Sample records for hormone suppresses gonadotropin-stimulated

  1. Impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist addition on pregnancy rates in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Jain


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist in improving clinical pregnancy rate in gonadotropin-stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles in patients of unexplained infertility. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized case-controlled study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted in the infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred twenty-seven women undergoing IUI following controlled ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins (recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone [r-FSH] 75 IU/day were randomly divided into two groups. Women in Group I received GnRH antagonist (Cetrorelix 0.25 mg/day in a multiple dose flexible protocol. Women in Group II received r-FSH alone. Ovulatory trigger was given with human chorionic gonadotropin 5000 IU when dominant follicle was ≥18 mm. IUI was performed within 44-48 h. Both groups received similar luteal phase support. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. The trial was powered to detect an absolute increase in clinical pregnancy rate by 13% from an assumed 20% clinical pregnancy rate in the control group, with an alpha error level of 0.05 and a beta error level of 0.20. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate in Groups I and II was 27.6% (n = 56 and 26.5% (n = 54, respectively (P=0.800. Ongoing pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rates were likewise similar between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of GnRH antagonist to gonadotropin-stimulated IUI cycles results in no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Objectives: To determine the effect of pituitary suppression with a GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) on the success of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Design: Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. The data were analyzed with a

  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in Syrian hamster Leydig cells: Inhibitory role on luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production. (United States)

    Frungieri, Mónica B; Gonzalez-Calvar, Silvia I; Parborell, Fernanda; Albrecht, Martin; Mayerhofer, Artur; Calandra, Ricardo S


    We have previously found that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs), is present in the testicular interstitial cells of infertile men, whereas it is absent in human testes with no evident morphological changes or abnormalities. To find an animal model for further investigating COX-2 and its role in testicular steroidogenesis, we screened testes from adult species ranging from mice to monkeys. By using immunohistochemical assays, we found COX-2 expression only in Leydig cells of the reproductively active (peripubertal, pubertal, and adult) seasonal breeder Syrian hamster. COX-2 expression in hamster Leydig cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. In contrast, COX-1 expression was not detected in hamster testes. Because COX-2 expression implies PG synthesis, we investigated the effect of various PGs on testosterone production and found that PGF2 alpha stood out because it significantly reduced human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone release from isolated hamster Leydig cells in a dose-dependent manner. This mechanism involves a decreased expression of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Testicular concentration and content of PGF2 alpha in reproductively active hamsters as well as production of PGF2 alpha from isolated hamster Leydig cells were also determined. Moreover, PGF2 alpha receptors were localized in Leydig cells of hamsters and testicular biopsies from patients with Sertoli cell only and germ arrest syndromes. Thus, in this study, we described a COX-2-initiated pathway that via PGF2 alpha production, PGF2 alpha receptors, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase represents a physiological local inhibitory system of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production in the Syrian hamster testes.

  4. Growth hormone suppression test (United States)

    ... this page: // Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  5. Hyponatremia of hypothyroidism. Appropriate suppression of antidiuretic hormone levels. (United States)

    Macaron, C; Famuyiwa, O


    A hypothyroid, 72-year-old woman with idiopathic hypopituitarism manifested severe hyponatremia, plasma hypoosmolality, and inappropriately elevated urine osmolality suggestive of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretions. The hyponatremia did not respond to demeclocycline hydrochloride, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels measured by a specific radioimmunoassay were appropriately suppressed. Subsequent replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium resulted in correction of the hyponatremia. Thus, both direct assay as well as hormone blockade failed to show an action of ADH in mediating the water retention.

  6. Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone (United States)

    Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C.; Kim, Seung K.


    SUMMARY Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secretion by insulin-producing cells. Targeted knockdown of CG9918, a Drosophila orthologue of Neuromedin U receptors (NMUR), in insulin-producing cells phenocopied limostatin deficiency, and attenuated insulin suppression by purified Lst, suggesting CG9918 encodes an Lst receptor. NMUR1 is expressed in islet β-cells, and purified NMU suppresses insulin secretion from human islets. A human mutant NMU variant that co-segregates with familial early-onset obesity and hyperinsulinemia fails to suppress insulin secretion. We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. PMID:25651184

  7. Suppression of androgen production by D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in man. (United States)

    Tolis, G; Mehta, A; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V


    Four male transsexual subjects were given a superactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, D-tryptophan-6-LHRH at daily doses of 100 micrograms for 3--6 mo. A decrease in beard growth, acne, and erectile potency was noted; the latter was documented objectively with the recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence episodes. Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels fell to castrate values; basal prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels showed a small decline, whereas the acutely releasable luteinizing hormone was significantly suppressed. A rise of plasma testosterone from castrate to normal levels was demonstrable with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin. Discontinuation of treatment led to a normalization of erectile potency and plasma testosterone. The suppression of Leydig cell function by D-tryptophan-6-LHRH might have wide application in reproductive biology and in endocrine-dependent neoplasia (where it could replace surgical castration). PMID:6456277

  8. Effects of suppressing gonadal hormones on response to novel objects in adolescent rats


    Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R.


    Human adolescents exhibit higher levels of novelty-seeking behaviour than younger or older individuals, and novelty-seeking is higher in males than females from adolescence onwards. Gonadal hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol, have been suggested to underlie age and sex difference in response to novelty; however, empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited. Here, we investigated whether suppressing gonadal hormone levels during adolescence affects response to novelty ...

  9. DE71 suppresses thyroid hormone-mediated dendritogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    cyclododecane (HBCD) and BP-6 which are also endocrine disruptors can suppress T3-mediated granule cell neurite extension (Ibhazehiebo et al,. 2011b : 2011c). TRs which mediates TH actions are abundantly expressed in the developing cerebellar cells including. Purkinje and granule cells (Bradley et al, 1992), and.

  10. Association Between Energy Balance and Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultraendurance Exercise. (United States)

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Gibbs, Jenna C; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten


    Ultraendurance athletes often accumulate an energy deficit when engaging in ultraendurance exercise, and on completion of the exercise, they exhibit endocrine changes that are reminiscent of starvation. However, it remains unclear whether these endocrine changes are a result of the exercise per se or secondary to the energy deficit and, more important, whether these changes can be attenuated by increased dietary intake. The goal of the study was to assess the relationship between changes in key metabolic hormones after ultraendurance exercise and measures of energy balance. Metabolic hormones, as well as energy intake and expenditure, were assessed in 14 well-trained male cyclists who completed a 1230-km ultraendurance cycling event. After completion of the event, serum testosterone (-67% ± 18%), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (-45% ± 8%), and leptin (-79% ± 9%) were significantly suppressed (P energy balance over the course of the event (r = .65, P = .037), which ranged from an 11,859-kcal deficit to a 3593-kcal surplus. The marked suppression of testosterone, IGF-1, and leptin after ultraendurance exercise is comparable to changes occurring during acute starvation. The suppression of IGF-1, but not that of other metabolic hormones, was strongly associated with the magnitude of the energy deficit, indicating that athletes who attained a greater energy deficit exhibited a more pronounced drop in IGF-1. Future studies are needed to determine whether increased dietary intake can attenuate the endocrine response to ultraendurance exercise.

  11. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E


    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...

  12. Low concentrations of bisphenol a suppress thyroid hormone receptor transcription through a nongenomic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Tang, Yuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, 30 Yanzheng Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Bao-Quan [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chao, Xi-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)


    Bisphenol (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Various rodent and in vitro studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) function can be impaired by BPA. However, it is still unknown if low concentrations of BPA can suppress the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) transcription. The present study aims to investigate the possible suppressing effects of low concentrations of BPA on TR transcription and the involved mechanism(s) in CV-1 cells derived from cercopithecus aethiops monkey kidneys. Using gene reporter assays, BPA at concentrations as low as 10{sup −9} M suppresses TR or steroid receptor coactivator-1(SRC-1)-enhanced TR transcription, but not reducing TR/SRC-1 interaction in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down studies. It has been further shown that both nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are recruited to the TR-β1 by BPA in the presence of physiologic concentrations of T3 or T4. However, the overexpression of β3 integrin or c-Src significantly reduces BPA-induced recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT to TR or suppression of TR transcription. Furthermore, BPA inhibits the T3/T4-mediated interassociation of the β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways by the co-immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that low concentrations of BPA suppress the TR transcription by disrupting physiologic concentrations of T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways, followed by recruiting N-CoR/SMRT to TR-β1, providing a novel insight regarding the TH disruption effects of low concentration BPA. -- Highlights: ► Environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA suppress TR transcription. ► BPA recruits the N-CoR/SMRT to TR under the physiologic concentrations of T3/T4. ► BPA disrupts T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways.

  13. Assessment of ovarian follicular dynamics and folliculogenesis associated endocrine profiles following gonadotropin stimulation in the bonnet monkey. (United States)

    Sukesh, Bhupathi; Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Peter, Augustine T; Medhamurthy, Rudraiah; Seshagiri, Polani B


    We evaluated ovarian follicular dynamics in bonnet monkeys by employing trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Following the administration of human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH) and/or human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), multiple follicular development was assessed and their numbers, size and growth profiles were monitored. The ultrasonograms showed that the follicular antrum appeared distinctly anechoic with well-defined hyperechoic borders. Depending on the type, quantity (12.5-25IU), and duration (6-9days) of hormones administered, the number of developing follicles was 2-12 per ovary with their lowest diameter being 2mm. With continued hormone administration, their numbers and diameters increased; which were more pronounced in animals administered with hFSH than with hMG, with follicles of 6-8mm. Interestingly, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection (2000-3000IU), when follicles acquiring >6-8mm sizes, induced the maximum expansion of antral follicles with sizes reaching up to 14mm. On days 3-5 post-hCG, the ultrasonograms showed loosely demarcated multiple hypoechoic structures and well-demarcated hyperechoic structures with anechoic/hypoechoic cores corresponding to unruptured luteinized follicles and corpora lutea, respectively. On day 4 post-hCG, there was a substantial reduction in the number of antral follicles. In stimulated animals, follicular growth, ovulation, and formation of luteal structures were accompanied by corresponding physiological changes in the serum estradiol and progesterone profiles. These findings, for the first time, showed that ultrasonographic imaging approach is useful for precise monitoring of temporal changes in follicular developmental dynamics and to time the hCG induced ovulation in the bonnet monkey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leuprolide Acetate 1-Month Depot for Central Precocious Puberty: Hormonal Suppression and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely EKirk


    Full Text Available Methods. This prospective US multicenter trial of leuprolide acetate 1-month depot (7.5–15 mg for central precocious puberty utilized an open-label treatment period, long-term follow-up, and adult callback. Forty-nine females Results. Subjects were treated for years. Mean peak GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH were prepubertal after the first dose and remained suppressed throughout treatment. During treatment, mean estradiol decreased to the limit of detection and mean testosterone decreased but remained above prepubertal norms. During posttreatment follow-up ( years, all patients achieved a pubertal hormonal response within 1 year and menses were reported in all females ≥12 years old. No impairment of reproductive function was observed at adulthood (mean age: 24.8 years.

  15. The influence of 17beta-oestradiol on corticotrophin-releasing hormone induced suppression of luteinising hormone pulses and the role of CRH in hypoglycaemic stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion in the female rat. (United States)

    Cates, P S; Li, X F; O'Byrne, K T


    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during stress has been implicated in the disruption of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis, and 17beta-oestradiol (E2) has been shown to enhance stress-induced suppression of pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinising hormone (LH) release. The aims of the present study were to examine the role of CRH in hypoglycaemic stress-induced suppression of LH pulses, and to investigate the influence of E2 on the inhibitory effect of CRH on pulsatile LH secretion in the female rat. Suppression of LH pulses by insulin-induced hypoglycaemic (IIH) stress was completely prevented by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of a CRH antagonist. Central administration of CRH (5 microg) resulted in an interruption of LH pulses in E2 treated animals, but had little or no effect in the absence of this gonadal steroid. These results provide evidence of a pivotal role for CRH in mediating the suppressive effect of IIH stress on pulsatile LH secretion in the female rat, and highlight a sensitising role for E2 in CRH-induced suppression of LH pulses.

  16. Gonadal suppressive and cross-sex hormone therapy for gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults. (United States)

    Smith, Katherine P; Madison, Christina M; Milne, Nikki M


    Individuals with gender dysphoria experience distress associated with incongruence between their biologic sex and their identified gender. Gender dysphoric natal males receive treatment with antiandrogens and estrogens to become feminized (transsexual females), whereas natal females with gender dysphoria receive treatment with androgens to become masculinized (transsexual males). Because of the permanence associated with cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT), adolescents diagnosed with gender dysphoria receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs to suppress puberty. High rates of depression and suicide are linked to social marginalization and barriers to care. Behavior, emotional problems, depressive symptoms, and global functioning improve in adolescents receiving puberty suppression therapy. Gender dysphoria, psychological symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improve in adults who receive CSHT. Within the first 6 months of CSHT, changes in transsexual females include breast growth, decreased testicular volume, and decreased spontaneous erections, and changes in transsexual males include cessation of menses, breast atrophy, clitoral enlargement, and voice deepening. Both transsexual females and males experience changes in body fat redistribution, muscle mass, and hair growth. Desired effects from CSHT can take between 3 and 5 years; however, effects that occur during puberty, such as voice deepening and skeletal structure changes, cannot be reversed with CSHT. Decreased sexual desire is a greater concern in transsexual females than in transsexual males, with testosterone concentrations linked to sexual desire in both. Regarding CSHT safety, bone mineral density is preserved with adequate hormone supplementation, but long-term fracture risk has not been studied. The transition away from high-dose traditional regimens is tied to a lower risk of venous thromboembolism and cardiovascular disease, but data quality is poor. Breast cancer has been reported in

  17. Aromatic hexamerin subunit from adult female cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) : Molecular cloning, suppression by juvenile hormone, and evolutionary perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamroz, RC; Beintema, JJ; Stam, WT; Bradfield, JY

    In an effort to identify several polypeptides that are strongly suppressed by juvenile hormone (JH) in fat body of adult female Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches, we have cloned a cDNA representing a polypeptide member of the hexamerin family of arthropod serum proteins. The deduced primary

  18. Growth hormone-independent suppression of growth hormone-dependent female isoforms of cytochrome P450 by the somatostatin analog octreotide (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Shapiro, Bernard H.


    Octreotide is a potent somatostatin analog therapeutically used to treat several conditions including hyper growth hormone secretion in patients with acromegaly. We infused octreotide into female Sprague Dawley rats every 12 h for 6 days at levels considerably greater than typical human therapeutic doses. Resulting circulating growth hormone profiles were characterized by ~25% reduction in plasma levels, including both pulse and interpulse components, but still contained in an otherwise female-like “continuous” secretory profile. The normally elevated feminine expression levels (protein and/or mRNA) of CYP2C12, CYP2A1, CYP2C7 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), all dependent on the continuous feminine growth hormone profile, were dramatically down-regulated. Octreotide suppression of the female-dependent levels of CYPs (cytochromes P450) and IGF-1 could not be explained by the apparently inconsequential alterations in the feminine circulating growth hormone profile. In this regard, somatostatin and its analogs are known to have a myriad of extra-pituitary actions effecting nearly all tissues in the body. Focusing our attention on CYP2C12, accounting for >40% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 content in the female rat liver, we found an ~4-fold increase in hepatic ubiquitin-CYP2C12 levels in octreotide treated rats suggesting a possible contributing factor for the >60% suppression of CYP2C12 protein concentrations. PMID:23707186

  19. Clinical and Hormonal Criteria of the Effectiveness of Suppressive Cabergoline Therapy in Patients with Organic Hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Khyzhniak


    Full Text Available Background. In modern international guidelines, there are not distinguished criteria for the evaluation of clinical symptoms, including somatic, neurological status, although almost all neuroendocrinologists acknowledge the presence exactly of heterospecific complaints and symptoms in patients with organic hyperprolactinemia. Treatment of organic hyperprolactinemia is aimed at achieving recovery of normal levels of the biologically active prolactin (PRL and a reduction in adenoma volume. The objective of the study — to investigate the clinical and hormonal effectiveness of different modes of suppressive cabergoline therapy in patients with prolactinoma during 12 months. Materials and methods of the study. 61 patients with prolactinoma (PROL (52 women and 9 men aged 16–66 years were examined and underwent 12-month course of treatment by selective dopamine agonist cabergoline (CAB. The total duration of the disease ranged from 1 to 60 months, average one — 12.3 ± 10.1 months. 40 women treated with CAB had microPROL, 12 — macro- and giant PROL. 2 men had microadenoma, 7 — macroadenoma. PROL was verified using magnetic resonance imaging. PRL blood levels (ng/mL were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on automated analyzer StatFax 2100 (Awareness Technology, USA by means of commercial ELISA reagent kit (DRG Diagnostics, USA. We have used two modes of therapy: first one — the mode of gradual increase of CAB dose, starting from 0.5 mg a week, with subsequent control of the PRL blood level every 4 weeks and titration of the dose if necessary (increase in a week dose by 0.25–0.5 mg. Second one — the mode of high starting doses on the basis of the following: the quantity of CAB tablets (0.5 mg corresponded to the rate of increased PRL blood levels in relation to the upper limit of age norm, but no more than 4 mg (8 tablets a week. The statistical data analysis was carried out using program package Statgraphics Plus for

  20. Noncanonical suppression of growth hormone – dependent isoforms of cytochrome P450 by the somatostatin analog octreotide (United States)

    Das, Rajat Kumar; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H


    Octreotide is a potent somatostatin analog therapeutically used to treat several conditions including hyper growth hormone secretion in patients with acromegaly. We infused, over 30 sec, octreotide into male rats every 12 h for 6 days at levels considerably greater than typical human therapeutic doses. Unexpectedly, resulting circulating growth hormone profile were characterized by pulses of higher amplitudes, longer durations and greater total content than normal, but still contained an otherwise male-like episodic secretory profiles. In apparent disaccord, the normally elevated masculine expression levels (protein and/or mRNA) of CYP2C11 (accounting for >50% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 content), CYP3A2, CYP2C7 and IGF1, all dependent on the episodic growth hormone profile, were considerably down-regulated. We explain this contradiction by proposing that the requisite minimal growth hormone-devoid interpulse durations in the masculine profile that solely regulate expression of at least CYP2C11 and IGF1 may be sufficiently reduced to suppress transcription of the hepatic genes. Alternatively, we observed that octreotide infusion may have acted directly on the hepatocytes to induce expression of immune response factors postulated to suppress CYP transcription and/or up-regulate expression of several negative regulators (e.g., phosphatases, SOCS proteins) of the JAK2/STAT5B signaling pathway that normally mediates the up-regulation of CYP2C11 and IGF1 by the masculine episodic growth hormone profile. PMID:23077183

  1. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Edward Visser

    Full Text Available DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/- or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7 progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging.

  2. Hormones (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  3. Ovarian Hormones and Transdermal Nicotine Administration Independently and Synergistically Suppress Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms and Smoking Reinstatement in the Human Laboratory. (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Leventhal, Adam M


    Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases. At each session, participants provided saliva for hormone assays and completed repeated self-report measures (ie, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, smoking urge, and negative affect (NA)) followed by an analog smoking reinstatement task for which participants could earn money to delay smoking and subsequently purchase cigarettes to smoke. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels were associated with greater reductions in NA. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels and progesterone to estradiol ratios were associated with reducing smoking urges over time to a greater extent with TNP compared to PBO. There was an interaction between Patch and estradiol on NA. With TNP, higher-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. However with PBO, lower-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. These results suggest that the effects of TNP on mood- and smoking-related outcomes may vary depending on the ovarian hormone levels.

  4. Serum levels of antimüllerian hormone in early maturing girls before, during, and after suppression with GnRH agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar; Anderson, Richard A


    To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH.......To evaluate whether serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) levels are affected in early maturing girls, and whether pituitary suppression by long-acting GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) affects AMH....

  5. Inhibition of gastric carcinogenesis by the hormone gastrin is mediated by suppression of TFF1 epigenetic silencing. (United States)

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Shigeo; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Yang, Xiangdong; Shibata, Wataru; Jin, Guangchun; Betz, Kelly S; Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Minamoto, Toshinari; Tomasetto, Catherine; Rio, Marie-Christine; Lerkowit, Nataporn; Varro, Andrea; Giraud, Andrew S; Wang, Timothy C


    Epigenetic alterations have been correlated with field cancerization in human patients, but evidence from experimental models that specific epigenetic changes can initiate cancer has been lacking. Although hormones have been associated with cancer risk, the mechanisms have not been determined. The peptide hormone gastrin exerts a suppressive effect on antral gastric carcinogenesis. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-dependent gastric cancer was investigated in hypergastrinemic (INS-GAS), gastrin-deficient (GAS(-/-)), Tff1-deficient (Tff1(+/-)), and wild-type (WT) mice. Epigenetic alterations of the trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) tumor suppressor gene were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human intestinal-type gastric cancers in the antrum exhibited progressive TFF1 repression and promoter hypermethylation. Mice treated with MNU exhibited a field defect characterized by widespread Tff1 repression associated with histone H3 lysine 9 methylation and H3 deacetylation at the Tff1 promoter in epithelial cells. In MNU-induced advanced cancers, DNA methylation at the Tff1 promoter was observed. Tumor induction and Tff1 repression were increased in MNU-treated mice by Helicobacter infection. Hypergastrinemia suppressed MNU-dependent tumor initiation and progression in a manner that correlated with gene silencing and epigenetic alterations of Tff1. In contrast, homozygous gastrin-deficient and heterozygous Tff1-deficient mice showed enhanced MNU-dependent field defects and cancer initiation compared with WT mice. In gastric cancer cells, gastrin stimulation partially reversed the epigenetic silencing in the TFF1 promoter. Initiation of antral gastric cancer is associated with progressive epigenetic silencing of TFF1, which can be suppressed by the hormone gastrin. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term hormonal contraceptive use is associated with a reversible suppression of antral follicle count and a break from hormonal contraception may improve oocyte yield. (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Cakmak, Hakan; Quinn, Molly; Sinha, Nikita; I Cedars, Marcelle; Rosen, Mitchell P


    Unlike infertility, patients presenting for fertility preservation (FP) are often using combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC). We studied whether long-term (≥6 months) CHC use is associated with reversible suppression of antral follicle count (AFC). This is a longitudinal study of FP cycles from 2012 to 2016. We studied three groups: those without CHC exposure (NO CHC), those with CHC usage with a CHC break (BREAK), and without a break (NO BREAK) prior to ovarian stimulation. We assessed ovarian reserve by AFC at initial consultation and discussed the possibility of CHC suppression of AFC. Patients chose between ovarian stimulation with no CHC break versus ovarian stimulation after a CHC break. AFC was measured serially in the BREAK group. We assessed whether AFC suppression was reversed in the BREAK group. Total oocyte yield was compared among the NO CHC, BREAK, and NO BREAK groups. T tests, ANOVA, and linear/logistic regressions were used. Seven hundred forty-three women underwent FP. Twenty-one percent (n = 154) were taking long-term CHC (≥6 months). AFC suppression was more likely with CHC use (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, P = 0.011). The BREAK group (n = 79) stopped CHC for an average of 4 months. AFC improvement started at 1 month and plateaued at approximately 6- to 7-month break. The BREAK group had approximately twice as many oocytes per initial AFC as NO BREAK (2.8 ± 3.8 vs. 1.4 ± 0.9, P break of several months is associated with an increase in AFC and a potential improvement in overall egg yield.

  7. Male hormonal contraception: suppression of spermatogenesis by injectable testosterone undecanoate alone or with levonorgestrel implants in chinese men. (United States)

    Gui, You-Lun; He, Chang-Hai; Amory, John K; Bremner, William J; Zheng, E-Xiang; Yang, Jie; Yang, Pei-Juan; Gao, Er-Sheng


    Monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate (TU) act as a male contraceptive by reversibly suppressing spermatogenesis to azoospermia or severe oligoazoospermia in 95% of Chinese men. In 5% of Chinese men, however, monthly TU administered alone fails to suppress spermatogenesis into contraceptive ranges, or sperm "rebound," leading to occurrences of pregnancy during treatment. Since combinations of progestins and androgens are associated with greater degrees of sperm suppression in white men, we hypothesized that the combination of TU and the progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) would result in improved spermatogenic suppression in Chinese men. Sixty-two healthy Chinese men were randomly assigned to one of the following 3 regimens: group I (n = 21) received 4 LNG rods (75 mg each), which were followed 4 weeks later by 500 mg of TU by intra-muscular (IM) injection every 8 weeks for 24 weeks; group II (n = 20) received 4 LNG implants, which were followed 4 weeks later by 1000 mg of TU by IM injection every 8 weeks for 24 weeks; and group III (n = 21) received TU 1000 mg by IM injection every 8 weeks for 24 weeks. Sperm counts, serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and LNG were measured every 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment. During treatment, group II demonstrated a trend toward a greater attainment of azoospermia than groups I and III (90% vs 62% [group I] vs 67% [group III]; P =.09). Attainments of either azoospermia or oligozoospermia (sperm density, .05 for comparisons between groups). Spermatogenesis in all subjects returned to the normal range after the implants were removed. No serious adverse events and no significant changes in serum chemistry occurred during the study. These results demonstrate that the combination of IM injections of high-dose TU every 2 months and LNG implants is associated with marked suppression of spermatogenesis in Chinese men. The combination of high-dose TU every 2 months and LNG implants

  8. Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk (United States)

    Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R


    Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: ‘early’ (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); ‘intermediate’ (4 dpi); and ‘late’, whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA–SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor. PMID:25297722

  9. Spider mites suppress tomato defenses downstream of jasmonate and salicylate independently of hormonal crosstalk. (United States)

    Alba, Juan M; Schimmel, Bernardus C J; Glas, Joris J; Ataide, Livia M S; Pappas, Maria L; Villarroel, Carlos A; Schuurink, Robert C; Sabelis, Maurice W; Kant, Merijn R


    Plants respond to herbivory by mounting a defense. Some plant-eating spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) have adapted to plant defenses to maintain a high reproductive performance. From natural populations we selected three spider mite strains from two species, Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi, that can suppress plant defenses, using a fourth defense-inducing strain as a benchmark, to assess to which extent these strains suppress defenses differently. We characterized timing and magnitude of phytohormone accumulation and defense-gene expression, and determined if mites that cannot suppress defenses benefit from sharing a leaf with suppressors. The nonsuppressor strain induced a mixture of jasmonate- (JA) and salicylate (SA)-dependent defenses. Induced defense genes separated into three groups: 'early' (expression peak at 1 d postinfestation (dpi)); 'intermediate' (4 dpi); and 'late', whose expression increased until the leaf died. The T. evansi strains suppressed genes from all three groups, but the T. urticae strain only suppressed the late ones. Suppression occurred downstream of JA and SA accumulation, independently of the JA-SA antagonism, and was powerful enough to boost the reproductive performance of nonsuppressors up to 45%. Our results show that suppressing defenses not only brings benefits but, within herbivore communities, can also generate a considerable ecological cost when promoting the population growth of a competitor. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Orexin-A suppresses the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone via beta-endorphin. (United States)

    Irahara, M; Tamura, T; Matuzaki, T; Saito, S; Yasui, T; Yamano, S; Kamada, M; Aono, T


    Orexins, the novel hypothalamic neuropeptides that stimulate feeding behavior, have been shown to suppress the pulsatile secretion of LH in ovariectomized rats. However, the mechanism of this action is still not clear. We examined the effect of naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, on the suppression of the pulsatile secretion of LH by orexins to determine whether beta-endorphin is involved in this suppressive effect. We administered orexins intracerebroventricularly and injected naloxone intravenously in ovariectomized rats, and we measured the serum LH concentration to analyze the pulsatile secretion. Administration of orexin-A significantly reduced the mean LH concentration and the pulse frequency, but coadministration of naloxone significantly restored the mean LH concentration and the pulse frequency. Administration of orexin-B also significantly reduced the mean LH concentration and the pulse frequency, and coadministration of naloxone did not restore them. These results indicate that orexin-A, but not orexin-B, suppresses GnRH secretion via beta-endorphin.

  11. Do in-vivo suppression and stimulation of lipolysis influence thyroid hormone levels in man? (United States)

    Newrick, P G; Braatvedt, G; Stansbie, D; Corrall, R J


    To determine whether increases in non-esterified fatty acids alter free thyroid hormone and TSH levels, the effect of endogenous activation of lipolysis by insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was examined in seven healthy volunteers pretreated with placebo or acipimox. Whilst levels of non-esterified fatty acid were very different in the two groups, levels of free thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine and TSH were unchanged. Thus, within the range of non-esterified fatty acid levels likely to be seen in clinical practice, any effect on thyroid hormone measurements can be safely ignored.

  12. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor RO 48-8071 suppresses growth of hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Y


    Full Text Available Yayun Liang,1 Benford Mafuvadze,1 Johannes D Aebi,2 Salman M Hyder1 1Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center and Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA; 2Medicinal Chemistry, Roche Pharma Research and Early Development (pRED, Roche Innovation Center Basel, F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel, Switzerland Abstract: Standard treatment for primary prostate cancer includes systemic exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs that target androgen receptor or antihormone therapy (chemical castration; however, drug-resistant cancer cells generally emerge during treatment, limiting the continued use of systemic chemotherapy. Patients are then treated with more toxic standard therapies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel and more effective treatments for prostate cancer. The cholesterol biosynthetic pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for treating endocrine-dependent cancers because cholesterol is an essential structural and functional component of cell membranes as well as the metabolic precursor of endogenous steroid hormones. In this study, we have examined the effects of RO 48-8071 (4'-[6-(allylmethylaminohexyloxy]-4-bromo-2'-fluorobenzophenone fumarate; Roche Pharmaceuticals internal reference: RO0488071 (RO, which is an inhibitor of 2, 3-oxidosqualene cyclase (a key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, on prostate cancer cells. Exposure of both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant human prostate cancer cells to RO reduced prostate cancer cell viability and induced apoptosis in vitro. RO treatment reduced androgen receptor protein expression in hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells and increased estrogen receptor β (ERβ protein expression in both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Combining RO with an ERβ agonist increased its ability to reduce castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability. In addition, RO effectively suppressed the

  13. Glucocorticoids suppress corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin expression in human hypothalamic neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkut, Z. A.; Pool, C.; Swaab, D. F.


    Glucocorticoids are widely used in clinical practice in a variety of immune-mediated and neoplastic diseases, mostly for their immunosuppressive, leukopenic, antiedematous, or malignancy-suppressive actions. However, their usage is limited because of serious and sometimes life-threatening

  14. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). (United States)

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote


    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ovarian suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and fertility of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized studies. (United States)

    Lambertini, M; Ceppi, M; Poggio, F; Peccatori, F A; Azim, H A; Ugolini, D; Pronzato, P; Loibl, S; Moore, H C F; Partridge, A H; Bruzzi, P; Del Mastro, L


    The role of temporary ovarian suppression with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is still controversial. Our meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) investigates whether the use of LHRHa during chemotherapy in premenopausal breast cancer patients reduces treatment-related POF rate, increases pregnancy rate, and impacts disease-free survival (DFS). A literature search using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, and the proceedings of major conferences, was conducted up to 30 April 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for POF (i.e. POF by study definition, and POF defined as amenorrhea 1 year after chemotherapy completion) and for patients with pregnancy, as well hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CI for DFS, were calculated for each trial. Pooled analysis was carried out using the fixed- and random-effects models. A total of 12 RCTs were eligible including 1231 breast cancer patients. The use of LHRHa was associated with a significant reduced risk of POF (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57; P chemotherapy completion, the addition of LHRHa reduced the risk of POF (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.73, P chemotherapy-induced POF and seems to increase the pregnancy rate, without an apparent negative consequence on prognosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  16. Use and Effectiveness of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonists for Prophylactic Menstrual Suppression in Postmenarchal Women Who Undergo Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. (United States)

    Poorvu, Philip D; Barton, Sara E; Duncan, Christine N; London, Wendy B; Laufer, Marc R; Lehmann, Leslie E; Marcus, Karen J


    To describe the rates of use and effectiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression in prevention of vaginal bleeding among young women who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective descriptive study. University-based pediatric HCT practice. Fifty-five postmenarchal women who underwent HCT between 2004 and 2011. Administration of GnRH agonists or other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression. Rates of use of GnRH agonists and other forms of hormonal menstrual suppression, and rates and descriptions of vaginal bleeding. Forty-six of the 55 patients had experienced regular or irregular vaginal bleeding before HCT and were considered to be at risk for thrombocytopenia-associated menorrhagia. Forty of the 46 (87%) received hormonal menstrual suppression. Thirty-three patients were treated with a GnRH agonist, 4 with combined hormonal contraceptive pills, 1 with a combined hormonal contraceptive patch, 1 with depot medroxyprogesterone, and 1 with oral norethindrone. Twenty-nine of the 33 patients (88%) who received a GnRH agonist had complete amenorrhea during HCT and 4 of 33 (12%) experienced some degree of vaginal bleeding. GnRH agonists appear effective in prevention of vaginal bleeding complications in most postmenarchal women who underwent HCT. Some patients who might benefit do not receive a GnRH agonist and multiple barriers exist in identification and treatment of them. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bed rest suppresses bioassayable growth hormone release in response to muscle activity (United States)

    McCall, G. E.; Goulet, C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Hodgson, J. A.; Bigbee, A. J.; Edgerton, V. R.


    Hormonal responses to muscle activity were studied in eight men before (-13 or -12 and -8 or -7 days), during (2 or 3, 8 or 9, and 13 or 14 days) and after (+2 or +3 and +10 or +11 days) 17 days of bed rest. Muscle activity consisted of a series of unilateral isometric plantar flexions, including 4 maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), 48 contractions at 30% MVC, and 12 contractions at 80% MVC, all performed at a 4:1-s work-to-rest ratio. Blood was collected before and immediately after muscle activity to measure plasma growth hormone by radioimmunoassay (IGH) and by bioassay (BGH) of tibia epiphyseal cartilage growth in hypophysectomized rats. Plasma IGH was unchanged by muscle activity before, during, or after bed rest. Before bed rest, muscle activity increased (P muscle activity, a pattern that persisted through 8 or 9 days of bed rest. However, after 13 or 14 days of bed rest, plasma concentration of BGH was significantly lower after than before muscle activity (2,594 +/- 211 to 2,085 +/- 109 microg/l). After completion of bed rest, muscle activity increased BGH by 31% at 2 or 3 days (1,807 +/- 117 to 2,379 +/- 473 microg/l; P muscle activity.

  18. In vitro effect of. Delta. sup 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. (Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)); Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M. (Centro de Estudios Farmacologicos y de Principios Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina))


    Previous in vivo studies have shown that {Delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE{sub 2} suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE{sub 2} synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release.

  19. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz


    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and down-regulation of olfactomedin-1. (United States)

    So, Kam-Hei; Kodithuwakku, Suranga P; Kottawatta, Kottawattage S A; Li, Raymond H W; Chiu, Philip C N; Cheung, Annie N Y; Ng, Ernest H Y; Yeung, William S B; Lee, Kai-Fai


    To study the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on olfactomedin-1 (Olfm1) expression and spheroid attachment in human fallopian tube epithelial cells in vitro. Experimental study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Healthy nonpregnant women. No patient interventions. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) and Olfm1 expression in fallopian tube epithelium cell line (OE-E6/E7 cells). OE-E6/E7 cells treated with hCG, U0126 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, or XAV939 Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor were analyzed by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro spheroid attachment assay. Human chorionic gonadotropin increased spheroid attachment on OE-E6/E7 cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 and activation of Wnt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. U0126 down-regulated both MAPK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and up-regulated Olfm1 expression. XAV939 down-regulated only the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway but up-regulated Olfm1 expression. Human chorionic gonadotropin activated both ERK and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways and enhanced spheroid attachment on fallopian tube epithelial cells through down-regulation of Olfm1 expression. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Depressão maior e supressão hormonal: resposta com a nortriptilina Major depression and hormone suppression: response with nortriptiline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Mitsue Gomes Yukizaki


    goserelin for hormone suppression when she started to complain of depressive and anxiety symptoms. The patient did not improve with 20 mg/day of fluoxetine for 8 weeks. She improved after 2 weeks using 25 mg/day of nortryptiline. The improvement persisted during our 16 weeks follow-up. CONCLUSION: Although only sertraline has its efficacy demonstrated for depressive symptoms associated with ovarian suppression, in this case nortriptyline was efficient too. We observed the necessity of more studies about this topic in order to better evaluate other therapeutic options.

  2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 suppresses food intake in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNishiguchi


    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, of which several structural variants exist. A molecular form known as GnRH2 ([His5 Trp7 Tyr8]GnRH, also known as chicken GnRH II is widely distributed in vertebrates except for rodents, and has recently been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior in goldfish. However, the influence of GnRH2 on feeding behavior in other fish has not yet been studied. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the role of GnRH2 in the regulation of feeding behavior in a zebrafish model, and examined its involvement in food intake after intracerebroventricular (ICV administration. ICV injection of GnRH2 at 0.1 and 1 pmol/g body weight (BW induced a marked decrease of food consumption in a dose-dependent manner during 30 min after feeding. Cumulative food intake was significantly decreased by ICV injection of GnRH2 at 1 pmol/g BW during the 30-min post-treatment observation period. The anorexigenic action of GnRH2 was completely blocked by treatment with the GnRH type I receptor antagonist Antide at 50 pmol/g BW. We also examined the effect of feeding condition on the expression level of the GnRH2 transcript in the hypothalamus. Levels of GnRH2 mRNA obtained from fish that had been provided excess food for 7 days were higher than those in fish that had been fed normally. These results suggest that, in zebrafish, GnRH2 acts as an anorexigenic factor, as is the case in goldfish.

  3. A crucial role of activin A-mediated growth hormone suppression in mouse and human heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritoshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available Infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC has been reported to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether infusion of BMMNC is also effective for non-ischemic heart failure model mice and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous infusion of BMMNC showed transient cardioprotective effects on animal models with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM without their engraftment in heart, suggesting that BMMNC infusion improves cardiac function via humoral factors rather than their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Using conditioned media from sorted BMMNC, we found that the cardioprotective effects were mediated by growth hormone (GH secreted from myeloid (Gr-1(+ cells and the effects was partially mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, the GH expression in Gr-1(+ cells was significantly downregulated in DCM mice compared with that in healthy control, suggesting that the environmental cue in heart failure might suppress the Gr-1(+ cells function. Activin A was upregulated in the serum of DCM models and induced downregulation of GH levels in Gr-1(+ cells and serum. Furthermore, humoral factors upregulated in heart failure including angiotensin II upregulated activin A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC via activation of NFκB. Similarly, serum activin A levels were also significantly higher in DCM patients with heart failure than in healthy subjects and the GH levels in conditioned medium from PBMNC of DCM patients were lower than that in healthy subjects. Inhibition of activin A increased serum GH levels and improved cardiac function of DCM model mice. These results suggest that activin A causes heart failure by suppressing GH activity and that inhibition of activin A might become a novel strategy for the treatment of heart failure.

  4. Impaired genome maintenance suppresses the growth hormone--insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in mice with Cockayne syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid van der Pluijm


    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a photosensitive, DNA repair disorder associated with progeria that is caused by a defect in the transcription-coupled repair subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER. Here, complete inactivation of NER in Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mutants causes a phenotype that reliably mimics the human progeroid CS syndrome. Newborn Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- mice display attenuated growth, progressive neurological dysfunction, retinal degeneration, cachexia, kyphosis, and die before weaning. Mouse liver transcriptome analysis and several physiological endpoints revealed systemic suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF1 somatotroph axis and oxidative metabolism, increased antioxidant responses, and hypoglycemia together with hepatic glycogen and fat accumulation. Broad genome-wide parallels between Csb(m/m/Xpa(-/- and naturally aged mouse liver transcriptomes suggested that these changes are intrinsic to natural ageing and the DNA repair-deficient mice. Importantly, wild-type mice exposed to a low dose of chronic genotoxic stress recapitulated this response, thereby pointing to a novel link between genome instability and the age-related decline of the somatotroph axis.

  5. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S


    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol-induced secret......AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol....../day) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations...... supplementation does not affect fasting or postprandial incretin hormone plasma levels in obese humans, but suppresses postprandial glucagon responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Prospective assessment of pituitary size and shape on MR imaging after suppressive hormonal therapy in central precocious puberty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, J.T. van; Sharafuddin, M.J.A.; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology-JPP 3889, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52246 (United States); Luisiri, A. [Cardinal Glennon Children' s Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Garibaldi, L.R. [Children' s Hospital of New Jersey, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center, Newark, New Jersey (United States); St. Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, New Jersey (United States)


    Objective. The diagnostic significance of an enlarged pituitary gland regarding both shape and size parameters on MR imaging has previously been demonstrated in children with central precocious puberty. This study was designed to assess changes in these parameters following successful suppressive therapy of central precocious puberty with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue. Materials and methods. Twelve girls (mean age 7.3 years) with central precocious puberty were prospectively enrolled in our study protocol. Sagittal and coronal MR images of the pituitary region were obtained in all patients before treatment and after at least 6 months of GnRH analogue therapy (mean 18.0 months). Parameters measured included pituitary gland height, length, width, sagittal cross-sectional area, and volume. Results. All patients had excellent clinical response to treatment with arrest of secondary sexual development, normalization of serum estradiol levels, and complete obliteration of the LH response to diagnostic GnRH stimulation. No significant change occurred in any pituitary size or shape parameter following GnRH analogue therapy. Conclusion. Favorable clinical response to GnRH analogue therapy in central precocious puberty is not accompanied by significant a change in pituitary gland size and shape. (orig.)

  7. Variable duration of reproductive suppression in male coyotes (Canis latrans) treated with a high dose of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist deslorelin. (United States)

    MacGregor, Marjorie J; Asa, Cheryl S; Skinner, Donal C


    Effective and humane management strategies for coyotes (Canis latrans) remain elusive. We hypothesised that exposure to a high dose of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist would cause prolonged suppression of the reproductive axis. Two groups of male coyotes were administered 47mg deslorelin in the form of either five 9.4-mg controlled-release Suprelorin (Peptech Animal Health, Macquarie Park NSW, Australia) implants (n=3) or 10 4.7-mg implants (n=5). In the first group, deslorelin suppressed plasma LH, testosterone and testes volume in two of three coyotes for three breeding seasons. In the second group, two of five deslorelin-treated coyotes had no sperm production after 1 year and plasma LH, FSH, testosterone and testes volume were suppressed. Although plasma gonadotropins and testosterone were suppressed in three treated coyotes in group two, testes volume and sperm production were evident. Because the duration of suppression differed among individual coyotes, we further hypothesised that a variation in deslorelin release underlay the variability. To test this, we analysed in vivo plasma profiles of deslorelin concentrations. These profiles suggested that deslorelin concentrations >100 pg mL-1 are required to maintain suppression in male coyotes. For field implementation, the development of an implant capable of releasing deslorelin for the life of the coyote is necessary.

  8. The Luteinizing Hormone-Testosterone Pathway Regulates Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Self-Renewal by Suppressing WNT5A Expression in Sertoli Cells. (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Lei, Zhenmin; Rao, C V; Shinohara, Takashi


    Spermatogenesis originates from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Previous studies have reported conflicting roles of gonadotropic pituitary hormones in SSC self-renewal. Here, we explored the role of hormonal regulation of SSCs using Fshb and Lhcgr knockout (KO) mice. Although follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is thought to promote self-renewal by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), no abnormalities were found in SSCs and their microenvironment. In contrast, SSCs were enriched in Lhcgr-deficient mice. Moreover, wild-type SSCs transplanted into Lhcgr-deficient mice showed enhanced self-renewal. Microarray analysis revealed that Lhcgr-deficient testes have enhanced WNT5A expression in Sertoli cells, which showed an immature phenotype. Since WNT5A was upregulated by anti-androgen treatment, testosterone produced by luteinizing hormone (LH) is required for Sertoli cell maturation. WNT5A promoted SSC activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, FSH is not responsible for GDNF regulation, while LH negatively regulates SSC self-renewal by suppressing WNT5A via testosterone. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Luteinizing Hormone-Testosterone Pathway Regulates Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Self-Renewal by Suppressing WNT5A Expression in Sertoli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka


    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis originates from self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs. Previous studies have reported conflicting roles of gonadotropic pituitary hormones in SSC self-renewal. Here, we explored the role of hormonal regulation of SSCs using Fshb and Lhcgr knockout (KO mice. Although follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is thought to promote self-renewal by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, no abnormalities were found in SSCs and their microenvironment. In contrast, SSCs were enriched in Lhcgr-deficient mice. Moreover, wild-type SSCs transplanted into Lhcgr-deficient mice showed enhanced self-renewal. Microarray analysis revealed that Lhcgr-deficient testes have enhanced WNT5A expression in Sertoli cells, which showed an immature phenotype. Since WNT5A was upregulated by anti-androgen treatment, testosterone produced by luteinizing hormone (LH is required for Sertoli cell maturation. WNT5A promoted SSC activity both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, FSH is not responsible for GDNF regulation, while LH negatively regulates SSC self-renewal by suppressing WNT5A via testosterone.

  10. Production of human growth hormone in transgenic rice seeds: co-introduction of RNA interference cassette for suppressing the gene expression of endogenous storage proteins. (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Takanari; Ozaki, Shinji; Saito, Yuhi; Kuroda, Masaharu; Morita, Shigeto; Satoh, Shigeru; Masumura, Takehiro


    Rice seeds are potentially useful hosts for the production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, low yields of recombinant proteins have been observed in many cases because recombinant proteins compete with endogenous storage proteins. Therefore, we attempt to suppress endogenous seed storage proteins by RNA interference (RNAi) to develop rice seeds as a more efficient protein expression system. In this study, human growth hormone (hGH) was expressed in transgenic rice seeds using an endosperm-specific promoter from a 10 kDa rice prolamin gene. In addition, an RNAi cassette for reduction of endogenous storage protein expressions was inserted into the hGH expression construct. Using this system, the expression levels of 13 kDa prolamin and glutelin were effectively suppressed and hGH polypeptides accumulated to 470 μg/g dry weight at the maximum level in transgenic rice seeds. These results suggest that the suppression of endogenous protein gene expression by RNAi could be of great utility for increasing transgene products.

  11. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel


    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic ß-cells, and to examine this in relation to ß-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  12. Suppression of FAT/CD36 mRNA by human growth hormone in pancreatic β-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Louise Torp; Thams, Peter Grevsen; Gaarn, Louise Winkel


    of this study was to examine the effect of human growth hormone (hGH) on mRNAs of fatty acid transport and binding proteins expressed in pancreatic β-cells, and to examine this in relation to β-cell survival after exposure to fatty acids. hGH decreased mRNA levels of FAT/CD36, whereas mRNAs of GPR40, FASN, FABP...

  13. Weight Changes in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma during Postoperative Long-Term Follow-up under Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Young Sohn


    Full Text Available BackgroundThere are limited data about whether patients who receive initial treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC gain or lose weight during long-term follow-up under thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH suppression. This study was aimed to evaluate whether DTC patients under TSH suppression experience long-term weight gain after initial treatment. We also examined the impact of the radioactive iodine ablation therapy (RAIT preparation method on changes of weight, comparing thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW and recombinant human TSH (rhTSH.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed 700 DTC patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by either RAIT and levothyroxine (T4 replacement or T4 replacement alone. The control group included 350 age-matched patients with benign thyroid nodules followed during same period. Anthropometric data were measured at baseline, 1 to 2 years, and 3 to 4 years after thyroidectomy. Comparisons were made between weight and body mass index (BMI at baseline and follow-up.ResultsSignificant gains in weight and BMI were observed 3 to 4 years after initial treatment for female DTC but not in male patients. These gains among female DTC patients were also significant compared to age-matched control. Women in the THW group gained a significant amount of weight and BMI compared to baseline, while there was no increase in weight or BMI in the rhTSH group. There were no changes in weight and BMI in men according to RAIT preparation methods.ConclusionFemale DTC patients showed significant gains in weight and BMI during long-term follow-up after initial treatment. These changes were seen only in patients who underwent THW for RAIT.

  14. Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone. (United States)

    Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D


    The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3032391

  15. Dietary thylakoids suppress blood glucose and modulate appetite-regulating hormones in pigs exposed to oral glucose tolerance test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montelius, Caroline; Szwiec, Katarzyna; Kardas, Marek


    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dietary chloroplast thylakoids have previously been found to reduce food intake and body weight in animal models, and to change metabolic profiles in humans in mixed-food meal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effects of thylakoids on glucose...... metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones during an oral glucose tolerance test in pigs fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Six pigs were fed a high fat diet (36 energy% fat) for one month before oral glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg d-glucose) was performed. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study......, either with or without addition of 0.5 g/kg body weight of thylakoid powder. RESULTS: The supplementation of thylakoids to the oral glucose tolerance test resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations during the first hour, increased plasma cholecystokinin concentrations during the first two hours...

  16. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, Motohiro [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yahagi, Naoya, E-mail: [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Physiology on Energy Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yagyu, Hiroaki [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Gotoda, Takanari [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Nagai, Ryozo [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro [Advanced Biomedical Applications, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305-8575 (Japan); and others


    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  17. Abnormal response of melanin-concentrating hormone deficient mice to fasting: hyperactivity and rapid eye movement sleep suppression. (United States)

    Willie, J T; Sinton, C M; Maratos-Flier, E; Yanagisawa, M


    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH(-)(/)(-)) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH(-)(/)(-) mice was normal. Thus MCH(-)(/)(-) mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances.

  18. Bmal1 knockdown suppresses wake and increases immobility without altering orexin A, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, or glutamate decarboxylase. (United States)

    Akladious, Afaf; Azzam, Sausan; Hu, Yufen; Feng, Pingfu


    To determine the effect of Bmal1 knockdown (KD) on sleep, activity, immobility, hypothalamic levels of orexin, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and GABAergic glutamate decarboxylase (GAD). We used Bmal1 siRNA, or control siRNA intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection to knock down Bmal1 in C57BL/6 mice. Sleep polysomnography, wheel-running activity, and tail suspension test were performed. Polysomnographic (PSG) recordings in both groups were preceded by ICV injection made during both the light phase and the dark phase. We also measured brain orexin A and CRH using an ELISA and measured GAD using immunoblotting. Compared with control group, Bmal1 KD group had reduced wheel activity and increased immobility. Compared with control, the Bmal1 KD group had reduced wheel activity and increased immobility. During the first 24 hours after treatment, we observed that control siRNA induced a much greater increase in sleep during the dark phase, which was associated with lower orexin levels. However, beginning 24 hours after treatment, we observed an increase in sleep and a decrease in time spent awake during the dark phase in the Bmal1 KD group. These changes were not associated with changes in brain levels of orexin A, CRH, or GAD. Bmal1 KD led to reduced activity, increased immobility, and dramatic reduction in time spent awake as well as an increase in sleep during the dark phase. Early after injection, there was a slight change in sleep but brain levels of orexin, CRH, and GAD remain unchanged. Control siRNA also affected sleep associated with changes in orexin levels. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Restoration of parathyroid function after change of phosphate binder from calcium carbonate to lanthanum carbonate in hemodialysis patients with suppressed serum parathyroid hormone. (United States)

    Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Nagayama, Harumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Ishimura, Eiji; Imanishi, Yasuo; Shoji, Shigeichi


    Control of phosphate is the most critical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease with mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Because calcium-containing phosphate binder to CKD patients is known to induce adynamic bone disease with ectopic calcification by increasing calcium load, we examined the effect of lanthanum carbonate (LaC), a non-calcium containing phosphate binder, to restore bone turnover in 27 hemodialysis patients with suppressed parathyroid function (serum intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH] ≦ 150 pg/mL). At the initiation of LaC administration, the dose of calcium-containing phosphate binder calcium carbonate (CaC) was withdrawn or reduced based on serum phosphate. After initiation of LaC administration, serum calcium and phosphate decreased significantly by 4 weeks, whereas whole PTH and iPTH increased. A significant and positive correlation between decreases of serum calcium, but not phosphate, with increases of whole PTH and iPTH, suggested that the decline in serum calcium with reduction of calcium load by LaC might increase parathyroid function. Serum bone resorption markers, such as serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, and N-telopeptide of type I collagen increased significantly by 4 weeks after LaC administration, which was followed by increases of serum bone formation markers including serum bone alkaline phosphatase, intact procollagen N-propeptide, and osteocalcin. Therefore, it was suggested that LaC attenuated CaC-induced suppression of parathyroid function and bone turnover by decreasing calcium load. In conclusion, replacement of CaC with LaC, either partially or totally, could increase parathyroid function and resultant bone turnover in hemodialysis patients with serum iPTH ≦ 150 pg/mL. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Elevated post-dexamethasone suppression cortisol concentrations correlate with hormonal alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. (United States)

    Tsagarakis, S; Roboti, C; Kokkoris, P; Vasiliou, V; Alevizaki, C; Thalassinos, N


    It has recently been suggested that autonomous cortisol production may lead to subclinical glucocorticoid excess in a substantial number of patients with incidentally discovered adrenocortical adenomas. Following a standard low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) cortisol concentrations are frequently incompletely suppressed in patients with adrenal incidentalomas, due to an ACTH-independent secretion of cortisol by the adrenal mass. Thus, post LDDST cortisol concentrations may provide a measure of the degree of autonomous glucocorticoid secretion, but hormonal alterations in relation to post-LDDST cortisol concentrations have not been thoroughly investigated. 61 patients with radiological features highly suggestive of adrenal adenomas were studied. These included 43 women, 18 men; mean age 59 +/- 1.4, range: 25-76 years; BMI 30.9 +/- 0.8 kg/m2 and waist:hip ratio 0.90 +/- 0.016. All subjects underwent a standard LDDST, as follows: after a 48-hr stabilisation period, 24-hr urine collections for basal urinary free cortisol (UFC) were performed. Basal serum cortisol and plasma ACTH were measured at 8 AM and at midnight the following day, and subjects started dexamethasone 0.5 mg 6 hourly for 2 days. Post-dexamethasone cortisol and ACTH levels were measured at 8 AM, 6-hrs after the last dose of dexamethasone. Blood samples for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and serum lipids were obtained on the morning preceding dexamethasone administration. Post-LDDST cortisol concentrations correlated positively with the size of the adenoma (r = +0.527, P 70 nmol/l (19 pts); Group B, 30-70 nmol/l (27 pts); Group C, < 30 nmol/l (15 pts). Although there was no difference in basal cortisol and UFC values between these groups, ACTH and DHEAS levels were significantly lower, and midnight cortisol significantly higher in group A compared to group C patients (P = 0.030, P = 0.017 and P = 0.001 respectively). Cholesterol and triglyceride levels were slightly albeit

  1. Intragastric infusion of the bitter tastant quinine suppresses hormone release and antral motility during the fasting state in healthy female volunteers. (United States)

    Deloose, E; Corsetti, M; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I; Tack, J


    Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Secondly, we studied the effect on interdigestive motility. Ten healthy female volunteers were recruited (33±4 y; 22±0.5 kg/m²). Placebo or QHCl (10 μmol/kg) was administered intragastrically through a nasogastric feeding tube after an overnight fast in a single-blind randomized fashion. Administration started 20 min after the first phase III of the migrating motor complex. The measurement continued for another 2 h after the administration. Blood samples were collected every 10 min with the baseline sample taken 10 min prior to administration. The increase in plasma levels of motilin (administration; P=.04) and total ghrelin (administration; P=.02) was significantly lower after QHCl. The fluctuation of octanoylated ghrelin was reduced after QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). Duodenal motility did not differ. The fluctuation of antral activity differed over time between placebo and QHCl (time by administration; P=.03). QHCl suppresses the increase of both motilin and ghrelin plasma levels. Moreover, QHCl reduced the fluctuation of antral motility. These findings confirm the potential of bitter taste receptors as targets for modifying interdigestive motility in man. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modified dexamethasone suppression-corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test: A pilot study of young healthy volunteers and implications for alcoholism research in adolescents and young adults. (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Cooper, Thomas B; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A


    The key neuroendocrine component of a response to stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Abnormalities in the HPA system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcoholism and suicide. The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is the most frequently used test to assess HPA-system function in psychiatric disorders. This neuroendocrine test consists of the administration of a low dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and the measurement of cortisol levels at one or more time points on the following day. After corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) became available for clinical studies, the DST was combined with CRH administration. In this test, patients are pretreated with a single dose of dexamethasone at 11 pm and receive human CRH intravenously at 3 pm the following day. The resulting DST-CRH test proved to be much more sensitive in detecting HPA system alterations than the DST. We have modified the DST-CRH test and used ovine CRH instead of human CRH in a pilot study of a group of young healthy volunteers. Results indicated that it produces results similar to the results obtained with human CRH. This suggests that ovine CRH can be used in psychiatric research. Alcoholism is associated with abnormalities in HPA function. Nonalcoholic subjects with a family history of alcoholism exhibit lower plasma ACTH and beta-endorphin as well as lower ACTH, cortisol, and beta-endorphin responses to psychological stress and CRH stimulation. This suggests that in children of alcoholics, alterations in the mechanisms that regulate HPA axis activity predate the development of alcohol dependence and may be considered inherited traits. Therefore, studies of the HPA system in persons at risk for alcoholism may help understand the neurobiological mechanisms of predisposition to alcoholism.

  3. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic children on inhaled and nasal corticosteroids: is the early-morning serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a useful screening test? (United States)

    Zöllner, Ekkehard W; Lombard, Carl; Galal, Ushma; Hough, Stephen; Irusen, Elvis; Weinberg, Eugene


    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) in asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), with or without nasal steroids (NS), may be more common than previously thought. Only dynamic testing will identify children at risk of adrenal crisis. It is impractical to test all asthmatic children for HPAS with a gold standard adrenal function test, i.e. the metyrapone or insulin tolerance test. To determine which clinical or biochemical parameter is the most useful screening test for HPAS in asthmatic children. Twenty-six asthmatic children, 5-18 yr old, on ICS ± NS, not treated with oral or topical steroids in the preceding year were recruited. Height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity and a change in systolic blood pressure from the recumbent to the standing position (ΔSBP) were recorded. Early-morning urine for urinary free cortisol (UFC) and urinary cortisol metabolites (UCM) was collected. UFC was analysed by both a chemiluminescent assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Morning serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were measured. The overnight metyrapone test was performed if the fasting morning serum cortisol was >83 nmol/l. HPAS was diagnosed if the ACTH failed to rise >100 pg/ml after metyrapone. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were calculated between the post-metyrapone ACTH and each variable. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was drawn for the most promising test, and the diagnostic performance was calculated. All clinical and biochemical parameters investigated were weakly and non-significantly correlated with the post-metyrapone ACTH, except for the morning serum ACTH (r = 0.68; p <0.001). The best discrimination between those who have and those who do not have HPAS is a morning serum ACTH level of 11.7 pg/ml. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 0.89 (0.57-0.98), a specificity of 0.77 (0.53-0.90), a positive predictive value of 0.67 (0.39-0.87), a negative

  4. On the role of gallbladder emptying and incretin hormones for nutrient-mediated TSH suppression in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Lund, Asger; Faber, Jens


    ). We aimed to evaluate the influence of bile acid exposure and incretin hormones on thyroid function parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (total T3 and free T4) were measured in plasma from two human studies: i) 75 g-oral glucose tolerance...... test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals with increasing fat content with concomitant ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder emptying in 15 patients with type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age, gender and BMI-matched controls (meal-study) and ii) 50 g......-OGTT and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusions (IIGI) alone or in combination with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) and/or GLP2, in ten patients with type 2 diabetes (IIGI-study). In both studies, TSH levels declined (P

  5. The effectiveness of natural and gonadotropin stimulation of young gilts




    The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of stimulation of gilts puberty by natural method and with gonadotropins. The results of reproduction parameters of gilts were also compared. Gilts were also supported by diet with easilly assimilated carbohydrates. The study was carried out on the group of 80 gilts which were divided into 2 groups (A and B) according to the method of inducing puberty: by using mature boar or gonadotropins eCG and hCG. In each group were isolated two subgr...

  6. The effectiveness of natural and gonadotropin stimulation of young gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan DYBAŁA


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of stimulation of gilts puberty by natural method and with gonadotropins. The results of reproduction parameters of gilts were also compared. Gilts were also supported by diet with easilly assimilated carbohydrates. The study was carried out on the group of 80 gilts which were divided into 2 groups (A and B according to the method of inducing puberty: by using mature boar or gonadotropins eCG and hCG. In each group were isolated two subgroups in which gilts were mated in first or second estrus (A1, A2 and B1, B2. The first estrus occured earlier in gilts induced naturally. More numerous litters were obtained from gilts mated in the second estrus independently of method of puberty stimulation. The highest effectiveness of mating was obtained in gilts induced by gonadotropins in second estrus and the lowest also in gilts stimulated by gonadotropins but mated in first estrus. More piglets for 21st day were reared by gilts mated in second estrus independently on puberty induction method.


    The disinfection by-product dibromoacetic acid (DBA) has been found in female rats to increase circulating concentrations of both estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1). This effect is apparently due, at least in part, to a suppression in hepatic catabolism. The present study investigat...

  8. [Hormonal contraception in men]. (United States)

    de Ronde, W; Meuleman, E J H


    Over the past few decades, female hormonal contraception has been seen to be very successful. However, this has still not resulted in a hormonal contraceptive for men. Certain injectable combinations ofandrogens and progestagens have been found to suppress spermatogenesis. All combinations that have been tested so far suffer from a relative lack of efficacy, a long lag time to achieve azoospermia, requiring the user to undergo one or more semen analyses, a moderate user friendliness, and concerns about the long-term safety and reversibility. It is not to be expected that male hormonal contraception will become a serious alternative to the already existing female equivalent during the coming 5 years.

  9. Hormonal Control of Lactation


    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine


    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  10. Endogenous GLP-1 acts on paraventricular nucleus to suppress feeding: projection from nucleus tractus solitarius and activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone, nesfatin-1 and oxytocin neurons. (United States)

    Katsurada, Kenichi; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Kodaira, Misato; Suyama, Shigetomo; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kario, Kazuomi; Yada, Toshihiko


    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been used to treat type 2 diabetic patients and shown to reduce food intake and body weight. The anorexigenic effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1 receptor agonists are thought to be mediated primarily via the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). GLP-1, an intestinal hormone, is also localized in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. However, the role of endogenous GLP-1, particularly that in the NTS neurons, in feeding regulation remains to be established. The present study examined whether the NTS GLP-1 neurons project to PVN and whether the endogenous GLP-1 acts on PVN to restrict feeding. Intra-PVN injection of GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin (9-39) increased food intake. Injection of retrograde tracer into PVN combined with immunohistochemistry for GLP-1 in NTS revealed direct projection of NTS GLP-1 neurons to PVN. Moreover, GLP-1 evoked Ca(2+) signaling in single neurons isolated from PVN. The majority of GLP-1-responsive neurons were immunoreactive predominantly to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and nesfatin-1, and less frequently to oxytocin. These results indicate that endogenous GLP-1 targets PVN to restrict feeding behavior, in which the projection from NTS GLP-1 neurons and activation of CRH and nesfatin-1 neurons might be implicated. This study reveals a neuronal basis for the anorexigenic effect of endogenous GLP-1 in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppresses the rapid actions of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone on calcium transport in chick intestine. (United States)

    Nemere, I


    Studies were undertaken to determine whether 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) modulates the rapid effects of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on calcium transport in the perfused chick intestine. Perfusion with control media resulted in a transport ratio (treated/average basal) of 1.07 +/- 0.06 at t = 40 minutes, while perfusion with 65, 130, 300, or 650 pM 1,25(OH)2D3 yielded ratios of 1.92 +/- 0.23, 2.6 +/- 0.4, 2.8 +/- 0.08, and 3.34 +/- 0.37, respectively. Simultaneous perfusion with each of these doses and 6.5 nM 24,25(OH)2D3 reduced treated/average basal ratios to approximately 1.4 after 40 minutes of perfusion. Vascular perfusion with 65 pM bovine PTH [bPTH(1-34)] stimulated intestinal calcium transport ratios to 3.0 +/- 0.5 after 40 minutes, while the inclusion of 6.5 nM 24,25(OH)2D3 reduced ratios at this time point to 0.56 +/- 0.19. To investigate the effect of these agents on signal transduction, isolated intestinal cells were monitored for intracellular calcium changes using the indicator dye fura-2. After establishing a stable baseline, addition of 130 pM 1,25(OH)2D3 induced rapid calcium oscillations. Intestinal cells exposed to 6.5 nM 24,25(OH)2D3 also exhibited rapid oscillations in fluorescence, which were not further altered by subsequent addition of 1,25(OH)2D3. Incubation of isolated cells with 130 pM 1,25(OH)2D3 was found to increase protein kinase C (PKC) activity within 5 minutes, and protein kinase A (PKA) activity within 7 minutes. Exposure of cells to 65 pM bPTH(1-34) had minimal effect on PKC activity, but resulted in pronounced increases in PKA activity. Stimulation of protein kinases by either secosteroid or peptide hormone was inhibited in the presence of 6.5 nM 24,25(OH)2D3. It is concluded that 24,25(OH)2D3 may exert endocrine actions on intestine.

  12. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent. (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S


    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serial changes of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone after total thyroidectomy or withdrawal of suppressive thyroxine therapy in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jin Ho; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy and whole-body scanning are the fundamentals of treatment and follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is generally accepted that a Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level of at least 30 {mu}U/ml is a prerequisite for the effective use of RAI, and that it requires 4-6 weeks of off-thyroxine to attain these levels. Because thyroxine withdrawal and the consequent hypothyroidism are often poorly tolerated, and occasionally might be hazardous, it is important to be certain that these assumptions are correct. We have measured serial changes in serum TSH after total thyroidectomy or withdrawl of thyroxine in patients with thyroid cancer. Serum TSH levels were measured weekly after thyroidectomy in 10 patients (group A) and after the discontinuation of thyroxine in 12 patients (group B). Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism were also evaluated weekly by modified Billewicz diagnostic index. By the second week, 78% of group A patients and 17% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the third week, 89% of group A patients and 90% of group B patients had serum TSH levels {>=} 30 {mu}U/ml. By the fourth week, all patients in two groups achieved target TSH levels and there were no overt hypothyroidism. In all patients, serum TSH elevated to the target concentration ({>=} 30 {mu}U/ml) within 4 weeks without significant manifestation of hypothyroidism. The schedule of RAI administration could be adjusted to fit. the needs and circumstances of individual patients with a shorter preparation period than the conventional.

  14. Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside, induces anticancer activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers through suppression of c-myc expression and induction of G1 arrest of the cell cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohn-Jenn Leu

    Full Text Available In the past decade, there has been a profound increase in the number of studies revealing that cardenolide glycosides display inhibitory activity on the growth of human cancer cells. The use of potential cardenolide glycosides may be a worthwhile approach in anticancer research. Reevesioside A, a cardenolide glycoside isolated from the root of Reevesia formosana, displayed potent anti-proliferative activity against human hormone-refractory prostate cancers. A good correlation (r² = 0.98 between the expression of Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α₃ subunit and anti-proliferative activity suggested the critical role of the α₃ subunit. Reevesioside A induced G1 arrest of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis in a thymidine block-mediated synchronization model. The data were supported by the down-regulation of several related cell cycle regulators, including cyclin D1, cyclin E and CDC25A. Reevesioside A also caused a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation, leading to an increased association between RB and E2F1 and the subsequent suppression of E2F1 activity. The protein and mRNA levels of c-myc, which can activate expression of many downstream cell cycle regulators, were dramatically inhibited by reevesioside A. Transient transfection of c-myc inhibited the down-regulation of both cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein expression to reevesioside A action, suggesting that c-myc functioned as an upstream regulator. Flow cytometric analysis of JC-1 staining demonstrated that reevesioside A also induced the significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, the data suggest that reevesioside A inhibits c-myc expression and down-regulates the expression of CDC25A, cyclin D1 and cyclin E, leading to a profound decrease of RB phosphorylation. G1 arrest is, therefore, induced through E2F1 suppression. Consequently, reevesioside A causes mitochondrial damage and an ultimate apoptosis in human hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.

  15. Evidence that luteinizing hormone suppression in response to inhibitory neuropeptides, beta-endorphin, interleukin-1 beta, and neuropeptide-K, may involve excitatory amino acids. (United States)

    Bonavera, J J; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S


    release by inhibitory peptides. Further, their inhibitory influence may be exerted either directly at the level of LHRH neurons and/or by diminution in EAA efflux, leading to suppression of LHRH and LH release.

  16. Menstrual suppression for adolescents. (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams


    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  17. Estrogen receptor beta and 2-arachydonoylglycerol mediate the suppressive effects of estradiol on frequency of postsynaptic currents in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of metestrous mice: an acute slice electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra eBálint


    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons are controlled by 17β-estradiol (E2 contributing to the steroid feedback regulation of the reproductive axis. In rodents, E2 exerts a negative feedback effect upon GnRH neurons throughout the estrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of estrogen receptor subtypes in the mediation of the E2 signal and elucidate the downstream molecular machinery of suppression. The effect of E2 administration at low physiological concentration (10 pM on GnRH neurons in acute brain slices obtained from metestrous GnRH-GFP mice was studied under paradigms of blocking or activating estrogen receptor subtypes and interfering with retrograde 2-arachydonoylglycerol (2-AG signaling. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that E2 significantly diminished the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs in GnRH neurons (49. 62±7.6% which effect was abolished by application of the ERα/β blocker Faslodex (1 µM. Pretreatment of the brain slices with cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 inverse agonist AM251 (1 µM and intracellularly applied endocannabinoid synthesis blocker THL (10 µM significantly attenuated the effect of E2 on the sPSCs. E2 remained effective in the presence of TTX indicating a direct action of E2 on GnRH cells. The ERβ specific agonist DPN (10 pM also significantly decreased the frequency of miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in GnRH neurons. In addition, the suppressive effect of E2 was completely blocked by the selective ERβ antagonist PHTPP (1 µM indicating that ERβ is required for the observed rapid effect of the E2. In contrast, the ERα agonist PPT (10 pM or the membrane-associated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 agonist G1 (10 pM had no significant effect on the frequency of mPSCs in these neurons. AM251 and THL significantly abolished the effect of E2 whereas AM251 eliminated the action of DPN on the mPSCs. These

  18. Ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and its main constituents inhibit α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis by suppressing oxidative stress in B16 mouse melanoma cells. (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Xu, Xiao-Hao; Wang, Ke; Yang, Xin-Zhao; Bi, Ying-Fei; Yan, Yao; Liu, Jian-Zeng; Chen, Xue-Nan; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Guo, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Da-Qing; Sun, Li-Wei


    Hyperpigmentation disease involves darkening of the skin color due to melanin overproduction. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine and has a long history of use as a skin lightener to inhibit melanin formation in China, Korea and some other Asian countries. However, the constituents and the molecular mechanisms by which they affect melanogenesis are not fully clear. The purpose of this study was to identify the active ingredient in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer extract that inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity and to investigate the antioxidative capacity and molecular mechanisms of the effective extract on melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer were successively fractionated with an equal volume of chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butyl alcohol to determine the effects by examining the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. The effective fraction was analyzed using HPLC and LC-MS. The antioxidative capacity and the inhibitory effects on melanin content, cell intracellular tyrosinase activity, and melanogenesis protein levels were determined in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-treated B16 mouse melanoma cells. The ethyl acetate extract from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (PG-2) had the highest inhibiting effect on mushroom tyrosinase, mainly contained phenolic acids, including protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid, and exhibited apparent antioxidant activity in vitro. PG-2 and its main constituents significantly decreased melanin content, suppressed cellular tyrosinase activity, and reduced expression of tyrosinase protein to inhibit B16 cells melanogenesis induced by α-MSH, and no cytotoxic effects were observed. They also inhibited cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level in α-MSH-treated B16 cells effectively. And those activities of its main constituents

  19. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.


    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  20. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons]. (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia


    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended.

  1. The relationship between serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels and the follicular arrest for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Li, Jian; Li, Rong; Yu, Hua; Zhao, Shuyun; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie


    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether higher levels of serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are associated with the ovarian follicular arrest in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This prospective study compared AMH levels between serum and dominant follicular fluid (FF) in ovulatory polycystic ovary (PCO) women and anovulatory (menstrual cycle ≥60 days.) PCOS women. All 102 women provided a baseline hormone profile and underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). The anovulatory PCO women had a similar body mass index (BMI), antral follicle count (AFC), and baseline serum AMH levels as the ovulatory PCO women except that their median luteinizing hormone (LH; 10.0 mIU/ml), testosterone (T) (0.61 ng/l), and androstenedione (A) (3.47 ng/l) levels were significantly higher than ovulatory PCO women (4.9 mIU/m; 0.43 ng/l and 2.09 ng/l, respectively). The ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation during COH including serum AMH on the day of HCG administration and dominant FF AMH at 36 hours after HCG administration, total follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) dose administrated, peak E2, (estrogen) levels and number of occytes retrieved were all similar between women with anovulatory and ovulatory PCO. Using multiple regression analysis it was found that an important independent determinant affecting AMH was AFC, as opposed to LH and T. Logistic regression analysis showed that the two most important factors affecting ovulation were serum LH and T, whereas serum AMH and AFC were not selected for inclusion in the model. The reduction in AMH during COH occurs as a consequence of dominant follicles with a corresponding reduction in small antral follicle number. Elevated serum AMH levels in PCO women seem to be related only to follicular excess and not follicular arrest.

  2. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents. (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K


    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  3. Isotretinoin influences pituitary hormone levels in acne patients. (United States)

    Karadag, Ayse Serap; Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Tutal, Emre; Akin, Kadir Okhan


    Besides suppressing sebum production, the exact mechanism of action of isotretinoin in acne vulgaris is not known. Several hormones have been linked to the pathogenesis of acne. In this study, we investigated the effects of isotretinoin on the pituitary-adrenal axis, whose activity may be increased in acne. Various hormone systems were evaluated before and after 3 months of isotretinoin treatment in 47 acne patients. Free triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody levels decreased significantly during isotretinoin treatment (p testosterone (p isotretinoin causes mild suppression of pituitary hormone levels, which may be beneficial for tackling the pathogenesis of acne.

  4. Hormone Therapy (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  5. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... of GHD and/or hypopituitarism , such as: Decreased bone density Fatigue Adverse lipid changes, such as high cholesterol Reduced exercise tolerance Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing , ...

  6. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003706.htm . Accessed October 2010. (© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8688: Growth Hormone, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical ...

  7. Hormone Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  8. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard


    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  10. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc


    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  11. Thought suppression. (United States)

    Wenzlaff, R M; Wegner, D M


    Although thought suppression is a popular form of mental control, research has indicated that it can be counterproductive, helping assure the very state of mind one had hoped to avoid. This chapter reviews the research on suppression, which spans a wide range of domains, including emotions, memory, interpersonal processes, psychophysiological reactions, and psychopathology. The chapter considers the relevant methodological and theoretical issues and suggests directions for future research.

  12. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.


    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  13. Types of hormone therapy (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  15. Testosterona e gonadotrofina coriônica humana estimulam a esteroidogênese em células da granulosa de folículo pré-ovulatório de égua? Do testosterone and human chorionic gonadotropin stimulate steroidogenesis in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle in mare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Caldas-Bussiere


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o papel da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG e da testosterona na produção de progesterona (P4 e 17beta -estradiol (E2 pelas células da granulosa cultivadas in vitro de folículo antral de égua. Os tratamentos usados foram: 1- controle (nenhum hormônio adicionado, 2- 1UI hCG (0,3mig/ml e 3- 10UI hCG (3,0mig/ml. O tratamento com hCG foi realizado na presença ou não de testosterona (144ng/ml. O meio foi coletado e substituído com 0,25, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 144h de cultivo. As concentrações de P4 e E2 foram mensuradas por radioimunoensaio. Não se observou diferença entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 quanto à produção de P4 e E2; o tratamento 1 resultou em aumento da concentração de progesterona após 24h de cultura (PThe role of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and testosterone was evaluated in the progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17beta (E2 production by granulosa cells of antral follicles from mare cultivated in vitro. The treatment (groups with gonadotropin consisted of: 1- control (no added hormone; 2- 1 IU hCG (0.3mg/ml and 3- 10 IU hCG (3.0mg/ml. The treatment with hCG was carried out in the presence or not of testosterone (144ng/ml. The culture medium was collected and replaced at 0.25, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 144h of culture. The concentrations of P4 and E2 were measured by radioimunoassay. Analyses of variance were used for P4 and E2, and mean of the factors were compared by the Tukey test at 5% of probability. No difference was observed between 1 and 2 groups. Treatment with 1 IU of hCG increased progesterone concentration after 24h of culture (P<0.01, only in the presence of testosterone. The concentration of estradiol increased in the presence of testosterone, reaching maximum concentration with 6h of culture (P<0.01, and reduced gradually until the observed concentration at 0.25h of culture. The addition of hCG had no effect in the synthesis of this steroid. The testosterone modulates the action of the luteinizing hormone

  16. Interocular suppression (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes


    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  17. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception (United States)

    Amory, John K.


    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  18. Oxytocin - The Sweet Hormone? (United States)

    Leng, Gareth; Sabatier, Nancy


    Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety. Oxytocin preferentially suppresses intake of sweet-tasting carbohydrates while improving glucose tolerance and supporting bone remodeling, making it an enticing translational target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ovarian Suppression Impairs Sport Performance in Junior Elite Female Swimmers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHeest, Jaci L; Rodgers, Carol D; Mahoney, Carrie E; De Souza, Mary Jane

    ...). The athletes were categorized as cyclic (CYC) or ovarian-suppressed (OVS). They were evaluated every 2 wk for metabolic hormones, bioenergetic parameters, and sport performance during the 12-wk season...

  20. Elevated Plasma Corticosterone Decreases Yolk Testosterone and Progesterone in Chickens : Linking Maternal Stress and Hormone-Mediated Maternal Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Rettenbacher, Sophie; Bartell, Paul A.


    Despite considerable research on hormone-mediated maternal effects in birds, the underlying physiology remains poorly understood. This study investigated a potential regulation mechanism for differential accumulation of gonadal hormones in bird eggs. Across vertebrates, glucocorticoids can suppress

  1. Growth hormone test (United States)

    ... this page: // Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  2. Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular Fluid Cytokine Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ellissa Baskind


    Full Text Available Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF and modified natural cycle (MNC IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence.

  3. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.


    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  4. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.


    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  5. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi


    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  6. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents. (United States)

    Sucato, Gina S; Gerschultz, Kelly L


    There is increasing interest in the use of extended cycles of hormonal contraception to manage menstrual cycle-related complaints in adolescents and to accommodate the menstrual preferences of patients using hormonal contraception. This review summarizes recent findings related to the use of extended cycles and highlights their relevance to adolescents. Many adolescents would prefer to menstruate less frequently. Among health care providers who prescribe hormonal contraceptives, the majority believe suppressing withdrawal bleeding is well tolerated and prescribe extended cycling regimens to their patients. Shortening or eliminating the hormone-free interval results in greater ovarian suppression and thus may increase contraceptive efficacy. Studies in adult women have not identified changes in metabolic parameters beyond what would be expected from traditional cyclic use. New endometrial biopsy data have found no pathologic changes; most women using an extended cycle had atrophic endometriums. Extended cycling is frequently associated with breakthrough bleeding. In some women, this can be managed with a brief hormone-free interval. Recent findings demonstrate high levels of interest in extended cycling among adolescents and providers, and continue to add to the growing body of literature supporting the safety and improved contraceptive efficacy of extended regimens. Further research is warranted to focus on issues including cancer, thrombotic disease and fertility, and should enroll a sufficient adolescent sample.

  7. Biochemical endpoints of glucocorticoid hormone action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, D.A.; Nicholson, M.L.; Guyette, W.A.; Giddings, S.J.; Mendelsohn, S.L.; Nordeen, S.K.; Lyons, R.T.


    Both the rapidly evolving metabolic effects of glucocorticoids and the more slowly developing lethal actions appear to be initiated via the synthesis of new mRNAs and proteins. The chronic suppression of cell growth may be the consequence of suppression of overall rates of protein synthesis (and probably RNA and DNA synthesis as well) that in turn may represent the cellular response to the small changes in ratios of adenine nucleotides that result from the suppression of oxidative ATP production. The inhibition of glucose transport may also play a role here to prevent a compensatory increase in glycolytic ATP production. Some other hormone actions, the decrease in the ability of cells to concentrate AIB and the increase in nuclear fragility are unrelated to, and evolve separately from, the hormonal inhibitions on energy production. Cell killing is not the result of suppression of protein synthesis, nor of hormone-induced increases in calcium uptake. While the mechanisms are unknown, the increase in nuclear fragility appears to be the earliest measure of their operation. In tumor cells resistance to lethal actions of glucocorticoids may emerge via the selection of cells with hardier membranes, that are better able to withstand the intracellular destructive events set in motion by high levels of glucocorticoids.

  8. Biopsia por aspiración y supresión con hormonas tiroideas en el diagnóstico de cáncer tiroideo: comparación con la cirugía en 77 nódulos hipocaptantes Fine-Needle aspiration biopsy and suppression with thyroid hormone in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Aristizábal


    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 77 pacientes con nódulos tiroideos hipocaptantes, demostrados por gamagrafía, por medio de biopsia tiroidea por aspiración y terapia supresiva con hormonas tiroideas durante 6 meses o más. Se realizó estudio ecográfico del nódulo antes de iniciar la terapia y seis meses después de estarla administrando. Todos fueron intervenidos porque en ninguno desapareció el nódulo con la terapia, a pesar de que se obtuvo supresión de la tirotrofina en plasma. La biopsia tiroidea por aspiración (BT A fue Interpretada en todos los pacientes como bocio coloide o nodular o neoplasia folicular. En contraste, en el estudio de la pieza quirúrgica 52 pacientes presentaron bocio nodular, multinodular o coloide; 16 tenían carcinomas (12 papilares y 4 foliculares y 9 tiroiditis de Hashimoto. Contrariamente a lo esperado se observó que 5 de loS carcinomas (31.3% disminuyeron de volumen durante el tratamiento hormonal; de acuerdo a la ecografía la disminución promedio fue 0.41 cm3. En cambio 4 de los 52 nódulos benignos (7.7% aumentaron de volumen, en promedio 3.7 cm3. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la prueba de supresión con hormonas tiroideas no es confiable para definir si una lesión es benigna o maligna. En el estudio quirúrgico se demostró que 20.8% (16/77 de los nódulos eran carcinomas. A la luz de estos datos la biopsia por aspiración no estableció por lo general el diagnóstico de carcinoma; por ello se debe recurrir a la cirugía aunque la biopsia sea negativa.

    Seventy-seven patients with cold thyroid nodules were studied with flne-needle aspiration biopsy and suppression with thyroid hormone. The volume of the nodule was calculated ultrasonographycally at the beginning of the study and after six months of oral therapy with thyroglobulin, at doses sufficient to maintain TSH at the low limits of the normal

  9. Deciding about hormone therapy (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  10. Hormones and Hypertension (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  11. Menopause and Hormones (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  12. Antidiuretic hormone blood test (United States)

    ... Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  13. Isotretinoin, tetracycline and circulating hormones in acne. (United States)

    Palatsi, R; Ruokonen, A; Oikarinen, A


    Isotretinoin, used to treat severe acne, has been shown to induce hormonal changes, especially to reduce 5 alpha-reductase in the production of the tissue-derived dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolite 3 alpha-Adiol G. However, the effects of isotretinoin on other pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, isotretinoin administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks caused no marked changes in the serum levels of pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones or 3 alpha-Adiol G in patients with severe papulopustulotic acne (n = 19). After 12 weeks of therapy, there was a decrease in the levels of the precursor androgens androstenedione, testosterone and 3 alpha-Adiol G in 6/9 patients. Acne improved after 4.5 months in all but 2 male patients, who had very low serum hormone binding globulins (SHBG) and a high free androgen index (FAI). Isotretinoin did not affect the elevated LH/FSH ratio in a patient with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS); nor did it change the high FAI or low SHBG in the male patients. For comparison, tetracycline had no effects on the serum hormonal levels of patients with mild acne (n = 19) after 7 days of treatment. This study confirms that the effects of isotretinoin on the serum hormone levels are small and unlikely to be of relevance for the resolution of acne or the suppression of sebum excretion.

  14. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (United States)

    ... Balance › Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults Patient Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs English ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of ...

  15. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun


    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  16. Hormones and autoimmunity: animal models of arthritis. (United States)

    Wilder, R L


    Hormones, particularly those involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes (HPG and HPA), play important roles in various animal models of autoimmunity such as systemic lupus erythematosus in mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and rats, and the streptococcal cell wall, adjuvant and avridine arthritis models in rats. Intimately linked to the subject of hormones and autoimmunity are gender, sex chromosomes and age. The importance of these factors in the various animal models is emphasized in this chapter. Several major themes are apparent. First, oestrogens promote B-cell dependent immune-complex mediated disease (e.g. lupus nephritis) but suppress T-cell dependent pathology (CIA in mice and rats), and vice versa. Second, testosterone's effects are complicated and depend on species and disease model. In rats, testosterone suppresses both T-cell and B-cell immunity. In mice, the effects are complex and difficult to interpret, e.g. they tend to enhance CIA arthritis and suppress lupus. Sex chromosome/sex hormone interactions are clearly involved in generating these complicated effects. Third, studies in Lewis and Fischer F344 rats exemplify the importance of corticosteroids, corticotrophin releasing hormone and the HPA axis in the regulation of inflammation and the predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Fourth, the HPA axis is intimately linked to the HPG axis and is sexually dimorphic. Oestrogens stimulate higher corticosteroid responses in females. The animal model data have major implications for understanding autoimmunity in humans. In particular, adrenal and gonadal hormone deficiency is likely to facilitate T-cell dependent diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, while high oestrogen levels or effects, relative to testosterone, are likely to promote B-cell dependent immune-complex-mediated diseases such as lupus nephritis.

  17. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki


    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  18. Suppression in simultaneous masking. (United States)

    Fastl, H; Bechly, M


    Suppression, i.e., the decrease of masked threshold caused by the addition of a second masker M2 to a first masker M1, is measured for the case of simultaneous masking. The magnitude of suppression decreases with increasing test tone duration; pulsed maskers elicit somewhat more suppression than continuous maskers. In comparison to suppression effects obtained in nonsimultaneous masking (post-masking, pulsation threshold) suppression in simultaneous masking is considerably smaller and was found only at the lower slopes of the two maskers. Suppression in simultaneous masking would not be predicted by those models of suppression which require nonsimultaneous presentation of maskers and test sound.

  19. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Lei et al., 2007). Recently, the effects of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism at codon 127 and 172 were determined on carcass traits and fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle using allele specific-multiplex ...

  20. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis. (United States)

    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D


    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. DE71 suppresses thyroid hormone-mediated dendritogenesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are synthesized chemicals essential to minimize accidents and deaths resulting from fire-outbreaks. Despite their usefulness, public health concern is on the increase over their use. PBDE is global in use, persistent in the environment, and possess the ability to ...

  2. Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Mediated Transcription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of methamidophos on cerebellar Purkinje cell dendritogenesis, granule cell neurite morphology and synaptic plasticity are currently under investigation. Taken together, our results show that methamidophos can potentially disrupt TR–mediated gene expression, suggesting that methamidophos may interfere with ...

  3. Standardization of hormone determinations. (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan


    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hormonal therapy for acne. (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane


    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  5. Sex hormones and hypertension


    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Oparil, Suzanne; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K.


    Gender has an important influence on blood pressure, with premenopausal women having a lower arterial blood pressure than age-matched men. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women have higher blood pressures, suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate blood pressure. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ovarian hormones account for differences in blood pressure in premenopausal ver...

  6. DEHP reduces thyroid hormones via interacting with hormone synthesis-related proteins, deiodinases, transthyretin, receptors, and hepatic enzymes in rats. (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Letian; Wei, Li; Li, Lianbing


    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used extensively in many personal care and consumer products, resulting in widespread nonoccupational human exposure through multiple routes and media. Limited studies suggest that exposure to DEHP may be associated with altered thyroid function, but detailed mechanisms are unclear. In order to elucidate potential mechanisms by which DEHP disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg/day for 30 days and sacrificed within 24 h after the last dose. Gene expressions of thyroid hormone receptors, deiodinases, transthyretin, and hepatic enzymes were measured by RT-PCR; protein levels of transthyretin were also analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that DEHP caused histological changes in the thyroid and follicular epithelial cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia were observed. DEHP significantly reduced thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) levels, whereas thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was not affected. After exposure to DEHP, biosynthesis of thyroid hormones was suppressed, and sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) levels were significantly reduced. Additionally, levels of deiodinases and transthyretin were also affected. TSH receptor (TSHr) level was downregulated, while TRH receptor (TRHr) level was upregulated. Metabolism of thyroid hormones was accelerated due to elevated gene expression of hepatic enzymes (UDPGTs and CYP2B1) by DEHP. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones through influencing biosynthesis, biotransformation, biotransport, receptor levels, and metabolism of thyroid hormones.

  7. Dexamethasone suppression test (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  8. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J; Visfeldt, J


    PURPOSE: Hormonal treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be given initially for cryptorchidism. We evaluated whether hormonal treatment is safe for the germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism 1 to 3 years old in whom follicle-stimulating hormone...... after surgery alone (p = 0.06). Gonadotropin releasing hormone and HCG influenced germ cells equally. CONCLUSIONS: In 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin releasing hormone or HCG given for testicular descent may suppress the number of germ cells....

  9. Sex hormones and urticaria. (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B


    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Injection (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  11. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  12. Aging changes in hormone production (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  13. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  14. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  15. Young Adult Psychological Outcome After Puberty Suppression and Gender Reassignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; McGuire, J.K.; Steensma, T.D.; Wagenaar, E.C.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.


    BACKGROUND: In recent years, puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs has become accepted in clinical management of adolescents who have gender dysphoria (GD). The current study is the first longer-term longitudinal evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach.

  16. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.


    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone links sleep to hippocampal function, then restoration of growth hormone during sleep deprivation should prevent adverse consequences of sleep loss. To test this hypothesis, we examined rat hippocampus for spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, long-term potentiation in area CA1, and NMDA receptor subunit proteins in synaptic membranes. Three days of sleep deprivation caused a significant reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents compared with control treatments. When rats were injected with growth hormone once per day during sleep deprivation, the loss of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents was prevented. Growth hormone injections also prevented the impairment of long-term potentiation that normally follows sleep deprivation. In addition, sleep deprivation led to a selective loss of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) from hippocampal synaptic membranes, but normal NR2B expression was restored by growth hormone injection. Our results identify growth hormone as a critical mediator linking sleep to normal synaptic function of the hippocampus. PMID:20237303

  17. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  18. Plasma anti-Müllerian hormone as a predictive endocrine marker to select Bos taurus (Holstein) and Bos indicus (Nelore) calves for in vitro embryo production. (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Guerreiro, B M; Freitas, B G; Silva, J C B; Vieira, L M; Ferreira, R M; Rezende, R G; Basso, A C; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S


    This study evaluated the association between plasma anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus (Nelore; experiment 1) and Bos taurus (Holstein; experiment 2) calves superstimulated or not with 140 mg of porcine follicle-stimulating hormone (pFSH; 4 decreasing doses twice daily). Oocytes were recovered from calves aged 2 to 4 mo after receiving gonadotropin stimulation (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12) or not (Nelore, n = 15; Holstein, n = 12). Cycling heifers formed a positive control group (n = 15 for Nelore [aged 18-24 mo], n = 10 for Holstein [aged 14-16 mo]). All the calves underwent laparoscopic ovum pickup, and cycling heifers underwent a regular transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pickup for oocyte recovery. Immediately before oocyte retrieval, blood samples were taken for subsequent AMH determination (ng/mL). Regardless of the genetic group, calves that received pFSH (3.6 ± 1.1 in Nelore and 4.6 ± 1.2 in Holstein) or did not receive pFSH (3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore and 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein) had greater plasma AMH concentrations (P = 0.01 in Nelore and P = 0.003 in Holstein) than cycling heifers (1.1 ± 0.2 in Nelore and 0.6 ± 0.07 in Holstein). AMH concentrations in calves with or without pFSH were similar in both genetic groups (3.6 ± 1.1 vs 3.2 ± 1.0 in Nelore; 4.6 ± 1.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.8 in Holstein). In calves, positive correlations were observed between plasma AMH concentrations and the numbers of follicles >2 mm (r = 0.86, P taurus calves. Therefore, AMH is a promising tool for selecting oocyte donor calves to maximize results during in vitro embryo production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?


    Smith, P J; Brook, C G


    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  20. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression. (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph


    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  1. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  2. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  3. Hormonal effects in newborns (United States)

    ... can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is common and most often goes away ...

  4. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡ (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron


    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  5. Body segments and growth hormone.


    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G


    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  6. Hormone treatment of gender identity disorder in a cohort of children and adolescents. (United States)

    Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Paul, Campbell; Kasiannan, Porpavai; Grover, Sonia R; Newman, Louise K; Warne, Garry L


    To describe the experience of hormone treatment of gender identity disorder (GID) in children and adolescents within a specialist clinic. Cohort study by medical record review of children aged 0-17 years referred during 2003-2011 for management at the GID clinic in a tertiary paediatric referral centre - the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria. Clinical characteristics of the patient population, hormone treatment provided, frequency of referrals with time. Thirty-nine children and adolescents were referred for gender dysphoria. Seventeen individuals were pubertal with persistent GID, and were considered eligible for hormone treatment. Seven patients, comprising three biological males and four biological females, had legally endorsed hormone treatment. In this group, gender dysphoria was first noted at 3-6 years of age. Hormone treatment with GnRH analogue to suppress pubertal progression (phase 1) was given at 10-16 years of age. Treatment with cross-sex hormones (phase 2) was given at 15.6-16 years. One patient purchased cross-sex hormone treatment overseas. One patient received oestrogen and progesterone for menstrual suppression before phase 1. The annual frequency of new referrals increased continuously over the study period. Hormone treatment for pubertal suppression and subsequent gender transition needs to be individualised within stringent protocols in multidisciplinary specialist units.

  7. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh


    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  8. [Hormonal contraception for men: still a current issue]. (United States)

    Zitzmann, M


    The current status of hormonal contraception in men involves the principle of suppression of gonadotropins, LH, and FSH. This must be achieved as completely as possible to facilitate cessation of spermatogenesis and, thus, reach azoospermia. Simultaneously testosterone has to be replaced. Exogenous testosterone administration achieves the goal of gonadotropin suppression, but needs in addition the supplementation of a gestagen to fully suppress secretion of LH and FSH. Suppression of gonadotropins by steroids requires constant serum concentrations of sex steroids; hence, attempts using daily oral or transdermal preparations were, so far, unsuccessful. Thus, the immediate prospect for male contraception is not a"pill" itself but a regimen of combined injectable steroids, which are in advanced clinical testing.

  9. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir


    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  10. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael


    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...

  11. Ovarian hormones and obesity. (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori


    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  12. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats. (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu


    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1 mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1 mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments completely suppressed GH-releasing responses to GHRH in both male and female goats (P < 0.05). The prolactin (PRL)-releasing response to an i.v. injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1 μg/kg BW) was additionally examined in male goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that hypothalamic DA was involved in the regulatory mechanisms of GH, as well as PRL secretion in goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Growth hormone: a newly identified developmental organizer. (United States)

    Das, Rajat K; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H


    The sexually dimorphic expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) drug-metabolizing enzymes has been reported in all species examined. These sex differences are only expressed during adulthood and are solely regulated by sex differences in circulating growth hormone (GH) profiles. Once established, however, the different male- and female-dependent CYP isoform profiles are permanent and immutable, suggesting that adult CYP expression requires imprinting. As the hormone that regulates an adult function is likely the same hormone that imprints the function, we selectively blocked GH secretion in some newborn male rats, whereas others received concurrent physiologic replacement of rat GH. The results demonstrate that adult male GH activation of the signal transduction pathway regulating expression of the principal CYP2C11 isoform is obligatorily dependent on perinatal GH imprinting, without which CYP2C11 and drug metabolism would be permanently and profoundly suppressed. As there are other adult metabolic functions also regulated by GH, pediatric drug therapy known to disrupt GH secretion could unintentionally impair adult health. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism. (United States)

    Lucky, A W


    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... period and ovulation in rats.J. Endocr. 57,235. JOcHLE, W., 1969. Latest trends and practical problems arising during oestrus synchronisation. Proc. S. Afr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 8,23. KANN, G., 1971. Variations des concentrations plasmatiques de l'hormone luteinisant et de la prolactin au cours du cycle oestrien de la brebis.

  16. Thyroid hormone and obesity. (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N


    To review several of the most recent and most important clinical studies regarding the effects of thyroid treatments on weight change, associations between thyroid status and weight, and the effects of obesity and weight change on thyroid function. Weight decreases following treatment for hypothyroidism. However, following levothyroxine treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears to be modest and mediated primarily by loss of water weight rather than fat. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of thyroidectomy on weight. In large population studies, even among euthyroid individuals, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is typically positively associated with body weight and BMI. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and T3 are typically increased in obese compared with lean individuals, an effect likely mediated, at least in part, by leptin. Finally, there is no consistent evidence that thyroid hormone treatment induces weight loss in obese euthyroid individuals, but thyroid hormone analogues may eventually be useful for weight loss. The interrelationships between body weight and thyroid status are complex.

  17. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.


    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  18. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  19. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas


    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  20. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  1. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... hormones? Hormones are substances that function as chemical messengers in the body. They affect the actions of ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  2. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  3. Melatonin – apleiotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Brzęczek


    Full Text Available Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, is synthesised in mammals mainly in the pineal gland. It coordinates the biological clock by regulating the circadian rhythm. Its production is dependent on light and its concentrations change with age. Thanks to its specific chemical structure, melatonin is capable of crossing all biological barriers in the organism and affecting other tissues and cells, both in indirect and direct ways. Its mechanism of action involves binding with membrane receptors, nuclear receptors and intracellular proteins. Melatonin shows antioxidant activity. Moreover, its immunomodulatory and antilipid effects as well as its role in secreting other hormones, such as prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, somatotropin, thyroliberin, adrenocorticotropin hormone or corticosteroids, are essential. In the recent years, research studies have been mainly focussed on the potential influence of melatonin on the aetiology and development of various disease entities, such as sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancers, psychiatric and neurological conditions, cardiovascular diseases or conditions with bone turnover disorders. Indications for melatonin use in paediatrics are being discussed more and more frequently. Among others, authors debate on its use in dyssomnias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, supportive treatment in febrile seizures and epilepsy as well as potential use in paediatric anaesthesia. The molecular mechanism and broad-spectrum action of melatonin have not been sufficiently researched and its clinical relevance is often underestimated. This hormone is a promising link in achieving alternative therapeutic solutions.

  4. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues. (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi


    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  5. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy) (United States)

    ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  6. Enzalutamide monotherapy in hormone-naive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Borre, Michael; Rathenborg, Per


    : This trial is an ongoing open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study, done across 12 European sites. Men aged over 18 years, with hormone-naive prostate cancer for whom hormone therapy was indicated, and who had non-castration levels of testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 2 ng/mL or greater......). Five patients reported serious adverse events, none of which were deemed to be treatment related. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that enzalutamide monotherapy in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer of varying severity provides a level of disease suppression, and was generally well tolerated...... at screening, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0, received oral enzalutamide 160 mg/day. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an 80% or greater decline in PSA at week 25. All analyses included all patients who had received at least one dose of the study drug. This study...

  7. Explosion suppression system (United States)

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.


    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  8. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.


    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  9. Effect of 4 weeks of octreotide treatment on prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones in acromegalic patients. A double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Hansen, T B; Bollerslev, J


    We aimed to test the hypothesis, that octreotide has a suppressive effect on unstimulated and TRH-stimulated PRL levels in both normo- and hyperprolactinaemic acromegalic patients, and besides to evaluate the effect of octreotide on unstimulated TSH and thyroid hormones. The present study is a do...

  10. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C


    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  11. Growth Hormone and Aging (United States)


    34Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed., Diaz de al 1999), together with an increase in physical Santos. Madrid. pp 365-376 (1996). capacity (Jorgensen et al 1991...A, Marrama P, Agnati LF, Moiller EE. "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2’ Ed., Diaz de Reduced growth hormone releasing factor Santos. Madrid. pp 377-396...P, Skakkeback, Christiansen JS. variantes en (Moreno y Tresguerres dir). Three years of GH treatment in GH deficient "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed

  12. The Neurobiological Impact of Ghrelin Suppression after Oesophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor F. Murphy


    Full Text Available Ghrelin, discovered in 1999, is a 28-amino-acid hormone, best recognized as a stimulator of growth hormone secretion, but with pleiotropic functions in the area of energy homeostasis, such as appetite stimulation and energy expenditure regulation. As the intrinsic ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R, ghrelin appears to have a broad array of effects, but its primary role is still an area of debate. Produced mainly from oxyntic glands in the stomach, but with a multitude of extra-metabolic roles, ghrelin is implicated in complex neurobiological processes. Comprehensive studies within the areas of obesity and metabolic surgery have clarified the mechanism of these operations. As a stimulator of growth hormone (GH, and an apparent inducer of positive energy balance, other areas of interest include its impact on carcinogenesis and tumour proliferation and its role in the cancer cachexia syndrome. This has led several authors to study the hormone in the cancer setting. Ghrelin levels are acutely reduced following an oesophagectomy, a primary treatment modality for oesophageal cancer. We sought to investigate the nature of this postoperative ghrelin suppression, and its neurobiological implications.

  13. Puberty suppression in transgender children and adolescents. (United States)

    Mahfouda, Simone; Moore, Julia K; Siafarikas, Aris; Zepf, Florian D; Lin, Ashleigh


    The World Professional Association for Transgender Health's standards of care recommend suspending puberty, preferably with the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, in certain gender non-conforming minors (aged under 18 years) who have undergone a psychiatric assessment and have reached at least Tanner stage II of puberty. This approach seeks to lessen the discordance between assigned natal sex and gender identity by temporarily halting the development of secondary sexual characteristics, essentially widening the temporal window for gender clarification. Despite promising preliminary evidence on the clinical utility of this approach, there is a dearth of research to inform evidence-based practice. In view of these challenges, we review the available empirical evidence on the cognitive, physical, and surgical implications of puberty suppression in gender-incongruent children and adolescents. We also explore the historical underpinnings and clinical impetus for suspending puberty in this population, and propose key research priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormonal Regulation of Adipogenesis. (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jeong


    Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy. Remodeling adipose tissue to replace dysfunctional adipocytes that accumulate with obesity and age also requires new fat cell formation and is necessary to maintain metabolic health. Adipogenesis is the process by which adipose progenitors become committed to an adipogenic lineage and differentiate into mature adipocytes. This transition is regulated by complex array of transcriptional factors and numerous autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signals. We will focus on hormonal factors that regulate adipocyte differentiation and their molecular mechanisms of actions on adipogenesis as studied in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose progenitors isolated from different adipose tissues exhibit intrinsic differences in adipogenic potential that may contribute to the depot and sex differences in adipose expansion and remodeling capacity. We will put special emphasis on the hormonal factors that are known to depot-dependently affect body fat accumulation and adipocyte development. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1151-1195, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity. (United States)

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A


    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  16. Hyperosmolarity in the small intestine contributes to postprandial ghrelin suppression. (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Tylee, Tracy S; Frayo, R Scott; Cummings, David E


    Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin are suppressed by meals with an efficacy dependent on their macronutrient composition. We hypothesized that heterogeneity in osmolarity among macronutrient classes contributes to these differences. In three studies, the impact of small intestinal hyperosmolarity was examined in Sprague-Dawley rats. In study 1, isotonic, 2.5×, and 5× hypertonic solutions of several agents with diverse absorption and metabolism properties were infused duodenally at a physiological rate (3 ml/10 min). Jugular vein blood was sampled before and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 min after infusion. Plasma ghrelin was suppressed dose dependently and most strongly by glucose. Hyperosmolar infusions of lactulose, which transits the small intestine unabsorbed, and 3-O-methylglucose (3-O-MG), which is absorbed like glucose but remains unmetabolized, also suppressed ghrelin. Glucose, but not lactulose or 3-O-MG, infusions increased plasma insulin. In study 2, intestinal infusions of hyperosmolar NaCl suppressed ghrelin, a response that was not attenuated by coinfusion with the neural blocker lidocaine. In study 3, we reconfirmed that the low-osmolar lipid emulsion Intralipid suppresses ghrelin more weakly than isocaloric (but hypertonic) glucose. Importantly, raising Intralipid's osmolarity to that of the glucose solution by nonabsorbable lactulose supplementation enhanced ghrelin suppression to that seen after glucose. Hyperosmolar ghrelin occurred particularly during the initial 3 postinfusion hours. We conclude that small intestinal hyperosmolarity 1) is sufficient to suppress ghrelin, 2) may combine with other postprandial mechanisms to suppress ghrelin, 3) might contribute to altered ghrelin regulation after gastric bypass surgery, and 4) may inform dietary modifications for metabolic health.

  17. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    need to understand the role of reproductive hormones in psy- chiatric disorders. There is much research on the interaction between mood and endocrine factors that is impacting on the practice of women's health. Hormone fluctuations are linked to behavioural changes as well as the onset and recurrence of mood disorders.

  18. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind


    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  19. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana


    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  20. Sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.M.


    In this thesis, we set out to investigate the complex relationship between endogenous sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in men and women. The first part of this thesis is devoted to studies in women, and the second part describes the association between sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in

  1. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection? (United States)

    ... make headaches worse. Though fluctuating hormone levels can influence headache patterns, you're not completely at the mercy of your hormones. Your doctor can help you treat — or prevent — hormone-related ...

  2. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image) (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  3. Taste matters-effects of bypassing oral stimulation on hormone and appetite responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Mars, M.; Viergever, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.


    The interaction between oral and gastric signals is an important part of food intake regulation. Previous studies suggest that bypassing oral stimulation diminishes the suppression of hunger and increases gastric emptying rate. However, the role of appetite hormones, like cholecystokinin-8 and

  4. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-binding inhibitor (FSHBI), purified by our laboratory from human ovarian follicular fluid, has been shown to suppress ovulation and induce follicular atresia/apoptosis in mice as well as impair fertility in marmosets, the new world monkeys. The octapeptide, a peptide corresponding to ...

  5. Corticosterone metabolism by chicken follicle cells does not affect ovarian reproductive hormone synthesis in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettenbacher, Sophie; Henriksen, Rie; Groothuis, Ton G.; Lepschy, Michael


    Glucocorticoids affect reproductive hormone production in many species. In chickens, elevated plasma corticosterone down-regulates testosterone and progesterone concentrations in plasma, but also in egg yolk. This suppression could be mediated via the hypothalamic-pituitary system but also via local

  6. Peptide YY Levels across Pubertal Stages and Associations with Growth Hormone


    Lloyd, Benjamin; Ravi, Praful; Mendes, Nara; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita


    Context: Changes in appetite-regulating peptides may impact food intake during puberty and facilitate the pubertal growth spurt. Peptide YY (PYY) is an anorexigenic hormone that is high in anorexia nervosa and low in obesity, inhibits GnRH secretion, and is suppressed by GH administration. The relationship between PYY and GH has not been examined across puberty.

  7. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, E.; Kersemaekers, W.M.; Elliesen, J.; Kepers, M.; Apter, D.; Behre, H.M.; Beynon, J.; Bouloux, P.M.; Costantino, A.; Gerbershagen, H.P.; Gronlund, L.; Heger-Mahn, D.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Lange, C.; Lindenberg, S.; Meriggiola, M.C.; Meuleman, E.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Nieschlag, E.; Perheentupa, A.; Solomon, A.; Vaisala, L.; Wu, F.C.; Zitzmann, M.


    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess spermatogenesis suppression and safety of a new combination of an etonogestrel (ENG) implant combined with testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections for male contraception. This is the first large placebo-controlled study for male hormonal contraception.

  8. Pediatric stress: hormonal mediators and human development. (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Kino, Tomoshige; Souvatzoglou, Emmanuil; Chrousos, George P


    (defective glucocorticoid-negative feedback, cognition), and the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system (dysthymia, novelty-seeking, addictive behaviors), hyperactivation of the HPA axis (hypercortisolism), suppression of reproductive, growth, thyroid and immune functions, and changes in pain perception. These changes may be accompanied by abnormal childhood, adolescent and adult behaviors, including excessive fear ('inhibited child syndrome') and addictive behaviors, dysthymia and/or depression, and gradual development of components of the metabolic syndrome X, including visceral obesity and essential hypertension. Prenatal stress exerted during the period of sexual differentiation may be accompanied by impairment of this process with behavioral and/or somatic sequelae. The vulnerability of individuals to develop varying degrees and/or components of the above life-long syndrome is defined by as yet unidentified genetic factors, which account for up to 60% of the variance. CRH has marked kindling and glucocorticoids have strong consolidating properties, hence both of these hormones are crucial in development and can alone produce the above syndrome. CRH and glucocorticoids may act in synergy, as in acoustic startle, while glucocorticoids may suppress or stimulate CRH, as in the hypothalamus and amygdala, respectively. A CRH type 1 receptor antagonist, antalarmin, inhibits both the development and expression of conditioned fear in rats, and has anxiolytic properties in monkeys. Profound stressors, such as those from sexual abuse, may elicit the syndrome in older children, adolescents and adults. Most frequently, chronic dysthymia and/or depression may develop in association with gastrointestinal complaints and/or the premenstrual tension syndrome. A lesser proportion of individuals may develop the classic posttraumatic stress disorder, which is characterized by hypocortisolism and intrusive and avoidance symptoms; in younger individuals it may present as dissociative

  9. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  10. Puberty suppression and executive functioning : An fMRI-study in adolescents with gender dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Veltman, Dick J; Burke, Sarah M; Schagen, Sebastian E E; Wouters, Femke M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A; Bakker, J.

    Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty and, thus, the development of (unwanted) secondary sex characteristics. Since adolescence marks an important period for the development of executive functioning (EF), we

  11. Perceptions of Sex, Gender, and Puberty Suppression: A Qualitative Analysis of Transgender Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouenraets, L.J.; Fredriks, A.M.; Hannema, S.E.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Vries, M.C. de


    International guidelines recommend the use of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonists in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) to suppress puberty. Little is known about the way gender dysphoric adolescents themselves think about this early medical intervention. The purpose of the present

  12. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Steensma, T.D.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.


    Introduction. Puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) is used for young transsexuals between 12 and 16 years of age. The purpose of this intervention is to relieve the suffering caused by the development of secondary sex characteristics and to provide time to

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  14. Growth hormone signaling is necessary for lifespan extension by dietary methionine. (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Kopchick, John J; Armstrong, Vanessa; Raasakka, Debbie


    Growth hormone significantly impacts lifespan in mammals. Mouse longevity is extended when growth hormone (GH) signaling is interrupted but markedly shortened with high-plasma hormone levels. Methionine metabolism is enhanced in growth hormone deficiency, for example, in the Ames dwarf, but suppressed in GH transgenic mice. Methionine intake affects also lifespan, and thus, GH mutant mice and respective wild-type littermates were fed 0.16%, 0.43%, or 1.3% methionine to evaluate the interaction between hormone status and methionine. All wild-type and GH transgenic mice lived longer when fed 0.16% methionine but not when fed higher levels. In contrast, animals without growth hormone signaling due to hormone deficiency or resistance did not respond to altered levels of methionine in terms of lifespan, body weight, or food consumption. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of growth hormone is necessary to sense dietary methionine changes, thus strongly linking growth and lifespan to amino acid availability. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy. (United States)


    Although improvement in long-term health is no longer an indication for menopausal hormone therapy, evidence supporting fewer adverse events in younger women, combined with its high overall effectiveness, has reinforced its usefulness for short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopausal therapy has been provided not only by commercially available products but also by compounding, or creation of an individualized preparation in response to a health care provider's prescription to create a medication tailored to the specialized needs of an individual patient. The Women's Health Initiative findings, coupled with an increase in the direct-to-consumer marketing and media promotion of compounded bioidentical hormonal preparations as safe and effective alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy, have led to a recent increase in the popularity of compounded bioidentical hormones as well as an increase in questions about the use of these preparations. Not only is evidence lacking to support superiority claims of compounded bioidentical hormones over conventional menopausal hormone therapy, but these claims also pose the additional risks of variable purity and potency and lack efficacy and safety data. The Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine provide an overview of the major issues of concern surrounding compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy and provide recommendations for patient counseling. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The separate and combined impact of the intestinal hormones, GIP, GLP-1, and GLP-2, on glucagon secretion in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Asger; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced suppression of glucagon during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), whereas isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) results in normal glucagon suppression in these patients. We examined the role of the intestinal hormones glucose...

  17. Vitamins as hormones. (United States)

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C


    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  18. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana


    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  19. Menstrual suppression with the levonorgestrel intrauterine system in girls with developmental delay. (United States)

    Hillard, Paula J Adams


    To describe the experiences of 21 girls with developmental delay accompanied by multiple other medical problems, seen over a 3-year interval, who underwent insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) for menstrual suppression. Retrospective chart review. A referral pediatric and adolescent gynecology clinic within a tertiary care medical center with referrals from community pediatricians, pediatric subspecialists including developmental and behavioral pediatricians, community gynecologists, and adolescent medicine specialists. Adolescents and young women with developmental delay and multiple comorbid conditions who were seen for consultation with their families requesting menstrual suppression. Participants were offered hormonal options, for menstrual suppression including the LNG-IUS. Satisfaction with menstrual suppression among families electing the LNG-IUS. Adolescents and young women seen at CCHMC with developmental delay and multiple comorbid conditions with requests for menstrual suppression were offered hormonal options, including the LNG-IUS. Twenty-one families chose this option. Fifteen of 21 girls had previously used hormonal menstrual suppression. General anesthesia was required for 20 of 21 insertions, and 9 of 20 of these insertions were combined with other surgical procedures. There were no unsuccessful insertions or major complications. Mean duration of follow-up was 11 months, and families were satisfied with this option for menstrual suppression. There was 1 request for removal. LNG-IUS for menstrual suppression, in girls with developmental delay and multiple comorbid medical conditions for which amenorrhea is desirable and therapeutic, appears promising. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression


    Ie, Amanda Yen Lin


    The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively co...

  1. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  2. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image) (United States)

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce ...

  3. Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Does, D. van der; Zamioudis, C.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Wees, A.C.M. van


    Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad


    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Hormone replacement therapy in menopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pardini, Dolores


    Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than six decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET...

  6. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003690.htm Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... to measure the amount of PTH in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  7. Why Stop Now? Extended and Continuous Regimens of Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Methods. (United States)

    Benson, Lyndsey S; Micks, Elizabeth A


    Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) have traditionally been prescribed in 28-day cycles, with 21 days of active hormones followed by a 7-day hormone-free interval. Extended and continuous CHC regimens, defined as regimens with greater than 28 days of active hormones, offer many benefits, including a decrease in estrogen-withdrawal symptoms and likely greater efficacy because of more reliable ovulation suppression. Bleeding profiles are favorable, and unscheduled bleeding decreases over time with these regimens. Extended and continuous regimens of combined oral contraceptives and the contraceptive vaginal ring are safe and have high user acceptability and satisfaction. However, despite numerous benefits, extended and continuous CHC regimens are underused. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Leptin suppresses sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine STC-1 cells. (United States)

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo


    Leptin is an important hormone that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis by acting on central and peripheral targets. In the gustatory system, leptin is known to selectively suppress sweet responses by inhibiting the activation of sweet sensitive taste cells. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2+T1R3) is also expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells and contributes to nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption. Because of the similarities in expression patterns between enteroendocrine and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that they may also share similar mechanisms used to modify/regulate the sweet responsiveness of these cells by leptin. Here, we used mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 and examined potential effect of leptin on Ca(2+) responses of STC-1 cells to various taste compounds. Ca(2+) responses to sweet compounds in STC-1 cells were suppressed by a rodent T1R3 inhibitor gurmarin, suggesting the involvement of T1R3-dependent receptors in detection of sweet compounds. Responses to sweet substances were suppressed by ⩾1ng/ml leptin without affecting responses to bitter, umami and salty compounds. This effect was inhibited by a leptin antagonist (mutant L39A/D40A/F41A) and by ATP gated K(+) (KATP) channel closer glibenclamide, suggesting that leptin affects sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells via activation of leptin receptor and KATP channel expressed in these cells. Moreover, leptin selectively inhibited sweet-induced but not bitter-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from STC-1 cells. These results suggest that leptin modulates sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells to regulate nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption in the gut. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening for suppression in young children : the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, JWR; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J


    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  10. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.


    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  11. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  12. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  13. Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists. (United States)

    Tolis, G; Ackman, D; Stellos, A; Mehta, A; Labrie, F; Fazekas, A T; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V


    Ten patients with prostatic carcinoma--six with stage C and four with stage D disease--were treated for 6 weeks to 12 months with agonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). [D-Trp6]LH-RH was given subcutaneously once daily at a dose of 100 microgram and [D-Ser(But)6]des-GlyNH2(10)-LH-RH ethylamide (HOE 766) was given subcutaneously (50 microgram once daily) or intranasally (500 microgram twice daily). In all patients, mean plasma testosterone levels showed a 75% suppression by the third week of treatment and remained low thereafter. This was followed by a decrease or normalization of plasma acid phosphatase levels by the second month of treatment and a 47% decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase by the 10th week of treatment in all but one patient. In patients with stage C disease presenting with prostatism or urinary outflow obstruction, there was a noticeable clinical improvement. In two such patients, a decrease in the size of the prostate was confirmed by ultrasonography. In patients with stage D disease manifested by diffuse bone metastases, there was relief of bone pain, and in one patient treated for greater than 12 months the improvement was documented by radioisotope bone imaging. It is concluded that superactive agonistic LH-RH analogues hold promise as therapeutic agents in patients with androgen-sensitive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the analogous of LH-RH may be used to assess the responsiveness of patients to surgical castration. Long-term administration of LH-RH analogues could become an alternative to surgical castration and estrogen therapy for the treatment of hormone-dependent prostatic carcinoma. Images PMID:6461861

  14. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina


    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion.......Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  15. Parathyroid hormone in renal transplanted recipients; a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid


    Full Text Available This investigation, aimed to study of intact parathormone (iPTH and calcium (Ca in a group of kidney transplanted patients and also we aimed to test the relationship of iPTH with various demographic data of kidney transplanted recipients. We studied 72 kidney transplanted persons with mean ages of 44±12 years. In this study, mean iPTH was 18.4±8.2 Pg/mL (median=16.5. A negative correlation of iPTH with creatinine clearance (r=-0.44, p0.05. In contrast to previous findings, in our patients, there was not secondary hyperparathyroidism. The results revealed suppressed PTH secretion. The reason may be due to excessive intake of calcium and Vitamin D analogues, which may suppress parathyroid hormone secretion.

  16. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist inhibits the invasiveness of human endometrial cancer cells by down-regulating twist and N-cadherin expression. (United States)

    Wu, Hsien-Ming; Huang, Hong-Yuan; Schally, Andrew V; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Leung, Peter C K; Wang, Hsin-Shih


    More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in reproduction. Here, we examined the effect of a GHRH antagonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and the mechanisms of action of the antagonist in endometrial cancer. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GHRH receptor protein. The activity of Twist and N-cadherin was determined by Western blotting. Cell motility was assessed by an invasion and migration assay. GHRH receptor siRNA was applied to knockdown the GHRH receptor in endometrial cancer cells. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GHRH antagonist inhibited cell motility and suppressed the expression of Twist and N-cadherin, and the suppression was abolished by GHRH receptor siRNA pretreatment. Moreover, the inhibition of Twist and N-cadherin with Twist siRNA and N-cadherin siRNA, respectively, suppressed cell motility. Our study indicates that the GHRH antagonist inhibited the cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GHRH receptor via the suppression of Twist and N-cadherin. Our findings represent a new concept in the mechanism of GHRH antagonist-suppressed cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GHRH antagonists as potential therapeutics for the treatment of human endometrial cancer.

  17. An Alternative to Thought Suppression? (United States)

    Boice, Robert


    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  18. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C.; Henson, Richard N.; Anderson, Michael C.


    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  19. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco


    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  20. Dienogest Therapy as a Treatment for Catamenial Pneumothorax: Case Report and Review of Hormonal Options. (United States)

    Lalani, Shifana; Black, Amanda; Hodge, Meryl C; Tulandi, Togas; Chen, Innie


    Catamenial pneumothorax is a rare but serious condition for women of reproductive age. We describe a trial of dienogest as hormonal therapy for catamenial pneumothorax and review the literature on hormonal suppressive therapy for this condition. A 39-year-old female, gravida 0 para 0, presented with recurrent pneumothoraces coinciding with her menses. After surgical therapy, she was started on leuprolide acetate injections for 6 months to reduce recurrence. To reduce long-term side effects of leuprolide acetate, the patient was started on dienogest 4 mg orally once daily instead of leuprolide acetate for hormonal suppression and experienced resolution of recurrent pneumothoraces. For women with recurrent catamenial pneumothorax, dienogest may be an effective hormonal treatment option and alternative to long-term GnRH agonist therapy for long-term suppression. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study. (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T


    Puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) is used for young transsexuals between 12 and 16 years of age. The purpose of this intervention is to relieve the suffering caused by the development of secondary sex characteristics and to provide time to make a balanced decision regarding actual gender reassignment. To compare psychological functioning and gender dysphoria before and after puberty suppression in gender dysphoric adolescents. Of the first 70 eligible candidates who received puberty suppression between 2000 and 2008, psychological functioning and gender dysphoria were assessed twice: at T0, when attending the gender identity clinic, before the start of GnRHa; and at T1, shortly before the start of cross-sex hormone treatment. Behavioral and emotional problems (Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth-Self Report), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety and anger (the Spielberger Trait Anxiety and Anger Scales), general functioning (the clinician's rated Children's Global Assessment Scale), gender dysphoria (the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body satisfaction (the Body Image Scale) were assessed. Behavioral and emotional problems and depressive symptoms decreased, while general functioning improved significantly during puberty suppression. Feelings of anxiety and anger did not change between T0 and T1. While changes over time were equal for both sexes, compared with natal males, natal females were older when they started puberty suppression and showed more problem behavior at both T0 and T1. Gender dysphoria and body satisfaction did not change between T0 and T1. No adolescent withdrew from puberty suppression, and all started cross-sex hormone treatment, the first step of actual gender reassignment. Puberty suppression may be considered a valuable contribution in the clinical management of gender dysphoria in adolescents. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice. (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S


    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Intense blue light therapy during the night-time does not suppress the rhythmic melatonin biosynthesis in a young boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stebelova K.


    Full Text Available Objective. Melatonin is a hormone predominantly synthesized and secreted during the night by the pineal gland. Artificial light at night, especially its blue part, acutely suppresses the melatonin production. Th e aim of the present study was to find out, whether an intense blue light phototherapy of severe hyperbilirubinemia, may suppress the melatonin production during the night when the eyes will be properly protected by a sleep mask.

  4. Intense blue light therapy during the night-time does not suppress the rhythmic melatonin biosynthesis in a young boy


    Stebelova K.; Kosnacova J.; Zeman M.


    Objective. Melatonin is a hormone predominantly synthesized and secreted during the night by the pineal gland. Artificial light at night, especially its blue part, acutely suppresses the melatonin production. Th e aim of the present study was to find out, whether an intense blue light phototherapy of severe hyperbilirubinemia, may suppress the melatonin production during the night when the eyes will be properly protected by a sleep mask.

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 excites firing and increases GABAergic miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons of the male mice via activation of nitric oxide (NO and suppression of endocannabinoid signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Farkas


    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, a metabolic signal molecule, regulates reproduction, although, the involved molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, yet. Therefore, responsiveness of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons to the GLP-1 analog Exendin-4 and elucidation of molecular pathways acting downstream to the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R have been challenged. Loose patch-clamp recordings revealed that Exendin-4 (100 nM–5 μM elevated firing rate in hypothalamic GnRH-GFP neurons of male mice via activation of GLP-1R. Whole-cell patch-clamp measurements demonstrated increased excitatory GABAergic miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs frequency after Exendin-4 administration, which was eliminated by the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-3(9-39 (1 μM. Intracellular application of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-beta-S (2 mM impeded action of Exendin-4 on mPSCs, suggesting direct excitatory action of GLP-1 on GnRH neurons. Blockade of nitric-oxide (NO synthesis by L-NAME (100 μM or NPLA (1 μM or intracellular scavenging of NO by CPTIO (1 mM partially attenuated the excitatory effect of Exendin-4. Similar partial inhibition was achieved by hindering endocannabinoid pathway using CB1 inverse-agonist AM251 (1 μM. Simultaneous blockade of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms eliminated action of Exendin-4 suggesting involvement of both retrograde machineries. Intracellular application of the TRPV1-antagonist AMG9810 (10 μM or the FAAH-inhibitor PF3845 (5 μM impeded the GLP-1-triggered endocannabinoid pathway indicating an anandamide-TRPV1-sensitive control of 2-AG production. Furthermore, GLP-1 immunoreactive axons innervated GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus suggesting that GLP-1 of both peripheral and neuronal sources can modulate GnRH neurons. RT-qPCR study confirmed the expression of GLP-1R and nNOS mRNAs in GnRH-GFP neurons. Immuno-electron microscopic analysis revealed the presence of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS protein in Gn

  6. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release. (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Spillmann, Maria; Bärtschi, Carmen; Wolf, Oliver T; Weber, Cora S; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H


    Animal studies suggest that the pineal hormone melatonin influences basal stress hormone levels and dampens hormone reactivity to stress. We investigated whether melatonin also has a suppressive effect on stress-induced catecholamine and cortisol release in humans. As stress hormones affect memory processing, we further examined a possible accompanying modulation of memory function. Fifty healthy young men received a single oral dose of either 3 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo medication (n = 23). One hour later, they were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). During stress, subjects encoded objects distributed in the test room, for which memory was assessed a day later ("memory encoding under stress"). Fifteen minutes following stress, memory retrieval for words learnt the day before was tested ("memory retrieval after stress"). Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, salivary free cortisol levels and psychological responses (attention, wakefulness) were repeatedly measured before and after stress exposure. Melatonin specifically enhanced recognition memory accuracy of objects encoded under stress (p cortisol levels were highest, retrieval of memories acquired the day before was not influenced by melatonin. Moreover, melatonin did not influence stress-induced elevation of catecholamine and cortisol levels which in turn did not correlate with the effects of melatonin on memory. The findings point to a primary action of melatonin on central nervous stimulus processing under conditions of stress and possibly on memory consolidation and exclude any substantial suppressive action of the substance on hormonal stress responses.

  7. Extended cycling or continuous use of hormonal contraceptives for female adolescents. (United States)

    Gold, Melanie A; Duffy, Kaiyti


    The purpose of this review is to present the most recent data on extended cycling and continuous use of hormonal contraception for female adolescents. Since 2003, several new products have been US Food and Drug Administration approved to provide extended cycling or continuous use of hormonal contraception. Clinical trials have been conducted with adult women of 18 years and older and not with adolescents under age of 18 years. Studies find successful menstrual suppression using extended cycling and continuous-use regimens that are safe and effective without negative effects on the endometrium or hemostasis. Extended cycling and continuous use improves menstrual symptoms attributed to the hormone-free interval in traditional cyclic regimens. Adolescent health providers report prescribing extended cycles of contraception with increasing frequency to adolescents. It is unknown how well female adolescents tolerate breakthrough bleeding, but data suggest that bleeding is the main reason for discontinuing. Supplementation with intermittent estrogen or instituting a 4-day hormone-free interval in response to persistent bleeding may decrease this side effect; adolescents should be counseled about these options. Extended cycling or continuous use of hormonal contraception offers adolescents an opportunity to decrease, delay or suppress monthly menstruation for health or personal reasons.

  8. Overlapping dose responses of spermatogenic and extragonadal testosterone actions jeopardize the principle of hormonal male contraception. (United States)

    Oduwole, Olayiwola O; Vydra, Natalia; Wood, Nicholas E M; Samanta, Luna; Owen, Laura; Keevil, Brian; Donaldson, Mandy; Naresh, Kikkeri; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T


    Testosterone (T), alone or in combination with progestin, provides a promising approach to hormonal male contraception. Its principle relies on enhanced negative feedback of exogenous T to suppress gonadotropins, thereby blocking the testicular T production needed for spermatogenesis, while simultaneously maintaining the extragonadal androgen actions, such as potency and libido, to avoid hypogonadism. A serious drawback of the treatment is that a significant proportion of men do not reach azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia, commensurate with contraceptive efficacy. We tested here, using hypogonadal luteinizing hormone/choriongonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) knockout (LHR(-/-)) mice, the basic principle of the T-based male contraceptive method, that a specific T dose could maintain extragonadal androgen actions without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. LHR(-/-) mice were treated with increasing T doses, and the responses of their spermatogenesis and extragonadal androgen actions (including gonadotropin suppression and sexual behavior) were assessed. Conspicuously, all dose responses to T were practically superimposable, and no dose of T could be defined that would maintain sexual function and suppress gonadotropins without simultaneously activating spermatogenesis. This finding, never addressed in clinical contraceptive trials, is not unexpected in light of the same androgen receptor mediating androgen actions in all organs. When extrapolated to humans, our findings may jeopardize the current approach to hormonal male contraception and call for more effective means of inhibiting intratesticular T production or action, to achieve consistent spermatogenic suppression. © FASEB.

  9. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses. (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal


    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  11. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  12. Recent methodological advances in male hormonal contraception (United States)

    Liu, Peter Y.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Wang, Christina


    Landmark WHO-sponsored trials showed decades ago that male hormonal contraception (MHC) is an effective male-directed contraceptive approach. Considerable progress has been made particularly in the last 5 years, establishing for the first time the reversibility of MHC and its short-term safety. Methodological advances in recent years include: the pooling of information and individual-level integrated analysis; the first-time use of centralized semen analysis and fluorescence to detect low sperm concentrations; the establishment of sperm quality reference ranges in fertile men; the measurement of blood steroid concentrations by gas or chromatography/mass spectrometry; and the inclusion of placebo groups to delineate clearly possible adverse effects of androgens and progestins in men. We report integrated analyses of factors that are important in predicting suppression and recovery of spermatogenesis after MHC clinical trials for the past 15 years. These are the best data available and will provide guidance and reassurance for the larger scale Phase III specific regimen efficacy studies that will be required to bring MHC to the population (market). PMID:20933121

  13. Recent methodological advances in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Liu, Peter Y; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Wang, Christina


    Landmark WHO-sponsored trials showed decades ago that male hormonal contraception (MHC) is an effective male-directed contraceptive approach. Considerable progress has been made particularly in the last 5 years, establishing for the first time the reversibility of MHC and its short-term safety. Methodological advances in recent years include the pooling of information and individual-level integrated analysis; the first-time use of centralized semen analysis and fluorescence to detect low sperm concentrations; the establishment of sperm quality reference ranges in fertile men; the measurement of blood steroid concentrations by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; and the inclusion of placebo groups to delineate clearly possible adverse effects of androgens and progestins in men. We report integrated analyses of factors that are important in predicting suppression and recovery of spermatogenesis after MHC clinical trials for the past 15 years. These are the best data available and will provide guidance and reassurance for the larger-scale Phase III specific regimen efficacy studies that will be required to bring MHC to the population (market). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in children treated for asthma with inhaled corticosteroid. (United States)

    Smith, Ryan W; Downey, Kim; Gordon, Michelle; Hudak, Alan; Meeder, Rob; Barker, Sarah; Smith, W Gary


    To determine the prevalence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in asthmatic children on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Clinical and demographic variables were recorded on preconstructed, standardized forms. HPA axis suppression was measured by morning serum cortisol levels and confirmed by low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing. In total, 214 children participated. Twenty children (9.3%, 95% CI 5.3% to 13.4%) had HPA axis suppression. Odds of HPA axis suppression increased with ICS dose (OR 1.005, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.009, PHPA axis suppression were on a medium or lower dose of ICS for their age (200 μg/day to 500 μg/day). HPA axis suppression was not predicted by drug type, dose duration, concomitant use of long-acting beta-agonist or nasal steroid, or clinical features. Laboratory evidence of HPA axis suppression exists in children taking ICS for asthma. Children should be regularly screened for the presence of HPA axis suppression when treated with high-dose ICS (>500 μg/day). Consideration should be given to screening children on medium-dose ICS.

  15. Hormonal changes during GnRH analogue therapy in children with central precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Juul, A; Andersson, A M


    the hypothalamopituitary-gonadal axis as well as on growth hormone (GH) secretion. Gonadal activity is increased in children with CPP; during GnRHa therapy secretion of gonadal hormones is suppressed as reflected by measurements of LH, FSH, and estradiol/testosterone. More recently, studies of levels of inhibin A and B...... revealed a decrease in levels of free, biologically active IGF-I during GnRHa treatment. These findings are in accord with the observed decrease in height velocity in children with CPP under treatment with GnRHa, and may also play a role in the relatively small gain in final height in most patients....

  16. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML


    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  17. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta


    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  18. Advances in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina


    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  19. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette


    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...

  20. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  1. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  2. Predictors of prostate volume reduction following neoadjuvant cytoreductive androgen suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan R. Jethwa


    Full Text Available Purpose: Limited duration cytoreductive neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT is used prior to definitive radiotherapeutic management of prostate cancer to decrease prostate volume. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of NHT on prostate volume before permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB, and determine associated predictive factors. Material and methods : Between June 1998 and April 2012, a total of 1,110 patients underwent PPB and 207 patients underwent NHT. Of these, 189 (91.3% underwent detailed planimetric transrectal ultrasound before and after NHT prior to PPB. Regression analysis was used to assess predictors of absolute and percentage change in prostate volume after NHT. Results: The median duration of NHT was 4.9 months with inter quartile range (IQR, 4.2-6.6 months. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA reduced by a median of 97% following NHT. The mean prostate volume before NHT was 62.5 ± 22.1 cm 3 (IQR: 46-76 cm 3 , and after NHT, it was 37.0 ± 14.5 cm 3 (IQR: 29-47 cm 3 . The mean prostate volume reduction was 23.4 cm 3 (35.9%. Absolute prostate volume reduction was positively correlated with initial volume and inversely correlated with T-stage, Gleason score, and NCCN risk group. In multivariate regression analyses, initial prostate volume (p < 0.001 remained as a significant predictor of absolute and percent prostate volume reduction. Total androgen suppression was associated with greater percent prostate volume reduction than luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa alone (p = 0.001. Conclusions : Prostate volume decreased by approximately one third after 4.9 months of NHT, with total androgen suppression found to be more efficacious in maximizing cytoreduction than LHRHa alone. Initial prostate volume is the greatest predictor for prostate volume reduction.

  3. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)


    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  4. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.


    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... . Accessed May 2011. (© 1995–2011). Unit Code 89711: Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo ...

  6. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E


    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  7. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.


    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous

  8. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  9. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  10. Sex, hormones and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunsen, R. H.; Laan, E.


    The human sexual response is a complicated biopsychosocial phenomenon in which internal and external stimuli are modulated by the central and peripheral nervous system, resulting in a cascade of biochemical, hormonal and circulatory changes that lead to cognitive and physical sexual arousal. In this

  11. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone delivery. Keywords: Transdermal, Delivery systems, ... delivery compared with gels, emulsions, patches, and subcutaneous implants. Among .... In a safety announcement, the US Food and. Drug Administration (FDA) warned that ...

  12. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  13. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.


    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  14. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina


    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  15. v-erbA oncogene activation entails the loss of hormone-dependent regulator activity of c-erbA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenke, M; Muñoz, A; Sap, J


    The v-erbA oncogene, one of the two oncogenes of the avian erythroblastosis virus, efficiently blocks erythroid differentiation and suppresses erythrocyte-specific gene transcription. Here we show that the overexpressed thyroid hormone receptor c-erbA effectively modulates erythroid differentiation...

  16. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood ... their thyroid gland removed is receiving too little thyroid hormone replacement medication and the dose may need to ...

  17. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings. (1) The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. (2) The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem...... organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. (3) Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others...

  18. [Role of hormonal disturbances in sterility development for patients with benign formations of ovaries]. (United States)

    Abdullaeva, L M; Babadzhanova, G S; Nazarova, D B; Muratova, N D; Ashurova, U A


    The article presents hormonal analysis of hypothalamus-hypophysis-ovaries system of 14 patients with sterility as well as of other 15 patients without sterility suffering from benign tumors or tumorous formations. The control group included 6 healthy women. The concentration of hormones in blood serum (FSH-follicle stimulating hormone, LH-lutein hormone, Prolactinum, Testosteronum, Oestradiolum, Progesterone) has been tested in dynamics of a menstrual cycle. Correlation of results of hormonal and histological analysis of a capsule of formation and a biopsy of a tissue of an ovary of these patients has revealed that formation occurrence irrespective of its histological type leads to suppression of the follicular apparatus. These disturbances are more symptomatic for patients with both epithelial cystomas and sterility. It gives evidence that these disturbances can cause sterility. Hormonal disturbances of patients with benign tumors or tumorous formations depend on formation presence, rather than of its histological type. Spontaneous recovery of reproductive function is marked at 35 % of patients. Efficiency of surgery treatment and rehabilitation therapy within the first year after surgery made up 60 %.

  19. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko A. Schneider


    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD (DMS-5 is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance.Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression.Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV were performed.Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range.Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  20. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression. (United States)

    Schneider, Maiko A; Spritzer, Poli M; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Fontanari, Anna M V; Carneiro, Marina; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Costa, Angelo B; da Silva, Dhiordan C; Schwarz, Karine; Anes, Maurício; Tramontina, Silza; Lobato, Maria I R


    Introduction: Gender dysphoria (GD) (DMS-5) is a condition marked by increasing psychological suffering that accompanies the incongruence between one's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender. Manifestation of GD can be seen early on during childhood and adolescence. During this period, the development of undesirable sexual characteristics marks an acute suffering of being opposite to the sex of birth. Pubertal suppression with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) has been proposed for these individuals as a reversible treatment for postponing the pubertal development and attenuating psychological suffering. Recently, increased interest has been observed on the impact of this treatment on brain maturation, cognition and psychological performance. Objectives: The aim of this clinical report is to review the effects of puberty suppression on the brain white matter (WM) during adolescence. WM Fractional anisotropy, voice and cognitive functions were assessed before and during the treatment. MRI scans were acquired before, and after 22 and 28 months of hormonal suppression. Methods: We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog. Three longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), regarding Fractional Anisotropy (FA) for regions of interest analysis. In parallel, voice samples for acoustic analysis as well as executive functioning with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-IV) were performed. Results: During the follow-up, white matter fractional anisotropy did not increase, compared to normal male puberty effects on the brain. After 22 months of pubertal suppression, operational memory dropped 9 points and remained stable after 28 months of follow-up. The fundamental frequency of voice varied during the first year; however, it remained in the female range. Conclusion: Brain white matter fractional anisotropy

  1. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight hormonal combinations were formulated and tested using a completely randomized design with three replicates in the tissue culture laboratory. Ten shoot tips from in-vitro raised plantlets were excised and transferred to each of these hormonal combinations. The effect of hormonal combinations was variety dependant ...

  2. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  3. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835595


    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken

  4. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  5. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection? (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...



    Sharique; Suraj; Sharma


    BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female p...

  7. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... for you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal women ...

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  9. Luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone agonist reduces serum adrenal androgen levels in prostate cancer patients: implications for the effect of LH on the adrenal glands. (United States)

    Nishii, Masahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Oyama, Tetsunari; Suzuki, Kazuhiro


    Recently, adrenal androgens have been targeted as key hormones for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer therapeutics. Although circulating adrenal androgens originate mainly from the adrenal glands, the testes also supply about 10%. Although widely used in androgen deprivation medical castration therapy, the effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonist on adrenal androgens has not been fully studied. In this study, changes in testicular and adrenal androgen levels were measured and compared to adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. To assess the possible role of LH in the adrenal glands, immunohistochemical studies of the LH receptor in normal adrenal glands were performed. Forty-seven patients with localized or locally progressive prostate cancer were treated with LH-RH agonist with radiotherapy. Six months after initiation of treatment, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol levels were decreased by 90%-95%, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione levels were significantly decreased by 26%-40%. The suppressive effect of LH-RH agonist at 12 months was maintained. Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels showed an increasing trend at 6 months and a significant increase at 12 months. LH receptors were positively stained in the cortex cells of the reticular layer of the adrenal glands. The long-term LH-RH agonist treatment reduced adrenal-originated adrenal androgens. LH receptors in the adrenal cortex cells of the reticular layer might account for the underlying mechanism of reduced adrenal androgens.

  10. The effects of juvenile hormone on Lasius niger reproduction. (United States)

    Pamminger, T; Buttstedt, A; Norman, V; Schierhorn, A; Botías, C; Jones, J C; Basley, K; Hughes, W O H


    Reproduction has been shown to be costly for survival in a wide diversity of taxa. The resulting trade-off, termed the reproduction-survival trade-off, is thought to be one of the most fundamental forces of life-history evolution. In insects the pleiotropic effect of juvenile hormone (JH), antagonistically regulating reproduction and pathogen resistance, is suggested to underlie this phenomenon. In contrast to the majority of insects, reproductive individuals in many eusocial insects defy this trade-off and live both long and prosper. By remodelling the gonadotropic effects of JH in reproductive regulation, the queens of the long-lived black garden ant Lasius niger (living up to 27 years), have circumvented the reproduction-survival trade off enabling them to maximize both reproduction and pathogen resistance simultaneously. In this study we measure fertility, vitellogenin gene expression and protein levels after experimental manipulation of hormone levels. We use these measurements to investigate the mechanistic basis of endocrinological role remodelling in reproduction and determine how JH suppresses reproduction in this species, rather then stimulating it, like in the majority of insects. We find that JH likely inhibits three key aspects of reproduction both during vitellogenesis and oogenesis, including two previously unknown mechanisms. In addition, we document that juvenile hormone, as in the majority of insects, has retained some stimulatory function in regulating vitellogenin expression. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of this complex regulatory architecture of reproduction in L. niger, which might enable the evolution of similar reproductive phenotypes by alternate regulatory pathways, and the surprising flexibility regulatory role of juvenile hormone in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Empiric medical therapy with hormonal agents for idiopathic male infertility. (United States)

    Tadros, Nicholas N; Sabanegh, Edmund S


    Infertility affects approximately 15% of all couples, and male factor contribute to up to 50% of cases. Unfortunately, the cause of male infertility is unknown in about 30% of these cases. Infertility of unknown origin is classified as idiopathic male infertility when abnormal semen parameters are present. Despite not having a definable cause, these men may respond to treatment. This review focuses on the use of empiric hormonal therapies for idiopathic male infertility. A detailed PubMed/MEDLINE search was conducted to identify all publications pertaining to empiric use of hormonal therapies in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility using the keywords "idiopathic," "male infertility," "empiric treatment," "clomiphene," "SERM," "gonadotropin," "aromatase inhibitor," and "androgen." These manuscripts were reviewed to identify treatment modalities and results. Gonadotropins, androgens, aromatase inhibitors, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have all been used with varying results. The studies on these treatments are of variable quality. The most well-studied agents are the SERMs which show a modest increase in semen parameters and pregnancy rates. Aromatase inhibitors are most effective in non-idiopathic patients. Gonadotropin treatment is limited by their inconvenience and relative ineffectiveness in this population. Testosterone suppresses spermatogenesis and should not be used to treat infertility. Gonadotropins, SERMs, and aromatase inhibitors may improve semen parameters and hormone levels in men with idiopathic infertility with the best results from SERMs. Testosterone should never be used to treat infertility. Large multicenter randomized controlled studies are needed to better determine the success of empiric use of hormonal therapy on pregnancy rates.

  12. Goserelin acetate implant: a depot luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog for advanced prostate cancer. (United States)

    Goldspiel, B R; Kohler, D R


    Goserelin acetate implant is a newly approved depot formulation of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist indicated for palliation of advanced prostate cancer. LHRH superagonists suppress gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland by causing down-regulation of receptors. The sustained-release dosage form contains goserelin acetate dispersed in a biodegradable copolymer matrix and is designed to release active drug over 28 days. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that, despite nonzero order release of goserelin from the matrix, goserelin acetate implant maintains serum concentrations of testosterone in the range normally found in castrated men (less than 2 nmol/L) throughout the recommended 28-day dosing interval. Response rates similar to those for orchiectomy and estrogen administration have been demonstrated. Combination therapy with either diethylstilbestrol or flutamide has produced favorable results, although the major advantage appears to be a reduction in the tumor flare seen during the first week of LHRH agonist therapy rather than an increase in response rate or survival. Adverse effects are similar to other LHRH agonists and include tumor flare during the first week of therapy, decreased libido, decreased erectile potency, hot flashes, and gynecomastia. In combination with flutamide, additional adverse effects include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and elevated hepatic aminotransferases, all of which can be attributed to flutamide administration. Local reactions are minimal; however, some patients require a local anesthetic before goserelin acetate implant injection. The recommended dose is 3.6 mg administered subcutaneously into the upper abdominal wall every 28 days. The average wholesale cost is approximately +320 per month. Formulary addition is recommended.

  13. Thyroid hormone response element half-site organization and its effect on thyroid hormone mediated transcription. (United States)

    Paquette, Martin A; Atlas, Ella; Wade, Mike G; Yauk, Carole L


    Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its effects by binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), which binds to TH response elements (TREs) to regulate target gene expression. We investigated the relative ability of liganded homodimers TR and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the heterodimer TR/RXR, to regulate gene expression for the TRE half-site organizations: direct repeat 4 (DR4), inverted repeat 0 (IR0) and everted repeat 6 (ER6). Luciferase reporter assays using a DR4 TRE suggest that both the TR homodimer and TR/RXR heterodimer regulate luciferase expression in the presence of their respective ligands. However, in the presence of the IR0 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR and RXR alone increased luciferase activity and there was no effect of TR alone. The presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid was necessary for luciferase expression, whereas TH treatment alone was insufficient. For the ER6 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR, TR alone and RXR alone (in the presence of their respective ligands) all caused a significant increase in luciferase activity. When both ligands were present, transfection with both TR/RXR caused more activation. Finally, we investigated the efficacy of the TR-antagonist 1-850 in inhibiting transcription by TR or TR/RXR at DR4 and ER6 TREs. We found that 1-850 did not suppress luciferase activation in the presence of TR/RXR for the ER6 TRE, suggesting conformational changes of the ligand binding domain of the TR when bound to different TRE half-site organizations. Collectively, the findings indicate that there are fundamental differences between TRE configurations that affect nuclear receptor interactions with the response element and ability to bind ligands and antagonists.

  14. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  15. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L


    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  16. Growth hormone insensitivity: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, S; Hatipoglu, N


    Growth hormone resistance defines several genetic (primary) and acquired (secondary) pathologies that result in completely or partially interrupted activity of growth hormone. An archetypal disease of this group is the Laron-type dwarfism caused by mutations in growth hormone receptors. The diagnosis is based on high basal levels of growth hormone, low insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) level, unresponsiveness to IGF generation test and genetic testing. Recombinant IGF-1 preparations are used in the treatment In this article, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of the genetic and other diseases leading to growth hormone insensitivity are reviewed.

  17. Purging device for suppression chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Koichi.


    Purpose: To completely drive out air or the like in the suppression chamber in a short period of time thereby protect bent pipes from embrittled rupture. Constitution: Nitrogen gases, etc. entering through the inlet penetration to the inside of a reactor container are guided downwardly through communication pipeways, and the released downwardly in a stable manner while the blowing speed being retained by blowing mechanisms. Released nitrogen gases, etc. diffuse along the water surface of the suppression chamber and fill the inside of the chamber from below. Air, etc. in the suppression chamber prior to the supply of nitrogen gas, etc. is discharged through the exit penetration from the purging discharge pipe smoothly to the outside. In this way, air is replaced with nitrogen gas, etc., the released nitrogen is not directly blown to bent pipe, the operation is simplified, and the charge/discharge operation can be made in a short time efficiently. (Kamimura, M.).

  18. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S; Anderson, Elaine J; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Dakin, Steven C


    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target's appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  19. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E


    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  20. Menopause, micronutrients, and hormone therapy. (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith


    Micronutrient and herbal/phytochemical supplements are of increasing interest as potential alternatives to using estrogen therapy in treating menopausal symptoms. This article provides an overview of the questionnaires that assess menopausal symptoms and research efforts to better standardize symptom assessment. The reported rate of symptoms varies by ethnicity, stage of menopause, hormonal therapy and the measurement method. The use of estrogen therapy has declined sharply after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial was stopped early because the potential risks outweighed potential benefits. There is a limited research base that addresses the efficacy of supplements in controlling menopausal symptoms. The generalizability of several studies is limited because the study participants experiences menopause as the results of treatment for breast cancer. The article concludes with a review of guidelines and of issues that need to be addressed in future research studies with emphasis on questions related to clinical practice.

  1. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bińkowska


    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  2. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy. (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E


    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  3. Hormonal stimulation of the recovery of spermatogenesis following chemo- or radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meistrich, M.L. [Univ. of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Dept. of Experimental Radiation Oncology, Houston, Texas (United States)


    Radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs produce prolonged depression of sperm counts in rodents and humans. Previously, three approaches have been developed in experimental animals that have had some success in preventing or reversing this toxicity. These approaches included pretreatment with hormones that suppress spermatogenesis, stimulation of stem cell number, and supplementation with testosterone. A different rationale for the ability of particular hormonal treatments to reverse prolonged azoospermia is presented in this review. In many cases prolonged azoospermia occurs even though the stem spermatogonia survive the toxic insult, but the differentiation of these spermatogonia to produce sperm fails. In the rat, the block appears to be at the differentiation of the A spermatogonia. Hormone treatments with testosterone or with GnRH agonists, which suppress intratesticular testosterone levels, relieve this block and result in the production of differentiating cells. When the hormone treatment is stopped the production of differentiating cells continues, mature sperm are produced, and fertility is restored. If a similar mechanism can be demonstrated to hold in humans, the fertility of men who have been rendered infertile by treatments for testicular and other cancers could be improved. (au). 100 refs.

  4. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes


    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena


    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone


    Gutkowska, J.; Jankowski, M.; Mukaddam-Daher, S.; McCann, S.M.


    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, sugges...

  7. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy


    Jennifer A. Robinson; Burke, Anne E.


    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  8. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente


    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  9. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak


    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  10. Hormonal regulation of energy-protein homeostasis in hemodialysis patients: an anorexigenic profile that may predispose to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. (United States)

    Suneja, Manish; Murry, Daryl J; Stokes, John B; Lim, Victoria S


    To assess whether endocrine dysfunction may cause derangement in energy homeostasis in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), we profiled hormones, during a 3-day period, from the adipose tissue and the gut and the nervous system around the circadian clock in 10 otherwise healthy HD patients and 8 normal controls. The protocol included a 40-h fast. We also measured energy-protein intake and output and assessed appetite and body composition. We found many hormonal abnormalities in HD patients: 1) leptin levels were elevated, due, in part, to increased production, and nocturnal surge in response to daytime feeding, exaggerated. 2) Peptide YY (PYY), an anorexigenic gut hormone, was markedly elevated and displayed an augmented response to feeding. 3) Acylated ghrelin, an orexigenic gut hormone, was lower and did not exhibit the premeal spike as observed in the controls. 4) neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigenic peptide, was markedly elevated and did not display any circadian variation. 5) Norepinephrine, marginally elevated, did not exhibit the normal nocturnal dip. By contrast, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and glucagon-like peptide-1 were not different between the two groups. Despite these hormonal abnormalities, HD patients maintained a good appetite and had normal body lean and fat mass, and there was no evidence of increased energy expenditure or protein catabolism. We explain the hormonal abnormalities as well as the absence of anorexia on suppression of parasympathetic activity (vagus nerve dysfunction), a phenomenon well documented in dialysis patients. Unexpectedly, we noted that the combination of high leptin, PYY, and NPY with suppressed ghrelin may increase arterial blood pressure, impair vasodilatation, and induce cardiac hypertrophy, and thus could predispose to adverse cardiovascular events that are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the HD population. This is the first report attempting to link hormonal abnormalities associated with

  11. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari


    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  12. Osteoporosis and thyrotropin-suppressive therapy: reduced effectiveness of alendronate. (United States)

    Panico, Annalisa; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Fonderico, Francesco; Marciello, Francesca; Martinelli, Addolorata; Assante, Roberta; Lupoli, Giovanni


    Many reports of the effect of exogenous thyroxine therapy on bone mineral density (BMD) show a relationship between excess thyroid hormone administration and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of antibone resorptive agents, in particular alendronate (ALN) on BMD in postmenopausal osteoporotic women with thyroid carcinoma who were receiving long-term thyrotropin (TSH)-suppressive therapy with thyroxine. Seventy-four postmenopausal women with low BMD (T-score or =0.05 and < or =0.1 microU/mL) for about 3-9 years were selected for the study. The patients were divided into three groups according to the length of levothyroxine (LT(4)) treatment prior to the beginning of the study: group A (TSH-suppressive therapy for about 3 years), group B (for about 6 years), and group C (for about 9 years). These patients were compared with 74 matched women not taking LT(4). All patients and controls were treated with bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D for 2 years and evaluated. After 24 months of treatment group A showed a 7.8% increase in lumbar BMD; group B, a 4.6% increase; and group C, a 0.86% increase. In the control group BMD increased 8.2%. A significant difference was found in both lumbar and femoral BMD increase among the three groups: group C had a lower BMD increase than group A (p < 0.001) and B (p < 0.001). In postmenopausal women who were receiving adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D in their diet ALN was less effective for those who were also receiving TSH-suppressive doses of LT(4) for either 6 or 9 years. The positive effect of ALN on BMD was less for longer periods of LT(4) treatment. It seems likely that other bisphosphonates would also be less effective in increasing BMD in postmenopausal women receiving TSH-suppressing doses of LT(4).

  13. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  14. The effects of light at night and/or melatonin on hormones, metabo- lites, appetite control, vascular function, and behavioural responses.


    Albreiki, Mohammed S.


    Light at night (LAN) is a major factor in disruption of SCN function, including melatonin suppression. Melatonin has been linked to a variety of biological processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, vascular parameters, appetite, and behaviour. However, few human studies have investigated the effect of LAN and suppressed melatonin prior to and after an evening meal. The current thesis aims to investigate the impact of light at night and/or mela- tonin on hormones, metabolites, appetit...

  15. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra


    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  16. Psychoneuroendocrine research in depression. I. Hormone levels of different neuroendocrine axes and the dexamethasone suppression test. (United States)

    Rupprecht, R; Lesch, K P


    Psychoneuroendocrinology is of major importance in the biological research of depression. Most studies have focussed on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis but other endocrine systems such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-somatotropic (HPS), and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have also been shown to be involved in the psychobiology of depression. There are close interrelations between various endocrine axes which possibly are affected during depressive illness. A variety of neuroendocrine abnormalities has been detected in depressive disorder but the pathophysiology of these derangements remains still unclear. Although the currently used neuroendocrine tests are not of diagnostic validity they may help to clarify the pathophysiological significance of the complex regulatory mechanisms of different neuroendocrine axes in affective disorders. Neuroendocrine regulation is determined both by peripheral and central mechanisms which both have to be adequately considered as well as potent interactions between various endocrine systems in further neuroendocrine depression research.

  17. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  18. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueber, V.


    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T/sub 3/ technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T/sub 3/ is slightly enhanced. Free T/sub 4/ can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T/sub 4/ substitution free T/sub 4/ is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis.

  19. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.


    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies......, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states....

  20. Hormone replacement therapy use and plasma levels of sex hormones in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Postgenome Cohort – a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Karina S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormone replacement therapy use (HRT is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Our primary objective was to explore hormone levels in plasma according to HRT use, body mass index (BMI and menopausal status. A secondary objective was to validate self-reported questionnaire information on menstruation and HRT use in the Norwegian Women and Cancer postgenome cohort (NOWAC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormone levels among 445 women aged 48–62 who answered an eight-page questionnaire in 2004 and agreed to donate a blood sample. The samples were drawn at the women's local general physician's offices in the spring of 2005 and sent by mail to NOWAC, Tromsø, together with a two-page questionnaire. Plasma levels of sex hormones and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG were measured by immunometry. 20 samples were excluded, leaving 425 hormone measurements. Results 20% of postmenopausal women were HRT users. The plasma levels of estradiol (E2 increased with an increased E2 dose, and use of systemic E2-containing HRT suppressed the level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH. SHBG levels increased mainly among users of oral E2 preparations. Vaginal E2 application did not influence hormone levels. There was no difference in BMI between HRT users and non-users. Increased BMI was associated with increased E2 and decreased FSH and SHBG levels among non-users. Menopausal status defined by the two-page questionnaire showed 92% sensitivity (95% CI 89–96% and 73% specificity (95% CI 64–82%, while the eight-page questionnaire showed 88% sensitivity (95% CI 84–92% and 87% specificity (95% CI 80–94%. Current HRT use showed 100% specificity and 88% of the HRT-users had plasma E2 levels above the 95% CI of non-users. Conclusion Users of systemic E2-containing HRT preparations have plasma E2 and FSH levels comparable to premenopausal women. BMI has an influence on hormone levels among non-users. NOWAC

  1. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell


    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  2. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P


    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...

  3. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during follicle development in the rat ovary. Effects of gonadotropin stimulation and hypophysectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L


    Daily oscillations of clock genes have recently been demonstrated in the ovaries of several species. Clock gene knockout or mutant mice demonstrate a variety of reproductive defects. Accumulating evidence suggests that these rhythms act to synchronise the expression of specific ovarian genes...... examined the ovaries of prepubertal rats, of prepubertal rats stimulated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and of hypophysectomised adult animals. Using quantitative reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridisation histochemistry...

  4. Follicular fluid concentrations of lipids and their metabolites are associated with intraovarian gonadotropin-stimulated androgen production in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Gervais, A; Battista, M-C; Carranza-Mamane, B; Lavoie, H B; Baillargeon, J-P


    Although growing evidence points toward a role of lipotoxicity in the development of hyperandrogenesis, the main feature of polycystic ovary syndrome, few studies directly assessed this association in vivo in humans, and none targeted the ovarian milieu. The main objective of this study was to correlate follicular fluid (FF) T levels with lipids, lipid metabolites, and inflammation markers. This was a cross-sectional study. Recruitment was performed in two fertility clinics at one private and one academic center. Eighty women requiring in vitro fertilization were recruited during one of their scheduled visit at the fertility clinic. All women aged between 18 and 40 years with a body mass index between 18 and 40 kg/m(2) were invited to participate. There were no interventions. At the time of oocyte aspiration, FF was collected and analyzed for total T, lipids [nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) plus triglycerides], NEFA metabolites (acylcarnitines; markers of ineffective NEFAs β-oxidation), and inflammatory marker composition. The hypothesis being tested was formulated before the data collection. FF T levels were significantly correlated with FF levels of lipids (r = 0.381, P = .001; independently of IL-6), acylcarnitines (r ≥ 0.255, all P = .008; not independently of lipids), and IL-6 (r = 0.300, P = .009, independently of lipids). Additionally, FF lipid levels were significantly and strongly correlated with acylcarnitines (r ≥ 0.594; all P lipids, independently of inflammation and mainly through ineffective NEFA β-oxidation (as shown by higher acylcarnitine levels). Inflammation is also associated with intraovarian androgenesis, independently of lipids.

  5. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Stimulation Increase the Number of Luteinized Follicles and the Progesterone Level Compared with Cabergoline Stimulation in Anoestrus Bitches. (United States)

    Jurczak, A; Domosławska, A; Bukowska, B; Janowski, T


    In this study, ovarian morphologies and blood progesterone concentrations following oestrous induction in bitches were examined. Fifty-three clinically healthy anoestrus bitches received cabergoline at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg of body weight per os for 21 days (group I) or subcutaneous equine chorionic gonadotropin at a dose of 20 IU/kg of body weight for five consecutive days with an additional 500 IU s.c. per bitch of human chorionic gonadotropin on the last day of treatment (group II). Twenty bitches that spontaneously displayed oestrous signs were left untreated and served as controls (group III). The induced oestrous rates and ovulation rates in groups I and II were 60.0% vs 64.3% and 86.7% vs 83.3%, respectively. Morphological assessments of the ovarian structures after ovariohysterectomy revealed an increase in the number of luteinized follicles and cysts in group II compared with the two other groups (p cabergoline (I) and control (III) groups were similar and typical of normally cycling bitches. In conclusion, gonadotropin treatment is associated with an increased progesterone level during the periovulatory period that probably originates from luteinized follicles, whereas cabergoline treatment induces cycles with both physiological progesterone concentrations and ovarian morphologies. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of Steroidal Antiandrogen or 5-alpha-reductase Inhibitor on Prostate Tissue Hormone Content. (United States)

    Shibata, Yasuhiro; Arai, Seiji; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Shuto, Takahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro


    The effects of a steroidal antiandrogen (AA) and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) on prostate tissue hormone content and metabolism are not fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to investigate the hormone content and metabolism of the prostate tissues of patients treated with AA or 5ARI using the ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Thirty-nine patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) undergoing transurethral surgery were included. Serum and prostate tissue hormone and prostate tissue hormone metabolism analyses were performed using LC-MS/MS after 1 month of treatment with chlormadinone acetate (CMA; steroidal AA, 50 mg/day) or dutasteride (DUTA; dual 5ARI, 0.5 mg/day). Serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and adrenal androgen levels were lower in the CMA group than the control group. Prostate tissue T and DHT levels were also lower in the CMA group than the control group. In the DUTA group, only serum and prostate DHT concentrations were reduced compared to the control group; in contrast, those of other hormones, especially T and 4-androstene-3,17-dione in the prostate tissue, showed marked elevations up to 70.4- and 11.4-fold normal levels, respectively. Moreover, the hormone metabolism assay confirmed that the conversion of T to DHT was significantly suppressed while that of T to 4-androstene-3,17-dione was significantly accelerated in the prostate tissue of DUTA-treated patients. Although treatment with AA and 5ARI show similar clinical outcomes, their effect on tissue hormone content and metabolism varied greatly. Prostate 77: 672-680, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics


    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  8. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke


    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  9. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie


    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  10. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology. (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin


    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J


    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  12. Gut Hormones and Energy Balance, The Future for Obesity Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries along with associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. The recent discovery of a number of gut hormones that play a role in appetite regulation and are released or suppressed in response to a meal may offer new targets for the treatments of obesity. CONTENT: In addition to the obvious role of the gut in the digestion and absorption of nutrient, the intestine and associated visceral organs, including the pancreas, liver, and visceral adipose depots, have important sensing and signaling roles in the regulation of energy homeostatis. Signals reflecting energy stores, recent nutritional state, and other parameters are integrated in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypotalamus, to coordinate energy intake and expenditure. SUMMARY: Our understanding of the role of the gut in energy balance and insights into gut-derived signals will stimulate previously unexplored therapeutics for obesity and other disorders of energy balance. KEYWORDS: obesity, energy, balance, gut hormones, satiation, satiety.

  13. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  14. Charmonium suppression by thermal dissociation and percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, M


    I discuss the charmonium suppression in deconfined medium by thermal dissociation and parton percolation. I point out the differences and show predictions for J/psi suppression at different energy and/or for different interacting nuclei.

  15. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration


    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  16. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  17. Gastrin: old hormone, new functions. (United States)

    Dockray, Graham; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea


    It is exactly a century since the gastric hormone gastrin was first described as a blood-borne regulator of gastric acid secretion. The identities of the main active forms of the hormone (the "classical gastrins") and their cellular and molecular sites of action in regulating acid secretion have all attracted sustained attention. However, recent work on peptides derived from the gastrin precursor that do not stimulate acid secretion ("non-classical gastrins"), together with studies on mice over-expressing the gene, or in which the gastrin gene has been deleted, suggest hitherto unsuspected roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, microarray and proteomic studies have identified previously unsuspected target genes of the classical gastrins. Some of the newer actions have implications for our understanding of the progression to cancer in oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and colon, all of which have recently been linked in one way or another to dysfunctional signalling involving products of the gastrin gene. The present review focuses on recent progress in understanding the biology of both classical and non-classical gastrins.

  18. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition. (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric


    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  20. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L


    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH...

  1. Efficient eradication of hormone-resistant human prostate cancers by inactivated Sendai virus particle. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miyamoto, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takehiro; Kaneda, Yasufumi


    Hormone-refractory prostate cancer is one of the intractable human cancers in the world. Here, we examined the direct tumor-killing activity of inactivated Sendai virus particle [hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E)] through induction of Type I interferon (IFN) in the hormone-resistant human prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. Preferential binding of HVJ-E to PC3 and DU145 over hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell and normal prostate epithelium was observed, resulting in a number of fused cells. After HVJ-E treatment, a number of IFN-related genes were up-regulated, resulting in Type I IFN production in PC3 cells. Then, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) helicase which activates Type I IFN expression after Sendai virus infection was up-regulated in cancer cells after HVJ-E treatment. Produced IFN-alpha and -beta enhanced caspase 8 expression via Janus kinases/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription pathway, activated caspase 3 and induced apoptosis in cancer cells. When HVJ-E was directly injected into a mass of PC3 tumor cells in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice, a marked reduction in the bulk of each tumor mass was observed and 85% of the mice became tumor-free. Although co-injection of an anti-asialo GM1 antibody with HVJ-E into each tumor mass slightly attenuated the tumor suppressive activity of HVJ-E, significant suppression of tumor growth was observed even in the presence of anti-asialo GM1 antibody. This suggests that natural killer cell activation made small contribution to tumor regression following HVJ-E treatment in hormone-resistant prostate cancer model in vivo. Thus, HVJ-E effectively targets hormone-resistant prostate cancer by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells, as well as activating anti-tumor immunity. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms. (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L


    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  3. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome. (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.


    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  4. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh


    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  5. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.


    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones.

  6. Effect of androgen suppression on bone mineral density in patients with prostate cancer. (United States)

    Chernichenko, O A; Sakalo, V S; Yakovlev, P G; Sakalo, A V; Zhylchuk, Y V; Zsolt, A


    The androgen-suppressive therapy (AST) in patients with prostate cancer (PC) may dramatically affect the bone mineral density (BMD), which puts patients at risk of severe adverse effects, such as weight-bearing bone fractures. To study the effect of AST on BMD in patients with non-metastatic hormone-sensitive PC treated with intermittent hormonal therapy, and effect of different total testosterone level on BMD. From 2011 to 2013 we treated 56 patients with non-metastatic hormone-naïve PC. Intermittent hormonal treatment with flutamide at a dose of 250 mg 3 times per day with nine monthly injections of luteinizing gonadotropic releasing hormone (LGnRH) ["treatment" period] followed by period of observance ("no treatment") was administered. We evaluated the BMD of lumbar spine and both proximal thighs by means of dual-energy x-ray densitometry at the end of "treatment" period and at the end of "no treatment" period. During the first treatment period, 44 of 56 patients (78.6%) experienced the reduction in BMD in both lumbar spine and thighs. Total testosterone level in all patients dropped to castration level. During the first period of "no treatment" there was an increase in BMD (p 50 ng/dl was 91 days (from 30 to 308 days), and > 100 ng/dl was 110 days (from 49 to 343 days). The changes in BMD positively correlated with the changes in total testosterone level (correlation 0.18 [95% CI, 0.04-0.27], p = 0.009). The decline in total testosterone level in serum was followed by the decline in BMD value in the studied areas, and vice versa. The changes in BMD positively correlated with changes in total testosterone level. The BMD decreases during the androgen suppression and increases during the pause in the treatment. This demonstrates the benefit of intermittent AST in preventing osteoporosis, pathological bone fractures and possibly, bone metastases.

  7. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release. (United States)

    Steyn, F J


    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R


    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein...... (GHBP), a marker of GH-receptor sensitivity, in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients with (LIPO) and without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) and antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients (NAIVE). Three h GH-suppression tests using oral glucose were undertaken to determine dynamics of GH-secretion. IGF...... glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p lipodystrophy....

  9. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience. (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T


    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.

  10. Taxifolin suppresses rat and human testicular androgen biosynthetic enzymes. (United States)

    Ge, Fei; Tian, Erpo; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaoheng; Zhu, Qiqi; Wang, Yiyan; Zhong, Ying; Ge, Ren-Shan


    Taxifolin is a flavonoid. It has been used as a chemopreventive agent and supplement. It may have some beneficial effects to treat prostate cancer by suppressing androgen production in Leydig cells. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of taxifolin on androgen production of rat Leydig cells isolated from immature testis and some rat and human testosterone biosynthetic enzyme activities. Rat Leydig cells were incubated with 100μM taxifolin without (basal) or with 10ng/ml luteinizing hormone (LH), 10mM 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8BR), and steroid enzyme substrates (20μM): 22R-hydroxychloesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, and androstenedione. The medium concentrations of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (DIOL) and testosterone were measured. Taxifolin significantly suppressed basal, LH-stimulated, 8BR-stimulated, pregnenolone-mediated, and progesterone-mediated androgen production by Leydig cells. Further study demonstrated that taxifolin inhibited rat 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase with IC 50 values of 14.55±0.013 and 16.75±0.011μM, respectively. Taxifolin also inhibited these two enzyme activities in human testis with IC 50 value of about 100μM. Taxifolin was a competitive inhibitor for these two enzymes when steroid substrates were used. In conclusion, taxifolin may have benefits for the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.


    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  12. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A


    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  13. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake (United States)

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen


    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake. PMID:17448988

  14. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Glycoprotein hormone receptor; gonadotropin receptor; Labeo rohita; luteinizing hormone receptor; mariner transposon; PCR cloning. Abstract. A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding ...

  15. Hormones and absence epilepsy in genetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van


    Steroid hormones are known to have a tremendous impact on seizures and might play a prominent role in epileptogenesis. However, little is known about the role of steroid hormones in absence epilepsy. Here we review recently combined electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioural studies in a

  16. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 28, 2011 ... cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and ...

  17. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul


    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  18. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  19. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  20. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K


    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  1. Relationship between Thyroid Hormone levels and Hyperthyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12 (80%) had Graves disease while 3 (20%) had toxic multinodular goiter. All subjects had elevated thyroid hormones and Waynes score but HSS was normal in 6 940%) patients. WS corrected positively with HSS (r=0.66, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between both parameters and thyroid hormone levels.

  2. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  3. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones. (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N


    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  4. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows. (United States)

    Gaard, Greta


    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  5. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  6. Background Suppression Effects on Signal Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Gamma detectors at border crossings are intended to detect illicit nuclear material. One performance challenge involves the fact that vehicles suppress the natural background, thus potentially reducing detection probability for threat items. Methods to adjust for background suppression have been considered in related but different settings. Here, methods to adjust for background suppression are tested in the context of signal estimation. Adjustment methods include several clustering options. We find that for the small-to-moderate suppression magnitudes exhibited in the analyzed data, suppression adjustment is only moderatel helpful in locating the signal peak, and in estimating its width or magnitude.

  7. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators]. (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina


    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  8. Non-hormonal management of vasomotor symptoms. (United States)

    Sassarini, J; Lumsden, M A


    Vasomotor symptoms are the most common indication for the prescription of hormone replacement therapy since it is effective in over 80% of cases. In 1995, 37% of American women took hormone replacement therapy, principally for this purpose. However, following the publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative, as many as half of these women in the US and in the UK and New Zealand discontinued hormone therapy. Discontinuation of estrogen is often accompanied by a return of vasomotor symptoms; however, only a small number (18%) of women report restarting hormone therapy. Alternatives are available, but limited knowledge on etiology and mechanisms of hot flushing represents a major obstacle for the development of new, targeted, non-hormonal treatments, and no current alternatives are as effective as estrogen.

  9. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael


    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  10. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E


    . This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes......The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  11. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  12. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  13. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  14. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception. (United States)

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T; Chrisman Robbins, Camaryn; Peipert, Jeffrey F


    To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and 6-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex controlling for potential confounding variables. More than 1 in 5 participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper intrauterine device (IUD) users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who were young (younger than 18 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.04), black (adjusted OR 1.78), and married or living with a partner (adjusted OR 1.82). Compared with copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (adjusted OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.37-4.69), and the implant (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared with copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiologic basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience a reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods.

  15. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory. (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline


    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  16. Suppressing Unwanted Memories Reduces Their Unintended Influences (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M.; Gagnepain, Pierre; Anderson, Michael C.


    The ability to control unwanted memories is critical for maintaining cognitive function and mental health. Prior research has shown that suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories impairs their retention, as measured using intentional (direct) memory tests. Here, we review emerging evidence revealing that retrieval suppression can also reduce the unintended influence of suppressed traces. In particular, retrieval suppression (a) gradually diminishes the tendency for memories to intrude into awareness and (b) reduces memories’ unintended expressions on indirect memory tests. We present a neural account in which, during suppression, retrieval cues elicit hippocampally triggered neocortical activity that briefly reinstates features of the original event, which, in turn, are suppressed by targeted neocortical and hippocampal inhibition. This reactivation-dependent reinstatement principle could provide a broad mechanism by which suppressing retrieval of intrusive memories limits their indirect influences. PMID:28458471

  17. Distracted by cues for suppressed memories. (United States)

    Hertel, Paula T; Hayes, Jeffrey A


    We examined the potential cost of practicing suppression of negative thoughts on subsequent performance in an unrelated task. Cues for previously suppressed and unsuppressed (baseline) responses in a think/no-think procedure were displayed as irrelevant flankers for neutral words to be judged for emotional valence. These critical flankers were homographs with one negative meaning denoted by their paired response during learning. Responses to the targets were delayed when suppression cues (compared with baseline cues and new negative homographs) were used as flankers, but only following direct-suppression instructions and not when benign substitutes had been provided to aid suppression. On a final recall test, suppression-induced forgetting following direct suppression and the flanker task was positively correlated with the flanker effect. Experiment 2 replicated these findings. Finally, valence ratings of neutral targets were influenced by the valence of the flankers but not by the prior role of the negative flankers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding? (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy: Can it cause vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone therapy for menopause symptoms, and my monthly ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  19. Urinary growth hormone (U-GH) excretion and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Grønbaek, M; Main, K


    Basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels are elevated and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in serum are suppressed in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary GH (U-GH) excretion and IGF-1 concentrations in patients with cirrhosis...... was significantly higher in patients than in the healthy controls (p encephalopathy (p

  20. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment. (United States)

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena


    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  1. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing: a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression. (United States)

    Soleman, R S; Staphorsius, A S; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Lambalk, C B; Veltman, D J; van Trotsenburg, M A A; Hompes, P G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, B P C


    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals and 19 control women were recruited and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while rating emotional pictures adapted from the International Affective Picture System. The gonadal hormone production of the FtMs was suppressed for 8 weeks, the control group did not receive any treatment before scanning. Under gonadal suppression, FtMs showed less brain activation in the superior temporal lobe compared with female controls during perception of positive affective pictures. Regression analysis showed that during processing of positive affective images, brain activity within the right superior temporal lobe was not correlated with levels of estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. In the absence of associations with hormonal levels, the difference in activation in the superior temporal lobe during positive emotional stimuli between FtMs and control women may be attributed to a priori differences between the 2 groups. Future studies should clarify if these differences are a result of atypical sexual differentiation of the brain in FtMs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  2. Oestrogens are Not Related to Emotional Processing : a Study of Regional Brain Activity in Female-to-Male Transsexuals Under Gonadal Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soleman, Remi S; Staphorsius, A.S.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Veltman, Dick J; van Trotsenburg, M.A.A.; Hompes, Peter G A; Drent, M L; de Ronde, W P; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    Although the prevailing opinion is that emotional processes are influenced by sex hormones, the literature is still inconclusive. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of gonadal suppression on brain activity during affective picture processing. Twenty-one female-to-male (FtM)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nyushko


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most actual problems of modern oncourology. Hormone therapy (HT using medical castration is the main method of treatment of patients with metastatic PC. HT with usage of the new class of drugs that block the receptors for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH is a promising and effective method of castration therapy that has a number of significant advantages over the use of analogues LHRH. This article presents areview of studies that compared the effectiveness and side effects of HT using antagonists and analogues LHRH.

  4. Suppression of the HPA axis during extrahepatic biliary obstruction induces cholangiocyte proliferation in the rat (United States)

    Quinn, Matthew; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Pae, Hae Yong; Huang, Li; Frampton, Gabriel; Galindo, Cheryl; Francis, Heather; Horvat, Darijana; McMillin, Matthew


    Cholestatic patients often present with clinical features suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. In the bile duct-ligated (BDL) model of cholestasis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is suppressed. The consequences of this suppression on cholangiocyte proliferation are unknown. We evaluated 1) HPA axis activity in various rat models of cholestasis and 2) effects of HPA axis modulation on cholangiocyte proliferation. Expression of regulatory molecules of the HPA axis was determined after BDL, partial BDL, and α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) intoxication. The HPA axis was suppressed by inhibition of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression by central administration of CRH-specific Vivo-morpholinos or by adrenalectomy. After BDL, the HPA axis was reactivated by 1) central administration of CRH, 2) systemic ACTH treatment, or 3) treatment with cortisol or corticosterone for 7 days postsurgery. There was decreased expression of 1) hypothalamic CRH, 2) pituitary ACTH, and 3) key glucocorticoid synthesis enzymes in the adrenal glands. Serum corticosterone and cortisol remained low after BDL (but not partial BDL) compared with sham surgery and after 2 wk of ANIT feeding. Experimental suppression of the HPA axis increased cholangiocyte proliferation, shown by increased cytokeratin-19- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cholangiocytes. Conversely, restoration of HPA axis activity inhibited BDL-induced cholangiocyte proliferation. Suppression of the HPA axis is an early event following BDL and induces cholangiocyte proliferation. Knowledge of the role of the HPA axis during cholestasis may lead to development of innovative treatment paradigms for chronic liver disease. PMID:21979757

  5. Monocarboxylate transporter 10 functions as a thyroid hormone transporter in chondrocytes. (United States)

    Abe, Sanae; Namba, Noriyuki; Abe, Makoto; Fujiwara, Makoto; Aikawa, Tomonao; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ozono, Keiichi


    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Thus, untreated congenital hypothyroidism is marked by severe short stature. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a highly specific transporter for thyroid hormone. The hallmarks of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, caused by MCT8 mutations, are severe psychomotor retardation and elevated T(3) levels. However, growth is mostly normal. We therefore hypothesized that growth plate chondrocytes use transporters other than MCT8 for thyroid hormone uptake. Extensive analysis of thyroid hormone transporter mRNA expression in mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells revealed that monocarboxylate transporter 10 (Mct10) was most abundantly expressed among the transporters known to be highly specific for thyroid hormone, namely Mct8, Mct10, and organic anion transporter 1c1. Expression levels of Mct10 mRNA diminished with chondrocyte differentiation in these cells. Accordingly, Mct10 mRNA was expressed most abundantly in the growth plate resting zone chondrocytes in vivo. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Mct10 mRNA in ATDC5 cells decreased [(125)I]T(3) uptake up to 44% compared with negative control (P < 0.05). Moreover, silencing Mct10 mRNA expression abolished the known effects of T(3), i.e. suppression of proliferation and enhancement of differentiation, in ATDC5 cells. These results suggest that Mct10 functions as a thyroid hormone transporter in chondrocytes and can explain at least in part why Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome patients do not exhibit significant growth impairment.

  6. Perioperative Management of Female Hormone Medications. (United States)

    Seim, Lynsey A; Irizarry-Alvarado, Joan M


    No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers. A review was done on the current guideline and available literature for the mechanisms of action and perioperative management of OCPs, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and antineoplastic hormonal modulators. Available guidelines and literature were reviewed and summarized. Based on the available literature, no definite guidelines have been established for perioperative management of OCPs and HRT. However, manufacturers have recommended that these medications should be held perioperatively. Other antineoplastic hormonal modulators have increased the risk of venous thromboembolism and have perioperative implications that should be discussed with the prescribing physicians and addressed with the patient. Until additional studies are performed, the risks and benefits must be weighed on an individual basis with consideration of prophylaxis when a decision is made to continue these medications in the perioperative period. Part of this decision making includes the risk of fetal harm in an unwanted pregnancy in preparation for nonobstetric surgery versus an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  7. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.


    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  8. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L


    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  9. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Ninoslav J.


    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the

  10. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.


    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  11. Hormonal changes during the first year of oestrogen treatment in constitutionally tall girls. (United States)

    Wajs-Kuto, E; De Beeck, L O; Rooman, R P; Caju, M V


    Oestrogens are used to inhibit growth in girls with constitutionally tall stature. We studied the changes in different hormones that accompany such therapy. In this longitudinal study we examined the levels of total insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotrophin (TSH), testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), cortisol and prolactin in two groups of girls receiving ethinyloestradiol at a dose of either 0.1mg daily (group A, n=22) or 0.2mg daily (group B, n=36). Hormonal measurements were performed at start of therapy and after 3, 6 and 12 months. In both groups the levels of IGF-I, testosterone and DHEA-S were reduced while the concentrations of cortisol and prolactin were increased. The pituitary-thyroid axis was not significantly affected by this therapy. The girls receiving 0.2mg ethinyloestradiol daily had lower IGF-I levels after 12 months of therapy and had higher serum prolactin concentrations than the girls treated with 0.1mg daily. The reduction in predicted height and the advancement in bone age were similar in both groups. Therapy with pharmacological doses of ethinyloestradiol changes the levels of several hormones including IGF-I, testosterone, DHEA-S, prolactin and cortisol but the role of the respective changes in the inhibition of growth is not clear. The suppression of DHEA-S levels by 40% suggests that the ovaries contribute significantly to the production of this hormone in pubertal girls.

  12. The role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists in in vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Ludwig, M; Felberbaum, R E


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-antagonists can suppress the pituitary hormone secretion completely within a few hours, allowing the avoidance of premature luteinization within controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) by midcycle administration. Two different protocols were described, which were widely used in COH in several phase II and III studies as well as in clinical practice since the GnRH-antagonists Cetrorelix (Cetrotidesound recording copyright sign; Serono International S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) and Ganirelix (Orgalutansound recording copyright sign, Antagonsound recording copyright sign; Organon, Oss, The Netherlands) are available on the market. Cetrorelix was applied in single- and multiple-dose protocols; Ganirelix was used until now only according to the multiple-dose protocol. Fertilization rates of >60% as well as clinical pregnancy rates of about 30% per transfer sound most promising. Estradiol secretion is not compromised by the GnRH-antagonists using recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for COH. The incidence of a premature leutinizing hormone (LH) surge is far below 2% while the pituitary response remains preserved, allowing the induction of ovulation by GnRH or GnRH-agonists. However, luteal phase support remains mandatory. The incidence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) seems to be lower under antagonist treatment than in the long agonistic protocol. Treatment time is significantly shortened. Without any doubt GnRH-antagonists have the potential to become the new standard for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation.

  13. Intranasal corticosteroids and adrenal suppression. (United States)

    Bruni, Francesca Maria; De Luca, Giuseppina; Venturoli, Vico; Boner, Attilio Loris


    Allergic rhinitis is a common condition that frequently coexists with asthma and atopic dermatitis. It is commonly treated with intranasal corticosteroids which may increase the potential inception of side effects of the same type of drugs used for the treatment of other allergic diseases. A method to assess the systemic effect of corticosteroids is the evaluation of their effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, it is not clear which test is best for detection of clinically relevant HPA axis suppression in children Morning plasma cortisol levels are twice that of late afternoon and evening values and a delay in the time of onset in peak cortisol levels has been observed in children treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Single morning cortisol level has a low sensitivity for detecting adrenal insufficiency in children. 24-Hour plasma cortisol is a good test because it is a non-invasive measure of the biologically active free cortisol levels for the entire day. For research purposes, the 24-hour integrated concentration plasma cortisol test is preferred. Studies that have looked at HPA axis suppression with intranasal corticosteroids indicate that overall, intranasal corticosteroids have a minimal effect on the HPA axis. A review of the literature reveals one study in which there was a decreased output of urinary cortisol during treatment with either budesonide or fluticasone propionate in adults. Other studies with fluticasone propionate or budesonide have shown no effect on the HPA axis in children. Beclomethasone dipropionate was shown to affect urinary cortisol output in one study on healthy volunteers. However, in a long-term study in children, no effect on the HPA axis was found. Mometasone furoate has been extensively studied in more than 20 trials of adults and children. No effects on the HPA axis were detected in either children or adults. Fluticasone furoate nasal spray was not associated with HPA axis suppression. It is unlikely

  14. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))


    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  15. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo


    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili


    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  16. The involvement of noradrenergic mechanisms in the suppressive effects of diazepam on the hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal axis activity in female rats


    Švob Štrac, Dubravka; Muck-Šeler, Dorotea


    Aim To elucidate the involvement of noradrenergic system in the mechanism by which diazepam suppresses basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Methods Plasma corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were determined in female rats treated with diazepam alone, as well as with diazepam in combination with clonidine (α2-adrenoreceptor agonist), yohimbine (α2-adrenoreceptor antagonist), alpha-methylp- tyrosine (α-MPT, an inhibitor of ca...

  17. Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Yang-Gyu; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel


    Sulforaphane, an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is known for its antidiabetic properties. The effects of sulforaphane on lipid metabolism in adipocytes are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane stimulates lipolysis. Mature adipocytes were incubated with sulforaphane for 24h and analyzed using a lipolysis assay which quantified glycerol released into the medium. We investigated gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and levels of HSL phosphorylation and AMP-activated protein kinase on sulforaphane-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Sulforaphane promoted lipolysis and increased both HSL gene expression and HSL activation. Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565, enhancing the phosphorylation of HSL Ser-563. Taken together, these results suggest that sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Balancing between costs and benefits of maternal hormone deposition in avian eggs. (United States)

    Groothuis, Tong G; Eising, Corine M; Dijkstra, Cor; Müller, Wendt


    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal androgens, and several studies have indicated that these are beneficial for the chick. Nevertheless, there is a large and systematic variation in maternal hormone concentrations both within and between clutches. If maternal androgens also involve costs, this might explain why not all mothers put high levels of androgens in their clutches. However, the simultaneous occurrence of both benefits and costs has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. We show experimentally that yolk androgens suppress immune function and simultaneously stimulate growth in black-headed gull chicks. Thus, mothers face a trade-off between these costs and benefits and may tune hormone deposition to prevailing conditions that influence chick survival.

  19. 'Femoral head necrosis' in metabolic and hormonal osteopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Treugut, H.


    The pathogenesis of bone necrosis is discussed with special attention and with respect to metabolic, hormonal, and vascular factors. The influence of statics and dynamics of the hip joint bones for the development of aseptic necrosis are discussed. 45 patients with ''idiopathic femoral head necroses'' were observed, including 6 cases of renal osteopathy following renal transplantation and immune suppression therapy, 14 cases of long term corticoid therapy, and 11 cases of liver diseases of different genesis. The femoral head necrosis understood as complication of an osteopathy. In our patients there were 31 males and 14 females - which means higher involvement of males. Plain radiological findings and CT-findings of changes of the femoral heat structure in different stages of the disease are described. Early diagnosis of metabolic and hormonal osteopathies is demanded for a joint keeping therapy of the beginning femoral head necrosis. 90 refs.

  20. How to suppress undesired synchronization (United States)

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.


    Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.

  1. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  2. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction. (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning. (United States)

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F


    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  4. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I


    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  5. Menopause, hormone therapy and diabetes. (United States)

    Stuenkel, C A


    Over the past three decades, the prevalence of diabetes has increased four-fold. Coupled with the global obesity epidemic and aging of the world's population, a perfect metabolic storm is brewing. The influence of menopause and exogenous estrogen and progestogens must be included in this equation. In this review, criteria for diagnosing diabetes and recommendations for screening are described. The reported effects of menopause on diabetes risk in healthy women are reviewed as well as the relationship between established diabetes and the timing of menopause. The effects of menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) on glucose control in women with diabetes and the effect of MHT on diabetes risk in menopausal women without diabetes are described. Evidence-based strategies to prevent diabetes in midlife women are highlighted. The augmenting effect of diabetes on chronic health concerns of aging women, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, along with current recommendations for screening and prevention are presented. Given the current demographics of today's world, the content of this review may apply to as many as one-third of the average practitioner's postmenopausal patient population.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Uršič Vrščaj


    Full Text Available Background. Sex steroids are not known to damage DNA directly. They can stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation, and thus can modulate tumor developmental progression.Results. Sex steroids-related tumors in women are represented by breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and a possible relationship exists between sex steroids and both ovarian and colon cancer. Among current ERT users or those who stopped use 1–4 years previously, the relative risk of having breast cancer diagnosed is low, increases by factor of 1.023 for each year of hormone use. An appropriate combination of estrogen and progestin does not appear to increase, and may even decrease, the risk of endometrial cancer. Studies on HRT and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer have produced conflicting results but most data seem to exclude a strong assotiation. It is important that available data suggest a reduced risk of benign colorectal adenoma and colon cancer for 30–40%.Conclusions. After breast cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma or epithelial ovarian cancer HRT is not absolute contraindication. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma should be considered to be a contraindication to HRT.

  7. Controlled ovarian stimulation using a long gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol: a proof of concept and feasibility study. (United States)

    Weissman, Ariel; Ravhon, Amir; Steinfeld, Zohar; Nahum, Hana; Golan, Abraham; Levran, David


    To evaluate the feasibility of a long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist used for pituitary and ovarian suppression. Thirty patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were randomized into two groups. The control group (n = 16) received a standard flexible GnRH antagonist protocol. Ovarian stimulation consisted of 225 IU/day of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for 5 days, followed by 225 IU/day of human menopausal gonadotropin until human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. The study group (n = 14) received 0.25 mg of GnRH antagonist daily for 7 days, thereafter, upon confirmation of pituitary and ovarian suppression, ovarian stimulation was commenced with the same protocol as used in the control group. Hormone and follicle dynamics, as well as laboratory characteristics and cycle outcome, were compared for both groups. Both groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. Pituitary and ovarian suppression were effectively achieved in 12/14 patients in the study group. The duration of ovarian stimulation and gonadotropin consumption were similar in both groups, as was also the number and size of follicles on hCG day. The results of our study confirm the feasibility of a long GnRH antagonist protocol. This regimen could become another option to optimize GnRH antagonist protocols, and should thus be further explored. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Preliminary findings of fecal gonadal hormone concentrations in six captive sea otters (Enhydra lutris) after deslorelin implantation. (United States)

    Larson, S; Belting, T; Rifenbury, K; Fisher, G; Boutelle, S M


    The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a popular exhibit animal in many zoos and aquariums worldwide. Captive sea otters from these populations are owned by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The USFWS has requested that these sea otters be prevented from breeding in order to save captive space for wild rescued animals. Sea otters are often housed in mixed sex groups, therefore a chemical contraceptive method or surgical removal of gonads must be used to prevent potential pregnancy. The contraceptive, Suprelorin® or deslorelin, has been used in many different species to effectively suppress reproduction but duration of effect may vary not only between species but also individuals. Here, we report the effects of one to several consecutive deslorelin implants on gonadal reproductive hormones found in fecal samples from six captive sea otters (two males and four females) compared to two control otters (one male and one female) housed at three zoological institutions. We documented the longitudinal hormone signatures of many stages of the contraceptive cycle including pretreatment (PT), stimulatory phase (S), effective contraception (EC), and hormone reversal (HR) that was characterized by a return to normal hormone levels. Deslorelin was found to be an effective contraceptive in sea otters and was found to be reversible documented by a live birth following treatment, however the duration of suppression in females was much longer than expected with a 6-month and a 1-year implant lasting between 3 and 4 years in females. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, S.M. (Marquette Univ., Milwaukee, WI (USA))


    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors (CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)) each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP.

  10. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Ya-Hui [Medical Research Central, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wei-Jan [First Cardiovascular Division, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Kwang-Huei, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  11. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense suppresses brassinosteroid-mediated susceptibility to Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection in rice. (United States)

    He, Yuqing; Zhang, Hehong; Sun, Zongtao; Li, Junmin; Hong, Gaojie; Zhu, Qisong; Zhou, Xuebiao; MacFarlane, Stuart; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping


    Plant hormones play a vital role in plant immune responses. However, in contrast to the relative wealth of information on hormone-mediated immunity in dicot plants, little information is available on monocot-virus defense systems. We used a high-throughput-sequencing approach to compare the global gene expression of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infected rice plants with that of healthy plants. Exogenous hormone applications and transgenic rice were used to test RBSDV infectivity and pathogenicity. Our results revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was induced while the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway was suppressed in infected plants. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or brassinazole (BRZ) resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV incidence, while epibrassinolide (BL) treatment increased RBSDV infection. Infection studies using coi1-13 and Go mutants demonstrated JA-mediated resistance and BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. A mixture of MeJA and BL treatment resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV infection compared with a single BL treatment. MeJA application efficiently suppressed the expression of BR pathway genes, and this inhibition depended on the JA coreceptor OsCOI1. Collectively, our results reveal that JA-mediated defense can suppress the BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li


    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  13. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.


    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  14. Transient noise suppression algorithm in speech system (United States)

    Cao, Keyu; Wang, Mingjiang


    In this paper, I mainly introduce the algorithm of transient noise suppression in speech system. Firstly, it divides into impulsive noise and other types of transient noise according to the characteristics of transient noise. In the impulse noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the averaging energy threshold method to detect the impulse noise, and then I use the amplitude threshold method to reduce the impulse noise which was detected. In the other types of transient noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the Optimally Modified-Log Spectral Amplitude estimation (OM-LSA) algorithm and the Minimum Control Recursive Average (MCRA) algorithm to suppress the transient noise.

  15. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?]. (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello


    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  16. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie


    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  17. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency (United States)

    ... are four types of isolated growth hormone deficiency differentiated by the severity of the condition, the gene ... Practice and Guidelines Committee. ACMG practice guideline: genetic evaluation of short stature. Genet Med. 2009 Jun;11( ...

  18. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses

  19. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology,. Iodine Metabolism and Hypothyroidism. De Wet Wolmarans*. Division of Pharmacology, Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of ...

  20. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)


    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  1. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.


    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram

  2. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.


    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877


    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  4. Regulation of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 messenger RNA level in Y-79 retinoblastoma cells: potential implications for human stress response and immune/inflammatory reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Vamvakopoulos


    Full Text Available We report the regulation of type 1 receptor mRNA in Y-79 human retinoblastoma cells, grown in the absence or presence of pharmacological levels of phorbol esters, forskolin, glucocorticoids and their combinations. To control for inducibility and for assessing the sensitivity of the Y-79 system to glucocorticoids, corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA levels were measured in parallel. All treatments stimulated corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 gene expression relative to baseline. A weak suppression of corticotropin releasing hormone mRNA level was observed during dexamethasone treatment. The cell line expressed ten-fold excess of receptor to ligand mRNA under basal conditions. The findings predict the presence of functional phorbol ester, cyclic AMP and glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor type 1 gene and support a potential role for its product during chronic stress and immune/inflammatory reaction.

  5. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0062 TITLE: Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Atish Choudhury...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: July 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0062 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Atish

  6. A rare syndrome: Thyroid hormone resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus İlyas Kibar


    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH is a rare disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but can occasionally present with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or rarely with hypothyroidism. We present a patient with interesting syndrome as RTH but no family history. Goiter, increased weight gain and normal mental status were observed despite high serum thyroid hormones and normal TSH levels

  7. Unexpected Elevated Free Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Teti, Claudia; Nazzari, Elena; Galletti, Marina Raffaella; Mandolfino, Mattia Grazia; Pupo, Francesca; Pesce, Giampaola; Lillo, Flavia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Benvenga, Salvatore


    The use of thyrotropin and free thyroid hormone assays to evaluate thyroid function is widespread, but in some situations the results are inconsistent with the patient's thyroid status. A 35-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was referred to the authors' clinic at week 26 of her second pregnancy. The patient was clinically euthyroid. Consistent with this, her serum thyrotropin (TSH) was normal (0.79 mIU/L), but she had elevated free thyroid hormones-free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4)-as determined by a one-step chemiluminescent assay. The patient was taking levothyroxine replacement therapy (125 μg/day), and the dose was confirmed. Previous blood tests showed concordance between TSH and free thyroid hormone values. The patient was followed up throughout gestation and at 12 months postpartum. During gestation, her free thyroid hormones remained high using one-step methods, while the total thyroid hormone concentration values were within the reference range, in agreement with the TSH values. Postpartum fT4 and fT3 values returned progressively to normality, in agreement with the TSH values. The presence of circulating thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAb) was hypothesized, which are known to interfere, although to a variable extent, with thyroid hormone one-step assays. Using stored frozen sera, this hypothesis was confirmed indirectly by measuring normal levels of fT3 and fT4 with a two-step method, and directly by demonstrating THAb against the two hormones. Despite their relative rarity, circulating THAb may be suspected when laboratory data are not consistent and contrast with the clinical picture. To the authors' knowledge, no previous case of transient appearance of THAb in pregnancy has been described.

  8. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals


    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.


    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokineti...

  9. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and anti-Müllerian hormone levels before and after laparoscopic gonadectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kusumi


    Full Text Available We report cases of two sisters with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS. A complete female appearance, blind-ending vagina, and testes in the pelvis are characteristics of CAIS. Prophylactic laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed in both cases. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH level is known to be very high in patients with CAIS; AMH is secreted by Sertoli cells and testosterone suppresses the secretion. In our cases, serum AMH was very high before gonadectomy and dramatically decreased after gonadectomy. AMH could be the diagnostic feature for patients with CAIS.

  10. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome]. (United States)

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María


    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of hormones in muscle hypertrophy. (United States)

    Fink, Julius; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Nakazato, Koichi


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations. Therefore, some bodybuilders employ RT protocols designed to elevate hormonal levels in order to maximize anabolic responses. In this article, we reviewed current RT protocol outcomes with and without performance enhancing drug usage. Acute RT-induced hormonal elevations seem not to be directly correlated with muscle growth. On the other hand, supplementation with AAS and other hormones might lead to supraphysiological muscle hypertrophy, especially when different compounds are combined.

  12. Thyroid Hormones and Glycaemic Indices in Types 1 and 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies comparing the relationship between thyroid hormones and the glycaemic indices in Types 1 and 2 diabetics are scanty. This study compared the relationship between thyroid hormones and glycaemic indices in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics on various therapies. The thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone ...

  13. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin)


    textabstractTThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH

  14. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  15. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad


    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  16. Hormonal male contraception in men with normal and subnormal semen parameters. (United States)

    Nieschlag, E; Vorona, E; Wenk, M; Hemker, A-K; Kamischke, A; Zitzmann, M


    Hormonal male contraception based on testosterone alone or on a combination of testosterone with a gestagen has been shown to suppress spermatogenesis effectively and to be fully reversible. However, clinical studies to date have only included volunteers with so-called 'normal' semen values by WHO standards. As a male contraceptive should be available to all interested men regardless of their semen parameters, we investigated how volunteers with subnormal semen parameters would respond to hormonal male contraception. During a 34-week treatment phase, the volunteers received injections of 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate in weeks 0, 6, 14 and 24. This was followed by a 24-week recovery and follow-up period. As it was not known whether men with subnormal semen parameters would recover to starting levels, cryopreservation of semen was offered to all subnormal volunteers. Twenty-three men with normal semen parameters and 18 with sperm counts below 20 million completed the trial. The normal volunteers showed the expected response with 17 suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate (13 showing azoospermia) and six not-suppressing below 1 million sperm/ejaculate. By the end of the recovery period, all sperm counts had returned to the range of starting values. The subnormal group showed a similar pattern with 13 of 18 (= 72%) men suppressing below 1 million/ejaculate (8/18 = 44% showing azoospermia) and the remaining 5 of 18 (= 28%) not-suppressing sperm counts below 1 million/ejaculate. All sperm counts returned to the starting range. The study shows that in Caucasian men with normal sperm counts as well as in men with subnormal sperm counts, testosterone alone can produce azoospermia in about half and suppression below one million in about two-thirds of the volunteers. The same proportion of men in both groups appears to require an additional gestagen for full contraceptive protection. Most importantly, regarding suppressibility and reversibility, volunteers with

  17. Photoperiodic suppression of drug reinstatement. (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Stark, G; Sergeeva, A; Jansen, H T


    The rewarding influence of drugs of abuse varies with time of day and appears to involve interactions between the circadian and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. The circadian system is also intimately involved in measuring daylength. Thus, the present study examined the impact of changing daylength (photoperiod) on cocaine-seeking behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested on a 12L:12D light:dark schedule for cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) at three times of day (Zeitgeber time (ZT): 4, 12, and 20) to determine a preference score. Rats were then shifted to either shorter (6L:18D) or longer (18L:6D) photoperiods and then to constant conditions, re-tested for cocaine-induced reinstatement under each different condition, and then returned to their original photoperiod (12L:12D) and tested once more. Rats exhibited a circadian profile of preference score in constant darkness with a peak at 12 h after lights-off. At both ZT4 and ZT20, but not at ZT12, shorter photoperiods profoundly suppressed cocaine reinstatement, which did not recover even after switching back to 12L:12D. In contrast, longer photoperiods did not alter reinstatement. Separate studies showed that the suppression of cocaine reinstatement was not due to repeated testing. In an additional experiment, we examined the photoperiodic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins in drug-naive rats. These results revealed photoperiodic modulation of proteins in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. Together, these findings add further support to the circadian genesis of cocaine-seeking behaviors and demonstrate that drug-induced reinstatement is modulated by photoperiod. Furthermore, the results suggest that photoperiod partly contributes to the seasonal expression of certain drug-related behaviors in humans living at different latitudes and thus our

  18. Ozone suppression by dew formation (United States)

    Takenaka, N.; Shimazaki, W.; Sadanaga, Y.; Bandow, H.


    Dew forms in the night and absorbs water-soluble gaseous substances near the ground surface. Some of the water-soluble gaseous substances, such as nitrous acid and formaldehyde, affect ozone buildup after the sunrise. These gaseous compounds are decomposed by sun light to produce OH radicals. OH radicals affect ozone concentrations. If these gaseous compounds are absorbed in the water droplets such as dew, fog or surface water, and if these compounds in the aqueous phase are decomposed before release into the atmosphere by drying, ozone concentration could be suppressed. We investigated the effect of dew on the ozone buildup by using real air sample. The ambient air was sucking by a pump and divided into two lines. The air in the one line was passed above water droplets and was introduced in a UV transmitting Teflon bag, and the air in the another line was introduced directly into the other Teflon bag without passing through water droplets. Two bags were placed outside and natural sun light was irradiated. After several hours of irradiation, ozone concentrations in two bags were measured. As a result, we found that the ozone production was depressed in the air passing through the water droplets compared to the air which did not pass through water droplets. This could be due to the removals of nitrous acid and formaldehyde by water droplets. The next questions are which compound of nitrous acid and formaldehyde is more effective on the ozone suppression, and is there any other water-soluble compounds to affect ozone concentrations. Now, we investigate the each effect on the ozone buildup, that is, only nitrous acid is removed from the ambient air by using a sodium carbonate denuder. The results will be reported in the conference. In the last conference, we reported that nitrous acid was decomposed when dew dries. However, the fate of formaldehyde in the dew has not been clarified. Therefore, the above results give us some information of the fate of formaldehyde. In

  19. Suppressive soils: back on the radar screen (United States)

    Suppressive soils are those in which a pathogen does not establish or persist, establishes but causes little or no damage, or establishes and causes disease for a while but thereafter the disease is less important, although the pathogen may persist in the soil (Weller, 2002). ‘General suppression,’ ...

  20. Menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities. (United States)

    Savasi, I; Spitzer, R F; Allen, L M; Ornstein, M P


    The approach to menstrual suppression for adolescents with developmental disabilities has evolved considerably over the years due to changing philosophies and evolving treatment options. We review the medical management options available for menstrual suppression with a focus on the needs and treatment of adolescents with developmental disabilities.

  1. Tumor-suppressing gene therapy. (United States)

    Fang, Bingliang; Roth, Jack A


    Tumor-suppressor genes play pivotal roles in maintaining genome integrity and in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Their loss-of-function mutations are related directly to tumorigenesis. Thus, use of tumor-suppressor genes as anticancer therapeutics has been investigated rigorously in both experimental and clinical researches. Transfer of various tumor-suppressor genes directly to cancer cells has been demonstrated to suppress tumor growth via induction of apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest and, in some cases, with evidence for bystander effects. Various studies also have shown that combination of tumor-suppressor gene therapy with conventional anticancer therapy can yield synergistic therapeutic benefits. Clinical trials with tumor-suppressor genes, especially the p53 gene, have demonstrated that the treatment is well tolerated, and; favorable clinical responses, including a pathologically complete responses, have been observed in a subset of patients with advanced disease or with cancers resistant to conventional therapy. Yet, current gene replacement approaches in cancer gene therapy must be improved if they are to have a broader clinical impact. Efficient systemic gene delivery systems will be required ultimately for treatment of metastatic disease. In this review, we have recently summarized achievements in tumor-suppressor gene therapy with a focus on the p53 gene.

  2. Circulating Hepcidin-25 Is Reduced by Endogenous Estrogen in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lehtihet

    Full Text Available Hepcidin reduces iron absorption by binding to the intestinal iron transporter ferroportin, thereby causing its degradation. Although short-term administration of testosterone or growth hormone (GH has been reported to decrease circulating hepcidin levels, little is known about how hepcidin is influenced in human endocrine conditions associated with anemia.We used a sensitive and specific dual-monoclonal antibody sandwich immunoassay to measure hepcidin-25 in patients (a during initiation of in vitro fertilization when endogenous estrogens were elevated vs. suppressed, (b with GH deficiency before and after 12 months substitution treatment, (c with hyperthyroidism before and after normalization, and (d with hyperprolactinemia before and after six months of treatment with a dopamine agonist.In response to a marked stimulation of endogenous estrogen production, median hepcidin levels decreased from 4.85 to 1.43 ng/mL (p < 0.01. Hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia, or GH substitution to GH-deficient patients did not influence serum hepcidin-25 levels.In humans, gonadotropin-stimulated endogenous estrogen markedly decreases circulating hepcidin-25 levels. No clear and stable correlation between iron biomarkers and hepcidin-25 was seen before or after treatment of hyperthyroidism, hyperprolactinemia or growth hormone deficiency.

  3. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinghong; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye


    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  4. Adult height after growth hormone treatment in Japanese children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: analysis from the KIGS Japan database. (United States)

    Fujieda, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Takano, Kazue; Chihara, Kazuo; Seino, Yoshiki; Irie, Minoru


    To identify factors affecting adult height in Japanese patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD), who received growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood. A retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study of the effect of GH treatment on adult height standard deviation scores (SDS) was conducted in 374 Japanese patients with idiopathic GHD. During childhood, GH (0.146 +/- 0.023 mg/kg/week) was administered for a mean of 6.4 +/- 2.6 years. The mean adult height was 160.6 +/- 6.3 cm (-1.75 SD; n = 232) in boys and 146.9 +/- 7.3 cm (-2.20 SD; n = 158) in girls after GH therapy. The mean increases in height SDS in boys and girls with severe GHD were 2.13 SD and 1.66 SD, respectively (p < 0.05). These increases were greater than those observed in patients with moderate GHD and mild GHD. The mean adult height of male patients with GHD and gonadotropin deficiency (166.8 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of isolated GHD patients who were either receiving (159.1 cm) or not receiving (160.5 cm) gonadal suppression therapy. The mean adult heights of female patients were 149.6, 146.7, and 146.9 cm, respectively, and these values did not significantly differ. Linear multiple regression analyses of Japanese patients with severe GHD (n = 61) revealed three independent variables that influenced adult height: gonadotropin deficiency, initial height SDS and height velocity during the first year after the initiation of GH therapy.

  5. Environmental estrogens inhibit mRNA and functional expression of growth hormone receptors as well as growth hormone signaling pathways in vitro in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea M; Ickstadt, Alicia T; Marquart, Dillon J; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A


    Fish in aquatic habitats are exposed to increasing concentrations and types of environmental contaminants, including environmental estrogens (EE). While there is growing evidence to support the observation that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) possess growth-inhibiting effects, the mechanisms by which these physiological effects occur are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the direct effects of EE, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2), β-sitosterol (βS), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), on GH sensitivity as assessed by mRNA expression and functional expression of growth hormone receptor in hepatocytes, gill filaments, and muscle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, we examined the effects of EE on signaling cascades related to growth hormone signal transduction (i.e., JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt). Environmental estrogens directly suppressed the expression of GHRs in a tissue- and compound-related manner. The potency and efficacy varied with EE; effects were most pronounced with E2 in liver. EE treatment deactivated the JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt pathways in liver a time-, EE- and concentration-dependent manner. Generally, E2 and NP were most effective in deactivating pathway elements; maximum suppression for each pathway was rapid, typically occurring at 10-30min. The observed effects occurred via an estrogen-dependent pathway, as indicated by treatment with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. These findings suggest that EEs suppress growth by reducing GH sensitivity in terms of reduced GHR synthesis and reduced surface GHR expression and by repressing GH signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorisaem Rhee


    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  7. Antagonists of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Inhibit the Growth of U-87MG Human Glioblastoma in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippokratis Kiaris


    Full Text Available Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone(GH-RH inhibit the growth of various cancers by mechanisms that involve the suppression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF -I and/or IGF-II. In view of the importance of the IGF system in glioma tumorigenesis, the effects of GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-1-36 were investigated in nude mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of U-87MG human glioblastomas. After 4 weeks of therapy with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at the dose of 20 µmg/day per animal, the final volume of subcutaneous U-87MG tumors was significantly (P < .01 decreased by 84% and 76%, respectively, as compared with controls. Treatment with GHRH antagonists also reduced tumor weight and the levels of mRNA for IGF receptor type I (IGFR-I. A reduction in the mRNA levels for IGF-II was found in tumors of mice treated with MZ-5-156. Treatment with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 also extended the survival of nude mice implanted orthotopically with U-87MG glioblastomas by 81% (P < .005 and 18%, respectively, as compared with the controls. Exposure in vitro to GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at 1 MM concentration for 24 hours decreased the tumorigenicity of U-87MG cells in nude mice by 10% to 30% and extended the latency period for the development of subcutaneous palpable tumors by 31% to 56%, as compared with the controls. Exposure of U-87MG cells to GH-RH antagonists in vitro also resulted in a time-dependent increase in the mRNA levels of IGFR-II or a decrease in the mRNA levels of IGFR-I. mRNA for GH-RH was detected in U87MG cells and xenografts implying that GH-RH may play a role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Our results suggest that GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-136 inhibit the growth of U-87MG human glioblastoma by mechanisms that involve the suppression of IGF system. Antagonistic analogs of GH-RH merit further development for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma.

  8. Peripheral vs. central sex steroid hormones in experimental Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eMcArthur


    Full Text Available The nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA pathway degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD, which occurs with approximately twice the incidence in men than women. Studies of the influence of systemic estrogens in females suggest sex hormones contribute to these differences. In this review we analyse the evidence revealing great complexity in the response of the healthy and injured NSDA system to hormonal influences, and emphasize the importance of centrally generated estrogens. At physiological levels, circulating estrogen (in females or estrogen precursors (testosterone in males, aromatised to estrogen centrally have negligible effects on dopaminergic neurone survival in experimental PD, but can modify striatal dopamine levels via actions on the activity or adaptive responses of surviving cells. However, these effects are sexually dimorphic. In females, estradiol promotes adaptive responses in the partially injured NSDA pathway, preserving striatal dopamine, whereas in males gonadal steroids and exogenous estradiol have a negligible or even suppressive effect, effectively exacerbating dopamine loss. On balance, the different effects of gonadal factors in males and females contribute to sex differences in experimental PD. Fundamental sex differences in brain organization, including the sexually dimorphic networks regulating NSDA activity are likely to underpin these responses. In contrast, estrogen generated locally appears to preserve striatal dopamine in both sexes. The available data therefore highlight the need to understand the biological basis of sex-specific responses of the NSDA system to peripheral hormones, so as to realise the potential for sex-specific, hormone-based therapies in PD. Furthermore, they suggest that targeting central steroid generation could be equally effective in preserving striatal dopamine in both sexes. Clarification of the relative roles of peripheral and central sex steroid hormones is thus an important challenge for

  9. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood. (United States)

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J


    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy may reduce the return of endogenous lead from bone to the circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, C.E.; Beaumont, L.F.; Gordon, C.L. [McMaaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)] [and others


    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women suppress the increase in bone resorption expected as circulating levels of endogenous estrogen decline. We tested the hypothesis that bone lead content might remain elevated in women on HRT. Fifty-six women who at recruitment were on average 3.5 years postmenopausal were placed on calcium supplementations. Six months later, 33 of these women were prescribed either low dose or moderate dose hormone replacement in addition to the calcium supplementation. After approximately 4 years of hormone replacement, lead content was measured at the tibia and calcaneus by in vivo fluorescence excitation, and lead concentrations were measured in serum, whole blood, and urine. Women not taking hormones had significantly lower lead concentrations in cortical bone compared to all women on HRT (p=0.007). Tibia lead content (mean {plus_minus} SD) for women on calcium only was 11.13 {plus_minus}6.22 {mu}g/g bone mineral. For women on HRT, tibia bone lead was 19.37 {plus_minus}8.62 {mu}g/g bone mineral on low-dose HRT and 16.87 {plus_minus} 11.68 {mu}g/g bone mineral on moderate-dose HRT. There were no differences between groups for lead concentrations measured in trabecular bone, whole blood, serum, or urine. Hormone replacement maintains cortical bone lead content. In women not on HRT, there will be a perimenopausal release of lead from bone. 27 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of thyroid hormone withdrawal on natriuretic peptides during radioactive iodine therapy in female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. (United States)

    Stanciu, Adina Elena; Hurduc, Anca Elena; Stanciu, Marcel Marian


    We aimed to investigate the effects of thyroid hormone withdrawal on N-terminal prohormone forms of atrial natriuretic peptide (NT-proANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) during radioiodine therapy in female patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), NT-proANP and NT-proBNP were measured in 51 female patients with DTC (48.7 ± 4.2 years) at three time-points: day of radioiodine therapy (t1 - under acute hypothyroidism), 5 days after radioiodine (t2 - under acute hypothyroidism) and 3 months after radioiodine (t3 - under TSH suppression). Thirty healthy euthyroid women served as controls (42.8 ± 5.6 years). At t1/t2/t3, median NT-proANP was 5.2/1.7/487 pmol/L vs. 297.7 pmol/L in control group (p thyroid hormone effects than NT-proBNP. Thyroid hormone-dependent hemodynamic effects seem to be overlapped on the direct stimulatory effect of thyroid hormones on NT-proANP secretion by cardiac myocytes.

  12. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.


    Smith, P J; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G


    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  13. Protection of germinal epithelium with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Huben, R.P.; Klioze, S.S.; Pontes, J.E.


    A dog model for chemotherapy and radiation-induced testicular damage was created to study the protective potential of superactive analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, buserelin. Buserelin appeared to offer protection of the canine germinal epithelium against cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and radiation. Clinical trials with buserelin in patients of reproductive age undergoing treatment for cancer should be encouraged.

  14. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods


    Claudia eBarth; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Julia eSacher; Julia eSacher


    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories o...

  15. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  16. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van


    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  17. Mode of action of interleukin-1 in suppression of pituitary LH release in castrated male rats. (United States)

    Bonavera, J J; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S


    These studies were undertaken to elucidate the mechanisms whereby the cytokine, Interleukin (IL-1) suppresses pituitary LH release in orchidectomized rats. Since LH secretion is pulsatile in castrated rats, the effects of IL-1 on the components of the LH pulsatility were assessed. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta suppressed LH release, but IL-1 beta was relatively more effective than IL-1 alpha in terms of the onset (IL-1 beta = 30 min; IL-1 alpha = 105 min) as well as the magnitude and duration of LH suppression. Further, the marked suppression of LH secretion in IL-1 beta-treated rats was found to be due to significant reductions both in the frequency and amplitude of LH episodes. We next evaluated whether the IL-1 beta-induced suppression of LH release was mediated by either of the two inhibitory hypothalamic peptidergic systems, corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and endogenous opioid peptides (EOP). Passive immunoneutralization of CRH by i.c.v. administration of a specific CRH-antibody, either once at 15 min or twice at 75 and 15 min before IL-1 beta injection, failed to block the suppressive effects of IL-1 beta on LH release. Similarly, pharmacological blockade of CRH by i.c.v. injection of the CRH receptor antagonist, alpha-helical CRH9-41 15 min before IL-1 beta was ineffective. However, i.v. infusion of the opiate receptor antagonist, naloxone, which on its own had no effect on LH secretion, counteracted the inhibitory effects of IL-1 beta. To further identify the opiate receptor subtype involved, we utilized specific opiate receptor subtype antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Mori


    Full Text Available Objective: According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy–effective and hormone therapy–ineffective cases. Methods: Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. Results: A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+ status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy–ineffective patients (52.6%. A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%. The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085. However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. Conclusion: The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype

  19. Anion content of snow by suppressed and non-suppressed ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.; Mitchell, P.K.; Pagenkopf, G.K.


    Both suppressed and non-suppressed ion chromatographic methods were employed in the analysis of snow sampled from the Rocky Mountains for Cl/sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/. By suppressed ion chromatography the concentration of these anions was found to be less than 1 mg/liter. These concentrations are lower than what can be determined using commercially available non-suppressed systems. To overcome this problem, the samples may be preconcentrated or a larger sample used. Due to complications arising on using a larger sample, in the absence of preconcentration, each sample must be analyzed twice by the non-suppressed ion chromatographic procedure. By comparison, the suppressed procedure is a factor of 10 more sensitive than this non-suppressed procedure. Even so, the results obtained by each of these procedures are not significantly different one from the other. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  20. Growth hormone receptor gene expression in puberty. (United States)

    Pagani, S; Meazza, C; Gertosio, C; Bozzola, E; Bozzola, M


    The mechanisms regulating the synergic effect of growth hormone and other hormones during pubertal spurt are not completely clarified. We enrolled 64 females of Caucasian origin and normal height including 22 prepubertal girls, 26 pubertal girls, and 16 adults to evaluate the role of Growth Hormone/Insulin-like growth factor-I axis (GH/IGF-I) during the pubertal period. In these subjects both serum IGF-I and growth hormone binding protein levels, as well as quantitative growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression were evaluated in peripheral lymphocytes of all individuals by real-time PCR. Our results showed significantly lower IGF-I levels in women (148±10 ng/ml) and prepubertal girls (166.34±18.85 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (441.95±29.42 ng/ml; p<0.0001). Serum GHBP levels were significantly higher in prepubertal (127.02±20.76 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (16.63±2.97 ng/ml; p=0.0001) and adult women (19.95±6.65 ng/ml; p=0.0003). We also found higher GHR gene expression levels in pubertal girls [174.73±80.22 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] compared with other groups of subjects [women: 42.52±7.66 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase); prepubertal girls: 58.45±0.18.12 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)], but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that sexual hormones could positively influence GHR action, during the pubertal period, in a dual mode, that is, increasing GHR mRNA production and reducing GHR cleavage leading to GHBP variations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals (United States)

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.


    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  2. Obestatin: an interesting but controversial gut hormone. (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Antonio; Donato, Valentina; Chirico, Valeria; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele


    Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide hormone released from the stomach and is present not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the spleen, mammary gland, breast milk and plasma. Obestatin appears to function as part of a complex gut-brain network whereby hormones and substances from the stomach and intestines signal the brain about satiety or hunger. In contrast to ghrelin, which causes hyperphagia and obesity, obestatin appears to act as an anorectic hormone, decreasing food intake and reducing body weight gain. Further studies have shown that obestatin is also involved in improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes and inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. This hormone has not only been studied in the field of physiology but also in the fields of obesity and diabetes mellitus, and in patients with psychogenic eating disorders. Obestatin has a role in regulating the cell cycle by exerting proliferative effects that may be seen in cell physiology and oncology. Given the current controversy regarding the effects of obestatin and its cognate ligand, this article provides the latest review of the physiological and pathological characteristics of this hormone. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism. (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel


    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal analysis of image-rivalry suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Bhardwaj

    Full Text Available During binocular rivalry, perception alternates between two different images presented one to each eye. At any moment, one image is visible, dominant, while the other is invisible, suppressed. Alternations in perception during rivalry could involve competition between eyes, eye-rivalry, or between images, image-rivalry, or both. We measured response criteria, sensitivities, and thresholds to brief contrast increments to one of the rival stimuli in conventional rivalry displays and in a display in which the rival stimuli swapped between the eyes every 333 ms-swap rivalry-that necessarily involves image rivalry. We compared the sensitivity and threshold measures in dominance and suppression to assess the strength of suppression. We found that response criteria are essentially the same during dominance and suppression for the two sorts of rivalry. Critically, we found that swap-rivalry suppression is weak after a swap and strengthens throughout the swap interval. We propose that image rivalry is responsible for weak initial suppression immediately after a swap and that eye rivalry is responsible for the stronger suppression that comes later.

  5. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.


    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  6. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini


    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  7. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    and the Psychiatric Central Research Register in Denmark. All women and adolescents aged 15 to 34 years who were living in Denmark were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 2013, if they had no prior depression diagnosis, redeemed prescription for antidepressants, other major psychiatric diagnosis, cancer...... rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for first use of an antidepressant and first diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Results: A total of 1 061 997 women (mean [SD] age, 24.4 [0.001] years; mean [SD] follow-up, 6.4 [0.004] years) were included in the analysis. Compared with nonusers, users......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...

  8. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones. (United States)

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter


    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  9. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude


    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  10. Potential Hormone Mechanisms of Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Randeva, Manpal S; Miras, Alexander D


    In recent years, the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in energy homeostasis through modulation of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and the production of incretin hormones is well recognized. Bariatric surgery for obesity has been a very effective method in substantially improving weight, and numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation after bariatric procedures. A number of structural and functional changes in the GI tract have been reported postsurgery, which could be responsible for the altered hormonal responses. Furthermore, the change in food absorption rate and the intestinal regions exposed to carbohydrates may affect blood glucose response. This review hopes to give new insights into the direct role of gut hormones, by summarising the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery.

  11. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C


    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies......-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity pdefinitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1·53, 95% CI 1·40-1·66; p

  12. The role of luteinizing hormone activity in controlled ovarian stimulation. (United States)

    Angelopoulos, N; Goula, A; Tolis, G


    The role of LH in the natural menstrual cycle is undisputed. The active participation of LH in both steroidogenesis and ovulation is well established, but its potential effect on oocyte maturation in the issue of assisted reproduction protocols remains a topic of debate. Although several studies have added to our understanding of the specific actions of androgens in human follicular development, some discrepancies persist regarding their role in oocyte atresia. Clinical situations, where LH is either decreased or absent (e.g. in women with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism or LH-receptor gene mutations), provide important data supporting the necessity for a minimal amount of LH to evoke ovulation. Recent use of GnRH antagonists, which results in profound suppression of LH concentration, in combination with the pharmacological production of recombinant gonadotrophins, has attracted the attention of investigators. Identification of sub-fertilized women, in whom LH administration could be beneficial and should be indicated, is arousing ever more interest. Based on the available data in the literature, the aims of this review are to assess the role of both endogenous and exogenous LH activity in stimulated cycles, and to evaluate the effects of recombinant human LH supplementation on the ovarian hormonal milieu and on the main outcomes of controlled stimulated cycles.

  13. Estrogen signalling and the DNA damage response in hormone dependent breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Elizabeth Caldon


    Full Text Available Estrogen is necessary for the normal growth and development of breast tissue, but high levels of estrogen are a major risk factor for breast cancer. One mechanism by which estrogen could contribute to breast cancer is via the induction of DNA damage. This perspective discusses the mechanisms by which estrogen alters the DNA damage response (DDR and DNA repair through the regulation of key effector proteins including ATM, ATR, CHK1, BRCA1 and p53 and the feedback on estrogen receptor signalling from these proteins. We put forward the hypothesis that estrogen receptor signalling converges to suppress effective DNA repair and apoptosis in favour of proliferation. This is important in hormone-dependent breast cancer as it will affect processing of estrogen-induced DNA damage, as well as other genotoxic insults. DDR and DNA repair proteins are frequently mutated or altered in estrogen responsive breast cancer which will further change the processing of DNA damage. Finally the action of estrogen signalling on DNA damage is also relevant to the therapeutic setting as the suppression of a DNA damage response by estrogen has the potential to alter the response of cancers to anti-hormone treatment or chemotherapy that induces DNA damage.

  14. Ketosis and appetite-mediating nutrients and hormones after weight loss. (United States)

    Sumithran, P; Prendergast, L A; Delbridge, E; Purcell, K; Shulkes, A; Kriketos, A; Proietto, J


    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by compensatory changes, which increase appetite and encourage weight regain. There is some evidence that ketogenic diets suppress appetite. The objective is to examine the effect of ketosis on a number of circulating factors involved in appetite regulation, following diet-induced weight loss. Of 50 non-diabetic overweight or obese subjects who began the study, 39 completed an 8-week ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED), followed by 2 weeks of reintroduction of foods. Following weight loss, circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), leptin, gastrointestinal hormones and subjective ratings of appetite were compared when subjects were ketotic, and after refeeding. During the ketogenic VLED, subjects lost 13% of initial weight and fasting BHB increased from (mean±s.e.m.) 0.07±0.00 to 0.48±0.07 mmol/l (Pweight loss induced increase in ghrelin was suppressed. Glucose and NEFA were higher, and amylin, leptin and subjective ratings of appetite were lower at week 8 than after refeeding. The circulating concentrations of several hormones and nutrients which influence appetite were altered after weight loss induced by a ketogenic diet, compared with after refeeding. The increase in circulating ghrelin and subjective appetite which accompany dietary weight reduction were mitigated when weight-reduced participants were ketotic.

  15. Arabidopsis and Tobacco superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation. (United States)

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y


    Arabidopsis thaliana superman (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation.

  16. Corticotropin-releasing hormone improves survival in pneumococcal pneumonia by reducing pulmonary inflammation. (United States)

    Burnley, Brittney; P Jones, Harlan


    The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a microorganism commonly present among the commensal microflora along the upper respiratory tract. Transmission of disease stems from the resident asymptomatic pneumococcus along the nasal passages. Glucocorticoids are central mediators of immune suppression and are the primary adjuvant pharmacological treatment used to reduce inflammatory responses in patients with severe bacterial pneumonia. However, controversy exists in the effectiveness of glucocorticoid treatment in reducing mortality rates during S. pneumoniae infection. In this study, we compared the effect of the currently utilized pharmacologic glucocorticoid dexamethasone with CRH. Our results demonstrated that intranasal administration of CRH increases survival associated with a decrease in inflammatory cellular immune responses compared to dexamethasone independent of neutrophils. Thus, providing evidence of its use in the management of immune and inflammatory responses brought on by severe pneumococcal infection that could reduce mortality risks. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Gonadotropin suppression in men leads to a reduction in claudin-11 at the Sertoli cell tight junction. (United States)

    McCabe, M J; Tarulli, G A; Laven-Law, G; Matthiesson, K L; Meachem, S J; McLachlan, R I; Dinger, M E; Stanton, P G


    Are Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) disrupted in men undergoing hormonal contraception? Localization of the key Sertoli cell TJ protein, claudin-11, was markedly disrupted by 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression, the degree of which was related to the extent of adluminal germ cell suppression. Sertoli cell TJs are vital components of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) that sequester developing adluminal meiotic germ cells and spermatids from the vascular compartment. Claudin-11 knockout mice are infertile; additionally claudin-11 is spatially disrupted in chronically gonadotropin-suppressed rats coincident with a loss of BTB function, and claudin-11 is disorganized in various human testicular disorders. These data support the Sertoli cell TJ as a potential site of hormonal contraceptive action. BTB proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry (n = 16 samples) and mRNA (n = 18 samples) expression levels in available archived testis tissue from a previous study of 22 men who had undergone 8 weeks of gonadotropin suppression and for whom meiotic and post-meiotic germ cell numbers were available. The gonadotropin suppression regimens were (i) testosterone enanthate (TE) plus the GnRH antagonist, acyline (A); (ii) TE + the progestin, levonorgestrel, (LNG); (iii) TE + LNG + A or (iv) TE + LNG + the 5α-reductase inhibitor, dutasteride (D). A control group consisted of seven additional men, with three archived samples available for this study. Immunohistochemical localization of claudin-11 (TJ) and other junctional type markers [ZO-1 (cytoplasmic plaque), β-catenin (adherens junction), connexin-43 (gap junction), vinculin (ectoplasmic specialization) and β-actin (cytoskeleton)] and quantitative PCR was conducted using matched frozen testis tissue. Claudin-11 formed a continuous staining pattern at the BTB in control men. Regardless of gonadotropin suppression treatment, claudin-11 localization was markedly disrupted and was broadly associated with the extent of meiotic

  18. Effects of Growth Hormone on Hepatic Regeneration


    BAŞOĞLU, Mahmut


    The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effects of growth hormone on hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Thirty pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, each containing 10 rats. The animals were subjected to a sham operation in Group 1, and to left hepatic lobectomy in Groups 2 and 3. The animals in Groups 1 and 2 received saline solution (0.2 mg/kg/day), while growth hormone (Lilly Humotrope, Lilly France Usine de Fegersheim, ...

  19. Hormonal and nonhormonal treatment of vasomotor symptoms. (United States)

    Krause, Miriam S; Nakajima, Steven T


    This article focuses on the cause, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis of, and treatment options for vasomotor symptoms. In addition, it summarizes important points for health care providers caring for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with regard to health maintenance, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and vaginal atrophy. Treatment options for hot flashes with variable effectiveness include systemic hormone therapy (estrogen/progestogen), nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, clonidine, gabapentin), and nonpharmacologic therapy options (behavioral changes, acupuncture). Risks and benefits as well as contraindications for hormone therapy are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig


    osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  1. Contraception and Hormones within Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Sarah


    In 2018 a new contraceptive method will be made available to women in the form of a programmable microchip that is implanted under the skin. A small electric current melts a small dosage of the contraceptive hormone Levonorgestrel into the users bloodstream [3]. The contraceptive microchip works...... investigating the implications of the new form of contraception from an interaction design perspective before introducing my current research area; hormones within interaction design and describes how this research is relevant to the workshop Hacking Women’s Health. Finally, this paper describes my personal...

  2. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja


    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  3. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.


    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  4. Duration of Suppression of Adrenal Steroids after Glucocorticoid Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Fuqua


    Full Text Available Hydrocortisone has long been the treatment of choice for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. However, treatment with this medication remains problematic. Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH have significant diurnal variation in the secretion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP. When considering treatment strategies, this variation must be considered along with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of exogenous glucocorticoids. Orally administered hydrocortisone is highly bioavailable, but it has a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax⁡ and half life (T1/2. While prednisone has a somewhat longer Tmax⁡ and T1/2, they remain relatively short. There have been several studies of the pharmacodynamics of hydrocortisone. We present data indicating that the maximum effect of hydrocortisone in CAH patients is seen 3 hours after a morning dose. After an evening dose, suppression of adrenal hormones continues until approximately 0500 the next day. In both situations, however, there is a large degree of intersubject variability. These data are consistent with earlier published studies. Use of alternate specimen types, possibly in conjunction with delayed release hydrocortisone preparations under development, may allow the practitioner to design a medication regimen that provides improved control of androgen secretion. Whatever dosing strategy is used, clinical judgment is required to ensure the best outcome.

  5. Duration of Suppression of Adrenal Steroids after Glucocorticoid Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee PeterA


    Full Text Available Hydrocortisone has long been the treatment of choice for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. However, treatment with this medication remains problematic. Patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency CAH have significant diurnal variation in the secretion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP. When considering treatment strategies, this variation must be considered along with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of exogenous glucocorticoids. Orally administered hydrocortisone is highly bioavailable, but it has a short time to maximum concentration ( and half life (. While prednisone has a somewhat longer and , they remain relatively short. There have been several studies of the pharmacodynamics of hydrocortisone. We present data indicating that the maximum effect of hydrocortisone in CAH patients is seen 3 hours after a morning dose. After an evening dose, suppression of adrenal hormones continues until approximately 0500 the next day. In both situations, however, there is a large degree of intersubject variability. These data are consistent with earlier published studies. Use of alternate specimen types, possibly in conjunction with delayed release hydrocortisone preparations under development, may allow the practitioner to design a medication regimen that provides improved control of androgen secretion. Whatever dosing strategy is used, clinical judgment is required to ensure the best outcome.

  6. Central Interleukin-1β Suppresses the Nocturnal Secretion of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Herman


    Full Text Available In vertebrates, numerous processes occur in a rhythmic manner. The hormonal signal reliably reflecting the environmental light conditions is melatonin. Nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns could be disturbed in pathophysiological states, including inflammation, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression. All of these states share common elements in their aetiology, including the overexpression of interleukin- (IL- 1β in the central nervous system. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effect of the central injection of exogenous IL-1β on melatonin release and on the expression of the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewe. It was found that intracerebroventricular injections of IL-1β (50 µg/animal suppressed (P<0.05 nocturnal melatonin secretion in sheep regardless of the photoperiod. This may have resulted from decreased (P<0.05 synthesis of the melatonin intermediate serotonin, which may have resulted, at least partially, from a reduced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase. IL-1β also inhibited (P<0.05 the expression of the melatonin rhythm enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. However, the ability of IL-1β to affect the expression of these enzymes was dependent upon the photoperiod. Our study may shed new light on the role of central IL-1β in the aetiology of disruptions in melatonin secretion.

  7. Central Interleukin-1β Suppresses the Nocturnal Secretion of Melatonin (United States)

    Herman, A. P.; Bochenek, J.; Król, K.; Krawczyńska, A.; Antushevich, H.; Pawlina, B.; Herman, A.; Romanowicz, K.; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D.


    In vertebrates, numerous processes occur in a rhythmic manner. The hormonal signal reliably reflecting the environmental light conditions is melatonin. Nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns could be disturbed in pathophysiological states, including inflammation, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. All of these states share common elements in their aetiology, including the overexpression of interleukin- (IL-) 1β in the central nervous system. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effect of the central injection of exogenous IL-1β on melatonin release and on the expression of the enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway in the pineal gland of ewe. It was found that intracerebroventricular injections of IL-1β (50 µg/animal) suppressed (P < 0.05) nocturnal melatonin secretion in sheep regardless of the photoperiod. This may have resulted from decreased (P < 0.05) synthesis of the melatonin intermediate serotonin, which may have resulted, at least partially, from a reduced expression of tryptophan hydroxylase. IL-1β also inhibited (P < 0.05) the expression of the melatonin rhythm enzyme arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. However, the ability of IL-1β to affect the expression of these enzymes was dependent upon the photoperiod. Our study may shed new light on the role of central IL-1β in the aetiology of disruptions in melatonin secretion. PMID:27212805

  8. Somatostatin analogues suppress the inflammatory reaction in vivo. (United States)

    Karalis, K; Mastorakos, G; Chrousos, G P; Tolis, G


    Somatostatin (Sms) and its agonist analogues inhibit the secretory activities of endocrine and neural cells. Recent studies have suggested that Sms has significant immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we examine the effects of two Sms octapeptide analogues on the inflammatory reaction in vivo. BIM 23014 (Somatulin) and Sandostatin were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats subject to carrageenin-induced aseptic inflammation, at doses of 2-10 micrograms/rat, given either systemically or locally. Animals were killed 7 h after the induction of the inflammation, and the inflammatory exudates were aspirated and quantitated in terms of volume and leukocyte concentration. Sms analogues, administered via either route, significantly reduced the volume and the leukocyte concentration of the exudate in a time- and dose-dependent fashion. In corroboration of these, immunohistochemical evaluation of the levels of local inflammatory mediators, such as immunoreactive (Ir) TNF-alpha, Irsubstance P, and Ircorticotropin-releasing hormone, was inhibited significantly by Sms analogue treatment. These findings suggest that Sms analogues have significant antiinflammatory effects in vivo, associated with suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and neuropeptides. Furthermore, these data suggest that Sms agonists may be useful in the control of inflammatory reaction. Images PMID:7514191

  9. Quercetin Suppresses Twist to Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhalakshmi Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of quercetin in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, which differed in hormone receptor. IC50 value (37μM of quercetin showed significant cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells even at 100μM of quercetin treatment. To study the response of cancer cells to quercetin, with respect to different hormone receptors, both the cell lines were treated with a fixed concentration (40μM of quercetin. MCF-7 cells on quercetin treatment showed more apoptotic cells with G1 phase arrest. In addition, quercetin effectively suppressed the expression of CyclinD1, p21, Twist and phospho p38MAPK, which was not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. To analyse the molecular mechanism of quercetin in exerting an apoptotic effect in MCF-7 cells, Twist was over-expressed and the molecular changes were observed after quercetin administration. Quercetin effectively regulated the expression of Twist, in turn p16 and p21 which induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, quercetin induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through suppression of Twist via p38MAPK pathway.

  10. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications. (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K


    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  11. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kästner

    Full Text Available Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA. We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1 was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  12. Involvement of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in pubertal disorders induced by thyroid status. (United States)

    Kiyohara, Mika; Son, You Lee; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Thyroid disorders cause abnormal puberty, indicating interactions between the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, which are important in pubertal development. The hypothalamic gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was shown to be decreased in the early prepubertal stage, suggesting the role of GnIH on pubertal onset. Here, we investigated whether thyroid dysfunction affects pubertal onset in female mice via GnIH regulation. Hypothyroidism showed delayed pubertal onset with increased GnIH expression and reduced pituitary-gonadal activity. Remarkably, knockout of GnIH prevented the effect of hypothyroidism to delay the pubertal onset, resulting in indistinguishable pubertal timing in GnIH-knockout female mice between control and hypothyroidism-induced group, indicating that increased GnIH expression induced by hypothyroidism may lead to delayed puberty. In contrast, hyperthyroidism led to a decrease in GnIH expression, however pubertal onset was normal, implying further reduction of the inhibitory GnIH had little effect on the phenotypical change. Critically, thyroid hormone suppressed GnIH expression in hypothalamic explants and GnIH neurons expressed thyroid hormone receptors to convey the thyroid status. Moreover, the thyroid status highly regulated the chromatin modifications of GnIH promoter, H3acetylation and H3K9tri-methylation. These findings indicate a novel function of GnIH to mediate HPT-HPG interactions that contribute to proper pubertal development.

  13. Clinical significance of fluctuations in thyroid hormones after surgery for Cushing's syndrome. (United States)

    Tamada, Daisuke; Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Onodera, Toshiharu; Hamasaki, Toshimitsu; Otsuki, Michio; Shimomura, Iichiro


    Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) frequently develop hyperthyroidism after surgery due to SITSH (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH) and this SITSH contributed to the symptoms of steroid withdrawal syndrome (SWS). However, the duration of fluctuations in thyroid hormones after surgery for CS remains unknown. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the clinical course of fluctuation in thyroid hormone level in CS patients after surgery. Thyroid hormone levels [free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4) and TSH] and serum cortisol levels were measured before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery in 8 patients with active CS (3 pituitary CS and 5 adrenal CS). FT3 levels were above the normal range in 75% of patients up to 6 months after surgery, but returned to the normal range by 12 months. However, TSH levels were not suppressed below the normal range throughout the first 12 months after surgery. Serious symptoms of SWS appeared during the 6-month period after surgery, but disappeared with normalization of thyroid function at 12 months, which was not related to the recovery of function hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis after CS surgery. Therefore, T3 toxicosis could result in deterioration of SWS after surgery for CS. These results indicate that physicians need to take T3 toxicosis into consideration in the pathological evaluation of SWS within 12 months after surgery for CS.

  14. Salicylic acid, a plant defense hormone, is specifically secreted by a molluscan herbivore. (United States)

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan


    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding.

  15. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades


    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D


    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  16. The effects of sex hormones on immune function: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Foo, Yong Zhi; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W


    The effects of sex hormones on immune function have received much attention, especially following the proposal of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis. Many studies, both experimental and correlational, have been conducted to test the relationship between immune function and the sex hormones testosterone in males and oestrogen in females. However, the results are mixed. We conducted four cross-species meta-analyses to investigate the relationship between sex hormones and immune function: (i) the effect of testosterone manipulation on immune function in males, (ii) the correlation between circulating testosterone level and immune function in males, (iii) the effect of oestrogen manipulation on immune function in females, and (iv) the correlation between circulating oestrogen level and immune function in females. The results from the experimental studies showed that testosterone had a medium-sized immunosuppressive effect on immune function. The effect of oestrogen, on the other hand, depended on the immune measure used. Oestrogen suppressed cell-mediated immune function while reducing parasite loads. The overall correlation (meta-analytic relationship) between circulating sex hormone level and immune function was not statistically significant for either testosterone or oestrogen despite the power of meta-analysis. These results suggest that correlational studies have limited value for testing the effects of sex hormones on immune function. We found little evidence of publication bias in the four data sets using indirect tests. There was a weak and positive relationship between year of publication and effect size for experimental studies of testosterone that became non-significant after we controlled for castration and immune measure, suggesting that the temporal trend was due to changes in these moderators over time. Graphical analyses suggest that the temporal trend was due to an increased use of cytokine measures across time. We found substantial heterogeneity

  17. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth S.; Davidson, Michael


    We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform. We introduce a passive noise suppression technique, based on the τ − p transform. In the τ − p domain, one can separate microseismic events from surface noise based on distinct characteristics that are not visible in the time-offset domain. By applying the inverse τ − p transform to the separated microseismic event, we suppress the surface noise in the data. Our technique significantly improves the signal-to-noise ratios of the microseismic events and is superior to existing techniques for passive noise suppression in the sense that it preserves the waveform.

  18. Saccadic suppression during voluntary versus reactive saccades. (United States)

    Gremmler, Svenja; Lappe, Markus


    Saccades are fast eye movements that reorient gaze. They can be performed voluntarily-for example, when viewing a scene-but they can also be triggered in reaction to suddenly appearing targets. The generation of these voluntary and reactive saccades have been shown to involve partially different cortical pathways. However, saccades of either type confront the visual system with a major challenge from massive image motion on the retina. Despite the fact that the whole scene is swept across the retina, a saccade usually does not elicit a percept of motion. This saccadic omission has been linked to a transient decrease of visual sensitivity during the eye movement, a phenomenon called saccadic suppression. A passive origin of saccadic suppression based on temporal masking has been proposed as well as an active central process that inhibits visual processing during the saccade. The latter one would need to include an extraretinal signal, which is generated already during saccade preparation. Since saccade generation differs for voluntary and reactive saccades, timing and nature of this extraretinal signal as well as its impact on visual sensitivity might also differ. We measured detection thresholds for luminance stimuli that were flashed during voluntary and reactive saccades and during fixation. Detection thresholds were higher during voluntary than during reactive saccades such that suppression appeared stronger during voluntary saccades. Stronger suppression in voluntary saccades could arise from a stronger extraretinal signal that activates suppression or could indicate that a suppression underlying process itself partially differs between voluntary and reactive saccades.

  19. Effects of intermittent versus continuous parathyroid hormone administration on condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Wan, Qilong; Yang, Rongtao; Zhou, Haihua [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Li, Zubing, E-mail: [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different PTH administration exerts different effects on condylar chondrocyte. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration suppresses condylar chondrocyte proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous PTH administration maintains condylar chondrocyte proliferating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intermittent PTH administration enhances condylar chondrocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving chondrogenesis and osteogenesis regulated by many hormones and growth factors. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), one of the key hormones regulating bone metabolism, promotes osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis by intermittent administration, whereas continuous PTH administration inhibits bone formation. However, the effects of PTH on chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are still unclear. In this study, intermittent PTH administration presented enhanced effects on condylar chondrocyte differentiation and bone formation, as demonstrated by increased mineral nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, up-regulated runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), ALP, collagen type X (COL10a1), collagen type I (COL1a1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osterix (OSX) mRNA and/or protein expression. On the contrary, continuous PTH administration promoted condylar chondrocyte proliferation and suppressed its differentiation, as demonstrated by up-regulated collagen type II (COL2a1) mRNA expression, reduced mineral nodule formation and down-regulated expression of the mRNAs and/or proteins mentioned above. Our data suggest that PTH can regulate condylar chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, depending on the type of PTH administration. These results provide new insight into the effects of PTH on condylar chondrocytes and new evidence for using local PTH administration to cure mandibular

  20. Phytohormone signaling pathway analysis method for comparing hormone responses in plant-pest interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studham Matthew E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytohormones mediate plant defense responses to pests and pathogens. In particular, the hormones jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid have been shown to dictate and fine-tune defense responses, and identification of the phytohormone components of a particular defense response is commonly used to characterize it. Identification of phytohormone regulation is particularly important in transcriptome analyses. Currently there is no computational tool to determine the relative activity of these hormones that can be applied to transcriptome analyses in soybean. Findings We developed a pathway analysis method that provides a broad measure of the activation or suppression of individual phytohormone pathways based on changes in transcript expression of pathway-related genes. The magnitude and significance of these changes are used to determine a pathway score for a phytohormone for a given comparison in a microarray experiment. Scores for individual hormones can then be compared to determine the dominant phytohormone in a given defense response. To validate this method, it was applied to publicly available data from previous microarray experiments that studied the response of soybean plants to Asian soybean rust and soybean cyst nematode. The results of the analyses for these experiments agreed with our current understanding of the role of phytohormones in these defense responses. Conclusions This method is useful in providing a broad measure of the relative induction and suppression of soybean phytohormones during a defense response. This method could be used as part of microarray studies that include individual transcript analysis, gene set analysis, and other methods for a comprehensive defense response characterization.

  1. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher


    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  2. The temporal frequency tuning of continuous flash suppression reveals peak suppression at very low frequencies. (United States)

    Han, Shui'er; Lunghi, Claudia; Alais, David


    Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a psychophysical technique where a rapidly changing Mondrian pattern viewed by one eye suppresses the target in the other eye for several seconds. Despite the widespread use of CFS to study unconscious visual processes, the temporal tuning of CFS suppression is currently unknown. In the present study we used spatiotemporally filtered dynamic noise as masking stimuli to probe the temporal characteristics of CFS. Surprisingly, we find that suppression in CFS peaks very prominently at approximately 1 Hz, well below the rates typically used in CFS studies (10 Hz or more). As well as a strong bias to low temporal frequencies, CFS suppression is greater for high spatial frequencies and increases with increasing masker contrast, indicating involvement of parvocellular/ventral mechanisms in the suppression process. These results are reminiscent of binocular rivalry, and unifies two phenomenon previously thought to require different explanations.

  3. AgRP Neurons Can Increase Food Intake during Conditions of Appetite Suppression and Inhibit Anorexigenic Parabrachial Neurons. (United States)

    Essner, Rachel A; Smith, Alison G; Jamnik, Adam A; Ryba, Anna R; Trutner, Zoe D; Carter, Matthew E


    To maintain energy homeostasis, orexigenic (appetite-inducing) and anorexigenic (appetite suppressing) brain systems functionally interact to regulate food intake. Within the hypothalamus, neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP) sense orexigenic factors and orchestrate an increase in food-seeking behavior. In contrast, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) suppress feeding. PBN CGRP neurons become active in response to anorexigenic hormones released following a meal, including amylin, secreted by the pancreas, and cholecystokinin (CCK), secreted by the small intestine. Additionally, exogenous compounds, such as lithium chloride (LiCl), a salt that creates gastric discomfort, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial cell wall component that induces inflammation, exert appetite-suppressing effects and activate PBN CGRP neurons. The effects of increasing the homeostatic drive to eat on feeding behavior during appetite suppressing conditions are unknown. Here, we show in mice that food deprivation or optogenetic activation of AgRP neurons induces feeding to overcome the appetite suppressing effects of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. AgRP neuron photostimulation can also increase feeding during chemogenetic-mediated stimulation of PBN CGRP neurons. AgRP neuron stimulation reduces Fos expression in PBN CGRP neurons across all conditions. Finally, stimulation of projections from AgRP neurons to the PBN increases feeding following administration of amylin, CCK, and LiCl, but not LPS. These results demonstrate that AgRP neurons are sufficient to increase feeding during noninflammatory-based appetite suppression and to decrease activity in anorexigenic PBN CGRP neurons, thereby increasing food intake during homeostatic need.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The motivation to eat depends on the relative balance of activity in distinct brain regions that induce or suppress appetite. An abnormal amount of activity in

  4. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. (United States)

    Forsyth, I A


    secretion of lactogenic hormones to bring about mammary development. A surge of prolactin secretion occurs at parturition but may not be essential in the initiation of lactation. The timing of progesterone withdrawal correlates well with lactogenesis in eutherian mammals, but species differ in the mechanisms at parturition which bring this about. Marsupials show a quite different pattern of suckling-induced lactation. In maintaining lactation the greatest contrast is between ruminants, in which growth hormone is of particular importance, and other mammals, in which reduction of prolactin secretion with bromocriptine rapidly suppresses milk synthesis and secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  5. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone. (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M


    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  6. Emerging hormonal treatments for menopausal symptoms. (United States)

    Genazzani, Andrea R; Komm, Barry S; Pickar, James H


    The majority of women experience bothersome symptoms postmenopause (e.g., hot flushes, vaginal symptoms). Estrogen receptor agonists remain the most effective options for ameliorating menopausal symptoms. However, use of hormonal therapies has declined in the wake of issues raised by the Women's Health Initiative trials. As a result, there is a need for new safe and effective alternatives to estrogen-progestogen hormone therapy. We review the efficacy and safety profile of hormonal menopausal therapies that are in Phase III clinical trials or recently approved. Investigational treatments discussed include two new vaginal estrogen products (TX-004HR, WC-3011); the first combination of estradiol and progesterone, and a novel combination of dehydroepiandrosterone and acolbifene. We also review a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), ospemifene, recently approved for treatment of dyspareunia related to menopause, and conjugated estrogens plus bazedoxifene, an estrogens/SERM combination, recently approved for moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis. New and emerging hormonal treatments for managing menopausal symptoms may have improved safety and efficacy profiles compared with traditional estrogen-progestogen therapy; however, long-term safety data will be needed.

  7. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms. (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Santoro, Nanette


    A majority of women will experience bothersome symptoms related to declining and/or fluctuating levels of estrogen during their menopausal transition. Vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness, poor sleep, and depressed mood have all been found to worsen during the menopausal transition. While vasomotor symptoms gradually improve after menopause, the time course can be many years. Vaginal dryness does not improve without treatment, while the long-term course of sleep and mood deterioration is not clearly defined at this time. A small minority of women have vasomotor symptoms that persist throughout the remainder of their lives. These common menopausal symptoms all improve with estrogen treatment. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed a dramatic reduction in enthusiasm for menopausal hormone therapy, despite its high efficacy relative to other treatments. We have also seen the emergence of sound, evidence-based clinical trials of non-hormonal alternatives that can control the common menopausal symptoms. Understanding the natural history of menopausal symptoms, and the risks and benefits of both hormonal and non-hormonal alternatives, helps the clinician individualize management plans to improve quality of life. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K


    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  9. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M


    influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function...

  10. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men (United States)

    ... over a period of many years and the consequences aren't necessarily clear. So what's the best way to refer to so-called male menopause? Many doctors use the term "andropause" to describe aging-related hormone changes in men. Other terms include ...

  11. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D


    /ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  12. Gut satiety hormones and hyperemesis gravidarum. (United States)

    Köşüş, Aydin; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğullari, Betül; Hizli, Deniz; Namuslu, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Abdullah


    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is described as unexplained excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some gut hormones that regulate appetite may have important role in etiopathogenesis of HG and weight changes during pregnancy. In this study, levels of gut satiety hormones were evaluated in pregnant women with HG. This prospective case-control study was conducted in 30 women with HG and 30 healthy pregnant women without symptoms of HG. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from all subjects for measurement of plasma gut hormone levels; obestatin (pg/mL), peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Plasma PYY and PP levels were significantly higher in HG group. The most important parameter in diagnosis of HG was plasma PP level. Simple use of PP level led to the diagnosis 91.1 % of HG cases correctly. The single most important parameter in the prediction of HG was also PP level. Anorexigenic gut hormones might have important role in etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and weight changes during pregnancy.

  13. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa


    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  15. [Hormone replacement therapy: curse or blessing?]. (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Fink, D; Lang, U; Kimmig, R


    There is a controversial discussion on the risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and many women and doctors have revised their opinions of HRT over the last few years. Complementary and alternative therapies can be considered an option to treat menopausal symptoms. The following issue summarizes the actual knowledge of treatment options of menopausal symptoms.

  16. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam


    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  17. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K


    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the tr......It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...... for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed...... for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings...

  18. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sze


    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C (CysC is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphenoidal surgery. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. Results: In all patients, surgical debulking resulted in decreased clinical disease activity and declining GH/IGF-1 levels. Postoperatively, biochemical cure was documented in 20 out of 24 patients. Creatinine levels (mean ± SEM increased from 72 ± 3 to 80 ± 3 µmol/l (p = 0.0004 and concurrently, estimated GFR decreased from 99 ± 3 to 91 ± 3 ml/min (p = 0.0008. In contrast to creatinine, CysC levels decreased from 0.72 ± 0.02 to 0.68 ± 0.02 mg/l (p = 0.0008. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence for discordant effects of GH on creatinine and CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery, thus identifying another hormone that influences CysC independent of renal function.

  19. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In Uganda, the use of tissue culture is a new technique in seed potato production, therefore, appropriate media composition for rapid multiplication of potato tissue culture plantlets has not been optimised. Thus, the objective of this study was to optimize hormonal combinations for increased multiplication of tissue culture.

  20. Plant hormones and ecophysiology of conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W.J.


    Over the past 30 years, there have been very substantial fluctuations in the interests of plant scientists in the involvement of plant growth regulators in the control of physiology, growth, and development of plants. In the years following the identification of the five major classes of growth regulators and identification of other groups of compounds of somewhat more restricted interest, an enormous number of papers reported the effects of hormones applied externally to a very wide range of plants. During this period, it became very fashionable to compare effects of hormones with the effects of the environment on developmental and physiological phenomena and to suggest a regulatory role for the hormone(s) in the processes under consideration. Ross et al. (1983) have published a very comprehensive survey of the effects of growth regulators applied externally to conifers, and even 10 years later, it is difficult to improve on what they have done. Nevertheless, in the light of recent changes in our understanding of how growth regulators may work, it is necessary to reexamine this field and ask what we really know about the involvement of growth regulators in the ecophysiology of conifers.