surgery by 41% of transmen and 2% of transwomen. Conclusions: Prevalence of GCT differed across subgroups of participants and was lower than corresponding estimates reported elsewhere. The variability of results may reflect differences in recruitment procedures and response rates; however, it is also possible that it may be driven by geographic, socioeconomic, and health-related heterogeneity

  2. Sex hormones and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Oparil, Suzanne; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2017-01-01

    Gender has an important influence on blood pressure, with premenopausal women having a lower arterial blood pressure than age-matched men. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women have higher blood pressures, suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate blood pressure. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ovarian hormones account for differences in blood pressure in premenopausal ver...

  3. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  4. The influence of hormonal treatment with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin for cryptorchidism on future fertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ömer; Akyol, İlker; Özyurt, Mustafa; Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Malkoç, Ercan

    2015-04-01

    There have been two treatment modalities for cryptorchidism such that surgical and hormonal; the latter being highly controversial. While some authors suggest that hormonal treatment increases the number and maturation of germ cells in cryptorchid testes, others believe just the opposite. We aimed to find out the sperm counts and testicular index; briefly fertility potential of the normally descended contralateral testes in adulthood period in rats treated with Beta-HCG in early period of their lives. Three groups, each including 10 rats aged 22 days old, in which delactation and normal feeding can be started, were formed to be Group 1: Sham operated, Group 2: Experimental cryptorchidism (EC) and Group 3: Hormone-treated after experimental cryptorchidism was performed (HT-EC). Left testis was placed in the abdomen in group 2 and 3. In group 1, a sham operation was performed. The rats in EC-HT group received subcutaneous injections of 50 IU/kg Beta-HCG daily for 7 days. Right orchidectomy was performed when they reached reproductive period to evaluate fertility potential with sperm counts and testicular index. Testicular index was calculated according to the formula "testicular length × width/weight of rat". Epididymal sperm count was made with hemocytometer. We evaluated the physical characteristics and fertility potential (sperm counts) of contralateral normal testes during adulthood in rats that underwent experimental unilateral cryptorchidism during infancy. A relationship between testis weight and sperm counts were also investigated. We could not find any direct correlation of sperm count with either testicular weight or testicular index in our study. Although the rats had normal testes at birth, we found decreased sperm counts in contralateral normal testes in EC group. This suggests that unilateral cryptorchidism may cause some systemic effects that reach the other testis. Hormone treatment was not beneficial. This is comparable to Nambirajan et al. who

  5. Protective effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog on the ovarian reserve in rats receiving cyclophosphamide treatment

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    Gui T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ting Gui,1,* Guangwen Yuan,2,* Keng Shen,1 Dongyan Cao,1 Jiaxin Yang,1 Ming Wu,1 Jinghe Lang11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: The aim of the study reported here was to investigate the protective effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa against cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced gonadotoxicity.Methods: Eighty Fischer 344 rats were divided randomly into four groups (20 per group. One group received normal saline, one GnRHa, one CTX, and one GnRHa+CTX. Several parameters were used to observe the ovarian reserve, including ovary weight, follicle number and diameter, concentrations of estradiol (E2 and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, and expressions of sex hormone receptors.Results: When treatment was finished, the number of small follicles in the GnRHa+CTX group was significantly higher than in the CTX-alone group. Thirty days after treatment, the ovary weight, percentage of small follicles, mean follicular diameter, and serum concentrations of E2 and FSH in the GnRHa+CTX group all recovered, approaching normal levels. Sex hormone receptors did not show significant differences between the four groups.Conclusion: Combination treatment with GnRHa could prevent CTX-induced damage to ovarian reserve.Keywords: gonadotoxicity, ovarian reserve, GnRHa, CTX, premature ovarian failure

  6. [Clinical efficacy and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist combined with estrogen-dydrogesteronea in treatment of endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Qi-qi; Zhang, Shao-fen; Han, Yi; Chen, Hang; Li, Xue-lian; Hua, Ke-qin; Hu, Wei-guo

    2010-04-01

    To compare clinical effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) alone and GnRH-a combined with low-dose dydrogesteronea and estradiol valerate on sex hormone, hypoestrogenic symptoms, quality of life and bone mineral density (BMD) in treatment of endometriosis. Seventy patients with moderate or severe endometriosis, who were diagnosed by laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery within two months, were randomly assigned into two groups. 35 patients in GnRH-a group were treated by goserelin (3.6 mg) for three months, and 35 patients in add-back group were treated by goserelin (3.6 mg) combined with estradiol valerate 0.5 mg and dydrogesteronea 5 mg daily. Before and after the treatment, clinical parameters were recorded and analyzed, including visual analog scale (VAS), medical outcomes survey short form 36 (SF-36), Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), BMD, the serum level of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2) and bone gla-protein (BGP). The first menstruation and VAS were also followed up after treatment. Every 3 cases in two groups lost follow-up. (1) Reproductive hormone: the level of E2 in add-back group [(94+/-71) pmol/L] was significantly higher than (54+/-52) pmol/L in GnRH-a group (PKMI: KMI in add back-group (10+/-8)was significantly lower than (14+/-6) in GnRH-a group (P<0.05). (4) BMD: compared with that before treatment, BMD decreased significantly after treatment in GnRH-a group (P<0.05), no remarkable difference of BMD was observed before and after treatment in add-back group. Before treatment, serum BGP in both groups did not show statistical difference. After treatment, the level of BGP in GnRH-a group [(7932+/-5206) ng/L] was significantly higher than (5419+/-2917) ng/L in add-back group (P<0.05). GnRH-a combined with estrogen-progesterone regimen could relieve pain from endometriosis as effectively as GnRH-a alone and reduce hypoestrogenic symptoms and bone loss. Therefore, it is a safe and effective treatment.

  7. Callous-unemotional traits and early life stress predict treatment effects on stress and sex hormone functioning in incarcerated male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan; Vitacco, Michael J; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-18

    The stress response system is highly plastic, and hormone rhythms may "adaptively calibrate" in response to treatment. This investigation assessed whether stress and sex hormone diurnal rhythms changed over the course of behavioral treatment, and whether callous-unemotional (CU) traits and history of early adversity affected treatment results on diurnal hormone functioning in a sample of 28 incarcerated adolescent males. It was hypothesized that the treatment would have beneficial effects, such that healthier diurnal rhythms would emerge post-treatment. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were sampled two weeks after admission to the correctional/treatment facility, and again approximately four months later. Positive treatment effects were detected for the whole sample, such that testosterone dampened across treatment. CU traits predicted a non-optimal hormone response to treatment, potentially indicating biological preparedness to respond to acts of social dominance and aggression. The interaction between CU traits and adversity predicted a promising and sensitized response to treatment including increased cortisol and a steeper testosterone drop across treatment. Results suggest that stress and sex hormones are highly receptive to treatment during this window of development.

  8. Ferrrate(VI) and freeze-thaw treatment for oxidation of hormones and inactivation of fecal coliforms in sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the individual and combined effects of potassium ferrate(VI) additions and freeze-thaw conditioning for the treatment and dewatering of wastewater sludge in cold climates, with particular focus on the inactivation of fecal coliforms and oxidation of estrogens, androgens, and progestogens. The first phase of the study evaluated the effects of potassium ferrate(VI) pre-treatment followed by freeze-thaw at -20 °C using a low (0.5 g/L) and high (5.0 g/L) dose of potassium ferrate(VI). The results showed that pre-treatment of anaerobically digested sludge with 5 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI) reduced the concentration of fecal coliforms in the sludge cake to below 100 MPN/g DS. The second phase evaluated the ability of ferrate(VI) to oxidise selected hormones in sludge. Anaerobically digested sludge samples were spiked with 10 different hormones: estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), equilin, mestranol, testosterone, norethindrone and norgestrel in two groups of low (3-75 ng/mL) and high (12-300 ng/L) concentration ranges of hormones. The samples were treated with either 0.5 or 1.0 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI), and hormone concentrations were measured again after treatment. Potassium ferrate(VI) additions as low as 1.0 g/L reduced the concentration of estrogens in sludge. Potassium ferrate(VI) additions of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L were less effective at reducing the concentrations of androgens and progestogens. Increasing ferrate(VI) dose would likely result in more substantial decreases in the concentrations of fecal coliforms and hormones. The results of this study indicate that the combined use of freeze-thaw and ferrate(VI) has the potential to provide a complete sludge treatment solution in cold regions.

  9. Risk Factors for Eating Disorder Psychopathology within the Treatment Seeking Transgender Population: The Role of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Claes, Laurence; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-01-10

    Many transgender people experience high levels of body dissatisfaction, which is one of the numerous factors known to increase vulnerability to eating disorder symptoms in the cisgender (non-trans) population. Cross-sex hormones can alleviate body dissatisfaction so might also alleviate eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to explore risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in transgender people and the role of cross-sex hormones. Individuals assessed at a national transgender health service were invited to participate (N = 563). Transgender people not on cross-sex hormones reported higher levels of eating disorder psychopathology than people who were. High body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, anxiety symptoms, and low self-esteem were risk factors for eating psychopathology, but, after controlling for these, significant differences in eating psychopathology between people who were and were not on cross-sex hormones disappeared. Cross-sex hormones may alleviate eating disorder psychopathology. Given the high prevalence of transgender identities, clinicians at eating disorder services should assess for gender identity issues. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. METABOLIC PROFILE OF COW BLOOD UNDER THE TREATMENT OF OVARIES HYPOFUNCTION BY HORMONAL AND PHYTO-PREPARATIONS

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    Kornyat S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available For the correction of reproductive function of cows with ovarian hypofunction practices use a number of hormones. Recently, to stimulate reproductive function using herbal medicines that have gonadotropic effect or stimulate secretion of steroid hormones who try to use to increase fertility. Therefore, we carried out an attempt to develop a method of regulation of reproductive function of the ovaries of cows using combination therapies that can provide effective treatment by studying the biochemical parameters of animals. The cows were divided depending on the treatment to control and two experimental groups of 5 animals in each group. Groups were formed by the following treatment regimens indicated pathology. Cows control group treated by next scheme: day 1 — intramuscular injection drug in vitro at a dose of 10 ml; day 2 —PMSG intramuscular administration of the drug at a dose of 500 IU; day 3 —intramuscular injection drug Surfahon at a dose of 50 mg. Cows from experimental group 1 was injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on herbal (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia; Animals from second experimental group were injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on phyto-substances (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Surfahon. Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of cows with ovarian hypofunction found low concentrations of estradiol-17-β and progesterone. Between the control and experimental groups concentration of progesterone and estradiol-17-β differ within 10%, which indicates the same level of disease in all animals selected. Level carotene, ascorbic acid and cholesterol in all groups was within the physiological norm and differed slightly. It was established that the treatment of cows with hypofunction ovaries in the experimental group 1 progesterone level 7 days after treatment was 11.5, and 2 - on 41,4% (p <0,01 higher than in the control group animals, indicating that the revitalization of the

  11. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

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    Huisman Jaap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years with a height standard deviation score (SDS ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized. About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles

  12. Implications of parent and child quality of life assessments for decisions about growth hormone treatment in eligible children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, S C; Eiser, C; Wright, N P; Butler, G

    2013-11-01

    To determine differences between parents and children in ratings of child health-related quality of life (HRQL) prior to growth hormone treatment. HRQL measures were collected from 144 children and their caregivers. Inclusion criteria were aged between 10 and 16 years, diagnosed with Turner's syndrome, acquired or idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (AGHD or IGHD) and eligible to begin human GH treatment (GHT), or non-growth hormone deficient (GHD) short stature. Parents rated children to have poorer physical and psychosocial HRQL than children rated themselves. Differences depended on the measure used. Parents rated children with IGHD and non-GHD short stature better than children rated themselves, but they rated children with AGHD or Turner's much worse than children rated themselves in terms of physical but not psychosocial functioning. Decisions to prescribe GHT should include children's perspectives of HRQL whenever possible. Differences between parents and children are most likely in conditions that involve more complex medical needs (AGHD and Turner's). Generic and disease-specific HRQL measures may vary in sensitivity to HRQL differences between groups. More work is required to evaluate HRQL among younger children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Histological and ultrastructural alterations of rat thyroid gland after short-term treatment with high doses of thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajab, Njia M; Ukropina, Mirela; Cakic-Milosevic, Maja

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate histological alterations of rat thyroid gland after short-term treatment with supraphysiological doses of thyroid hormones. Rats from experimental groups were treated with triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4) during five days. In both treated groups, thyrocyte height was reduced and follicular lumens were distended. Progressive involutive changes of the thyroid parenchyma were apparent, including follicular remodeling (fusion) and death of thyrocytes. Morphological changes confirmed by quantitative analysis were more pronounced in the T4-treated group. Our results demonstrate that thyrotoxicosis, whether induced by T3 or T4, leads to different grades of thyroid tissue injury, including some irreversible damages. These changes might be explained at least in part by lack of trophic and cytoprotective effects of the thyroid stimulating hormone. Since the period required for morphophysiological recovery may be unpredictable, findings presented here should be taken into consideration in cases where the thyroid hormones are used as a treatment for thyroid and non-thyroid related conditions.

  14. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  15. Ovarian hormones and chronic pain: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Samah; Muere, Abi; Einstein, Gillian

    2014-12-01

    Most chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) conditions are more common in women and have been reported to worsen, particularly during the peak reproductive years. This phenomenon suggests that ovarian hormones might play a role in modulating CNCP pain. To this end, we reviewed human literature aiming to assess the potential role of ovarian hormones in modulating the following CNCP conditions: musculoskeletal pain, migraine headache, temporal mandibular disorder, and pelvic pain. We found 50 relevant clinical studies, the majority of which demonstrated a correlation between hormone changes or treatments and pain intensity, threshold, or symptoms. Taken together, the findings suggest that changes in hormonal levels may well play a role in modulating the severity of CNCP conditions. However, the lack of consistency in study design, methodology, and interpretation of menstrual cycle phases impedes comparison between the studies. Thus, while the literature is highly suggestive of the role of ovarian hormones in modulating CNCP conditions, serious confounds impede a definitive understanding for most conditions except menstrual migraine and endometriosis. It may be that these inconsistencies and the resulting lack of clarity have contributed to the failure of hormonal effects being translated into medical practice for treatment of CNCP conditions. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Precocious Puberty Girls according to Stage of GnRH Agonist Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo Kyoung; Kim, Hye Ryun; Rhie, Young Jun; Lee, Kee Hyoung

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the long-term effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment on the reproductive function of central precocious puberty (CPP) girls. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed the ovarian function by analyzing the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels of CPP girls. Our study included 505 CPP girls subdivided into 5 groups according to the GnRH agonist treatment stage: group A (before treatment, n = 98), group B (3 months after initiation, n = 103), group C (12 months after initiation, n = 101), group D (24 months after initiation, n = 101), and group E (6 months after discontinuation, n = 102). We compared the serum AMH levels of the CPP girls with those of 100 bone age-matched controls (before treatment: n = 55; after discontinuation: n = 45). At baseline, the mean AMH level of the CPP girls was 5.9 ± 3.6 ng/mL. The mean AMH level after 3 months of the GnRH agonist treatment was lower (4.7 ± 3.2 ng/mL, P = 0.047) than that at baseline and recovered after 12 months of treatment. Six months after discontinuation, the AMH levels were similar to those at pre-treatment. Before and after the GnRH agonist treatment, the AMH levels were similar to those of the bone age-matched controls. In the precocious puberty girls, the AMH levels based on the GnRH agonist treatment stage were all within the normal reference range. The results of this study suggest that GnRH agonist treatment has no adverse effects on the reproductive function.

  17. Prader-Willi Syndrome: New perspectives and effects of growth hormone treatment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. de Lind van Wijngaarden (Roderick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis encompasses studies embedded in the Dutch national growth hormone trial for children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The syndrome was fi rst described by Prader, Labhart, and Willi in 1956, reporting a combination of obesity, short stature, cryptorchidism, oligophrenia, and

  18. Hormonal changes during the first year of oestrogen treatment in constitutionally tall girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Kuto, E; De Beeck, L O; Rooman, R P; Caju, M V

    1999-12-01

    Oestrogens are used to inhibit growth in girls with constitutionally tall stature. We studied the changes in different hormones that accompany such therapy. In this longitudinal study we examined the levels of total insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotrophin (TSH), testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), cortisol and prolactin in two groups of girls receiving ethinyloestradiol at a dose of either 0.1mg daily (group A, n=22) or 0.2mg daily (group B, n=36). Hormonal measurements were performed at start of therapy and after 3, 6 and 12 months. In both groups the levels of IGF-I, testosterone and DHEA-S were reduced while the concentrations of cortisol and prolactin were increased. The pituitary-thyroid axis was not significantly affected by this therapy. The girls receiving 0.2mg ethinyloestradiol daily had lower IGF-I levels after 12 months of therapy and had higher serum prolactin concentrations than the girls treated with 0.1mg daily. The reduction in predicted height and the advancement in bone age were similar in both groups. Therapy with pharmacological doses of ethinyloestradiol changes the levels of several hormones including IGF-I, testosterone, DHEA-S, prolactin and cortisol but the role of the respective changes in the inhibition of growth is not clear. The suppression of DHEA-S levels by 40% suggests that the ovaries contribute significantly to the production of this hormone in pubertal girls.

  19. Fractures in pituitary adenoma patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Varsseveld, N.C.; van Bunderen, Christa C; Franken, A.A.M.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; van der Lely, A.J.; Drent, M L

    PURPOSE: The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on fracture risk in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients with different etiologies of pituitary GHD are not well known, due to limited data. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and fracture occurrence at start of

  20. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.J. Smeets (Lin); V. Codd (Veryan); M. Denniff (Matthew); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH), inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere

  1. Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on the induction of multiple births in synchronized Afshari ewes. 16 cycling, multiparous fat-tailed Iranian Afshari ewes, weighing 66.5 ± 2.5 kg, were used in the trail. Estrus was synchronized using controlled ...

  2. Fractures in pituitary adenoma patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. Van Varsseveld; C.C. van Bunderen (Christa); A.A.M. Franken (Anton); H.P.F. Koppeschaar (Hans); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); M.L. Drent (Madeleine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on fracture risk in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients with different etiologies of pituitary GHD are not well known, due to limited data. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and fracture occurrence at

  3. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 modulate the lipolytic action of growth hormone by altering signal pathway linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergan-Roller, Heather E; Ickstadt, Alicia T; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2017-07-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has many actions in vertebrates, including the regulation of two disparate metabolic processes: growth promotion (anabolic) and the mobilization of stored lipids (catabolic). Our previous studies showed that GH stimulated IGF-1 production in hepatocytes from fed rainbow trout, but in cells from fasted fish GH stimulated lipolysis. In this study, we used rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to elucidate regulation of the mechanisms that enable cells to alter their lipolytic responsiveness to GH. In the first experiment, cells were removed from either fed or fasted fish, conditioned in medium containing serum (10%) from either fed or fasted fish, then challenged with GH. GH stimulated the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), the primary lipolytic enzyme, in cells from fasted fish conditioned with "fasted serum" but not in cells from fasted fish conditioned in "fed serum." Pretreatment of cells from fed fish with "fasted serum" resulted in GH-stimulated HSL expression, whereas GH-stimulated HSL expression in cells from fasted fish was blocked by conditioning in "fed serum." The nature of the conditioning serum governed the signaling pathways activated by GH irrespective of the nutritional state of the animals from which the cells were removed. When hepatocytes were pretreated with "fed serum," GH activated JAK2, STAT5, Akt, and ERK pathways; when cells were pretreated with "fasted serum," GH activated PKC and ERK. In the second study, we examined the direct effects of insulin (INS) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), two nutritionally-regulated hormones, on GH-stimulated lipolysis and signal transduction in isolated hepatocytes. GH only stimulated HSL mRNA expression in cells from fasted fish. Pretreatment with INS and/or IGF-1 abolished this lipolytic response to GH. INS and/or IGF-1 augmented GH activation of JAK2 and STAT5 in cells from fed and fasted fish. However, INS and/or IGF-1 eliminated the ability of GH to activate PKC and

  4. Transgender women, hormonal therapy and HIV treatment: a comprehensive review of the literature and recommendations for best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae; Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that transgender women (TGW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19.1% among TGW worldwide. After receiving a diagnosis, HIV-positive TGW have challenges accessing effective HIV treatment, as demonstrated by lower rates of virologic suppression and higher HIV-related mortality. These adverse HIV outcomes have been attributed to the multiple sociocultural and structural barriers that negatively affect their engagement within the HIV care continuum. Guidelines for feminizing hormonal therapy among TGW recommend combinations of oestrogens and androgen blockers. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) agents, such as protease inhibitors (PIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and cobicistat, interact with ethinyl estradiol, the key oestrogen component of oral contraceptives (OCPs). The goal of this article is to provide an overview of hormonal regimens used by TGW, to summarize the known drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between feminizing hormonal regimens and ART, and to provide clinical care recommendations. The authors identified English language articles examining DDIs between oestrogen therapy, androgen blockers and ART published between 1995 and 2015 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and EBSCOhost. Published articles predominantly addressed interactions between ethinyl estradiol and NNRTIs and PIs. No studies examined interactions between ART and the types and doses of oestrogens found in feminizing regimens. DDIs that may have the potential to result in loss of virologic suppression included ethinyl estradiol and amprenavir, unboosted fosamprenavir and stavudine. No clinically significant DDIs were noted with other anti-retroviral agents or androgen blockers. There are insufficient data to address DDIs between ART and feminizing hormone regimens used by TGW. There is an urgent need for further research in this

  5. Anxiety, memory impairment, and locomotor dysfunction caused by a mutant thyroid hormone receptor α1 can be ameliorated by T3 treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero, César; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Herrero, Ana Isabel; Nordström, Kristina; Manzano, Jimena; de Escobar, Gabriella Moreale; Bernal, Juan; Vennström, Björn

    2005-01-01

    The transcriptional properties of unliganded thyroid hormone receptors are thought to cause the misdevelopment during hypothyroidism of several functions essential for adult life. To specifically determine the role of unliganded thyroid hormone receptor α1 (TRα1) in neuronal tissues, we introduced a mutation into the mouse TRα1 gene that lowers affinity to thyroid hormone (TH) 10-fold. The resulting heterozygous mice exhibit several distinct neurological abnormalities: extreme anxiety, reduced recognition memory, and locomotor dysfunction. The anxiety and memory deficiencies were relieved by treatment with high levels of TH in adulthood, an effect that correlated with a normalization of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. In contrast, a post-natal TH treatment was necessary and sufficient for ameliorating the adult locomotor dysfunction. Here, the hormone treatment normalized the otherwise delayed cerebellar development. The data thus identify two novel and distinct functions of an unliganded TRα1 during development and adulthood, respectively. PMID:16131613

  6. Men and women, so different, so similar: observations from cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Giltay, E J

    2014-06-01

    Sexual differentiation in mammals is largely driven by the presence of androgen in males and their absence in females. The presence of androgens induces a number of irreversible changes in males: prenatally, the genital differentiation; during puberty, the development of secondary sex characteristics - the larger facial bones, hand, feet and height in males. A large number of metabolic variables are influenced by sex hormones and consequently show difference between men and women, and this helps to explain differences in pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease, bone fractures and auto immune disease. There is some recent evidence that some sex differences in brain functions are not mediated by sex hormones, but by-products of genes located on the X and Y chromosomes. This communication reviews the results of administration of cross-sex hormone treatment to transsexual persons transitioning to the other sex. Natal males are treated with anti-androgens+oestrogens and natal females with testosterone. This provides a unique opportunity to study which metabolic functions are not irreversibly sex-differentiated but are determined by the prevailing milieu of sex steroids. The insights gained with these studies should lead to a better appreciation of the role of sex steroids in cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus which presently do not receive due attention. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Human Endometrial Exosomes Contain Hormone-Specific Cargo Modulating Trophoblast Adhesive Capacity: Insights into Endometrial-Embryo Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Nguyen, Hong P T; Elgass, Kirstin; Simpson, Richard J; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2016-02-01

    Embryo implantation into receptive endometrium requires synergistic endometrial-blastocyst interactions within the uterine cavity and is essential for establishing pregnancy. We demonstrate that exosomes (40-150 nm nanovesicles) released from endometrial epithelial cells are an important component of these interactions. We defined the proteome of purified endometrial epithelial-derived exosomes (Exos) influenced by menstrual cycle hormones estrogen (E; proliferative phase) and estrogen plus progesterone (EP; receptive phase) and examined their potential to modify trophoblast function. E-/EP-Exos were uniquely enriched with 254 and 126 proteins, respectively, with 35% newly identified proteins not previously reported in exosome databases. Importantly, EP-Exos protein cargo was related to fundamental changes in implantation: adhesion, migration, invasion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These findings from hormonally treated ECC1 endometrial cancer cells were validated in human primary uterine epithelial cell-derived exosomes. Functionally, exosomes were internalized by human trophoblast cells and enhanced their adhesive capacity, a response mediated partially through active focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Thus, exosomes contribute to the endometrial-embryo interactions within the human uterine microenvironment essential for successful implantation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Erythrocytosis in a Patient Undergoing Hormonal Treatment for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are most commonly used for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor positive disease. Although the side effect profile of aromatase inhibitors is well known, including common side effects like arthralgia, bone pain, arthritis, hot flashes, and more serious problems like osteoporosis, we present a case of an uncommon side effect of these medications. We report the case of a postmenopausal woman on adjuvant hormonal therapy with anastrozole after completing definitive therapy for stage IIIB estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, who was referred to hematology service for evaluation of persistent erythrocytosis. Primary and known secondary causes of polycythemia were ruled out. On further evaluation, we found that her erythrocytosis began after initiation of anastrozole and resolved after it was discontinued. We discuss the pathophysiology of aromatase inhibitor-induced erythrocytosis and reference of similar cases reported in the literature.

  9. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the american thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Bianco, Antonio C; Bauer, Andrew J; Burman, Kenneth D; Cappola, Anne R; Celi, Francesco S; Cooper, David S; Kim, Brian W; Peeters, Robin P; Rosenthal, M Sara; Sawka, Anna M

    2014-12-01

    A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. We reviewed the following therapeutic

  10. Guidelines for the Treatment of Hypothyroidism: Prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C.; Bauer, Andrew J.; Burman, Kenneth D.; Cappola, Anne R.; Celi, Francesco S.; Cooper, David S.; Kim, Brian W.; Peeters, Robin P.; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Sawka, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. Methods: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. Results: We reviewed the

  11. The Challenge of Growth Hormone Deficiency Diagnosis and Treatment during the Transition from Puberty into Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Inzaghi, Elena; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In children with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, replacement GH therapy is effective in normalizing height during childhood and achieving adult height within the genetic target range. GH has further beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism through adult life. The transition phase, defined as the period from mid to late teens until 6–7 years after the achievement of final height, represents a crucial time for reassessing children’s GH secretion and deciding whether GH t...

  12. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Dana S

    2008-01-01

    Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical ...

  13. Effects of nitric oxide treatment on the cell wall softening related enzymes and several hormones of papaya fruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qin; Wu, Bin; Chen, Weixin; Zhang, Yuli; Wang, Jide; Li, Xueping

    2014-06-01

    Papaya fruits (Carica papaya L. cv 'Sui you 2') harvested with papaya fruits treated with nitric oxide had a significantly lower rate of ethylene production and a lesser loss of firmness during storage. A decrease in polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, pectate lyase and cellulase activities was observed in nitric oxide treated fruit. In addition, the contents of indole acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin riboside were reduced in nitric oxide treated fruit, but no significant reduction in the level of gibberellin was found. These results indicate that nitric oxide treatment can effectively delay the softening and ripening of papaya fruit, likely via the regulation of cell wall softening related enzymes and certain hormones.

  14. Growth hormone treatment during hemodialysis in a randomized trial improves nutrition, quality of life, and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo; Lange, Martin; Sulowicz, Wladyslaw

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional markers, such as lean body mass (LBM) and serum albumin, predict outcome in dialysis patients, in whom protein-energy malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The metabolic effects of human growth hormone (hGH) may improve the nutritional and cardiovascular...... health of these patients and consequently reduce morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to establish clinical proof of concept of hGH treatment for the improvement of the nutritional status in adult patients who are on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 139 adult patients who were.......001) and serum HDL (P clinically relevant adverse events...

  15. Splicing modulation therapy in the treatment of genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arechavala-Gomeza V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Arechavala-Gomeza,1 Bernard Khoo,2 Annemieke Aartsma-Rus3 1Neuromuscular Disorders Group, BioCruces Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain; 2Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK; 3Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands All authors contributed equally to this manuscript Abstract: Antisense-mediated splicing modulation is a tool that can be exploited in several ways to provide a potential therapy for rare genetic diseases. This approach is currently being tested in clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy. The present review outlines the versatility of the approach to correct cryptic splicing, modulate alternative splicing, restore the open reading frame, and induce protein knockdown, providing examples of each. Finally, we outline a possible path forward toward the clinical application of this approach for a wide variety of inherited rare diseases. Keywords: splicing, therapy, antisense oligonucleotides, cryptic splicing, alternative splicing

  16. Schistosoma mansoni in mice: modulation of granulomatous response after reinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho,Paulo Marcos Z.; Pedro Raso; Rômulo Teixeira de Mello; Toppa,Nivaldo H.

    1994-01-01

    Mice previously infected with Schistosoma mansoni, and cured by specific treatment (400mg/kg oxamniquine, p. o.) in the chronic phase of the disease, were reinfected 20 days after treatment to assess their capacityfor modulation ofthe granulomatous response. Histopathologic examination of the animals ' liver, at 60 days after reinfection, evidenced the presence of typical granulomas of the chronic phase in most animals. This infer that the capacity for modulation of the granulomatous response...

  17. Treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone. A double-blind controlled study of 243 boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S

    1988-01-01

    We have conducted a modified double-blind study on the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and placebo on bilateral and unilateral maldescended testes. One hundred and fifty-five boys with bilateral and 88 boys with unilateral cryptorchidism fulfilled...... the inclusion criteria and completed the treatment protocol. The boys were between 1 and 13 years of age. hCG was administered as intramuscular injections twice weekly for 3 weeks. GnRH and placebo were given intranasally. hCG was superior to GnRH and placebo in the treatment of bilateral maldescended testes (p...... = 0.0009). Both testes descended in 25% of the boys following treatment with hCG, and improvement in the position of the testes was obtained in a further 25% of the cases. hCG administration resulted in complete testicular descent in 14% of boys with unilateral cryptorchidism compared with 3 and 0...

  18. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  19. [Kuntai capsule combined with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist in treatment of moderate-severe endometriosis: a clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Qing; Qin, Zi-Xin; Jiang, Fang-Fang; Hong, Ting; Wang, Feng

    2014-11-01

    To observe the effect of Kuntai Capsule (KC), a Chinese patent medicine, in add-back therapy for gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) treatment for moderate-severe endometriosis (EM). Totally 100 patients suffering from stage III/IV EM, who were confirmed by laparoscopic surgery were randomly assigned to the GnRH-a group (A) and the KC combined GnRH-a group (B), 50 in each group. Patients in Group A were hypodermically injected with goserelin (3.6 mg), once per 4 weeks. Those in Group B additionally took KC, 4 pills each time, three times per day. The therapeutic course for all was 12 weeks. Serum levels of estradiol (E2), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), bone gamma-carboxyglutamic-acid-containing proteins (BGP) were measured respectively. Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar vertebra were also compared between the two groups. Serum levels of E2 and FSH both significantly decreased in the two groups at week 12 of the treatment (P KMI increased in the two groups (P 0.05). Serum BGP increased after 12-week treatment (P KMI between the two groups (P > 0.05). As for the incidence of menopausal symptoms, better effects in improving symptoms such as hot flashes, sleep disorders, and vaginal dryness were obtained in Group B than in Group A (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the post-pre-treatment difference of BMI between the two groups, but with statistical post-pre-treatment difference in the BGP level (P < 0.05). HKC combined GnRH-a could effectively reduce GnRH-a treatment induced partial low estrogen symptoms, improve increased serum BGP levels after GnRH-a therapy.

  20. Update on the efficacy, safety, and adherence to treatment of full length parathyroid hormone, PTH (1-84, in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pietrogrande

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Luca PietrograndeDipartimento di Medicina Chirurgia e Odontoiatria Polo San Paolo, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Full length (1-84 parathyroid hormone (PTH was introduced in Europe as a treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis in 2006. The efficacy of PTH (1-84 in the prevention of vertebral fractures is very high, and is similar to that of teriparatide. Its action in the prevention of femoral fractures has yet to be fully demonstrated, but the incidence of such fractures in trials was very low, and a decrease in nonvertebral fractures was seen in high-risk patients. The effect on bone mineral density (BMD was clearly demonstrated in the spine and also in the hip. The effects on BMD were evident and increased progressively with treatment until 36 months. After its discontinuation there was a clear decrease in BMD if no antiresorptive treatment was initiated. Increases in bone volumetric density and bone volume in trabecular sites were also reported. Moreover, a bone volume increase was detected in cortical sites. Hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are frequent consequences of PTH treatment, but rarely have clinical effects and are usually well controlled by reducing calcium and vitamin D supplementation.Keywords: PTH (1-84, full-length parathyroid hormone, osteoporosis treatment

  1. The protective effect of soybean phytochemicals on androgen responsive human prostate cancer cells LNCaP is likely mediated through modulation of hormone/cytokine-dependent pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T.Y. Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Population studies suggested that consumption of a soy rich diet provides protective effects against several chronic diseases, including prostate cancer. However, the active components in soy as well as the mechanisms of action of soy’s protective effects remain unclear. It would be important to elucidate these questions to support the use of soy in the prevention of chronic disease.Methods: A cell culture model and molecular techniques were used as tools to identify a molecular signature induced by soy-derived phytochemicals.Results: Soy phytochemicals inhibit growth of androgen responsive prostate cancer cells. Global gene expression analysis using DNA microarray and real time PCR analysis identified multiple pathways affected by the soy-derived phytochemicals genistein, daidzein, equol, and glyceollins in the androgen responsive human prostate cancer cell LNCaP. These pathways included androgen receptor-dependent pathways, insulin-like growth factors pathways, and cell cyclerelated pathways. Soy-derived phytochemicals modulated these pathways in a concentrationdependent fashion. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the physiological achievable concentration of diet-derived soy phytochemicals, we propose the concentration-dependent cancer protective effect is likely mediated through modulation of hormone/cytokine-dependent pathways.

  2. Hormonal treatment before and after artificial insemination differentially improves fertility in subpopulations of dairy cows during the summer and autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E; Voet, H; Reznikov, D; Wolfenson, D; Roth, Z

    2014-12-01

    Reduced conception rate (CR) during the hot summer and subsequent autumn is a well-documented phenomenon. Intensive use of cooling systems can improve summer and autumn reproductive performance, but is unable to increase CR to winter and spring levels. We examined whether combined hormonal treatments--to increase follicular turnover before artificial insemination (AI) and progesterone supplementation post-AI--might improve fertility of cooled cows during the summer and autumn. The experiment was conducted from July to November in 3 commercial herds in Israel and included 707 Holstein cows at 50 to 60 d in milk (DIM). Cows were hormonally treated to induce 2 consecutive 9-d cycles, with GnRH administration followed by PGF2α injection 7 d later, followed by an intravaginal insert containing progesterone on d 5 ± 1 post-AI for 14 d. Both untreated controls (n=376) and treated cows (n=331) were inseminated following estrus, and pregnancy was determined by palpation 42 to 50 d post-AI. First-AI CR data revealed a positive interaction between treatment and cows previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease [odds ratio (OR) 2.24]. Interaction between treatment and low body condition score tended to increase the probability of first-AI CR (OR 1.95) and increased pregnancy rate at 90 DIM (OR 2.50) and at 120 DIM (OR 1.77). Low milk production increased the probability of being detected in estrus at the end of synchronization within treated cows (OR 1.67), and interacted with treatment to increase probability of pregnancy at 90 DIM (OR 2.39) relative to control counterparts. It is suggested that when administered with efficient cooling, combined hormonal treatment in specific subgroups of cows, that is, those previously diagnosed with postpartum uterine disease or those with low body condition score or low milk yield might improve fertility during the summer and autumn. Integration of such an approach into reproductive management during the hot seasons might improve

  3. Hormonal therapy for acne.

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    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane

    2008-09-01

    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  4. Predicting the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue treatment on uterine leiomyomas based on MR imaging

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    Matsuno, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Katabuchi, H.; Okamura, H. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Kumamoto Univ. School of Medicine, Kumamoto (Japan); Kitano, Y.; Shimamura, T. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Amakusa Chuou General Hospital, Hondo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that the simple assessment of signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images is predictive of the effect of hormonal treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Material and methods: The correlation between T2-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas and histologic findings was evaluated using 85 leiomyomas from 62 females who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy. We also correlated the pretreatment MR images features obtained in 110 women with 143 leiomyomas with the effect of GnRH analogue treatment. The size (length x width x depth) of the leiomyoma was evaluated before and at 6 months after treatment by ultrasound. Results: The proportion of leiomyoma cell fascicles and that of extracellular matrix affected signal intensities of uterine leiomyomas on T2-weighted MR images. The amount of extracellular matrix was predominant in hypointense leiomyomas on T2-weighted images, while diffuse intermediate signal leiomyomas were predominantly composed of leiomyoma cell fascicles. Marked degenerative changes were noted in leiomyomas with heterogenous hyperintensity. The homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas showed significant size reduction after treatment (size ratio; posttreatment volume/pretreatment volume 0.29{+-}0.11). The size ratio for the hypointense tumors was 0.82{+-}0.14, and 0.82{+-}0.18 for the heterogeneously hyperintense tumors. There was a significant difference in the response to treatment between the homogeneously intermediate signal intensity leiomyomas and the hypointense or heterogeneously hyperintense leiomyomas (both p<0.01). Conclusion: Signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images depends on the amount of leiomyoma cell fascicles and extracellular matrix. Simple assessment of the MR signal intensity is useful in predicting the effect of GnRH analogue on uterine leiomyomas. (orig.)

  5. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

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    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  6. Can anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations be used to determine gonadotrophin dose and treatment protocol for ovarian stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R; Broekmans, F; Calhaz-Jorge, C; Dracea, L; Alexander, H; Nyboe Andersen, A; Blockeel, C; Jenkins, J; Lunenfeld, B; Platteau, P; Smitz, J; de Ziegler, D

    2013-05-01

    The ability to predict the response potential of women to ovarian stimulation may allow the development of individualized ovarian stimulation protocols. This tailored approach to ovarian stimulation could reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women predicted to have an excessive response to stimulation or could improve pregnancy outcomes in women classed as poor responders. Namely, variation of the type of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue or the form and dosage of gonadotrophin used for stimulation could be adjusted according to an individual's response potential. The serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is established as a reliable marker of ovarian reserve, with decreasing concentrations correlated with reduced response potential. This review examines the current evidence evaluating individualized ovarian stimulation protocols using AMH concentration as a predictive marker of ovarian response. The rationale behind why specific treatment protocols based on individual response potential may be more suitable is also discussed. Based on current evidence, it appears that the use of AMH serum concentrations to predict ovarian response and optimize treatment strategies is a promising approach for improving pregnancy outcomes in women undergoing ovarian stimulation. However, prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating this approach are needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endocrine problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome: special review on associated genetic aspects and early growth hormone treatment

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    Dong-Kyu Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a complex multisystem genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. The main clinical features include neonatal hypotonia, distinctive facial features, overall developmental delay, and poor growth in infancy, followed by overeating with severe obesity, short stature, and hypogonadism later in development. This paper reviews recent updates regarding the genetic aspects of this disorder. Three mechanisms (paternal deletion, maternal disomy, and deficient imprinting are recognized. Maternal disomy can arise because of 4 possible mechanisms: trisomy rescue (TR, gamete complementation (GC, monosomy rescue (MR, and postfertilization mitotic nondisjunction (Mit. Recently, TR/GC caused by nondisjunction at maternal meiosis 1 has been identified increasingly, as a result of advanced maternal childbearing age in Korea. We verified that the d3 allele increases the responsiveness of the growth hormone (GH receptor to endogenous GH. This paper also provides an overview of endocrine dysfunctions in children with PWS, including GH deficiency, obesity, sexual development, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency, as well as the effects of GH treatment. GH treatment coupled with a strictly controlled diet during early childhood may help to reduce obesity, improve neurodevelopment, and increase muscle mass. A more active approach to correct these hormone deficiencies would benefit patients with PWS.

  8. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Capsicum annuum L. under Abiotic Stress and Hormone Treatments

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    Chenliang Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs play important roles in regulating plant growth and development and response to environmental stress. An exhaustive analysis of the CaARF family was performed using the latest publicly available genome for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. In total, 22 non-redundant CaARF gene family members in six classes were analyzed, including chromosome locations, gene structures, conserved motifs of proteins, phylogenetic relationships and Subcellular localization. Phylogenetic analysis of the ARFs from pepper (Capsicum annuum L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa L. revealed both similarity and divergence between the four ARF families, and aided in predicting biological functions of the CaARFs. Furthermore, expression profiling of CaARFs was obtained in various organs and tissues using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR. Expression analysis of these genes was also conducted with various hormones and abiotic treatments using qRT-PCR. Most CaARF genes were regulated by exogenous hormone treatments at the transcriptional level, and many CaARF genes were altered by abiotic stress. Systematic analysis of CaARF genes is imperative to elucidate the roles of CaARF family members in mediating auxin signaling in the adaptation of pepper to a challenging environment.

  9. Comparison of therapeutic efficacy and clinical parameters between recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone withdrawal in high-dose radioiodine treatment with differentiated thyroid cancer

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    Choi, Se Hun; Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeong Hun; Han, Yeon Hee; KIm, Hee Kwon; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    High-dose radioiodine treatment (HD-RIT) after injection of recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (rh-TSH) has become widely used. This study compared the therapeutic efficacy of HD-RIT and clinical parameters between rh-TSH supplement and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) after total thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 266 patients (47 male and 219 female; age, 49.0 ± 10.9 years) with differentiated thyroid cancer detected from September 2011 to September 2012. Patients comprised THW (217, 81.6 %) and rh-TSH (49, 18.4 %). Inclusion criteria were: first HD-RIT; any TN stage; absence of distant metastasis. To evaluate the complete ablation of the remnant thyroid tissue or metastasis, we reviewed stimulated serum thyroglobulin (sTg), I-123 whole-body scan (RxWBS) on T4 off-state, and thyroid ultrasonography (US) or [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) 6–8 months after HD-RIT. We defined a complete ablation state when all three of the follow-up conditions were satisfied; <2.0 ng/ml of the sTg, I-123 RxWBS (−), and thyroid US or F-18 FDG PET/CT (−). If one of the three was positive, ablation was considered incomplete. We also compared various clinical biomarkers (body weight, body mass index, liver and kidney function) between THW and rh-TSH groups. The rates of complete ablation were 73.7 % (160/217) for the THW group and 73.5 % (36/49) for the rh-TSH group. There was no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.970). The follow-up aspartate transaminase (p = 0.001) and alanine transaminase (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the THW group. The renal function parameters of blood urea nitrogen (p = 0.001) and creatinine (p = 0.005) tended to increase in the THW group. The change of body weight was + Δ0.96 (±1.9) kg for the THW group and was decreased by -Δ1.39 (±1.5) kg for the rh-TSH group. The change

  10. Growth hormone deficiency, secondary hypothyroidism, and empty sella following treatment of childhood macroprolactinoma

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    Chitra Selvan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroprolactinoma are rare in childhood, especially in the first decade. A 9-year-old girl presented with headache, vomiting, and decreased vision for 8 months. A diagnosis of macroprolactinoma was made following documentation of elevated serum prolactin (958 ng/ml with a contrast enhancing macroadenoma (30 × 27 × 28 mm on magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary. Anterior pituitary function was normal. Cabergoline therapy resulted in resolution of all symptoms in 2-8 months. Revaluation at 10 months of cabergoline therapy revealed normal serum prolactin (14 ng/ml, normal pituitary function, with 91% decrease in adenoma size (11.5 × 13.6 × 12.7 mm. Evaluation at 36 months of cabergoline therapy for growth arrest and weight gain for past 6 months revealed low serum prolactin, growth hormone deficiency, and secondary hypothyroidism with empty sella. She had biochemical as well as structural resolution of prolactinoma. This report highlights the development of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency with empty sella, an uncommon side effect of cabergoline therapy for macroprolactinoma.

  11. Phytoplasma-Responsive microRNAs Modulate Hormonal, Nutritional, and Stress Signalling Pathways in Mexican Lime Trees.

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    Farveh Ehya

    Full Text Available Witches' broom disease of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L., which is associated to the phytoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', is a devastating disease that results in significant economic losses. Plants adapt to biotic stresses by regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a recently identified family of molecules that regulate plant responses to environmental stresses through post-transcriptional gene silencing.Using a high-throughput approach to sequence small RNAs, we compared the expression profiles of miRNAs in healthy Mexican lime trees and in plants infected with 'Ca. P. aurantifolia'.Our results demonstrated the involvement of different miRNAs in the response of Mexican lime trees to infection by 'Ca. P. aurantifolia'. We identified miRNA families that are expressed differentially upon infection with phytoplasmas. Most of the miRNAs had variants with small sequence variations (isomiRs, which are expressed differentially in response to pathogen infection.It is likely that the miRNAs that are expressed differentially in healthy and phytoplasma-infected Mexican lime trees are involved in coordinating the regulation of hormonal, nutritional, and stress signalling pathways, and the complex interactions between them. Future research to elucidate the roles of these miRNAs should improve our understanding of the level of diversity of specific plant responses to phytoplasmas.

  12. Phytoplasma-Responsive microRNAs Modulate Hormonal, Nutritional, and Stress Signalling Pathways in Mexican Lime Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehya, Farveh; Monavarfeshani, Aboozar; Mohseni Fard, Ehsan; Karimi Farsad, Laleh; Khayam Nekouei, Mojtaba; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Witches' broom disease of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.), which is associated to the phytoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia', is a devastating disease that results in significant economic losses. Plants adapt to biotic stresses by regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently identified family of molecules that regulate plant responses to environmental stresses through post-transcriptional gene silencing. Using a high-throughput approach to sequence small RNAs, we compared the expression profiles of miRNAs in healthy Mexican lime trees and in plants infected with 'Ca. P. aurantifolia'. Our results demonstrated the involvement of different miRNAs in the response of Mexican lime trees to infection by 'Ca. P. aurantifolia'. We identified miRNA families that are expressed differentially upon infection with phytoplasmas. Most of the miRNAs had variants with small sequence variations (isomiRs), which are expressed differentially in response to pathogen infection. It is likely that the miRNAs that are expressed differentially in healthy and phytoplasma-infected Mexican lime trees are involved in coordinating the regulation of hormonal, nutritional, and stress signalling pathways, and the complex interactions between them. Future research to elucidate the roles of these miRNAs should improve our understanding of the level of diversity of specific plant responses to phytoplasmas.

  13. Infertility, medical advice and treatment with fertility hormones and/or in vitro fertilisation: a population perspective from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

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    Herbert, Danielle L; Lucke, Jayne C; Dobson, Annette J

    2009-08-01

    To identify the factors associated with infertility, seeking advice and treatment with fertility hormones and/or in vitro fertilisation (IVF) among a general population of women. Participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health aged 28-33 years in 2006 had completed up to four mailed surveys over 10 years (n=9,145). Parsimonious multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic, biological (including reproductive histories), and behavioural factors associated with infertility, advice and hormonal/IVF treatment. For women who had tried to conceive or had been pregnant (n=5,936), 17% reported infertility. Among women with infertility (n=1031), 72% (n=728) sought advice but only 50% (n=356) used hormonal/IVF treatment. Women had higher odds of infertility when: they had never been pregnant (OR=7.2, 95% CI 5.6-9.1) or had a history of miscarriage (OR range=1.5-4.0) than those who had given birth (and never had a miscarriage or termination). Only one-third of women with infertility used hormonal and/or IVF treatment. Women with PCOS or endometriosis were the most proactive in having sought advice and used hormonal/IVF treatment. Raised awareness of age-related declining fertility is important for partnered women aged approximately 30 years to encourage pregnancy during their prime reproductive years and reduce the risk of infertility.

  14. PI3K/Akt-independent NOS/HO activation accounts for the facilitatory effect of nicotine on acetylcholine renal vasodilations: modulation by ovarian hormones.

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    Eman Y Gohar

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of chronic nicotine on cholinergically-mediated renal vasodilations in female rats and its modulation by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS/heme oxygenase (HO pathways. Dose-vasodilatory response curves of acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol were established in isolated phenylephrine-preconstricted perfused kidneys obtained from rats treated with or without nicotine (0.5-4.0 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks. Acetylcholine vasodilations were potentiated by low nicotine doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day in contrast to no effect for higher doses (2 and 4 mg/kg/day. The facilitatory effect of nicotine was acetylcholine specific because it was not observed with other vasodilators such as 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, adenosine receptor agonist or papaverine. Increases in NOS and HO-1 activities appear to mediate the nicotine-evoked enhancement of acetylcholine vasodilation because the latter was compromised after pharmacologic inhibition of NOS (L-NAME or HO-1 (zinc protoporphyrin, ZnPP. The renal protein expression of phosphorylated Akt was not affected by nicotine. We also show that the presence of the two ovarian hormones is necessary for the nicotine augmentation of acetylcholine vasodilations to manifest because nicotine facilitation was lost in kidneys of ovariectomized (OVX and restored after combined, but not individual, supplementation with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and estrogen (E2. Together, the data suggests that chronic nicotine potentiates acetylcholine renal vasodilation in female rats via, at least partly, Akt-independent HO-1 upregulation. The facilitatory effect of nicotine is dose dependent and requires the presence of the two ovarian hormones.

  15. Down-regulation of protein kinase C by parathyroid hormone and mezerein differentially modulates cAMP production and phosphate transport in opossum kidney cells.

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    Cole, J A

    1997-08-01

    We examined the effects of prolonged exposure to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the protein kinase C (PKC) activator mezerein (MEZ) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, PKC activity, and Na(+)-dependent phosphate (Na/Pi) transport in an opossum kidney cell line (OK/E). A 5 minute exposure to PTH stimulated, while a 6 h incubation reduced, cAMP production, Na/Pi transport was maximally inhibited under desensitizing conditions and was not affected by reintroduction of the hormone. MEZ pretreatment (6 h) enhanced PTH-, cholera toxin (CTX)-, and forskolin (FSK)-stimulated cAMP production, suggesting enhanced Gs alpha coupling and increased adenylyl cyclase activity. However, PKA- and PKC-dependent regulation of Na/Pi were blocked in MEZ-treated cells. The PTH-induced decrease in cAMP production was associated with a reduction in membrane-associated PKC activity while MEZ-induced increases in cAMP production were accompanied by decreases in membrane and cytosolic PKC activity. Enhanced cAMP production was not accompanied by significant changes in PTH/PTH related peptide (PTHrP) receptor affinity or number, nor was the loss of Na/Pi transport regulation associated with changes in PKA activity. The results indicate that down-regulation of PKC by PTH or MEZ differentially modulates cAMP production and regulation of Na/Pi transport. The distinct effects of PTH and MEZ on PKC activity suggest that agonist-specific activation and/or down-regulation of PKC isozyme(s) may be involved in the observed changes in cAMP production and Na/Pi transport.

  16. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

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    da Silva Carla Cristiane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  17. Cost-efficacy analysis of hormonal treatments for advanced prostate cancer

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    Sergio Iannazzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: prostatic cancer is the second more frequent cancer in Italy (after lung cancer and is the third cancer-related death cause. Age is the principal risk factor and, given the ageing process undergoing in the Italian population, it seems clear that the public sanitary expenditure to treat the disease is bound to increase, arising the need to perform pharmacoeconomic evaluations of the therapeutic strategies available. Methods: we performed a cost/utility analysis, through a Markov model, of several hormonal therapies in patients with advanced prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy, from the biochemical recurrence to death. Nine androgen suppression therapies were considered: orchiectomy, two nonsteroidal antiandrogens (NSAA, four luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH agonists, cyproterone acetate and the association of a NSAA and a LHRH (BAT. In the simulation the androgen suppression therapies were started at the PSA recurrence and never stopped until death. The model used the Italian NHS prospective and a time horizon corresponding to patient’s lifetime. Drug costs were calculated for each therapy, considering the less costly brand. Results: all the considered therapies produced a life expectancy (LE of about 12 life years (LYs with a small variability ranging from 12.3 LYs for BAT (the most effective to 11.37 LYs for NSAA-flutamide (the least effective. Quality adjusted life expectancy ranged from 9.98 QALYs for BAT to 9.28 QALYs for NSAA-flutamide. The average cost per patient presented a more enhanced variability, from 12,538 Euro for orchiectomy to 59,496 Euro for NSAA-bicalutamide. Among all the alternatives orchiectomy resulted the most cost/effective alternative with a cost/utility ratio of about 1,300 Euro/QALY. In the LHRH-agonists class leuprorelin was the most cost/effective with about 2,200 Euro/QALY. A one-way sensitivity analysis showed a substantial stability of the results. Conclusions: BAT

  18. Modulating the serotonin system in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

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    Morrissette, Debbi Ann; Stahl, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    Discuss the theory of modulation of receptor activity or the blockade of the reuptake of multiple neurotransmitter systems for the future treatment of MDD. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious and often crippling psychiatric illness with a high risk of relapse and treatment resistance. In this article, we discuss the role of the serotonergic system in MDD including our current understanding of how various serotonin (5HT) receptors modulate monoamine neurotransmission and behavior. We also discuss how pharmacologic interventions, including novel and existing antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics, may be utilized to adjust serotonergic neurotransmission and provide more effective treatments for patients with MDD.

  19. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on treatment processes and outcomes.

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    Villatte, Jennifer L; Vilardaga, Roger; Villatte, Matthieu; Plumb Vilardaga, Jennifer C; Atkins, David C; Hayes, Steven C

    2016-02-01

    A modular, transdiagnostic approach to treatment design and implementation may increase the public health impact of evidence-based psychosocial interventions. Such an approach relies on algorithms for selecting and implementing treatment components intended to have a specific therapeutic effect, yet there is little evidence for how components function independent of their treatment packages when employed in clinical service settings. This study aimed to demonstrate the specificity of treatment effects for two components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. A randomized, nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine component effects on treatment processes and outcomes in 15 adults seeking mental health treatment. The ACT OPEN module targeted acceptance and cognitive defusion; the ACT ENGAGED module targeted values-based activation and persistence. According to Tau-U analyses, both modules produced significant improvements in psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and targeted therapeutic processes. ACT ENGAGED demonstrated greater improvements in quality of life and values-based activation. ACT OPEN showed greater improvements in symptom severity, acceptance, and defusion. Both modules improved awareness and non-reactivity, which were mutually targeted, though using distinct intervention procedures. Both interventions demonstrated high treatment acceptability, completion, and patient satisfaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 3-month follow up. ACT components should be considered for inclusion in a modular approach to implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Isolation Modulates CLOCK Protein and Beta-Catenin Expression Pattern in Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Neurons in Male Rats

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    Chuin Hau Teo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Postweaning social isolation reduces the amplitude of the daily variation of CLOCK protein in the brain and induces lower reproductive activity. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH acts as an inhibitor in the reproductive system and has been linked to stress. Social isolation has been shown to lower neuronal activity of GnIH-expressing neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH. The exact mechanism by which social isolation may affect GnIH is still unclear. We investigated the impact of social isolation on regulatory cellular mechanisms in GnIH neurons. We examined via immunohistochemistry the expression of CLOCK protein at four different times throughout the day in GnIH cells tagged with enhanced fluorescent green protein (EGFP-GnIH in 9-week-old adult male rats that have been raised for 6 weeks under postweaning social isolation and compared them with group-raised control rats of the same age. We also studied the expression of β-catenin—which has been shown to be affected by circadian proteins such as Bmal1—in EGFP-GnIH neurons to determine whether it could play a role in linking CLOCK in GnIH neurons. We found that social isolation modifies the pattern of CLOCK expression in GnIH neurons in the DMH. Socially isolated rats displayed greater CLOCK expression in the dark phase, while control rats displayed increased CLOCK expression in the light phase. Furthermore, β-catenin expression pattern in GnIH cells was disrupted by social isolation. This suggests that social isolation triggers changes in CLOCK and GnIH expression, which may be associated with an increase in nuclear β-catenin during the dark phase.

  2. Intraoperative measurement of parathyroid hormone: A Copernican revolution in the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Damiano, Giuseppe; Altomare, Roberta; Maione, Carolina; Buscemi, Salvatore; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring in the setting of the operating room represents a valuable example of the rationale use of the laboratory diagnostic in a patient-oriented approach. Rapid intraoperative PTH (ioPTH) assay is a valid tool for an accurate evaluation of the success of parathyroid surgery. The reliability of the user-friendly portable systems as well as the collaboration between operators and surgical staff allow the one-site monitoring of the ioPTH decrements on the course of the surgical management of hyperparathyroidism. The rapid answer provided by an effective decrement of PTH during parathyroidectomy contributes dramatically to the efficacy of parathyroid surgery and the reduction of the number of re-operations. Therefore the dose of ioPTH is a valid and reliable support for the success of the intervention of parathyroidectomy at controlled costs. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Feasibility of Automatic Treatment Planning in Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinbo; Zhang, Longbin; Xiao, Jianghong; Duan, Baofeng

    2015-12-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is very complex. The quality of plan is often closely linked to the experience of the treatment planner. In this study, 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients at different stages were enrolled. Based on the scripting of Pinnacle 9. 2 treatment planning system, the computer program was used to set the basic parameters and objective parameters of the plans. At last, the nasopharyngeal carcinoma intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were completed automatically. Then, the automatical and manual intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were statistically compared and clinically evaluated. The results showed that there were no significant differences between those two kinds of plans with respect to the dosimetry parameters of most targets and organs at risk. The automatical nasopharyngeal carcinoma intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans can meet the requirements of clinical radiotherapy, significantly reduce planning time, and avoid the influence of human factors such as lack of experience to the quality of plan.

  4. Effect of 4 weeks of octreotide treatment on prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones in acromegalic patients. A double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Hansen, T B; Bollerslev, J

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis, that octreotide has a suppressive effect on unstimulated and TRH-stimulated PRL levels in both normo- and hyperprolactinaemic acromegalic patients, and besides to evaluate the effect of octreotide on unstimulated TSH and thyroid hormones. The present study is a do...

  5. Combined herbicide and saline stress differentially modulates hormonal regulation and antioxidant defense system in Oryza sativa cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Faisal; Ali, Basharat; Wang, Jian; Farooq, Muhammad A; Gill, Rafaqat A; Ali, Shafaqat; Wang, Danying; Zhou, Weijun

    2016-10-01

    Plants are simultaneously exposed to a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses in field conditions. Crops respond to the combined stress in a unique way which cannot be understood by extrapolating the results of individual stress. In the present study, effects of individual and combined stress of herbicide (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and salinity (NaCl) on two Oryza sativa cultivars (ZJ 88 and XS 134) were investigated. Both herbicide and saline stress affected the plant growth differentially and produced oxidative stress in rice cultivars. Interestingly, the combination of herbicide and salinity showed a significant protection to both rice cultivars by reducing ROS (H2O2, O2(-)) and lipid peroxidation through modulation of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT and APX) and non-enzymatic (TSP, sugars, phenolic and proline) antioxidants. In addition, active regulation of transcript levels of genes encoding Na(+) and K(+) (OsHKT1;5, OsLti6a,b, OsHKT2;1, OsSOS1, OsCNGC1, OsNHX1 and OsAKT1) transporter proteins reduced sodium and enhanced potassium accumulation under combined stress, resulted a better growth and ionic homeostasis in both rice cultivars. The production of ABA and IAA was significantly higher in cultivar XS 134 compared to cultivar ZJ 88 under control conditions. However, combined herbicide and saline stress enhanced the accumulation of phytohormones (IAA and ABA) and transcription of ethylene in cultivar ZJ 88, which might be one of the factors responsible for poor salt tolerance in sensitive cultivar. These findings indicated that herbicide application under saline stress confers tolerance to salinity in rice cultivars, likely by reducing oxidative damage, modulating mineral absorption, upgradation of antioxidant defense and by dynamic regulation of key genes involved in Na(+) and K(+) homeostasis in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible effects of an early diagnosis and treatment in patients with growth hormone deficiency: the state of art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Scalini, Perla; Farello, Giovanni; Verrotti, Alberto

    2017-09-16

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a relatively uncommon and heterogeneous endocrine disorder presenting in childhood with short stature. However, during the neonatal period, the metabolic effects of GHD may to require prompt replacement therapy to avoid possible life-threatening complications. An increasing amount of data suggests the importance of an early diagnosis and treatment of GHD because of its auxological, metabolic, and neurodevelopmental features with respect to the patients diagnosed and treated later in life.The available results show favourable auxological outcomes for patients with GHD diagnosed and treated with r-hGH early in life compared with those from patients with GHD who do not receive this early diagnosis and treatment. Because delayed referral for GHD diagnosis and treatment is still frequent, these results highlight the need for more attention in the diagnosis and treatment of GHD.Despite these very encouraging data regarding metabolic and neurodevelopmental features, further studies are needed to better characterize these findings. Overall, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of GHD needs to be addressed.

  7. Treatment with urea as an alternative to tolvaptan for the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Gómez Valbuena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is an affectation that causes hyponatremia among other symptoms. Currently the family of drugs of choice for this syndrome are vaptans, among them the tolvaptan, antagonists of vasopressin. Urea acts as an osmotic diuretic producing sodium retention. We report a case in which the change from the urea treatment with tolvaptan in SIADH allowed to keep the answer to a much lower cost. Female, 83 years old, was admitted to our hospital as he revealed severe hyponatremia (108 mEq / L over a scan from a fall at home. Suspecting SIADH during admission was prescribed on three types of treatments: Water restriction and saline for 7 days followed by 15 mg tolvaptan and finally was prescribed 15 grams of urea every 12 hours. Serum sodium levels of patients during the first treatment did not increase enough, so it was changed to tolvaptan, during which serum sodium levels rose to normal ranges. Considering that the treatment would be long-term was changed to urea, during it, the levels of serum sodium had a slight increase. The patient was discharged with the pattern of urea indefinitely.The daily cost of treatment with tolvaptan is 66,91 €, as opposed to 0,30 € of urea. In cases such as these, urea prepared like pharmacy compound, is an alternative to tolvaptán in SIADH to a markedly lower cost.

  8. Effects of growth hormone treatment on adult height in severely short children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Nadine; Haffner, Dieter; Staude, Hagen; Wühl, Elke; Marx, Michaela; Beetz, Rolf; Querfeld, Uwe; Holder, Martin; Billing, Heiko; Rabl, Wolfgang; Schröder, Carmen; Hiort, Olaf; Brämswig, Jürgen H; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Schnabel, Dirk; Živičnjak, Miroslav

    2017-10-20

    We recently showed that a 3-year growth hormone (GH) treatment improves linear growth in severely short children with X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). It is unknown if GH therapy increases adult height in XLH patients. We carried out a follow-up analysis of a randomized controlled open-label GH study in short prepubertal children with XLH on phosphate and active vitamin D treatment. The changes in SD scores (SDS) of height, sitting height, leg and arm length, and sitting height index (i.e., the ratio between sitting height and height) were analyzed in 11 out of 16 patients followed-up until adult height. At baseline, XLH patients showed disproportionately short stature with reduced standardized height (-3.2 ± 0.6), sitting height (-1.7 ± 0.6), leg (-3.7 ± 0.7) and arm (-2.5 ± 0.8) length, and markedly elevated sitting height index (3.3 ± 0.6; each p adult height, sitting height, leg length, and arm length exceeded baseline values by 0.7 SDS, 1.7 SDS, 0.7 SDS, and 1.2 SDS respectively, although this was only significant for sitting height. In controls, no significant changes in linear body dimensions were noted. Adult height did not statistically differ between groups (-2.4 ± 0.7 vs -3.3 ± 1.2, p = 0.082). GH did not exaggerate body disproportion. Growth hormone treatment did not significantly increase adult height in this group of short children with XLH, which may be at least partly due to the small number of patients included in our study.

  9. Electroacupuncture Modulates Reproductive Hormone Levels in Patients with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results from a Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehua Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA on serum FSH, E2, and LH levels, women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI were treated with EA once a day, five times a week for the first four weeks and once every other day, three times a week, for the following two months, and then were followed up for three months. Serum E2, FSH, and LH levels were measured at baseline, at the end of treatment, and during followup. A total of 11 women with POI were included in this prospective consecutive case series study. Compared with baseline, patients’ serum E2 increased, FSH decreased, and LH decreased (P=0.002, 0.001, and 0.002, resp. after EA treatment, and these effects persisted during followup. With treatment, 10 patients resumed menstruation (10/11, 90.91%, whereas one patient remained amenorrhea. During followup, two patients, including the one with amenorrhea during treatment, reported absence of menstruation. Temporary pain occurred occasionally, and no other adverse events were found during treatment. The results suggest that EA could decrease serum FSH and LH levels and increase serum E2 level in women with POI with little or no side effects; however, further randomized control trials are needed.

  10. Immune modulation in the treatment of respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Steve

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limitations of currently available treatment for severe respiratory infection are demonstrated by the relatively fixed mortality associated with these infections despite advances in nutrition, vaccines, antibiotics, and critical care. This might be due in part to the changing spectrum of pathogens and development of drug resistance. Cytokines are potent molecules that function as growth factors and orchestrate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Several of these factors have entered the clinical arena to support or augment the immune response. Moreover, the use of cytokines has recently been expanded to patients without an overtly defective immune system but who have either significant infection or infection with drug resistant organisms. The use of cytokines as adjuvants in the treatment of respiratory infections is reviewed.

  11. Vitamin D receptor agonist VS-105 directly modulates parathyroid hormone expression in human parathyroid cells and in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kaichiro; Wu-Wong, J Ruth; Chen, Yung-Wu; Wessale, Jerry L; Kanai, Genta; Kakuta, Takatoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2017-03-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists (VDRAs) are commonly used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current VDRA therapy often causes hypercalcemia, which is a critical risk for vascular calcification. Previously we have shown that a novel VDRA, VS-105, effectively suppresses serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) without affecting serum calcium levels in 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) uremic rats. However, it is not known whether VS-105 directly regulates PTH gene expression. To study the direct effect of VS-105 on modulating PTH, we tested VS-105 and paricalcitol in the spheroid culture of parathyroid cells from human SHPT patients, and examined the time-dependent effect of the compounds on regulating serum PTH in 5/6 NX uremic rats (i.p. 3x/week for 14days). In human parathyroid cells, VS-105 (100nM) down-regulated PTH mRNA expression (to 3.6% of control) and reduced secreted PTH (to 43.9% of control); paricalcitol was less effective. VS-105 effectively up-regulated the expression of VDR (1.9-fold of control) and CaSR (1.8-fold of control) in spheroids; paricalcitol was also less effective. In 5/6 NX rats, one single dose of 0.05-0.2μg/kg of VS-105 or 0.02-0.04μg/kg of paricalcitol effectively reduced serum PTH by >40% on Day 2. Serum PTH remained suppressed during the dosing period, but tended to rebound in the paricalcitol groups. These data indicate that VS-105 exerts a rapid effect on suppressing serum PTH, directly down-regulates the PTH gene, and modulates PTH, VDR and CaSR gene expression more effectively than paricalcitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Palbociclib: a first-in-class CDK4/CDK6 inhibitor for the treatment of hormone-receptor positive advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Janice

    2015-08-13

    Palbociclib was approved by the FDA for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy. In addition, the combination of palbociclib with fulvestrant resulted in superior outcome than fulvestrant alone in those who had progressed during prior endocrine therapy. This research highlight summarized the current development of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors and future directions in the treatment of advanced hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

  13. Management of patients with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer with visceral disease: challenges and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb WA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wael A Harb Horizon Oncology Center, Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor–positive (HR+ advanced breast cancer (ABC, yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life. To improve outcomes, several targeted therapies are being investigated in combination with endocrine therapy for patients with endocrine-resistant, HR+ ABC. Although available data have considered patients with HR+ ABC as a whole, there are promising data from a prespecified analysis of a Phase III study of everolimus (Afinitor®, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, in combination with exemestane (Aromasin® in patients with visceral disease progressing after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. In this review, challenges and treatment options for management of HR+ ABC with visceral disease, including consideration of therapeutic approaches undergoing clinical investigation, will be assessed.Keywords: endocrine resistance, endocrine therapy, targeted therapy

  14. Monitoring the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals and hormones in different treatment processes of source-separated urine with bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Pronk, Wouter; Suter, Marc J F; Maurer, Max

    2006-08-15

    Urine can be collected separately from the general wastewater with the aim of recycling the nutrients. Urine source-separation not only prevents wasting nutrients but also prevents potentially hazardous micropollutants from entering the wastewater stream and tainting a final fertilizer product. We assessed various urine treatment technologies for their performance to remove micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic steroid hormones, and their human biotransformation products. Removal efficiencies were determined with a combination of bioassays and chemical target analysis. The yeast estrogen screen yielded information on estrogenicity. Specific phytotoxicity and nonspecific baseline toxicity was determined with an algae chlorophyll fluorescence test. Filtration methods, such as nanofiltration and electrodialysis, were highly efficient with respect to toxicity reduction. Micropollutant degradation during biological treatment in a sequencing batch reactor was very compound specific. Ozonation removed the target analytes and the estrogenicity completely, but the baseline toxicity was only reduced by 50-60% depending on the ozone doses. Struvite precipitation produced a very "clean" fertilizer product that is ready to use. The examples show that bioassays and chemical analysis yield complementary information, but are very useful to monitor treatment efficiencies and to assess the ecotoxicological potential of byproducts of urine treatment processes. The results of this study present a method to assess the micropollutant removal efficiency, and therefore, support the choice of an appropriate urine processing technique for real-world applications.

  15. Strategies for Imaging Androgen Receptor Signaling Pathway in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Hormonal Manipulation and Radiation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gravina Giovanni Luca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (Pca is a heterogeneous disease; its etiology appears to be related to genetic and epigenetic factors. Radiotherapy and hormone manipulation are effective treatments, but many tumors will progress despite these treatments. Molecular imaging provides novel opportunities for image-guided optimization and management of these treatment modalities. Here we reviewed the advances in targeted imaging of key biomarkers of androgen receptor signaling pathways. A computerized search was performed to identify all relevant studies in Medline up to 2013. There are well-known limitations and inaccuracies of current imaging approaches for monitoring biological changes governing tumor progression. The close integration of molecular biology and clinical imaging could ease the development of new molecular imaging agents providing novel tools to monitor a number of biological events that, until a few years ago, were studied by conventional molecular assays. Advances in translational research may represent the next step in improving the oncological outcome of men with Pca who remain at high risk for systemic failure. This aim may be obtained by combining the anatomical properties of conventional imaging modalities with biological information to better predict tumor response to conventional treatments.

  16. Hormonally induced modulation in the phosphate metabolites of breast cancer: analysis of in vivo 31P MRS signals with a modified prony method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, V; Ragona, R; Guidoni, L; Barone, P; Furman, E; Degani, H

    1997-08-01

    A modified Prony method (MPM) was applied to analyze the main signals present in spatially resolved 31P NMR spectra of MCF7 breast tumors implanted in nude mice. First, the method was tested on synthetic data to establish its limits of reliability. Its performance with respect to peak identification and quantification of signal intensities was then exploited on data from three implanted tumors during hormonal manipulation with estrogen and the antiestrogenic drug tamoxifen. The phosphomonoester peak was resolved into phosphocholine (PC) and phosphoethanolamine (PE). Treatment with tamoxifen led to a significant reduction in the PE to PE+PC peak amplitude ratio in the tumors under consideration. MPM analysis also revealed the presence of two different inorganic phosphate pools: a larger acidic pool and a smaller alkaline pool during estrogen-induced growth and the reverse during tumor regression.

  17. The challenge of growth hormone deficiency (GHD diagnosis and treatment during the transition from puberty into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eCianfarani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, replacement GH therapy is effective in normalising height during childhood and achieving adult height within the genetic target range. GH has further beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism through adult life. The transition phase, defined as the period from mid to late teens until 6–7 years after the achievement of final height, represents a crucial time for reassessing children’s GH secretion and deciding whether GH therapy should be continued throughout life. Evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD children during transition are lacking. The aim of this review is to critically review the up-to-date evidence on the best management of transition patients in order to ensure the correct definitive diagnosis and establish the appropriate therapeutic regimen.

  18. Longitudinal observation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone in three girls after cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Yasuda, Kie; Tachibana, Makiko; Yoshida, Hisao; Miyashita, Emiko; Miyamura, Takako; Hashii, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Kae; Kimura, Tadashi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-10-01

    Gonadal dysfunction and infertility are major endocrinological late effects among childhood cancer survivors. Chemotherapy and radiation have gonadotoxic effects and diminish the ovarian reserve. The serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve in survivors. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the variations of AMH in evaluating the acute and chronic effects of cancer therapy on the ovary. Three young female patients with different hematological diseases were registered, and their medical records were reviewed. Patient 1 with myelodysplastic syndrome received reduced-intensity hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at 10 yr of age. Breast development and menarche occurred spontaneously after HSCT; however, AMH level became undetectable and gonadotropin did not increase. Patient 2 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had been receiving chemotherapy since 11 yr of age. AMH level became undetectable but increased after chemotherapy and was associated with regular menstruation. Patient 3 with acute myeloid leukemia received chemotherapy at 13 yr of age and myeloablative HSCT at 14 yr of age. AMH level became undetectable after HSCT, and the patient developed amenorrhea. These different patterns in the recovery phase demonstrated that the AMH level immediately after the end of cancer therapy is inappropriate for the evaluation of the ovarian reserve.

  19. Development of a radioimmunoassay for measuring gonadotrophin releasing hormone in patients receiving treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobsby, V.A.; Knapp, M.L.; Mayne, P.D. (Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Westminster, London (UK)); Fink, R.S. (West Middlesex Univ. Hospital, Isleworth (UK)); Osgood, V.M. (Royal Free Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-05-01

    This gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) assay showed good precision, recovery, and parallelism over a wide range of GnRH concentrations with a sensitivity of 15 pg/ml. The assay was compared with a commercially available kit (Buhlmann Laboratories). Although the Buhlmann kit showed acceptable precision, recovery, sensitivity, and correlation with the developed GnRH assay for plasma samples, lack of parallelism of serially diluted plasma and urine samples was consistently observed, together with poor correlation with the developed GnRH assay for urine, suggesting a matrix effect with the Buhlmann kit. The developed assay is suitable for measuring GnRH in samples obtained from patients receiving pulsatile infusions of GnRH. In contrast, the commercially available Buhlmann kit was unsuitable for measuring plasma GnRH as the kit had a top standard of only 160 pg/ml, well below peak plasma concentration. It would not be possible to dilute samples for analysis because of lack of parallelism of diluted samples compared with standards obtained with the Buhlmann assay. (author).

  20. Non-hormonal topical treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy: an up-to-date overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, A; Ewies, A A A

    2013-06-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy-related symptoms exert a negative impact on the quality of life of up to 50% of postmenopausal women. Many of them decline to use topical vaginal estrogen, which is the standard effective therapy, due to the adverse publicity over recent years, and seek for alternatives. Further, there are no safety studies to support the use of topical vaginal estrogen in breast cancer survivors, and it is considered as contraindicated by many health-care professionals. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants as well as regular sexual activity may be helpful to such women. Vaginal moisturizers may have an equivalent efficacy to topical vaginal estrogen and should be offered to women wishing to avoid the use of hormonal therapy. Lubricants are usually used during sexual intercourse to provide temporary relief from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia; however, they have no long-term therapeutic effects. We provide in this systematic review up-to-date information, for women and health-care professionals, about the use, safety and efficacy of the available vaginal moisturizers and lubricants.

  1. Female-specific pruritus from childhood to postmenopause: clinical features, hormonal factors, and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoin, Lauren P; Kwatra, Shawn G; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus in recent years. The purpose of this review was to highlight itch entities in women, and in particular pruritic vulvar dermatoses that women experience among different age groups. Unique temporal shifts may contribute to the etiology of many of these conditions. These changes lead to cyclical changes in the skin's basic composition. Specifically, estrogen receptors have been detected on keratinocytes that respond to rising and falling levels of estrogen. These receptors lead to changes in skin hydration, collagen content, and in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans that form the skin barrier. In addition, hormonal pH changes associated with the menstrual cycle may be an important factor in the aggravation of itch as increasing pH is known to activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2, a well-known itch mediator. Common pruritic conditions in women that will be discussed include atopic and irritant dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, infectious vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, atrophic vulvovaginitis, squamous cell carcinoma, lichen simplex chronicus, and neuropathic itch. We also examine pruritic conditions associated with pregnancy including pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Finally, acceptable and contraindicated antipruritic agents in pregnancy are examined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Growth of functional cranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation after treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Fabián Anibal; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Luna, María Eugenia; Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Cesani, María Florencia; Fucini, María Cecilia; Villanueva, Myriam; Prio, Verónica; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of growth hormone (GH) on catch-up growth of functional facial (splanchnocranial) and neurocranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), sham-operated (SH), IUGR, and IUGR + GH. IUGR was surgically induced and GH was administered between 21 and 60 days of age. Radiographs were obtained at 1, 21, 42, 63, and 84 days of age in order to measure length, width, and height of neurocranium (NL, NW, and NH) and face length, width, and height (FL, FW, and FH). Analysis of variance was performed at 1 day of age and a principal components analysis (PCA) at 84 days of age. Neurocranial and facial volumetric indexes were calculated as NVI = (3)√NL × NW × NH and FVI = (3)√FL × FW × FH, respectively, and adjusted by non-linear regression analysis. On postnatal day 1, there were significant differences between SH and IUGR (P IUGR + GH (P cranial growth. The functional neurocranial and facial components in rats with IUGR presented different recovery strategies through modular behaviour, mainly related to modifications of growth rate as response to GH administration.

  3. Development of a radioimmunoassay for measuring gonadotrophin releasing hormone in patients receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, V A; Knapp, M L; Fink, R S; Osgood, V M; Mayne, P D

    1989-05-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) in plasma and urine using readily available reagents was developed. The GnRH assay showed good precision, recovery, and parallelism over a wide range of GnRH concentrations with a sensitivity of 15 pg/ml. The assay was compared with a commercially available kit (Buhlmann Laboratories). Although the Buhlmann kit showed acceptable precision, recovery, sensitivity, and correlation with the developed GnRH assay for plasma samples, lack of parallelism of serially diluted plasma and urine samples was consistently observed, together with a poor correlation with the developed GnRH assay for urine, suggesting a matrix effect with the Buhlmann kit. The developed assay is suitable for measuring GnRH in samples obtained from patients receiving pulsatile infusions of GnRH. In contrast, the commercially available Buhlmann kit was unsuitable for measuring plasma GnRH as the kit had a top standard of only 160 pg/ml, well below the peak plasma concentration. It would not be possible to dilute samples for analysis because of the lack of parallelism of diluted samples compared with standards obtained with the Buhlmann assay.

  4. Metabolomic profile in hyperthyroid patients before and after antithyroid drug treatment: Correlation with thyroid hormone and TSH concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Cristina; Arisci, Nicolò; Poddighe, Simone; Liggi, Sonia; Mariotti, Stefano; Atzori, Luigi

    2017-12-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) is characterized by an intense metabolic impact which affects the lipid, carbohydrate and amino acids metabolism, with increased resting energy expenditure and thermogenesis. Metabolomics is a new comprehensive technique that allows to capture an instant metabolic picture of an organism, reflecting peculiar molecular and pathophysiological states. The aim of the present prospective study was to identify a distinct metabolomic profile in HT patients using 1 H NMR spectroscopy before and after antithyroid drug treatment. This prospective study included 15 patients (10 female, 5 male) who were newly diagnosed hyperthyroidism. A nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) based analysis was performed on plasma samples from the same patients at diagnosis (HypT 0 ) and when they achieved euthyroidism (HypT 1 ). The case groups were compared with a control group of 26 healthy volunteers (C). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed with Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). PLS-DA identified a distinct metabolic profile between C and untreated hyperthyroid patients (R 2 X 0.638, R 2 Y 0.932, Q 2 0.783). Interestingly, a significant difference was also found between C and euthyroid patients after treatment (R 2 X 0.510, R 2 Y 0.838, Q 2 0.607), while similar cluster emerged comparing HypT 0 vs HypT 1 patients. This study shows that metabolomic profile is deeply influenced by hyperthyroidism and this alteration persists after normalization of thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroid hormone (FT3, FT4) concentration. This suggests that TSH, FT3 and FT4 assays may not be insufficient to detect long lasting peripheral effects of the thyroid hormones action. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and to what extent the evaluation of metabolomics profile may provide relevant information in the clinical management of hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBSCG), in partnership with the Breast International Group (BIG) and the North American Breast Cancer Group, and funded by the U.S. National Cancer ... treatment with tamoxifen plus ovarian function suppression. At five years ... cancer after treatment with exemestane plus ovarian function suppression; ...

  6. Sex hormones and urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B

    2008-11-01

    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  7. The response to growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency in Japan: Comparing three consecutive years of treatment data of The Foundation for Growth Science in Japan between the 1990s and 2000s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isojima, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Yokoya, Susumu; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-09-30

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment for children with GH deficiency (GHD) is effective in improving adult height. To achieve favorable effects, GH treatment before puberty is very important, because prepubertal height gain is highly correlated with total height gain. However, no report has studied the effects by analyzing a nationwide data from recent GHD patients in Japan. We investigated the response to GH treatment using data compiled in the Foundation for Growth Science in Japan, and compared the effects between the 1990s and 2000s using analysis of covariance. We analyzed 534 prepubertal GHD subjects treated in the 2000s with three consecutive years of data from the start and investigated predictive factors for the effects. The cumulative height standard deviation score (SDS) change over three years of GH treatment was 0.91 ± 0.57 and 1.20 ± 0.62 in the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Subjects in the 2000s were divided into three groups by severity, and the cumulative height SDS was 1.60 ± 0.93, 1.20 ± 0.54, and 1.00 ± 0.40 indicating severe, moderate, and mild GHD, respectively. Age and height SDS at the start and severity were identified as independent predictive factors. We also found a significant difference in the effects between the two cohorts after adjusting for the different factors (regression coefficient: -0.069, 95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.030, p = 0.0006), which might be due to the GH dose effect. We conclude that the effects of GH treatment in the 2000s had improved compared with those in the 1990s.

  8. [Hormonal treatments for hemorrhaging secondary to fibroids. An alternative or complement to surgery?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelo Hidalgo, María Jesús

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of treatment in women with uterine fibroids is the control of associated symptoms such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pain and pressure. Although the cost and potential adverse effects of the long-term use of medical treatment may limit its use for a long time, this alternative should be considered before indicating surgical treatment. At present, we have a considerable variety of drugs that, although not specific treatments for fibroids, may be used for the short to medium-term management of bleeding; however, we have still not found an alternative that eliminates the need for invasive treatments. Further research in this field is therefore warranted. Given the heterogeneity of fibroids and the lack of effective treatments in controlling their growth, the identification of signals that stimulate the onset and growth of these fibroids opens doors to the development of new therapies. In the future we may be able to differentiate classes of fibroids by molecular techniques and thereby implement specific treatments that control their development and their associated symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatraemia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamookeeah, Clare; Robinson, Paul; O'Reilly, Karl; Lundberg, Johan; Gisby, Martin; Ländin, Michael; Skov, Jakob; Trueman, David

    2016-05-16

    Tolvaptan is the only vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of hyponatraemia (HN) secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). We have investigated the cost-effectiveness of tolvaptan versus no active treatment (NAT) in adult patients within the licensed indication who have either failed to respond to fluid restriction or for whom the use of fluid restriction is not suitable, from the societal perspective in Sweden. A cost-utility analysis, considering a 'general SIADH' population and two subpopulations of patients (small-cell lung cancer [SCLC] and pneumonia) to broadly represent the complex clinical pathway of SIADH, was performed. A discrete event simulation was developed to model the progression of individuals through inpatient admissions over a 30-day time horizon (180 days for the SCLC cohort). Clinical data were derived from tolvaptan trials and observational data sources. All costs are given in Swedish kronor (SEK). In the 'general SIADH' population, tolvaptan was associated with reduced costs (SEK 5,779 per patient [€624]) and increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (0.0019) compared with NAT and was therefore the dominant treatment strategy. Tolvaptan was also associated with reduced costs and increased QALYs in the SCLC and pneumonia subpopulations. The most influential variables in our analysis were reduction in hospital length of stay, duration of treatment and long term treatment with tolvaptan in SCLC patients. Tolvaptan represents a cost-effective treatment option in Sweden for hospitalised patients with HN secondary to SIADH who have either failed to respond to or are unsuitable for fluid restriction.

  10. Should short children born small for gestational age with a distance to target height growth hormone treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Annemieke J; de Kort, Sandra W K; de Ridder, Maria A J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2010-09-01

    The criteria for starting growth hormone (GH), an approved treatment for short children born small for gestational age (SGA), differ between Europe and the USA. One European requirement for starting GH, a distance to target height (DTH) of > or =1 standard deviation score (SDS), is controversial. To investigate the influence of DTH on growth during GH treatment in short SGA children and to ascertain whether it is correct to exclude children with a DTH children (baseline n = 446; 4 years GH n = 215). We analysed the prepubertal growth response during 4 years of GH. We investigated the influence of the continuous variable DTH SDS on growth response and a possible DTH SDS cut-off level below which point the growth response is insufficient. Height gain SDS during 4 years of GH showed a wide variation at every DTH SDS level. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that, after correction for other significant variables, an additional DTH of 1 SDS resulted in 0.13 SDS more height gain during 4 years of GH. We found no significant differences in height gain below and above certain DTH SDS cut-off levels. DTH SDS had a weak positive effect on height gain during 4 years of GH, while several other determinants had much larger effects. We found no support for using any DTH cut-off level. Based on our data, excluding children with a DTH <1 SDS from GH treatment is not justified.

  11. Evaluation of attention before and after 2 years of growth hormone treatment in intrauterine growth retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Reijden-Lakeman, I E; de Sonneville, L M; Swaab-Barneveld, H J; Slijper, F M; Verhulst, F C

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess attention in children with short stature following intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), at baseline and after 2 years of growth hormone (hGH) treatment. At baseline, all of the children had a birth height and a current height below the third centile. The attention measures (Sonneville Visual Attention Tasks: SVAT) of the IUGR group were compared with those of a comparison sample. In the baseline analyses, 48 children with IUGR and 119 comparison children were included; the 2-year follow-up analyses involved 41 children with IUGR and 68 comparison children. At baseline, children with IUGR showed deficits in divided, focused, and sustained attention. They were less accurate, exhibited more variability in reaction time, and performed more slowly and more impulsively than did the children in the comparison sample. After 2 years of hGH treatment, the IUGR group exhibited deficits in divided and sustained attention. They were still less accurate and showed more variability in reaction time and more impulsiveness. Current head circumference, the type of delivery, and global intelligence of children with IUGR were significantly correlated with attention measures. We hypothesize that short stature following IUGR and attention deficits are related, and that hGH treatment seems to have some beneficial effect on attentional capacity.

  12. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels after laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas as a possible predictor for pregnancy in infertility treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Akira; Nakamura, Tomoko; Kato, Nao; Goto, Maki; Takikawa, Sachiko; Kondo, Mika; Osuka, Satoko; Mori, Masahiko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the associations between preoperative and postoperative serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and parameters of endometriosis and endometriomas surgery with the success of infertility treatments after cystectomy. Seventeen out of 54 patients got pregnant during the infertility treatments. In these patients, the median interval from surgery to conception was 16.3 months. The serum AMH levels 1-year postoperatively were significantly higher in the pregnant group compared to the non-pregnant group (3.44 ± 1.78 versus 2.17 ± 2.24 ng/ml, p = 0.049). The median interval from surgery to recurrence was 34.4 months, and no significant differences were found in the serum AMH levels at any time point between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups. Serum AMH levels 1 year after laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas may predict the success of postoperative infertility treatments, but not a recurrence of endometriomas.

  13. Investigation of herb-drug interactions with ginkgo biloba in women receiving hormonal treatment for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardy, Janette; Dhillon, Haryana M; Clarke, Stephen J; Olesen, Inger; Leslie, Felicity; Warby, Anne; Beith, Jane; Sullivan, Anne; Hamilton, Anne; Beale, Philip; Rittau, Anneliese; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2013-12-01

    Women receiving treatment for breast cancer commonly ingest herbal medicines. Little is known about the potential for herb-drug interactions in this population. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ginkgo biloba co-administration on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole and letrozole. This was a prospective open-label cross-over study in 60 women with early stage breast cancer taking either tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole (n=20/group). Participants received ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) for 3 weeks (120 mg twice daily). Trough concentrations of drugs were measured before and after ginkgo biloba treatment using LC-MS/MS. Toxicities were graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Trough concentrations before and after treatment with ginkgo biloba were not significantly different for tamoxifen (93.5 ± 29.0, 86.5 ± 25.3 ng/mL; p=0.16), letrozole (91.1 ± 50.4, 89.6 ± 52.14 ng/mL; p=0.60) or anastrozole (29.1 ± 8.6, 29.1 ± 7.6 ng/mL; p=0.97). Ginkgo biloba was well tolerated, with no difference in toxicity during ginkgo biloba. Co-administration of ginkgo biloba does not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen, anastrozole or letrozole. There was no difference in the toxicity profile of hormone therapy with ginkgo biloba use in women with early stage breast cancer.

  14. Challenges in the treatment of hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer with brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minetta C; Cortés, Javier; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2016-06-01

    Brain metastases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer, yet little is known about the optimal treatment of brain disease in this group of patients. Although these patients are at lower risk for brain metastases relative to those with HER2-positive and triple-negative disease, they comprise the majority of women diagnosed with breast cancer. Surgery and radiation continue to have a role in the treatment of brain metastases, but there is a dearth of effective systemic therapies due to the poor penetrability of many systemic drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, patients with brain metastases have long been excluded from clinical trials, and few studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of systemic therapies specifically for the treatment of HER2-negative breast cancer brain metastases. New approaches are on the horizon, such as nanoparticle-based cytotoxic drugs that have the potential to cross the BBB and provide clinically meaningful benefits to patients with this life-threatening consequence of HR-positive breast cancer.

  15. Treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist before hysterectomy for leiomyomas: results of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellini, P; Crosignani, P G; Mangioni, C; Imparato, E; Ferrari, A; De Giorgi, O

    1998-11-01

    To ascertain whether uterine shrinkage induced by a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist before hysterectomy for fibroids increases the possibility of a vaginal procedure. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled study. One hundred and twenty-seven premenopausal women with a uterine volume of 12 to 16 gestational weeks. Twelve weeks of triptorelin depot treatment before hysterectomy or immediate surgery. Number of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomies, operating time, blood loss, degree of difficulty of the procedure, perioperative serum haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, hospital stay, and patients' overall satisfaction with treatment. After randomisation, four women withdrew from the study, leaving 60 women in the triptorelin arm and 63 in the immediate surgery arm. At baseline evaluation a vaginal hysterectomy was indicated in seven women allocated to pre-operative medical therapy (12%), and in 10 of those allocated to immediate surgery (16%). Clinical assessment after the 12-week GnRH agonist course showed that abdominal hysterectomy was no longer indicated in 25/53 women (47%) as a vaginal procedure appeared appropriate. Thus the overall rate of indication for a vaginal procedure in the pre-operative medical treatment arm was 32/60 cases (53%), with a between-group difference of 37% (95% CI, 26% to 51%; chi2(1) = 19.18, P fibroids and uterine volume of 12 to 16 gestational weeks.

  16. Commissioning of modulator-based IMRT with XiO treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguchi, Hiroshi; Obata, Yasunori

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the procedures for correction of the modulator thickness and commissioning of the XiO treatment planning system (TPS) for modulator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (M-IMRT). This modulator manufacturing system adopts a method in which the modulator is milled using a floor-type computer-aided numerical control milling machine (CNC-mill) with modulator data calculated by XiO TPS. XiO TPS uses only effective attenuation coefficients (EAC) for modulator thickness calculation. This article describes a modified method for assessing modulator thickness. A two-dimensional linear attenuation array was used to correct the modulator thickness calculated by XiO. Narrow-beam geometry was used for measuring the linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) at off-axis positions (OAP) for varying brass thicknesses. An equation for the two-dimensional LAC ratio (2D-LACR) can be used to calculate the corrected modulator thickness. It is assumed that the broad beam EAC of a small field varies with the brass thickness and the OAP distance in the same way as that of LACR, so the two-dimensional EAC (2D-EAC) is equal to the EAC corrected using the LACR. The dose distribution was evaluated for three geometric patterns and one clinical case on low energy x ray (4 MV) with a large field size (20 x 20 cm2). The results using the proposed correction method of modulator thickness showed a good agreement between the measured dose distributions and the dose distributions calculated by TPS with the correction. Hence, the method is effective to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT in XiO TPS. An important problem for the brass modulator is the milling condition, such as the drill diameter and the cutting pitch size. It is necessary to improve the accuracy of M-IMRT for the "softening" and "hardening" effects of the beam to be considered in dose calculation in patients and the modulator profile design.

  17. Modulation of frequency doubled DFB-tapered diode lasers for medical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathias; Hansen, Anders K.; Noordegraaf, Danny; Jensen, Ole B.; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2017-02-01

    The use of visible lasers for medical treatments is on the rise, and together with this comes higher expectations for the laser systems. For many medical treatments, such as ophthalmology, doctors require pulse on demand operation together with a complete extinction of the light between pulses. We have demonstrated power modulation from 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz at 532 nm with a modulation depth above 97% by wavelength detuning of the laser diode. The laser diode is a 1064 nm monolithic device with a distributed feedback (DFB) laser as the master oscillator (MO), and a tapered power amplifier (PA). The MO and PA have separate electrical contacts and the modulation is achieved with wavelength tuning by adjusting the current through the MO 40 mA.

  18. Hypo fractionated prostate treatment by volumearcotherapy modulated; Tratamiento hipofraccionado de prostata mediante arcoterapia volumetria modulada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Perez Vara, C.; Prieto Villacorta, M.

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have been proposed over the years schemes of hypo-fractionated treatment for prostate cancer. Such schemes have been designed in order to increase local control of the disease and reduce complications. They are in addition a clear improvement from the point of view logistical and organizational for treatment centres and the patient. the hypo-fractionated treatments are possible because the ratio a/b for prostate carcinoma is comparable, and even below, the surrounding healthy tissues. This work presents the scheme adopted in our Center for the hypo-fractionated treatment of the cancer of prostate by arco therapy volumetric modulated. (Author)

  19. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars; de Bruijn, Adrianus; Schierbeek, Henk; Boye, Mette; Boehm, Günther; Renes, Ingrid; van Goudoever, Johannes; Burrin, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously

  20. Changes of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 following hormonal treatment for metastatic prostate cancer are related to survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Brasso, Klaus; Iversen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) at the time of diagnosis are associated to poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the value of these biomarkers in monitoring the patients during hormonal treatment....

  1. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.; Vieno, N.M.; Kujawa, K.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical

  2. Dlk1/FA1 Is a Novel Endocrine Regulator of Bone and Fat Mass and Its Serum Level Is Modulated By Growth Hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B.M.; Ding, M.; Jensen, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    modulation of serum FA1 by GH. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) did not change in FA1-mice, while increasing serum GH in normal mice using HGTP, dramatically reduced serum FA1 levels by 60%. On the other hand, serum FA1 was increased 450......% in hypophysectomized mice and this high level was reduced by 40% during GH treatment. In conclusion, our data identify the FA1 as a novel endocrine factor regulating bone mass and fat mass in vivo and its serum levels are regulated by GH. FA1 thus, provides a novel class of developmental molecules that regulate...

  3. Final height after gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist treatment for central precocious puberty : The Dutch experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, D; Oostdijk, W; Otten, BJ; Rouwe, C; Jansen, M; Delemarre-van de Waal, HA; Waelkens, JJJ; Drop, SLS

    Final height (FH) data of 96 children (87 girls) treated with GnRH agonist for central precocious puberty were studied. In girls mean FH exceeded initial height prediction by 7.4 (5.7) cm (p <0.001); FH was significantly lower than target height, but still in the genetic target range. When treatment

  4. Pioglitazone treatment increases spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and stimulated GH levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Støving, René Klinkby; Hagen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    treatment. Before and after intervention, levels of fasting insulin, GH, total IGF-I, free IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1, IGF-II, free fatty acids, testosterone, and SHBG were measured. Patients underwent whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry scans, pyridostigmine-GHRH tests, and 24-h 20-min integrated blood...

  5. Follicle size and reproductive hormone profiles during a post-weaning altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.J.J.; Martens, M.R.T.M.; Jourquin, J.; Draincourt, M.A.; Wagner, A.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the endocrine background of follicle size changes during post-weaning altrenogest treatment. altrenogest-treated sows received a 20-mg dosage daily at 8.00 a.m. from Day –1 to Day 14 after weaning. On Day –1, only 3/13 altrenogest-treated sows showed LH pulses compared with

  6. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  7. Growth hormone (GH) treatment reverses early atherosclerotic changes in GH-deficient adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, M; Verhovec, R; Zizek, B; Prezelj, J; Poredos, P; Clayton, R N

    1999-02-01

    Hypopituitary patients have increased mortality from vascular disease, and in these patients, early markers of atherosclerosis [increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and reduced distensibility] are more prevalent. As GH replacement can reverse some risk factors of atherosclerosis, the present study examined the effect of GH treatment on morphological and functional changes in the carotid and brachial arteries of GH-deficient (GHD) adults. Eleven GHD hypopituitary men (24-49 yr old) were treated with recombinant human GH (0.018 U/kg BW x day) for 18 months. IMT of the common carotid artery (CCA) and the carotid bifurcation (CB), and flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) of the brachial artery were measured by B mode ultrasound before and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months of treatment, and values were compared with those in 12 age-matched control men. Serum concentrations of lipids, lipoprotein(a), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were also measured. In GHD men before treatment the IMTs of the CCA [mean(SD), 0.67(0.05) mm] and CB [0.75(0.04) mm] were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those in control men [0.52(0.07) and 0.65(0.07) mm, respectively]. GH treatment normalized the IMT of the CCA by 6 months [0.53(0.04) mm] and that of the CB by 3 months [0.68(0.05) mm]. The IMT of the carotid artery (CCA and CB) was negatively correlated with serum IGF-I (r = -0.53; P < 0.0001). There was a significant improvement in flow-mediated EDD of the brachial artery at 3 months, which was sustained at 6 and 18 months of GH treatment (P < 0.05). GH treatment increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol at 3 and 6 months, but did not reduce total or low density lipoprotein cholesterol and was without effect on lipoprotein(a). There was no correlation between plasma lipids and changes in IMT or EDD of the arteries examined. In conclusion, GH treatment of hypopituitary GHD men reverses early morphological and

  8. Sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome depending on the period of growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecka-Ambroziak, Agnieszka; Jędrzejczak, Małgorzata; Wysocka-Mincewicz, Marta; Szalecki, Mieczysław

    2017-10-12

    Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are commonly present in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment is reported to improve breathing function in PWS, but the findings are not explicit. Screening polysomnography- polygraphy (PSG), assessing nasal respiratory flow, respiratory effort, and blood oxygen saturation, was used. Group 1 - before rhGH therapy (n = 11, mean age 3.0 years); PSG was repeated after the start of rhGH therapy in a mean time of 0.9 years in six patients (Group 1a). Group 2 - on rhGH treatment, for a mean time of four years (n = 17, mean age 8.8 years). Group 3 - without rhGH therapy due to severe obesity (n = 8, mean age 13.1 years). Group 1 - mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was 10.2, oxygen desaturation index (ODI)- 36.3, Group 1a- AHI 12.0, ODI 60.9, Group 2-AHI 9.0, ODI 25.1, Group 3- AHI 8.2, ODI 22.0. ODI was significantly higher in Group 1a than in the other groups (p < 0.005), but not strictly related to SRBD. The results in Group 2 did not differ significantly from those of Group 1. Our study proves the high frequency of SRBD among PWS patients, with worsening of ODI after short-term rhGH therapy.

  9. [Observational survey of the French Urological Association evaluating intermittent hormonal modalities treatment in prostate cancer in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, L; Ploussard, G; Coloby, P; Kouri, G; Lebret, T; Méjean, A; Prunet, D; Soulié, M

    2014-05-01

    To assess clinical practice of intermittent hormone therapy (IHT) among urologists members of the French Association of Urology. Internet-based observational survey evaluating IHT modalities in prostate cancer using questionnaire sent to 941 urologists. Two hundred and sixty nine urologists participated in the survey (response rate 28.6 %) including 90.3 % prescribing IHT. The main reasons for IHT were improvement of quality of life in 94.2 %, clinical tolerance in 73.7 %, decreased costs and oncological equivalence in 44 %. The indications were localized prostate cancer (low risk 22.6 %, intermediate 19.8 %, high 14 %), locally advanced (59.7 %), metastatic (63.4 %), biochemical recurrence after local treatment (prostatectomy 62.1 %, radiotherapy 73.7 %). A PSA France. Even in the absence of level of evidence 1 trials in the literature, most urologists used IHT in their clinical practice, for many indications, especially in case of biochemical recurrence after local treatment. 3. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of endometriosis with a delayed release preparation of the agonist D-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone: long-term follow-up in a series of 50 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, J R; Mathieson, J; Risquez, F; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1990-03-01

    Fifty patients with proven endometriosis were treated for 6 to 9 months with a delayed release preparation of microcapsules of the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist D-Trp6-LH-RH, injected intramuscularly at monthly intervals. After a transitory ovarian stimulation at the onset of treatment, serum estradiol was suppressed to menopausal levels (50 pg/mL). This state of hypogonadism was reversible after the discontinuation of treatment, and menses resumed within 4 months after the last injection. Pelvic pain was relieved during treatment in 87.5% of patients. After a follow-up period of up to 37 months, 24 patients are in clinical remission and 9 experienced recurrence of endometriosis 7 to 14 months after completing treatment. One patient failed to respond to therapy with the agonist and 7 patients were lost to follow-up. Among 16 previously infertile patients with no other factors contributing to infertility, 7 became pregnant; 2 of these pregnancies were the result of gamete intrafallopian transfers. An eighth patient without documented infertility also conceived spontaneously. Side effects due to hypoestrogenism were reported by nearly all patients. In conclusion, D-Trp6-LH-RH microcapsules are effective and easily-administered agents for the treatment of endometriosis.

  11. In-vitro/in-vivo studies of the biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres of a novel luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist for prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lina; Mei, Xingguo; Wang, Chenyun; Li, Xin; Zhang, Fucheng; Jin, Yiguang

    2011-03-01

    The introduction of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs and their antagonists is revolutionizing the treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, poly(D,L-lactideco-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres containing a highly potent LHRH antagonist (LXT-101) of interest in the indication of prostate cancer were evaluated on release mechanisms in vitro and biological performance in vivo. LXT-101 microspheres were prepared by the water/oil/water double emulsion method and the solid/oil/oil method. The results showed that the mechanism of LXT-101 releasing from PLGA 14,000 microspheres was the cooperation of drug diffusion and polymer degradation. This clarified the relationship between the microsphere characterization and hormone level in vivo. The larger microspheres (33 μm) could inhibit the testosterone level to castration for a longer time (35 days) than the smaller microspheres (15 μm, 14 days). The formulation containing the hydrophilic additive (polyethylene glycol 6000) could suppress the testosterone level to castration for a longer time (> 35 days) than the formulation without polyethylene glycol (14 days). The appearance of testis, vesicular seminalis, and prostates changed after treatment. The weights of sexual organs decreased significantly. The in-vivo release of the LXT-101 PLGA 14,000 microspheres curve showed that in-vivo release started immediately after day 1 (22.7%) and was rapid during the first 5 days (40.2% release). The LXT-101 microspheres could be a promising drug delivery system candidate to treat sex hormone-dependent tumors and other related disorders.

  12. Fasting levels of growth hormone are associated with carotid intima media thickness but are not affected by fluvastatin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallengren, Erik; Almgren, Peter; Rosvall, Maria; Östling, Gerd; Persson, Margaretha; Bergmann, Andreas; Struck, Joachim; Engström, Gunnar; Hedblad, Bo; Melander, Olle

    2017-05-16

    Growth hormone (GH) has been linked to cardiovascular disease but the exact mechanism of this association is still unclear. We here test if the fasting levels of GH are cross-sectionally associated with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and whether treatment with fluvastatin affects the fasting level of GH. We examined the association between GH and IMT in 4425 individuals (aged 46-68 years) included in the baseline examination (1991-1994) of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CC). From that cohort we then studied 472 individuals (aged 50-70 years) who also participated (1994-1999) in the β-Blocker Cholesterol-Lowering Asymptomatic Plaque Study (BCAPS), a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, single-center clinical trial. Using multivariate linear regression models we related the change in GH-levels at 12 months compared with baseline to treatment with 40 mg fluvastatin once daily. In MDC-CC fasting values of GH exhibited a positive cross-sectional relation to the IMT at the carotid bulb independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (p = 0.002). In a gender-stratified analysis the correlation were significant for males (p = 0.005), but not for females (p = 0.09). Treatment with fluvastatin was associated with a minor reduction in the fasting levels of hs-GH in males (p = 0.05) and a minor rise in the same levels among females (p = 0.05). We here demonstrate that higher fasting levels of GH are associated with thicker IMT in the carotid bulb in males. Treatment with fluvastatin for 12 months only had a minor, and probably not clinically relevant, effect on the fasting levels of hs-GH.

  13. Gene expression markers in circulating tumor cells may predict bone metastasis and response to hormonal treatment in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Molina, Julian; Jiang, John; Ferber, Matthew; Pruthi, Sandhya; Jatkoe, Timothy; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Yixin

    2013-11-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have recently attracted attention due to their potential as prognostic and predictive markers for the clinical management of metastatic breast cancer patients. The isolation of CTCs from patients may enable the molecular characterization of these cells, which may help establish a minimally invasive assay for the prediction of metastasis and further optimization of treatment. Molecular markers of proven clinical value may therefore be useful in predicting disease aggressiveness and response to treatment. In our earlier study, we identified a gene signature in breast cancer that appears to be significantly associated with bone metastasis. Among the genes that constitute this signature, trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) was identified as the most differentially expressed gene associated with bone metastasis. In this study, we investigated 25 candidate gene markers in the CTCs of metastatic breast cancer patients with different metastatic sites. The panel of the 25 markers was investigated in 80 baseline samples (first blood draw of CTCs) and 30 follow-up samples. In addition, 40 healthy blood donors (HBDs) were analyzed as controls. The assay was performed using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with RNA extracted from CTCs captured by the CellSearch system. Our study indicated that 12 of the genes were uniquely expressed in CTCs and 10 were highly expressed in the CTCs obtained from patients compared to those obtained from HBDs. Among these genes, the expression of keratin 19 was highly correlated with the CTC count. The TFF1 expression in CTCs was a strong predictor of bone metastasis and the patients with a high expression of estrogen receptor β in CTCs exhibited a better response to hormonal treatment. Molecular characterization of these genes in CTCs may provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tumor metastasis and identify gene markers in CTCs for predicting disease progression and

  14. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients. [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s being treated. Results: The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16. Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day. All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8; four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity.

  15. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  16. ORGAN EXTRACTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHIATRY: HORMONAL TREATMENTS AT THE MAUDSLEY HOSPITAL 1923–1938

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie; Jones, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    The use of organ extracts to treat psychiatric disorder in the interwar period is an episode in the history of psychiatry which has largely been forgotten. An analysis of case-notes from The Maudsley Hospital from the period 1923–1938 shows that the prescription of extracts taken from animal testes, ovaries, thyroids, and other organs was widespread within this London Hospital. This article explores the way in which Maudsley doctors justified these treatments by tying together psychological theories of the unconscious with experimental data drawn from laboratory studies of human organs. It explores the logic behind these treatments and examines beliefs about their efficacy. The connection between this historical episode and current research in endocrinology and psychology is explored. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22644956

  17. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.

    1998-01-01

    weight was constant (P balance in the GH-treated patients compared to the placebo group (GH: 3.6 +/- 0.7 l; plc: -0.7 +/- 1.2 l, P ... at day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body.......39 +/- 0.08 l during placebo administration (P = 0.03). Intracellular volume (ICV) decreased less during GH than during placebo (GH: -1.42 +/- 0.45; plc: -3.70 +/- 0.76; P = 0.02). Bioimpedance remained constant during GH administration and increased 60 +/- 9 ohm in the placebo-treated group (P

  18. Oocyte retrieval timing based on spontaneous luteinizing hormone surge during natural cycle in vitro fertilization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodri, Daniel; Kawachiya, Satoshi; Kondo, Masae; Kato, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Tsunekazu

    2014-04-01

    To determine the efficiency of oocyte retrieval (OR) timing based on the occurrence of spontaneous LH surge during natural cycle IVF (ncIVF) treatment. Retrospective cohort study. The cohort was divided into five subgroups according to the presumed stage of spontaneous LH surge on scheduling day (1A: before onset; 1B: surge start; 2: ascending slope; 3: peak; and 4: descending slope). Private infertility clinic. Three hundred sixty-five infertile patients who underwent 1,138 ncIVF treatment cycles during 2008-2011. Drug-free ncIVF treatment. Rate of successfully retrieved, fertilized oocytes, cleaved embryos, and live births per scheduled oocyte retrieval. In 61% of the cycles OR was scheduled before or just at the start of the LH surge (groups 1A-1B), whereas in the remaining cases it was scheduled after the surge had already started (groups 2-4). The proportion of cycles with successfully recovered (range, 71%-86%), inseminated (range, 61%-78%), fertilized oocytes (range, 47%-68%), cleaved embryos (range, 45%-66%), and live births (range, 4.1%-9.2%) was not significantly different among subgroups. In ncIVF treatment OR timing based on the occurrence of spontaneous LH surge is feasible, yielding acceptable oocyte recovery, fertilization, and embryo cleavage rates. This strategy combined with a rapid and low-risk OR procedure permits the management of a large ncIVF program on a 7-days-per-week basis within working hours. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pre-treatment radiotherapy dose verification using Monte Carlo doselet modulation in a spherical phantom

    CERN Document Server

    Townson, Reid W

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, accurate dose verification has become an essential part of the clinical treatment process. The purpose of this work was to develop an electronic portal image (EPI) based pre-treatment verification technique capable of quickly reconstructing 3D dose distributions from both coplanar and non-coplanar treatments. The dose reconstruction is performed in a spherical water phantom by modulating, based on EPID measurements, pre-calculated Monte Carlo (MC) doselets defined on a spherical coordinate system. This is called the spherical doselet modulation (SDM) method. This technique essentially eliminates the statistical uncertainty of the MC dose calculations by exploiting both azimuthal symmetry in a patient-independent phase-space and symmetry of a virtual spherical water phantom. The symmetry also allows the number of doselets necessary for dose reconstruction to be reduced by a factor of about 250. In this work, 51 doselets were used. The SDM method mitiga...

  20. Impairment of Host Liver Repopulation by Transplanted Hepatocytes in Aged Rats and the Release by Short-Term Growth Hormone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Peggy; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Staege, Martin S; Hsu, Mei-Ju; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Christ, Bruno

    2017-03-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is an alternative to whole liver transplantation. Yet, efficient liver repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes is low in livers of old animals. This restraint might be because of the poor proliferative capacity of aged donor hepatocytes or the regenerative impairment of the recipient livers. The age-dependent liver repopulation by transplanted wild-type hepatocytes was investigated in juvenile and senescent rats deficient in dipeptidyl-peptidase IV. Repopulation was quantified by flow cytometry and histochemical estimation of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV enzyme activity of donor cells in the negative host liver. As a potential pathway involved, expression of cell cycle proteins was assessed. Irrespective of the age of the donor hepatocytes, large cell clusters appeared in juvenile, but only small clusters in senescent host livers. Because juvenile and senescent donor hepatocytes were likewise functional, host-derived factor(s) impaired senescent host liver repopulation. Growth hormone levels were significantly higher in juvenile than in senescent rats, suggesting that growth hormone might promote host liver repopulation. Indeed, short-term treatment with growth hormone augmented senescent host liver repopulation involving the growth hormone-mediated release of the transcriptional blockade of genes associated with cell cycle progression. Short-term growth hormone substitution might improve liver repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes, thus augmenting the therapeutic benefit of clinical hepatocyte transplantation in older patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A long-term follow-up study of mortality in transsexuals receiving treatment with cross-sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscheman, H.; Giltay, E.J.; Megens, J.A.J.; de Ronde, W.; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adverse effects of long-term cross-sex hormone administration to transsexuals are not well documented. We assessed mortality rates in transsexual subjects receiving long-term cross-sex hormones. Design: A cohort study with a median follow-up of 18.5 years at a university gender clinic.

  2. Efficacy and safety results of long-term growth hormone treatment of idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen F; Kuntze, Joyce; Attie, Kenneth M; Maneatis, Thomas; Butler, S; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Small clinical trials of GH treatment of idiopathic short stature (ISS) show variable efficacy. The study was an analysis of a large GH registry for efficacy and safety of GH treatment of ISS. There was also a comparison with a specific clinical trial. Up to 7 yr of GH treatment of ISS was evaluated for efficacy and safety in the National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS). The NCGS study was conducted at Genentech, Inc. and included 47,226 patients. The ISS group included maximum stimulated GH 10 ng/ml or more and/or a report of ISS by investigator (n = 8018; all included for safety). Cohort 1 (n = 2520) was similar to the clinical trial, cohort 2 (n = 283) included subjects younger than 5 yr of age, and cohort 3 (n = 940) was pubertal at GH start. GH, approximately 0.30 mg/kg.wk, was given. These included growth velocities and height sd (HtSDS). Mean first-year growth velocities in cohorts 1, 2, and 3 increased 4.6, 3.9, and 4.4 cm/yr over pretreatment, respectively. Measures included: baseline mean HtSDS, -2.9, -3.2, and -2.8; mean HtSDS at 1 yr, -2.4, -2.3, and -2.3, respectively. Mean HtSDS after 7 yr in cohorts 1 (n = 303) and 2 (n = 85) and 5 yr in cohort 3 (n = 58) were: -1.2, -1.0, and -1.5, respectively. Cohort 3 shorter treatment time was due to advanced baseline age (mean 13.8 yr) and puberty. Mean HtSDS gain in cohort 1 was comparable with the clinical trial. No new safety signals specific to the NCGS ISS population were observed. ISS patients in the GH registry demonstrate a significant increase in HtSDS with the safety profile similar to GH-deficient patients. RESULTS were similar to the clinical trial.

  3. [Hormonal contraception and benign breast disease. Evaluation of a treatment protocol for chronic mastopathy with mastalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, M

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to study patients suffering from mammary nodules, fibrocystic disease and mastodynia. Having established the absence of malignant disease, the effect of EP (oestroprogestin) was evaluated in the treatment of fibrocystic disease with mastalgia. From January 1990 to December 1995 a total of 1921 women underwent breast examination at the "Centro di Fisiopatologia della Mammella" in the Division of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Iseo Municipal Hospital. Subjects were aged between 9 and 84 years old. The experimental protocol included a retrospective study of a group of 89 patients suffering from chronic fibrocystic disease with mastalgia with a 3-month follow-up. The clinical examination was commenced by recording the patient's history and the measurement of the thickness of the gland and the evaluation of mastalgia represented important stages of the eco-clinical assessment. The setting for the study was the breast pathology out-patient clinic of the Division of Gynecology and Obstetrics. These women regularly attended our outpatient clinics for the following reasons: depistage, mastodynia, mammary secretion, self-diagnosis of mammary nodules, checkups in patients during follow-up after surgery for genital neoplasia. All patients underwent clinical, echographic and often mammography/X-ray. Patients were selected on the basis of the following criteria: absence of malignant pathology and presence of chronic fibrocystic disease with mastalgia. Of those admitted to the study (no. = 89), only 59 completed the course. In addition to the absence of malignant pathology and the presence of chronic fibrocystic disease with mastalgia, the following parameters were assessed: measurement of the thickness of the mammary gland involving QSE before and after 3-month treatment with EP. The EP used were: gestodene 0.075 mg and etynylestradiol 0.03 mg-Minulet, or etynylestradiol 0.02 mg and dexogestrel 0.150 mg-Securgin and Mercilon. The response to treatment was

  4. Treatment of Hormone Resistance with Docetaxel in Metastatic Prostate Cancer Patients: Results of a Clinical Experience at Omid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tajvidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metastatic prostate cancer is one of the most important cancers among men worldwide. Androgen ablation therapy can be used in treatment of these patients; however, most will progress to metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. In this regard, docetaxel has been approved to treat metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the results of this treatment modality in metastatic prostate cancer patients from Iran. Methods:We evaluated PSA response and bone pain relief in 18 metastatic prostate cancer patients who underwent treatment with docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg/m2 intravenously on the first day of treatment. The treatment was repeated every three weeks (6 cycles along with 10 mg of prednisolone. Results: Of 18 patients, 39% had >50% decline in PSA levels.There were 16% of the patients with a PSA decline of approximately 30% to 50% of the pre-treatment levels. In addition, 29% of the patients had progressive PSA levels during chemotherapy. Among them, 55% had significant pain relief. Conclusion: This research showed the effectiveness of docetaxel to decrease PSA levels in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients from Iran. Docetaxel was also valuable in alleviation of pain in these patients. However, prospective studies should validate this approach.

  5. Outcome of synthetic adrenocorticotropin hormone treatment in children with infantile spasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Made Suwarba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Infantile spasms (IS is an age-spedfic epilepsy syndrome characterized by flexor, extensor, and mixed flexor-extensor spasms which often occur in clusters during the first 2 years of life. IS is often difficult to manage 'With the usual anti-epilepsy drugs (AEDs. Therapy with adrenocorticotropin honnone (ACTH has been used since 1958. In Indonesia, ACTH usage is still rare. Objective This study aims to examine the effectiveness of ACTH as an anti-epileptic drug in managing IS. Methods This was descriptive retrospective cohort study. Subjects were IS patients who visited the neurology outpatient clinic in Sanglah Hospital, Bali, from January 2007 until June 2010. Each subject received AED(s plus either ACTH or methylprednisolone for 46 weeks. Results There were 19 IS patients over the four year duration of this study. They were mostly boys (11, aged 2 weeks to 17 months, with a mean age at treatment of 9 months. Eighteen patients received poly therapy, while one patient received only phenobarbital as monotherapy. Most patients who received ACTH (13/16 had a seizure-free period, while the 3 that did not receive ACTH continued having seizures. Patients who received ACTH showed a good response (seizure-free after 5-13 days therapy and their EEG pattern showed disappearance of burst suppression Mthin 1-2 weeks. ACTH side effects included weight gain and cushingoid appearance. One patient died from pneumonia. Conclusions Diagnosis of IS should be considered in patients pre-senting Mth spasms at less than 6 months old. IS treatment should begin as soon as possible. IS patients responded well to a short course of ACTH therapy.

  6. Weekly docetaxel and vinorelbine (VIN-DOX) as first line treatment in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Pizza, Carmine; Autorino, Riccardo; De Laurentiis, Michele; Marano, Ombretta; D'Alessio, Adele; Cancello, Giuseppe; Altieri, Vincenzo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Perdonà, Sisto; Bianco, Angelo Raffaele; De Placido, Sabino

    2004-12-01

    The current study investigated the clinical benefit, the impact on biochemical and objective response and tolerability of weekly docetaxel with vinorelbine (VIN-DOX) in symptomatic patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Patients were treated with docetaxel 25 mg/m2 and vinorelbine 20 mg/m2, intravenously for 6 consecutive weeks followed by a 2 week rest repeatedly until disease progression. Clinical benefit evaluations, based on Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and pain measure, were assessed weekly during therapy. A clinical benefit response was defined as a sustained (> or =4 weeks) improvements in one of these parameters. Changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, tumoral response and toxicity also were evaluated. 19 men (median age 68 years), were treated. Overall, 42% of patients achieved a KPS significant change and positive pain response; 47% achieved a 50% or greater reduction in PSA. The objective response rate was observed in 2 of 9 patients with measurable disease (22%). The most important toxicity was neutropenia (Grade 3 = 32%). The combination of weekly VIN-DOX appears to be feasible. VIN-DOX was found to be associated with improvement in clinical benefit response and biochemical response and well tolerated as first line treatment in HRPC.

  7. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueai Lin

    Full Text Available The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG, phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins, and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1α, tubulin beta (β-TUB, cyclophilin (CYP, and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, GLU1(beta-glucosidase, and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9 were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1α, β-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types.

  8. Corticotropin-releasing hormone expression in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy after ursodeoxycholic acid treatment: an initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Mao Mao; Liu, Zheng Fei; Gao, Bing Xin; Wang, Xiao Dong

    2014-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is one of the most potent vasodilatory factors in the human feto-placental circulation. The expression of CRH was significantly down-regulated in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). One hundred pregnant women diagnosed with ICP at 34-34(+6) weeks of gestation agreed to participate in this prospective nested case-control study. Thirty ICP patients were finally recruited in this study, with 16 cases in the ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) group (UDCA 750 mg/d) and 14 cases in the control group (Transmetil 1000 mg/d or Essentiale 1368 mg/d). Maternal serum samples were obtained in diagnosis and at 37-37(+6) weeks of gestation. Placental tissues were obtained from participants after delivery. ELISA, enzymatic colorimetric and Western blotting were used to evaluate the concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bile acid (TBA) and CRH in maternal serum and expression of CRH in placenta tissues. The UDCA group had greater reduction in maternal serum ALT, AST and TBA levels in ICP patients (all p cholestasis (TBA ≥ 40 µmol/L). Further studies are warranted in different gestational weeks and TBA levels to provide more evidence for the correlation between UDCA treatment and CRH expression in ICP patients.

  9. RXR agonist modulates TR: corepressor dissociation upon 9-cis retinoic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattori, Juliana; Campos, Jéssica L O; Doratioto, Tábata R; Assis, Lucas M; Vitorino, Mariela T; Polikarpov, Igor; Xavier-Neto, José; Figueira, Ana Carolina M

    2015-02-01

    Transcriptional regulation controlled by thyroid hormone receptor (TR) drives events such as development, differentiation, and metabolism. TRs may act either as homodimers or as heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR). Thyroid hormone T3 preferentially binds TR-RXR heterodimers, which activate transcription through coactivator recruitment. However, it is unclear whether TR-RXR heterodimers may also be responsive to the canonical RXR agonist 9-cis retinoic acid (9C) in the context of physiological gene regulation. New structural studies suggest that 9C promotes the displacement of bound coactivators from the heterodimer, modifying TR-RXR activity. To shed light on the molecular mechanisms that control TR-RXR function, we used biophysical approaches to characterize coregulator recruitment to TR-TR or to TR-RXR in the presence of T3 and/or 9C as well as cell-based assays to establish the functional significance of biophysical findings. Using cell-based and fluorescence assays with mutant and wild-type TR, we show that 9C does indeed have a function in the TR-RXR heterodimer context, in which it induces the release of corepressors. Furthermore, we show that 9C does not promote detectable conformational changes in the structure of the TR-RXR heterodimer and does not affect coactivator recruitment. Finally, our data support the view that DNA binding domain and Hinge regions are important to set up NR-coactivator binding interfaces. In summary, we showed that the RXR agonist 9C can regulate TR function through its modulation of corepressor dissociation.

  10. [Peroperative parathyroid hormone assay: assurance of successful surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, P C; Thijssen, J H; Borel Rinkes, I H; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1999-04-03

    To study the reliability and applicability of a rapid parathormone (PTH) test as predictor of successful surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. Prospective. All 35 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism in the University Hospital Utrecht, the Netherlands, in august 1997-august 1998, were tested just prior to surgery, and immediately following adenomectomy. The rapid PTH test consisted of a modification of the computerized immunometric detection by chemoluminescence. The decrease of serum PTH as estimated with the rapid test was correlated with surgical findings as well as postoperative serum calcium levels. In the first 25 patients (group A) the reliability of the test was investigated. In the next 10 patients (group B) the PTH test results were allowed to have implications for surgical management, i.e. an insufficient (postoperative serum calcium levels. In group A 21/25 patients showed adequate (> 50%) decrease of their serum PTH levels; the 4 patients without such decrease were the ones displaying persistent postoperative hypercalcaemia. In group B 9/10 patients had adequate PTH decrease immediately following adenomectomy, while in one patient this was only attained after further exploration and excision of a second adenoma. No false-positive or false-negative measurements were encountered. The rapid PTH test used is a reliable predictor of successful adenomectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism, also in minimally invasive surgery.

  11. Pharmaceuticals, hormones and bisphenol A in untreated source and finished drinking water in Ontario, Canada - Occurrence and treatment efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince [Standards Development Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 40 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario, M4V 1M2 (Canada); Yang, Paul, E-mail: paul.yang@ontario.ca [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Hao Chunyan; Zhao Xiaoming [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Rocks, Carline [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Thach, Serei [Laboratory Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada); Cheung, Patrick; Whitehead, Brian [Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, Ontario, M9P 3V6 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    selected pharmaceuticals and hormones and bisphenol A in aquatic environment of Ontario, Canada were determined in a 16-month survey. {yields} IDMS analysis ensured monitoring data are with high precision and accuracy. {yields} Reported the first detection of two antibiotics roxithromycin and enrofloxacin in aquatic environmental samples. {yields} Compared removal efficiency of carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, and BPA in DWSs using granulated activated carbon and ultraviolet treatment processes.

  12. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome are related to karyotype, pubertal development and growth hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jenny A; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Zandwijken, Gladys R J; Limacher, Andreas; Ranke, Michael B; Flück, Christa E

    2013-07-01

    In girls and adolescents with Turner syndrome (TS), is there a correlation between serum AMH levels and karyotype, spontaneous puberty and other biochemical markers of ovarian function, or growth hormone (GH) therapy? Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) correlates with karyotype, pubertal development, LH, FSH and are measurable in a higher percentage of TS patients under GH therapy. Most girls with TS suffer from incomplete sexual development, premature ovarian failure and infertility due to abnormal ovarian folliculogenesis. Serum AMH levels reflect the ovarian reserve in females, even in childhood. Cross-sectional study investigating 270 karyotype proven TS patients aged 0-20 years between 2009 and 2010. Studies were conducted at three University Children's hospitals in Europe. Main outcome measures were clinical data concerning pubertal development as well as laboratory data including karyotype, serum AMH, LH, FSH, estradiol (E2), inhibin B and IGF. RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Serum AMH was detectable in 21.9% of all TS girls and correlated strongly with karyotypes. A measurable serum AMH was found in 77% of TS girls with karyotype 45,X/46,XX, in 25% with 'other' karyotypes and in only 10% of 45,X TS girls. A strong relationship was also observed for measurable serum AMH and signs of spontaneous puberty such as breast development [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 19.3; 95% CI 2.1-175.6; P = 0.009] and menarche (crude OR 47.6; 95% CI 4.8-472.9; P = 0.001). Serum AMH correlated negatively with FSH and LH, but did not correlate with E2 and inhibin B. GH therapy increased the odds of having measurable AMH in TS (adjusted OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.9-8.8; P < 0.001). The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow longitudinal interpretation of the data; for that further studies are needed. High percentage of non-measurable AMH levels in the cohort of TS require categorized analysis.

  13. [Safety and efficacy of growth hormone treatment: GeNeSIS study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga Tomás, C; Oyarzabal Irigoyen, M; Caveda Cepas, E; Vázquez Salvi, L A; García-Pérez, L E

    2016-03-01

    Country-specific information on pediatric GH therapy is available from multi-national studies. A total of 1294 children in Spain enrolled in the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short-stature International Study (GeNeSIS). Adverse events were assessed in all GH-treated patients (n=1267) and effectiveness in those with GH deficiency (GHD, 78%). Mean age at time of entry to the study was 9.8 years. GH was initiated at a median (Q1-Q3) 0.22 (0.20-0.25) mg/kg/week and administered for 2.8 (1.6-4.4) years. For 262 patients with GHD and 4-year data, mean (95% CI) height velocity was 4.3 (4.1 - 4.6) cm/year at baseline, 9.0 (8.7 to 9.4) cm/year at 1-year, and 5.5 (5.2 to 5.8) cm/year at 4-years. Height standard deviation score (SDS) was -2.48 (-2.58 to -2.38) at baseline and -1.18 (-1.28 to -1.08) at 4 years. Final height SDS minus target height SDS (n=241) was -0.09 (-0.20 to 0.02). In 1143 GH-treated patients with ≥1 year follow-up, 93 (8.1%) reported treatment-emergent adverse events. Serious events were reported for 7 children, with 2 considered GH-related. These data confirm the benefit of GH replacement therapy on height gain for the patients in Spain. The safety profile was consistent with that already known for GH therapy. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone related protein 1-34 and 1-84 and their roles in osteoporosis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes patients to increased fracture risk. Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP is one of the candidates for clinical osteoporosis treatment. In this study, GST Gene Fusion System was used to express recombinant human PTHrP (hPTHrP 1-34 and 1-84. To determine whether the recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 can enhance renal calcium reabsorption and promote bone formation, we examined effects of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 on osteogenic lineage commitment in a primary bone marrow cell culture system and on osteoporosis treatment. Results revealed that both of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 increased colony formation and osteogenic cell differentiation and mineralization in vitro; however, the effect of recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is a little stronger than that of hPTHrP1-34. Next, ovariectomy was used to construct osteoporosis animal model (OVX to test activities of these two recombinants in vivo. HPTHrP1-84 administration elevated serum calcium by up-regulating the expression of renal calcium transporters, which resulted in stimulation of osteoblastic bone formation. These factors contributed to augmented bone mass in hPTHrP1-84 treated OVX mice but did not affect bone resorption. There was no obvious bone mass alteration in hPTHrP1-34 treated OVX mice, which may be, at least partly, associated with shorter half-life of hPTHrP1-34 compared to hPTHrP1-84 in vivo. This study implies that recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is more effective than hPTHrP1-34 to enhance renal calcium reabsorption and to stimulate bone formation in vivo.

  15. [Hormone profile and follicle development in ovarian stimulation treatment for in vitro fertilization. 1. FSH and LH profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudik, R; Fliess, F R; Kunkel, S

    1987-01-01

    144 patients were treated by 5 different stimulation protocols in the IVF-program of the University Women's Hospital Rostock (Clomiphene/HCG, Clomiphene/Anthrogon/HCG, Pergonal/HCG, Anthrogon/HCG, Folistiman/HCG). In 172 cycles FSH and LH were measured in serum during the follicular phase by RIA. The results were compared between the treatment groups and a group of normal women by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney's nonparametric test. Moreover, in each group the number of follicles visible by laparoscopy and number of punctured follicles were estimated. The maturation of collected oocytes were judged by a maturation index. Modus of action and FSH/LH-ratio of used drugs have been shown to influence serum levels of FSH. Every stimulation protocol was characterized by typical profiles of hormones. Especially, immunoreactive levels of FSH were related to development of follicles. Different biological action of various stimulation regimes was demonstrated by a shortage of follicular phase from 13,4 days in the Clomiphene group to 11,0 days in the Folistiman group, an increase of laparoscopically visible follicles from 4,0 to 13,2 and a rise of collected oocytes from 1,6 to 7,3 per laparoscopy. Quality of oocytes has been shown to be related significantly to the modus of stimulation. Anthrogon-protocol was the most effective stimulation regime according to profile of gonadotropins, the number of follicles and the structure of harvested population of oocytes. However, even in this group co-dominant development of follicle was not achieved. Application of pure FSH and an earlier start of stimulation treatment are possibilities for improvements of results in IVF by stimulation.

  16. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p .../IGF-I stimulates aromatase activity in vivo. As a novel observation, we found that high GH activity was associated with reduced levels of the Sertoli cell marker AMH. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effects of GH on Sertoli cell function and/or spermatogenesis....

  17. [Effects of growth hormone treatment on anthropometrics, metabolic risk, and body composition variables in small for gestational age patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Olga; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-05-01

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children without catch-up growth can benefit from treatment with growth hormone (rhGH). However, they should be monitored very closely because they are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. A group of 28 SGA children with a mean age of 8.79 years and undergoing treatment with rhGH were selected for evaluation. Over the course of 4 years, an annual evaluation was performed on the anthropometric variables (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], growth rate, blood pressure and waist perimeter), metabolic risk variables (glycaemia, glycosylated haemoglobin, cholesterol ratio, insulinaemia, insulin-like growth factor 1[IGF1], IGF binding protein-3 [IGFBP-3], IGF1/IGFBP3 ratio, and HOMA index), and body composition variables. Treatment with rhGH was associated with a significant increase in height (-2.76±.11 SD to -1.53±.17 SD, P=.000), weight (-1.50±.09 SD to -1.21±.13 SD; P=.016), and growth rate (-1.43±.35 SD to .41±.41 SD; P=.009), without a corresponding change in the BMI. Insulinaemia (9.33±1.93mU/ml to 16.55±1.72mU/ml; P=.044) and the HOMA index (3.63±.76 to 6.43±.67; P=.042) increased, approaching insulin resistance levels. No changes were observed in the lipid profile. Body composition changes were observed, with a significant increase in lean mass (73.19±1.26 to 78.74±1.31; P=.037), and a reduction of fat mass (26.81±1.26 to 21.26±1.31; P=.021). Treatment with rhGH is effective for improving anthropometric variables in SGA patients who have not experienced a catch-up growth. It also produces changes in body composition, which may lead to a reduction in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, some insulin resistance was observed. It is important to follow up this patient group in order to find out whether these changes persist into adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-World Treatment Patterns for Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rita; Scazafave, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines generally recommend endocrine therapy over chemotherapy for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (unless life-threatening metastases are present). This study aimed to assess the real-world treatment patterns of patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer in Europe and the United States. Treatment patterns in Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the United States from January 2012 to December 2014 were investigated using a patient record database (Global Oncology Monitor©). Sample data were projected to the wider clinical population to provide running annual estimates every 3 months. Sample sizes ranged from 1272 to 1640 patients in Europe and from 2225 to 2760 patients in the United States. Across all lines of therapy, 37-43% (Europe) and 45-50% (United States) of patients received chemotherapy. More patients received endocrine therapy than chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer (Europe: 51-54% vs. 33-35%; United States: 53-60% vs. 34-42%). In contrast, endocrine therapy-only regimens were given less commonly than chemotherapy-only regimens in the third-line setting in both Europe and the United States. Chemotherapy is used extensively in routine clinical practice for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. The results also suggest that the treatment patternsin Europe and the United States are qualitatively different. Funding : Ipsos Healthcare and AstraZeneca.

  19. Possible anti-tumor activity of initial treatment with zoledronic acid with hormonal therapy for bone-metastatic prostate cancer in multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Hiroji; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Ikeda, Ichirou; Fujinami, Kiyoshi; Iwasaki, Akira; Noguchi, Sumio; Noguchi, Kazumi; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2013-06-01

    To ascertain the anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer, we examined the effect of ZOL started simultaneously with hormonal therapy as initial treatment in these patients. Forty-seven patients with bone-metastatic prostate cancer who received a luteinizing hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) analogue and an anti-androgen [maximal androgen blockade (MAB)] were assigned to receive ZOL (4 mg intravenous administration every month for 2 years). The time to progression (TTP) of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the overall survival (OS), and the rate of PSA decrease in patients with MAB and ZOL treatment (ZOL group) were compared with these parameters in patients who received only MAB at one institute as a control group (non-ZOL group). Although the nadir PSA level and the rate of PSA normalization showed no significant differences between the ZOL and non-ZOL groups, the time to nadir PSA in the ZOL group was significantly shorter than that in the non-ZOL group (P prostate cancer patients. Initial treatment with ZOL has the possibility of anti-tumor activity to delay disease progression.

  20. Photon energy-modulated radiotherapy: Monte Carlo simulation and treatment planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-in; Heon Choi, Chang; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Il Han; Ye, Sung-Joon [Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744, Korea and Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Interdiciplinary Program in Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Intelligent Convergence Systems, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of photon energy-modulated radiotherapy during beam-on time. Methods: A cylindrical device made of aluminum was conceptually proposed as an energy modulator. The frame of the device was connected with 20 tubes through which mercury could be injected or drained to adjust the thickness of mercury along the beam axis. In Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, a flattening filter of 6 or 10 MV linac was replaced with the device. The thickness of mercury inside the device varied from 0 to 40 mm at the field sizes of 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} (FS5), 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} (FS10), and 20 x 20 cm{sup 2} (FS20). At least 5 billion histories were followed for each simulation to create phase space files at 100 cm source to surface distance (SSD). In-water beam data were acquired by additional MC simulations using the above phase space files. A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned to generate a virtual machine using the MC-generated beam data. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for six clinical cases were generated using conventional 6 MV, 6 MV flattening filter free, and energy-modulated photon beams of the virtual machine. Results: As increasing the thickness of mercury, Percentage depth doses (PDD) of modulated 6 and 10 MV after the depth of dose maximum were continuously increased. The amount of PDD increase at the depth of 10 and 20 cm for modulated 6 MV was 4.8% and 5.2% at FS5, 3.9% and 5.0% at FS10 and 3.2%-4.9% at FS20 as increasing the thickness of mercury from 0 to 20 mm. The same for modulated 10 MV was 4.5% and 5.0% at FS5, 3.8% and 4.7% at FS10 and 4.1% and 4.8% at FS20 as increasing the thickness of mercury from 0 to 25 mm. The outputs of modulated 6 MV with 20 mm mercury and of modulated 10 MV with 25 mm mercury were reduced into 30%, and 56% of conventional linac, respectively. The energy-modulated IMRT plans had less integral doses than 6 MV IMRT or 6 MV flattening filter free plans for tumors located in the

  1. Pre-weaning growth hormone treatment reverses hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in adult male offspring of mothers undernourished during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal undernutrition results in elevated blood pressure (BP and endothelial dysfunction in adult offspring. However, few studies have investigated interventions during early life to ameliorate the programming of hypertension and vascular disorders. We have utilised a model of maternal undernutrition to examine the effects of pre-weaning growth hormone (GH treatment on BP and vascular function in adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard control diet (CON or 50% of CON intake throughout pregnancy (UN. From neonatal day 3 until weaning (day 21, CON and UN pups received either saline (CON-S, UN-S or GH (2.5 ug/g/day(CON-GH, UN-GH. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout lactation. Male offspring were fed a standard diet until the end of the study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 150 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 160, intact mesenteric vessels mounted on a pressure myograph. Responses to pressure, agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated to determine vascular function. SBP was increased in UN-S groups and normalised in UN-GH groups (CON-S 121±2 mmHg, CON-GH 115±3, UN-S 146±3, UN-GH 127±2. Pressure mediated dilation was reduced in UN-S offspring and normalised in UN-GH groups. Vessels from UN-S offspring demonstrated a reduced constrictor response to phenylephrine and reduced vasodilator response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, UN-S offspring vessels displayed a reduced vasodilator response in the presence of L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, carbenoxolone (CBX, L-NAME and CBX, Tram-34 and Apamin. UN-GH vessels showed little difference in responses when compared to CON and significantly increased vasodilator responses when compared to UN-S offspring. Pre-weaning GH treatment reverses the negative effects of maternal UN on SBP and vasomotor function in adult offspring. These data suggest that developmental cardiovascular programming is

  2. Mechanism of action and effect of immune-modulating agents in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gharabawy, Rehab M; Ahmed, Amira S; Al-Najjar, Amal H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the possible mechanisms through which different immune-modulating agents can produce their beneficial effects on treatment of psoriasis and to determine whether the supplementation of these agents for psoriasis patients induces regression of psoriasis. One hundred fifty participants were included in this study. The participants were divided into five groups: 1. Normal control group, 2. Psoriasis patients not taking any treatment, 3. Psoriasis patients treated with anti-psoriatic treatment (including coal tar, vitamin D3 analogues and corticosteroids). 4. Psoriasis patients treated with anti-psoriatic treatment and oral metformin (850mg twice daily) and 5. Psoriasis patients treated with anti-psoriatic treatment and oral pioglitazone (15mg once a day). Demographic characteristics, diabetic index, lipid profile and liver function tests were monitored. The CD4+ Tcells, CD8+ Tcells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, interleukin-2 (IL-2), C-reactive protein (CRP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) were assayed. After treatment of psoriasis patients with a traditional anti-psoriatic drug in combination with metformin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARɤ) agonist (pioglitazone), the CD4+ T cells, IL-2, CRP, CP, ALT and AST levels were statistically significantly decreased compared to psoriasis patients without treatment. Positive and significant correlations between CD4+ % and IL-2, CRP, CP, ALT and AST in psoriasis patients were recorded. The activation of PPAR-γ receptors by pioglitazone results in reduced formation of the proinflammatory cytokines and infiltration by inflammatory cells. Additionally, metformin acts as a modulator of the immune system in psoriasis patients and has a remarkable effect on the early stages of psoriasis. Therefore, either pioglitazone or metformin in combination with traditional anti-psoriatic drugs provides better results in the treatment of psoriasis than does each alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS

  3. Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment and Psychobiological Changes in Transsexual Persons: Two-Year Follow-Up Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Castellini, Giovanni; Ristori, Jiska; Casale, Helen; Cassioli, Emanuele; Sensi, Carolina; Fanni, Egidia; Amato, Anna Maria Letizia; Bettini, Eva; Mosconi, Maddalena; Dèttore, Davide; Ricca, Valdo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-11-01

    To date, there are few studies investigating the impact of body changes induced by cross-sex hormonal treatment (CHT) on psychobiological well-being in gender-dysphoric persons (GDs). The objective of the study was to assess whether CHT-related body changes affect psychobiological well-being in GDs. A consecutive series of 359 GDs was considered for a cross-sectional section of the study. In addition, 54 GDs were studied in a 2-year follow-up. A physical examination was performed, including body mass index, waist circumference, and hair distribution. We also evaluated breast development and testis volume in male to female subjects and clitoris length in female to male. Subjects were asked to complete several psychometric measures for the assessment of body uneasiness, GD, and psychopathology levels. The evaluation was repeated 2 years prospectively. The following results were found: 1) GDs undergoing CHT reported significantly lower subjective levels of GD, body uneasiness, and depressive symptoms as compared with those without; 2) CHT-induced body modifications were significantly associated with a better psychological adjustment; 3) during CHT, GDs reported a significant reduction of general psychopathology, depressive symptoms, and subjective GD, whereas social and legal indicators of GD showed a significant increase across time; and 4) among body changes induced by CHT, only breast development and increased body mass index had a significant impact on psychopathology reduction across time in male to female subjects and female to male subjects, respectively. The aforementioned results support the efficacy of CHT intervention in improving subjective perception of one's own body, which was partially associated with objective changes.

  4. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most common form of thyroid therapy ... can lead to unpleasant symptoms such as rapid heart beat, insomnia and anxiety. High T3 levels also ...

  5. Modulation of the gut microbiota with antibiotic treatment suppresses whole body urea production in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puiman, Patrycja; Stoll, Barbara; Mølbak, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether changes in the gut microbiota induced by clinically relevant interventions would impact the bioavailability of dietary amino acids in neonates. We tested the hypothesis that modulation of the gut microbiota in neonatal pigs receiving no treatment (control), intravenously...... in the proximal SI but not in other tissues. In conclusion, modulation of the gut microbiota by antibiotics and probiotics reduced hepatic ureagenesis and intestinal protein synthesis, but neither altered whole body net threonine balance. These findings suggest that changes in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism...... resulting from antibiotic- or probiotic-induced shifts in the microbiota are localized to the gut and liver and have limited impact on whole body growth and anabolism in neonatal piglets....

  6. A randomized controlled trial of three years growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in children with idiopathic short stature and intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Kamp; D. Mul (Dick); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); M. Jansen (Maarten); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); L. Verhoeven-Wind; M. Frölich (Marijke); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe assessed the effectiveness and safety of 3 yr combined GH and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in a randomized controlled study in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Gonadal suppression, GH reserve, and

  7. Cabazitaxel for the second-line treatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a NICE single technology appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Ben; Lloyd Jones, Myfanwy; Stevenson, Matt; Littlewood, Chris

    2013-06-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of cabazitaxel (Jevtana®, sanofi-aventis, UK) to submit evidence of its clinical and cost effectiveness for the second-line treatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (mHRPC). The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group (ScHARR-TAG) at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of the technology based upon the manufacturer's submission to NICE. Clinical evidence was derived from a multinational randomized open-label phase III trial of cabazitaxel plus prednisone or prednisolone in men with mHRPC that had progressed during or following treatment with docetaxel. The comparator was mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisolone. Use of cabazitaxel was associated with a statistically significant improvement in overall survival, median progression-free survival and time to tumour progression. However, it was also associated with an increased incidence of adverse events such as neutropenia. Utility data were based on interim results from the early access programme for cabazitaxel. Data were only available for a small number of patients with stable disease, resulting in great uncertainty as to the effect of cabazitaxel on quality of life. For their economic evaluation, the manufacturer estimated that the use of cabazitaxel was associated with an incremental cost of £74,908 per QALY gained. However, the ERG disagreed with the manufacturer over two key methodological points. The first concerned modelling and extrapolating survival; the second point was concerned with the choice of patient population. The ERG altered the manufacturer's evaluation to take into account these two points of disagreement. The resulting cost per QALY gained was £82,950. The NICE Appraisal Committee believed the analysis

  8. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  9. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, M C; McDougall, S; Nation, D P

    2004-07-01

    Hormonal interventions have been used to increase the probability of estrous detection and insemination, and to increase pregnancy rates of dairy cattle under a variety of management systems. The present review addresses the basic principles of hormonal intervention and presents typical examples that illustrate the methodology. The hormones used to control the estrous cycle mimic the reproductive hormones found within the normal cow. Most estrous synchronization systems employ a method for controlling follicular wave development, promoting ovulation in anestrous cows, regressing the corpus luteum in cyclic cows, and synchronizing estrus and (or) ovulation at the end of treatment. A wide range of reproductive systems are in place on dairy farms. In most herds, a non-intervention period is practiced where postpartum cows are observed estrus estrus. Cows not observed in estrus are then treated. A number of studies in pasture-based and confinement systems have demonstrated net benefits of whole-herd synchronization. Despite the advantages of whole-herd reproductive programs, their uptake has been inconsistent globally. The benefits of a timed artificial insemination (AI) system increase under conditions of poor estrous detection rate and poor conception rate. The unpopular nature of timed AI programs in pasture-fed cows relates to high rates of estrous detection and conception for pasture-based dairying. Regardless of production system, some cows must be re-inseminated because they are not pregnant after first insemination. The presence of "phantom cows" (non-pregnant cows that do not return to estrus) creates a serious reproductive challenge for both pasture-based and confinement-style operations. Early pregnancy diagnosis and second insemination timed AI may reduce the effects of phantom cows on dairy herds. Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to

  10. Prior hormonal treatment, but not sexual experience, reduces the negative effects of restraint on female sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-02-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received six mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PRIOR HORMONAL TREATMENT, BUT NOT SEXUAL EXPERIENCE, REDUCES THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF RESTRAINT ON FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-01-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received 6 mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats. PMID:24172220

  12. Spherical cluster analysis for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mark; Oelfke, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    An intuitive heuristic to establish beam configurations for intensity-modulated radiation therapy is introduced as an extension of beam ensemble selection strategies applying scalar scoring functions. It is validated by treatment plan comparisons for three intra-cranial, pancreas, and prostate cases each. Based on a patient specific matrix listing the radiological quality of candidate beam directions individually for every target voxel, a set of locally ideal beam angles is generated. The spherical distribution of locally ideal beam angles is characteristic for every treatment site and patient: ideal beam angles typically cluster around distinct orientations. We interpret the cluster centroids, which are identified with a spherical K-means algorithm, as irradiation angles of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plan. The fluence profiles are subsequently optimized during a conventional inverse planning process. The average computation time for the pre-optimization of a beam ensemble is six minutes on a state-of-the-art work station. The treatment planning study demonstrates the potential benefit of the proposed beam angle optimization strategy. For the three prostate cases under investigation, the standard treatment plans applying nine coplanar equi-spaced beams and treatment plans applying an optimized non-coplanar nine-beam ensemble yield clinically comparable dose distributions. For symmetric patient geometries, the dose distribution formed by nine equi-spaced coplanar beams cannot be improved significantly. For the three pancreas and intra-cranial cases under investigation, the optimized non-coplanar beam ensembles enable better sparing of organs at risk while guaranteeing equivalent target coverage. Beam angle optimization by spherical cluster analysis shows the biggest impact for target volumes located asymmetrically within the patient and close to organs at risk.

  13. Spherical cluster analysis for beam angle optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Mark; Oelfke, Uwe

    2010-10-07

    An intuitive heuristic to establish beam configurations for intensity-modulated radiation therapy is introduced as an extension of beam ensemble selection strategies applying scalar scoring functions. It is validated by treatment plan comparisons for three intra-cranial, pancreas, and prostate cases each. Based on a patient specific matrix listing the radiological quality of candidate beam directions individually for every target voxel, a set of locally ideal beam angles is generated. The spherical distribution of locally ideal beam angles is characteristic for every treatment site and patient: ideal beam angles typically cluster around distinct orientations. We interpret the cluster centroids, which are identified with a spherical K-means algorithm, as irradiation angles of an intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plan. The fluence profiles are subsequently optimized during a conventional inverse planning process. The average computation time for the pre-optimization of a beam ensemble is six minutes on a state-of-the-art work station. The treatment planning study demonstrates the potential benefit of the proposed beam angle optimization strategy. For the three prostate cases under investigation, the standard treatment plans applying nine coplanar equi-spaced beams and treatment plans applying an optimized non-coplanar nine-beam ensemble yield clinically comparable dose distributions. For symmetric patient geometries, the dose distribution formed by nine equi-spaced coplanar beams cannot be improved significantly. For the three pancreas and intra-cranial cases under investigation, the optimized non-coplanar beam ensembles enable better sparing of organs at risk while guaranteeing equivalent target coverage. Beam angle optimization by spherical cluster analysis shows the biggest impact for target volumes located asymmetrically within the patient and close to organs at risk.

  14. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion.......Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  15. Perioperative growth hormone treatment increases nitrogen and fluid balance and results in short-term and long-term conservation of lean tissue mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Bach; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren

    1998-01-01

    The surgical procedure for forming an ileoanal anastomosis with a J pouch (IAA) usually involves a temporary ileostomy; patients undergoing IAA surgery thus need to recover quickly because they return for ileostomy closure 3 mo later. We evaluated the effects of perioperative biosynthetic growth...... hormone (GH) treatment on short- and long-term changes in body composition and on nutritional intake. Patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing IAA surgery were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n=12) or 6 IU GH twice daily (n=12) from 2 d before to 7 d after the operation...

  16. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  17. PALBOCICLIB IN COMBINATION WITH HORMONE THERAPY FOR LUMINAL HER2-NEGATIVE METASTATIC BREAST CANCER: NEW HIGHLY EFFECTIVE STRATEGY OF DRUG TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Artamonova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review considers a new oral targeted drug palbociclib and its place in treatment of luminal (estrogen receptor-positive HER2– metastatic breast cancer. The results of randomized clinical trials have shown that inclusion of palbociclib in various hormone therapy regimens for treatment of HER2– metastatic breast cancer with expression of estrogen receptors allows to significantly improve clinical outcomes and increase survival, objective response rate and its duration, as well as clinical benefit rate (CBR. Addition of palbociclib to letrozole in the 1st line hormone therapy or to fulvestrant in patients with progression at/after previous endocrine therapy increased progression-free survival in all groups irrespective of clinical characteristics, tumor progression, or expression of molecular markers mediating development of hormone resistance. The main adverse events associated with palbociclib were neutropenia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, but overall hematological toxicity was manageable, and the therapy itself was safe. This strategy received a “breakthrough therapy designation” from the experts and combines proven effectiveness and satisfactory tolerability, allows to maintain high quality of life, and should be prescribed to patients with luminal HER2– metastatic breast cancer.

  18. Individualised growth response optimisation (iGRO) tool: an accessible and easy-to-use growth prediction system to enable treatment optimisation for children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Jane; Lindberg, Anders; Aydin, Ferah; Gomez, Roy; Maghnie, Mohamad; Rooman, Raoul; Steinkamp, Heinz; Doerr, Helmuth; Ranke, Michael; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia

    2017-10-26

    Growth prediction models (GPMs) exist to support clinical management of children treated with growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Currently, no prediction system has been widely adopted. The objective was to develop a stand-alone web-based system to enable the widespread use of an 'individualised growth response optimisation' (iGRO) tool across European endocrinology clinics. A modern platform was developed to ensure compatibility with IT systems and web browsers. Seventeen GPMs derived from the KIGS database were included and tested for accuracy. The iGRO system demonstrated prediction accuracy and IT compatibility. The observed discrepancies between actual and predicted height may support clinicians in investigating the reasons for deviations around the expected growth and optimise treatment. This system has the potential for wide access in endocrinology clinics to support the clinical management of children treated with GH for these three indications.

  19. Pattern of induced estrus and conception rate following Ovsynch and Ovsynch based gonadotropin-releasing hormone treatments initiated on day 6 of estrous cycle in repeat breeding crossbred cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahmed, N; Kathiresan, D; Ahmed, F A; Lalrintluanga, K; Mayengbam, P; Gali, J M

    2016-01-01

    .... This study was carried out on 24 repeat breeding crossbred cows allotted into four groups. Cows of Group I was not given any treatment, Group II was treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH...

  20. Adult growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients demonstrate heterogeneity between childhood onset and adult onset before and during human GH treatment. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attanasio, A F; Lamberts, S W; Matranga, A M

    1997-01-01

    -deficient adult patients have been compared. The first 6 months comprised randomized, double-blind treatment with GH or placebo, then all patients were GH-treated for a further 12 months. At baseline the height, body weight, body mass index, lean body mass, and waist/hip ratio of AO patients were significantly (P......The onset of adult GH deficiency may be during either adulthood (AO) or childhood (CO), but potential differences have not previously been examined. In this study the baseline and GH therapy (12.5 micrograms/kg per day) data from CO (n = 74; mean age 29 yr) and AO (n = 99; mean age 44 yr) GH...

  1. DMLC motion tracking of moving targets for intensity modulated arc therapy treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Jens; Korreman, Stine; Persson, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intensity modulated arc therapy offers great advantages with the capability of delivering a fast and highly conformal treatment. However, moving targets represent a major challenge. By monitoring a moving target it is possible to make the beam follow the motion, shaped by a Dynamic MLC...... at state (0) "static, no tracking". Comparing measurements were made at state (1) "motion, no tracking" and state (2) "motion, tracking". RESULTS: Gamma analysis showed a significant improvement from measurements of state (1) to measurements of state (2) compared to the state (0) measurements: Lung plan...

  2. Impact of the underlying etiology of growth hormone deficiency on serum IGF-I SDS levels during GH treatment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Juliane; Mohamed, Damir; Dos Santos, Sophie; Ben Azoun, Myriam; Zénaty, Delphine; Simon, Dominique; Paulsen, Anne; Martinerie, Laetitia; Chevenne, Didier; Alberti, Corinne; Carel, Jean-Claude; Guilmin-Crepon, Sophie

    2017-09-01

    Regular monitoring of serum IGF-I levels during growth hormone (GH) therapy has been recommended, for assessing treatment compliance and safety. To investigate serum IGF-I SDS levels during GH treatment in children with GH deficiency, and to identify potential determinants of these levels. This observational cohort study included all patients ( n  = 308) with childhood-onset non-acquired or acquired GH deficiency (GHD) included in the database of a single academic pediatric care center over a period of 10 years for whom at least one serum IGF-I SDS determination during GH treatment was available. These determinations had to have been carried out centrally, with the same immunoradiometric assay. Serum IGF-I SDS levels were determined as a function of sex, age and pubertal stage, according to our published normative data. Over a median of 4.0 (2-5.8) years of GH treatment per patient, 995 serum IGF-I SDS determinations were recorded. In addition to BMI SDS, height SDS and GH dose ( P  SDS levels, with patients suffering from acquired GHD having higher serum IGF-I SDS levels than those with non-acquired GHD, whereas sex, age, pubertal stage, treatment duration, hormonal status (isolated GHD (IGHD) vs multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD)) and initial severity of GHD, had no effect. These original findings have important clinical implications for long-term management and highlight the need for careful and appropriate monitoring of serum IGF-I SDS and GH dose, particularly in patients with acquired GHD, to prevent the unnecessary impact of potential comorbid conditions. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  4. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  5. Transsexual patients' psychiatric comorbidity and positive effect of cross-sex hormonal treatment on mental health: results from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Costa, Rosalia; Todarello, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of psychiatric diseases/symptoms in transsexual patients and to compare psychiatric distress related to the hormonal intervention in a one year follow-up assessment. We investigated 118 patients before starting the hormonal therapy and after about 12 months. We used the SCID-I to determine major mental disorders and functional impairment. We used the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) for evaluating self-reported anxiety and depression. We used the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R) for assessing self-reported global psychological symptoms. Seventeen patients (14%) had a DSM-IV-TR axis I psychiatric comorbidity. At enrollment the mean SAS score was above the normal range. The mean SDS and SCL-90-R scores were on the normal range except for SCL-90-R anxiety subscale. When treated, patients reported lower SAS, SDS and SCL-90-R scores, with statistically significant differences. Psychiatric distress and functional impairment were present in a significantly higher percentage of patients before starting the hormonal treatment than after 12 months (50% vs. 17% for anxiety; 42% vs. 23% for depression; 24% vs. 11% for psychological symptoms; 23% vs. 10% for functional impairment). The results revealed that the majority of transsexual patients have no psychiatric comorbidity, suggesting that transsexualism is not necessarily associated with severe comorbid psychiatric findings. The condition, however, seemed to be associated with subthreshold anxiety/depression, psychological symptoms and functional impairment. Moreover, treated patients reported less psychiatric distress. Therefore, hormonal treatment seemed to have a positive effect on transsexual patients' mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reproductive responses of dairy cows with ovarian cysts to simultaneous human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cloprostenol compared to gonadotropin-releasing hormone alone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Taktaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine ovarian cysts are a common cause of economic loss in modern dairy herds. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive responses to three protocols using hCG, GnRH and cloprostenol when the definite diagnosis of the type of ovarian cyst is/is not possible in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts were divided into three groups. At diagnosis (Day 0, cows in Group 1 (the conventional method, n=47 were injected with 0.02 mg of a GnRH analogue i.m. (Buserelin; cows in Group 2 (n=47 were intramuscularly treated with 0.02 mg Buserelin plus 500 μg cloprostenol; and cows in Group 3 (n=50 were intramuscularly treated with 1500 IU hCG plus 500 μg cloprostenol. All cows received 500 μg cloprostenol intramuscularly on Day 10. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the recovery time, interval to conception, conception rate at first AI, and pregnancy rates by Days 70 and 100 after treatment among the three groups. Conclusions: Simultaneous treatment of ovarian cysts with hCG or GnRH and cloprostenol appeared to have no advantage over the conventional method, GnRH alone, in dairy cows. Furthermore, hCG and GnRH have an equal therapeutic effect in cows with ovarian cysts.

  7. The effect of treatment with growth hormone on fertility outcome in eugonadal women with growth hormone deficiency: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampietro, Antonella; Milardi, Domenico; Bianchi, Antonio; Fusco, Alessandra; Cimino, Vincenzo; Valle, Domenico; Marana, Riccardo; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; De Marinis, Laura

    2009-03-01

    To highlight the clinical role of standard GH replacement treatment on fertility and pregnancy outcomes in four infertile eugonadal women with GH deficiency (GHD). Case report. Department of endocrinology and infertility clinic, tertiary-care university hospital. Four normogonadotrophic, normoprolactinemic patients with long-standing infertility, affected by GHD. In two patients (aged 30 and 34 years) GHD was diagnosed after a brain injury. The third patient (age 30 years) had a primary empty sella, documented by magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary. The last patient (age 28 years) underwent transsphenoidal surgery for Ratke's cyst. The LH and FSH responses to GnRH were normal in all four patients. Two of the four patients also had secondary hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism. Patients received recombinant human GH replacement therapy (0.9-1.8 mg/week) for 6-12 months until pregnancy was first indicated by biochemical markers (beta-hCG) and later confirmed by transvaginal sonography. The GH therapy was discontinued after confirmation of pregnancy. Pregnancy. All patients remained off treatment throughout pregnancy; they had uneventful pregnancies and term deliveries. The babies were healthy and normal in terms of length and weight. Our case studies confirm the important clinical role of the GH-insulin-like growth factor I system in oocyte fertilization and the beginning of pregnancy in a selected population of eugonadotrophic infertile women.

  8. Modulation of microbiota as treatment for intestinal inflammatory disorders: An uptodate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonella; Passaro, Giovanna; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Landolfi, Raffaele; Montalto, Massimo

    2016-08-28

    Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation. More than three hundred articles published up to 2015 were selected and reviewed. Randomized placebo-controlled trials and meta-analysis were firstly included, mainly for probiotics. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the heterogeneity of these studies. Most of relevant data derived from studies on probiotics, reporting some efficacy in ulcerative colitis and in pouchitis, while disappointing results are available for Crohn's disease. Probiotic supplementation may significantly reduce rates of rotavirus diarrhea. Efficacy of probiotics in NSAID enteropathy and irritable bowel syndrome is still controversial. Finally, FMT has been recently recognized as an efficacious treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Modulation of intestinal flora represents a very interesting therapeutic target, although it still deserves some doubts and limitations. Future studies should be encouraged to provide new understanding about its therapeutical role.

  9. Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W.; Jimenez, Hugo; Pennison, Michael J.; Brezovich, Ivan; Morgan, Desiree; Mudry, Albert; Costa, Frederico P.; Barbault, Alexandre; Pasche, Boris

    2013-01-01

    In the past century, there have been many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic fields. We have developed noninvasive biofeedback examination devices and techniques and discovered that patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse effects. Intrabuccal administration allows for therapeutic delivery of very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the growth of tumor cells in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel pathways in cancer. PMID:24206915

  10. Targeted treatment of cancer with radiofrequency electromagnetic fields amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Jacquelyn W; Jimenez, Hugo; Pennison, Michael J; Brezovich, Ivan; Morgan, Desiree; Mudry, Albert; Costa, Frederico P; Barbault, Alexandre; Pasche, Boris

    2013-11-01

    In the past century, there have been many attempts to treat cancer with low levels of electric and magnetic fields. We have developed noninvasive biofeedback examination devices and techniques and discovered that patients with the same tumor type exhibit biofeedback responses to the same, precise frequencies. Intrabuccal administration of 27.12 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), which are amplitude-modulated at tumor-specific frequencies, results in long-term objective responses in patients with cancer and is not associated with any significant adverse effects. Intrabuccal administration allows for therapeutic delivery of very low and safe levels of EMF throughout the body as exemplified by responses observed in the femur, liver, adrenal glands, and lungs. In vitro studies have demonstrated that tumor-specific frequencies identified in patients with various forms of cancer are capable of blocking the growth of tumor cells in a tissue- and tumor-specific fashion. Current experimental evidence suggests that tumor-specific modulation frequencies regulate the expression of genes involved in migration and invasion and disrupt the mitotic spindle. This novel targeted treatment approach is emerging as an appealing therapeutic option for patients with advanced cancer given its excellent tolerability. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms accounting for the anti-cancer effects of tumor-specific modulation frequencies is likely to lead to the discovery of novel pathways in cancer.

  11. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhao

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while

  12. Low dose growth hormone treatment in infants and toddlers with Prader-Willi syndrome is comparable to higher dosage regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheermeyer, Elly; Harris, Mark; Hughes, Ian; Crock, Patricia A; Ambler, Geoffrey; Verge, Charles F; Bergman, Phil; Werther, Ge