Sample records for hormone radioreceptor assay


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Radioreceptor assays can be a useful tool for systematic toxicological analysis in that they can be applied for the detection of an entire pharmacological class of drugs. In the present paper procedures for radioreceptor assays for benzodiazepines, anticholinergics and antihistaminics have been

  2. Simple sensitive radioreceptor assay for calcium antagonist drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, R.J.; Murphy, K.M.M.; Snyder, S.H.


    A radioreceptor assay for calcium channel antagonist drugs described here is based on the ability of these drugs to affect /sup 3/H-nitrendipine binding to calcium channels. All the known calcium channel antagonists may be assayed in this manner. The assay can detect 10-100 nM nimodipine, 10-100 nM nifedipine, 3-30 prenylamine, 0.1 - 1.0 verapamil and 3-30 diltiazem. These values cover the range of concentrations of calcium channel antagonists that are clinically important. As the radioreceptor assay detects active metabolites as well as the parent drugs, it should prove a useful adjunct in cardiovascular therapy. The method is more reproducible, simpler and less expensive than other methods such as high pressure liquid chromatography.

  3. Application of radioreceptor assay of benzodiazepines for toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, L.; Scheinin, M. (Department of Pharmacology and the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Turku, Finland)


    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) for determining benzodiazepines (BZ) has been developed and applied to toxicological analysis of serum samples from 21 patients with acute BZ overdosage. The method was sensitive (e.g., lorazepam 17 nM, diazepam 41 nM), and specific for pharmacologically active BZ derivatives. The reproducibility of the results was good (intra-assay variation < 8%, inter-assay variation < 10%). Concentrations measured by the RRA showed a good correlation with those obtained by gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of the same samples. The quantitative results represent the sum of one or several parent substances and all biologically active metabolites, in proportion to their receptor binding affinities.

  4. Evaluation of a radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, K.


    A commercial radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb), based on solubilized porcine receptor and purified radio-iodinated bovine TSH, was tested in 264 subjects with a variety of thyroid disorders. The sensitivity of the assay for the detection of hyperthyroid Graves' disease was 91%. The assay specificity for Graves' disease was 95%. With the exception of one patient with Hashimoto's disease and one patient with de Quervain's subacute thyroiditis no subjects other than Graves' patients had detectable TRAb. Thus purely blocking TSII receptor autoantibodies were not detected with the assay. One female with thyroxine-treated idiopathic primary hypothyroidism who had given birth to two children with transiently elevated TSH, was found to have a circulating TSH-binding substance that resulted in an abnormally negative TRAb value, and highly discrepant results when TSH was measured with a double antibody TSH radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric assay. The TSH-binding substance was precipitated like a protein, but was not IgG. Similar findings have not previously been reported.

  5. 21 CFR 862.3645 - Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neuroleptic drugs radioreceptor assay test system. 862.3645 Section 862.3645 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology...

  6. Determination of the benzodiazepine plasma concentrations in suicidal patients using a radioreceptor assay. (United States)

    de Jong, Lutea A A; Verwey, Bas; Essink, Guus; Muntendam, Alex; Zitman, Frans G; Ensing, Kees


    Impairments in memory and psychomotor function appear to be induced by benzodiazepines not only after long-term use, but also after administration of a single dose. Because it is known on which neurotransmitter system the benzodiazepines exert their action, the use of a quantitative radioreceptor assay (RRA) can be a useful tool in studying the interrelationship between the neurochemical and memory processes. The RRA measures the sum of the main compound(s) and all active metabolites present, where it relates the biological activity to the pharmacodynamic effect instead of relating it to the plasma levels of the individual compounds. To correlate the loss of memory with the benzodiazepine concentration, plasma concentrations were determined in suicidal patients. From suicidal patients (n = 84), the benzodiazepines in plasma were measured with a direct radioreceptor assay using tritiated flunitrazepam as the labelled ligand. The receptor material was a lyophilized preparation from calf cortex. Furthermore, the samples were subjected to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis, and the HPLC data were converted to diazepam equivalents using cross-reactivities of the individual compounds. Patients who had ethanol residues in their plasma were excluded from this correlation experiment. The data (n = 40) obtained with the two analytical techniques were compared and correlated to assess the validity of the radioreceptor assay in establishing the relationship between the loss of memory and the total amount of benzodiazepines present. The cumulative amount of diazepam determined with the RRA and the sum of compounds determined with the HPLC method, after correction using the cross-reactivities, were plotted and correlated using regression analysis. Regression analysis showed an x variable of 0.75 and a correlation coefficient of 0.67. The intercept was not significantly different from zero (P = 0.49, t-test), whereas the slope was significantly different from

  7. Radioreceptor assay for analysis of fentanyl and its analogs in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alburges, M.E.


    The assay is based on the competition of these drugs with ({sup 3}H) fentanyl for opioid receptors in membrane preparations of rat forebrain in vitro. The binding in stereospecific, reversible and saturable. Scatchard plots of saturation suggest the presence of high and low affinity binding sites. Morphine and hydromorphone complete with ({sup 3}H)fentanyl for the opioid receptor, but other morphine-like compounds were relatively weak displacers of ({sup 3}H)fentanyl. Many other commonly abused drugs do not compete with ({sup 3}H)fentanyl for the opioid receptors. Urine samples from animals injected with fentanyl, ({plus minus})-cis-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, butyrylfentanyl and benzylfentanyl were analyzed by radioreceptor assay, radioimmunoassay, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Urinary analysis of fentanyl showed a good correlation with these three methods; however, discrepancies were observed in the analysis of fentanyl analogs. This radioreceptor assay is well-suited as an initial assay for the detection of active analogs of fentanyl in urine with good correlation with other techniques in the analysis of fentanyl; however, there is substantial disagreement between techniques in the quantitation of fentanyl analogs. The implications of these discrepancies are discussed.

  8. Development of a radioreceptor assay for {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbo, V. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Vandenbroeck, M. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium); Maghuin-Rogister, G. [Lab. d`analyse des denrees alimentaires d`origine animale, Faculte de Medecine Veterinaire de l`Universite, Liege (Belgium)


    Several {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic agonists are illegally used as growth promoters in meat production. We have developed and evaluated a radioreceptor assay for the multianalyte detection of these compounds. The method is based on a competition for binding with receptors (plasma membranes prepared from bovine teat muscles) between a radioactive tracer ({sup 3}H-dihydroalprenolol) and {beta}{sub 2} agonist residues present in the samples. The method has been validated for three {beta}{sub 2} agonists (clenbuterol, mabuterol and cimaterol) in bovine urine samples. The detection limit (mean of ``blank`` values + 3 SEM) in urine was 2.4 ppb clenbuterol. Using this procedure, samples containing at least 5 ppb of clenbuterol, mabuterol or cimaterol could be identified as positive for the presence of {beta}{sub 2} agonists. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mehrere {beta}{sub 2} adrenerge Agonisten werden illegal als Wachstumsfoerderer in der Fleischproduktion eingesetzt. Wir entwickelten und testeten einen RRA (``Radioreceptor Assay``) zur Mehrfachrueckstandsanalyse dieser Zusammensetzungen. Die Methode basiert auf einer Kompetition eines radioaktiven Markers ({sup 3}H-dihydroalpenolol) mit den Rueckstaenden der {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten der Proben um Bindungsstellen der Rezeptoren (Plasmamembranen, welche aus Muskelzellen von Rinderzitzen gewonnen wurden). Die Methode wurde fuer 3 {beta}{sub 2} Agonisten (Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol) in Harnproben anerkannt. Die Nachweisgrenze (Durchschnitt der Leerwerte + 3 Standardabweichungen) bei Harnproben liegt bei 2,4 ppb fuer Clenbuterol. Diese Methode ermoeglicht, Konzentrationen von mindestens 5 ppb an Clenbuterol, Mabuterol und Cimaterol im Probenmaterial nachzuweisen. (orig.)

  9. Development and validation of a radioreceptor assay for the determination of morphine and its active metabolites in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, LAA; Kramer, K; Kroeze, MPH; Bischoff, R; Uges, DRA; Franke, JP


    This article describes the development and validation of a radioreceptor assay for the determination of morphine andmorphine-6-beta-glucuronide (M6G) in serum. The assay is based on competitive inhibition of the mu-opioid-selective radiolabeled ligand [H-3]-DAMGO by opioid ligands (e.g. M6G) for

  10. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))


    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  11. Comparative bioavailability studies with a new mixed-micelles solution of diazepam utilizing radioreceptor assay, psychometry and EEG brain mapping. (United States)

    Saletu, B; Anderer, P; Kinsperger, K; Grünberger, J; Sieghart, W


    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a standard solution of diazepam (DZ) (ValiumR) were compared with those of a novel diazepam mixed-micelles solution (DZ MM) (Valium MMR) both after i.v. and i.m. application utilizing radioreceptor assay, quantitative pharmaco-EEG and brain mapping techniques as well as psychometric and psychophysiological methods. The local tolerance was studied as well. The subjects received randomized and, in weekly intervals, following injections: (1) 10 mg DZ i.v. + placebo i.m.; (2) 10 mg DZ MM i.v. + placebo i.m.; (3) placebo i.v. + 10 mg DZ i.m.; (4) placebo i.v. + 10 mg DZ MM i.m.; (5) placebo i.v. + placebo i.m. Blood sampling, EEG-recordings, psychometric and psychophysiological tests as well as tolerance evaluations were carried out at 0, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h. Blood level evaluation demonstrated after i.m. application a significantly shortened tmax, a higher Cmax and generally higher plasma concentrations in the first and second hour following the mixed-micelles solution than the standard formulation, which suggests better absorption of the former than the latter in the muscle. Subsequent to i.v. administration, lower blood levels were observed between 30 min and 2 h after DZ MM than DZ. Power spectral density analysis of the EEG resulted in typical anxiolytic-sedative pharmaco-EEG profiles after all 4 active substances as compared with placebo. However, there were significant inter-drug differences as far as topographic aspects (pharmaco-EEG maps) were concerned. DZ MM i.v. induced significantly more initial but also late delta augmentation, alpha attenuation and centroid slowing than DZ i.v. which suggests more sedative effects at those times. Following i.m. application, a significantly more pronounced delta/theta attenuation, beta augmentation and centroid acceleration after DZ MM than DZ suggested more anxiolytic effects of the novel than the standard formulation

  12. Heterogeneity of pituitary and plasma prolactin in man: decreased affinity of big prolactin in a radioreceptor assay and evidence for its secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, P.E.; Aubert, M.L.; Kaplan, S.L.; Grumbach, M.M.


    Molecular heterogeneity of immunoreactive human PRL (IR-hPRL) plasma was assessed by exclusion chromatography in blood from 4 normal adults, 3 newborn infants, 2 late gestational women, 3 patients with primary hypothyroidism and high PRL levels, 2 with functional hyperprolactinemia, 3 with acromegaly, and 10 with PRL-secreting tumors. Three forms of PRL were detected: big-big hPRL, big hPRL, and little hPRL. In normal subjects, the proportion of big-big, big, and little hPRL components was 5.1%, 9.1%, and 85.8%, respectively, without change in the distribution after TRF stimulation. In 8 of 10 patients with PRL-secreting tumors, we detected a significantly higher proportion of big PRL. In 2 additional patients with prolactinomas, the proportion of big PRL was much higher. In 3 of 10 patients, the molecular heterogeneity of the tumor PRL was similar to that in plasma. In 1 acromegalic, there was a very high proportion of big-big hPRL. The PRL fractions were tested in a radioreceptor assay (RRA) using membranes from rabbit mammary gland. Big PRL was much less active than little PRL in the RRA. The fractions were rechromatographed after storage. Big PRL partially distributed as little or big-big PRL, while little PRL remained unchanged. Big-big PRL from tumor extract partially converted into big and little PRL. The big PRL obtained by rechromatography had low activity in the RRA. These observations suggest at least part of the receptor activity of big PRL may arise from generation of or contamination by little PRL. The decreased binding affinity of big PRL in the RRA also indicates that big PRL has little, if any, biological activity. The evidence suggests big PRL is a native PRL dimer linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds which arises in the lactotrope as a postsynthetic product or derivative and is not a true precursor prohormone.

  13. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 23, 2014 ... The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH). Tracer (125I-rcGH) was prepared by iodinating beetal rcGH with iodine-125 and its biological activity was analyzed by rabbit anti-rcGH antibodies. Liver microsomal membranes of the.

  14. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH). Tracer (125I-rcGH) was prepared by iodinating beetal rcGH with iodine-125 and its biological activity was analyzed by rabbit anti-rcGH antibodies. Liver microsomal membranes of the Bovidae species ...

  15. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay-cutting the Gordian knot. (United States)

    Tampi, Chandralekha; Chavan, Nitin; Parikh, Deepak


    Hyperparathyroidism is treated by surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. In case of adenoma the single abnormal gland is removed, while in hyperplasias, a subtotal excision, that is, three-and-a-half of the four glands are removed. This therapeutic decision is made intraoperatively through frozen section evaluation and is sometimes problematic, due to a histological overlap between hyperplasia and the adenoma. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) assay, propogated in recent years, offers an elegant solution, with a high success rate, due to its ability to identify the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. To study the feasibility of using IOPTH in our setting. Seven patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism had their IOPTH levels evaluated, along with the routine frozen and paraffin sections. All seven patients showed more than a 50% intraoperative fall in serum PTH after excision of the abnormal gland. This was indicative of an adenoma and was confirmed by histopathological examination and normalization of serum calcium postoperatively. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone is a sensitive and specific guide to a complete removal of the abnormal parathyroid tissue. It can be incorporated without difficulty as an intraoperative guide and is superior to frozen section diagnosis in parathyroid surgery.

  16. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay-cutting the Gordian knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi


    Full Text Available Background: Hyperparathyroidism is treated by surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. In case of adenoma the single abnormal gland is removed, while in hyperplasias, a subtotal excision, that is, three-and-a-half of the four glands are removed. This therapeutic decision is made intraoperatively through frozen section evaluation and is sometimes problematic, due to a histological overlap between hyperplasia and the adenoma. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH assay, propogated in recent years, offers an elegant solution, with a high success rate, due to its ability to identify the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. Aim: To study the feasibility of using IOPTH in our setting. Materials and Methods: Seven patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism had their IOPTH levels evaluated, along with the routine frozen and paraffin sections. Results: All seven patients showed more than a 50% intraoperative fall in serum PTH after excision of the abnormal gland. This was indicative of an adenoma and was confirmed by histopathological examination and normalization of serum calcium postoperatively. Conclusion: The intraoperative parathyroid hormone is a sensitive and specific guide to a complete removal of the abnormal parathyroid tissue. It can be incorporated without difficulty as an intraoperative guide and is superior to frozen section diagnosis in parathyroid surgery.

  17. Detection of thyroid hormone receptor disruptors by a novel stable in vitro reporter gene assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, de J.; Cano, P.; Craig-Veit, C.; Goodson, M.L.; Furlow, J.D.; Murk, A.J.


    A stable luciferase reporter gene assay was developed based on the thyroid hormone responsive rat pituitary tumor GH3 cell line that constitutively expresses both thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Stable transfection of the pGL4CP-SV40-2xtaDR4 construct into the GH3 cells resulted in a highly

  18. some considerations on the value of hormonal assays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Except for the rapidly increasing use of embryo transfer in cattle, and the widespread availability of prostaglandin. F2c (PGFr cr) and gonadotropin releasing hormone. (GnRH) for use in that species, one might conclude that the situation described by Robinson (1914) has not changed very much. If anything, the glowing ...

  19. Reference values of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D Hormone by chemiluminescent automated assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martiarena


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Provide reference data for parathyroid hormone 1-84 (PTH 1-84 and 25OH Vitamin D (25OH D using a new technique. Materials and methods. The hormones were evaluated, in serum, using a third generation automated chemiluminescent method for PTH in a group of 60 adult dogs, clinically healthy, grouped according to age in years in GA: 1 to 5, GB: 6 to 10 and GC:>10. Results. Data expressed as average ± DS were for PTH (pg/ml: 9.3±2.3; 12±6.3; 12.2±3.7; and for 25OH D (ng/ml: 84.2±27.8; 68.2±16.0; 63.6±23.1, respectively. The PTH value was significantly greater (p<0.05 in groups B and C in comparison with A, but no significant differences were observed between GB and GC. The 25OH D concentration was significantly less in GB (p<0.05 and in GC (p<0.01 in comparison with GA, showing no differences between GB and GC. A negative correlation between 25OH D and PTH was found (r= -0.28; p=0.015. Conclusions. Data contributed by this study provide reference values for PTH 1-84 and 25OH D, evaluated using a third generation automated chemiluminescent method for PTH in local dogs. The results will facilitate monitoring diseases that alter the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in dogs.

  20. Analytical verification and method comparison of the ADVIA Centaur® Intact Parathyroid Hormone assay. (United States)

    Fernández-Galán, Esther; Bedini, Josep Lluís; Filella, Xavier


    This study is the first verification of the novel iPTH Siemens ADVIA Centaur® Intact Parathyroid Hormone (iPTHm) chemiluminescence immunoassay based on monoclonal antibodies. We also compared the iPTH results obtained using this assay with the previous ADVIA Centaur® Parathyroid Hormone assay (iPTHp) based on polyclonal antibodies. The analytical performance study of iPTHm assay included LoD, LoQ, intra- and inter-assay reproducibility, and linearity. A comparison study was performed on 369 routine plasma samples. The results were analyzed independently for patients with normal and abnormal GFR, as well as patients on hemodialysis. In addition, clinical concordance between assays was assessed. Finally, we studied PTH stability of plasma samples at 4°C. For the iPTHm assay LoD and LoQ were 0.03pmol/L and 0.10pmol/L, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay CV were between 2.3% and 6.2%. Linearity was correct in the range from 3.82 to 203.08pmol/L. Correlation studies showed a good correlation (r=0.99) between iPTHm and iPTHp, with bias of -2.55% (IC -3.48% to -1.62%) in the range from 0.32 to 117.07pmol/L. Clinical concordance, assessed by Kappa Index, was 0.874. The stability study showed that differences compared to basal iPTH concentration did not exceed 20% in any of the samples analyzed. The iPTHm assay demonstrated acceptable performance and a very good clinical concordance with iPTHp assay, currently used in our laboratory. Thus, the novel iPTHm assay can replace the previous iPTHp assay, since results provided by both assays are very similar. In our study, the stability of iPTH is not affected by storage up to 14days. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Biotin Ingestion With Performance of Hormone and Nonhormone Assays in Healthy Adults. (United States)

    Li, Danni; Radulescu, Angela; Shrestha, Rupendra T; Root, Matthew; Karger, Amy B; Killeen, Anthony A; Hodges, James S; Fan, Shu-Ling; Ferguson, Angela; Garg, Uttam; Sokoll, Lori J; Burmeister, Lynn A


    Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults. Nonrandomized crossover trial involving 6 healthy adults who were treated at an academic medical center research laboratory. Administration of 10 mg/d of biotin supplementation for 7 days. Analyte concentrations were compared with baseline (day 0) measures on the seventh day of biotin treatment and 7 days after treatment had stopped (day 14). The 11 analytes included 9 hormones (ie, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and 2 nonhormones (prostate-specific antigen and ferritin). A total of 37 immunoassays for the 11 analytes were evaluated on 4 diagnostic systems, including 23 assays that incorporated biotin and streptavidin components and 14 assays that did not include biotin and streptavidin components and served as negative controls. Among the 2 women and 4 men (mean age, 38 years [range, 31-45 years]) who took 10 mg/d of biotin for 7 days, biotin ingestion-associated interference was found in 9 of the 23 (39%) biotinylated assays compared with none of the 14 nonbiotinylated assays (P = .007). Results from 5 of 8 biotinylated (63%) competitive immunoassays tested falsely high and results from 4 out of 15 (27%) biotinylated sandwich immunoassays tested falsely low. In this preliminary study of 6 healthy adult participants and 11 hormone and nonhormone analytes measured by 37 immunoassays

  2. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay To Detect Steroid Hormone Traces in Milk. (United States)

    Varriale, Antonio; Pennacchio, Anna; Pinto, Gabriella; Oliviero, Giorgia; D'Errico, Stefano; Majoli, Adelia; Scala, Andrea; Capo, Alessandro; Pennacchio, Angela; Di Giovanni, Stefano; Staiano, Maria; D'Auria, Sabato


    Steroids are a class of hormones improperly used in livestock as growth-promoting agents. Due to their high risk for human health, the European Union (EU) has strictly forbidden the administration of all natural and synthetic steroid hormones to food-producing animals, and the development of new rapid detection methods are greatly encouraged. This work reports a novel fluorescence polarization assay, ready to use, capable of detecting 17β-estradiol directly in milk samples with a low limit of detection of <10 pmol. It is based on the coupling of monospecific antibodies against 17β-estradiol and fluorophores, capable of modulating the fluorescence polarization emission on the basis of the specific binding of antibodies to fluorescence-labeled 17β-estradiol derivative. The successful detection of 17β-estradiol has disclosed the development of an efficient method, easily extensible to any food matrix and having the potential to become a milestone in food quality and safety.

  3. Evaluation of a sex hormone-binding globulin automated chemiluminescent assay. (United States)

    Dittadi, Ruggero; Fabricio, Aline S C; Michilin, Silvia; Gion, Massimo


    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transport protein of sex steroids. This study evaluated the analytical performance of the recently developed Access SHBG assay (Beckman Coulter) and compared it with other commercial methods for the determination of serum SHBG. Clinical validation was also performed. Analytical performance including within-run and between-run imprecision was assessed for Access SHBG assay on the automated Beckman UniCel DxI800 analyzer. Linearity was assessed using five dilutions of the serum samples. For methods comparison, SHBG levels were determined also with Immulite 2000 analyzer (Siemens Healthcare) using clinical serum samples (n = 104). For clinical validation 135 specimens from healthy subjects, pregnant women, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients were analyzed. Total coefficients of variation were 90% recovery for all samples and for all dilution rates. Comparison analysis (Bland-Altman difference analysis and Passing-Bablock regression) showed an acceptable agreement between selected methods. SHBG values measured by Access SHBG assay in different groups of subjects were in agreement with other clinical evidence. Automated Access SHBG assay appears to be a reliable and easy to perform assay, as necessary for application in routine diagnostics.

  4. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction. (United States)

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten


    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays important roles in growth and development. ABA is also the central regulator to protect plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and adverse temperatures, and ABA signaling is therefore a promising biotechnological target for the generation of crops with increased stress resistance. Recently, a core signal transduction pathway has been established, in which ABA receptors, type 2C protein phosphatases, and AMPK-related protein kinases control the regulation of transcription factors, ion channels, and enzymes. Here we use a simple protein thermal stability shift assay to independently validate key aspects of this pathway and to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique to detect and characterize very weak (Kd ≥ 50 µM) interactions between receptors and physiological and synthetic agonists, to determine and analyze protein-protein interactions, and to screen small molecule inhibitors.

  5. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Fen Soon

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant hormone that plays important roles in growth and development. ABA is also the central regulator to protect plants against abiotic stresses, such as drought, high salinity, and adverse temperatures, and ABA signaling is therefore a promising biotechnological target for the generation of crops with increased stress resistance. Recently, a core signal transduction pathway has been established, in which ABA receptors, type 2C protein phosphatases, and AMPK-related protein kinases control the regulation of transcription factors, ion channels, and enzymes. Here we use a simple protein thermal stability shift assay to independently validate key aspects of this pathway and to demonstrate the usefulness of this technique to detect and characterize very weak (Kd ≥ 50 µM interactions between receptors and physiological and synthetic agonists, to determine and analyze protein-protein interactions, and to screen small molecule inhibitors.

  6. Usefulness of a rapid immunometric assay for intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Ohe


    Full Text Available Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IO-PTH measurements have been proposed to improve operative success rates in primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (PHP, SHP and THP. Thirty-one patients requiring parathyroidectomy were evaluated retrospectively from June 2000 to January 2002. Sixteen had PHP, 7 SHP and 8 THP. Serum samples were taken at times 0 (before resection, 10, 20 and 30 min after resection of each abnormal parathyroid gland. Samples from 28 patients were frozen at -70ºC for subsequent tests, whereas samples from three patients were tested while surgery was being performed. IO-PTH was measured using the Elecsys immunochemiluminometric assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany. The time necessary to perform the assay was 9 min. All samples had a second measurement taken by a conventional immunofluorimetric method. We considered as cured patients who presented normocalcemia in PHP and THP, and normal levels of PTH in SHP one month after surgery and who remained in this condition throughout the follow-up of 1 to 20 months. When rapid PTH assay was compared with a routine immunofluorimetric assay, excellent correlation was observed (r = 0.959, P < 0.0001. IO-PTH measurement showed a rapid average decline of 78.8% in PTH 10 min after adenoma resection in PHP and all patients were cured. SHP patients had an average IO-PTH decrease of 89% 30 min after total parathyroidectomy and cure was observed in 85.7%. THP showed an average IO-PTH decrease of 91.9%, and cure was obtained in 87.5% of patients. IO-PTH can be a useful tool that might improve the rate of successful treatment of PHP, SHP and THP.

  7. Establishment of a serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference interval in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole


    It has previously been shown that thyroid antibodies affect thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations in men and women and that TSH levels are predictive of future thyroid disease. We investigated the validity of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines regarding...... the TSH reference interval by studying 1512 individuals. Two hundred and fifty had at least one thyroid antibody, 121 were taking medications other than estrogens and occasional analgesics, and 105 reported a family history of thyroid disease. Serum TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOab......) and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tgab) were determined on AutoDELFIA and TSHRab by a radioreceptor assay (RRA) from Brahms Diagnostica. For individuals without thyroid antibodies and other risk factors, no effect of age and gender was seen for serum TSH. Neither medication nor the presence of Tgab alone had any...

  8. Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay--more than just a comfort measure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanif, F


    BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) has been embraced as an acceptable therapeutic approach to primary hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative sestamibi scanning has facilitated this technique. Here we evaluate the addition of a rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay for patients undergoing MIRP. METHODS: A series of 51 patients underwent sestamibi localization of parathyroid glands followed by MIRP for primary hyperparathyroidism. Using peripheral venous samples, iPTH levels were measured prior to gland excision, as well as post-excision at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, taking a 50% reduction in iPTH level as indicative of complete excision. Next, changes in serum iPTH were compared with preoperative and postoperative changes in serum calcium, as well as levels of intraoperative ex-vivo radiation counts taken by hand-held gamma probe. RESULTS: In this series, a drop of greater than 50% in iPTH levels was observed in 94% of patients (n=48). Moreover, a significant drop in iPTH occurred within 10 minutes of excision in the majority (n=42) of cases (P<0.004). Changes in iPTH were comparable with the therapeutic reduction in calcium levels, as well as with the change in intraoperative ex-vivo gamma counts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the addition of an iPTH assay to MIRP provides a quick and reliable intraoperative diagnostic modality in confirming correct adenoma removal. Moreover, it precludes the requirement of frozen section.

  9. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav


    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S133-S140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enzyme * metabolism * radiometric assay * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  10. A quantitative assay for the juvenile hormones and their precursors using fluorescent tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisalejandra Rivera-Perez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The juvenile hormones (JHs are sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. The lipophilic nature of JHs and their precursors, in conjunction with their low concentration in tissues and susceptibility to degradation had made their quantification difficult. A variety of methods exist for JH quantification but few can quantify on the femtomole range. Currently applied methods are expensive and time consuming. In the present study we sought to develop a novel method for accurate detection and quantification of JHs and their precursors. METHODS: A sensitive and robust method was developed to quantify the precursor, farnesoic acid (FA and juvenile hormone III (JH III in biological samples. The assay is based on the derivatization of analytes with fluorescent tags, with subsequent analysis by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD. The carboxyl group of FA was derivatized with 4-Acetamido-7-mercapto-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (AABD-SH. Tagging the epoxide group of JH III required a two-step reaction: the opening of the epoxide ring with sodium sulfide and derivatization with the fluorescent tag 4-(N,N-Dimethylaminosulfonyl-7-(N-chloroformylmethyl-N-methylamino-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-COCl. CONCLUSIONS: The method developed in the present study showed high sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. Linear responses were obtained over the range of 10-20 to 1000 fmols. Recovery efficiencies were over 90% for JH III and 98% for FA with excellent reproducibility. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed method is applicable when sensitive detection and accurate quantification of limited amount of sample is needed. Examples include corpora allata, hemolymph and whole body of female adult Aedes aegypti and whole body Drosophila melanogaster. A variety of additional functional groups can be targeted to add fluorescent tags to the remaining JH III

  11. Impact of light exposure on thyroid-stimulating hormone results using the Siemens Advia Centaur TSH-3Ultra assay. (United States)

    Armer, Jane; Giles, Diane; Lancaster, Ian; Brownbill, Kathryn


    Background Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is used as the first-line test of thyroid function. Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics recommend that Siemens Centaur reagents must be protected from light in the assay information and on reagent packaging. We have compared the effect of light exposure on results using Siemens TSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagents. The thyroid-stimulating hormone reagent includes fluoroscein thiocyanate whereas the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent does not. Methods Three levels of quality controls were analysed using SiemensTSH-3Ultra and follicle-stimulating hormone reagent packs that had been kept protected from light or exposed to light at 6-h intervals for 48 h and then at 96 h. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone results were significantly lower after exposure of TSH-3Ultra reagent packs to light. Results were >15% lower at all three levels of quality control following 18 h of light exposure and continued to decrease until 96 h. There was no significant difference in follicle-stimulating hormone results whether reagents had been exposed to or protected from light. Conclusions Thyroid-stimulating hormone results but not follicle-stimulating hormone results are lowered after exposure of reagent packs to light. Laboratories must ensure that TSH-3Ultra reagents are not exposed to light and analyse quality control samples on every reagent pack to check that there has not been light exposure prior to delivery. The labelling on TSH-3Ultra reagent packs should reflect the significant effect of light exposure compared with the follicle-stimulating hormone reagent. We propose that the effect of light exposure on binding of fluoroscein thiocyanate to the solid phase antibody causes the falsely low results.

  12. Hormones (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Human Growth Hormone in Serum Using SPRi, Nano-SPRi and ELISA Assays. (United States)

    Vance, Stephen; Zeidan, Effat; Henrich, Vincent C; Sandros, Marinella G


    Sensitive and selective methods for the detection of human growth hormone (hGH) over a wide range of concentrations (high levels of 50-100 ng ml(-) (1) and minimum levels of 0.03 ng ml(-) (1)) in circulating blood are essential as variable levels may indicate altered physiology. For example, growth disorders occurring in childhood can be diagnosed by measuring levels of hGH in blood. Also, the misuse of recombinant hGH in sports not only poses an ethical issue it also presents serious health threats to the abuser. One popular strategy for measuring hGH misuse, relies on the detection of the ratio of 22 kDa hGH to total hGH, as non-22 kDa endogenous levels drop after exogenous recombinant hGH (rhGH) administration. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an analytical tool that allows direct (label-free) monitoring and visualization of biomolecular interactions by recording changes of the refractive index adjacent to the sensor surface in real time. In contrast, the most frequently used colorimetric method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) uses enzyme labeled detection antibodies to indirectly measure analyte concentration after the addition of a substrate that induces a color change. To increase detection sensitivity, amplified SPRi uses a sandwich assay format and near infrared quantum dots (QDs) to increase signal strength. After direct SPRi detection of recombinant rhGH in spiked human serum, the SPRi signal is amplified by the sequential injection of detection antibody coated with near-infrared QDs (Nano-SPRi). In this study, the diagnostic potential of direct and amplified SPRi was assessed for measuring rhGH spiked in human serum and compared directly with the capabilities of a commercially available ELISA kit.

  14. A multi-tiered, in vivo, quantitative assay suite for environmental disruptors of thyroid hormone signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengeling, Brenda J.; Wei, Yuzhu; Dobrawa, Lucia N.; Streekstra, Mischa; Louisse, Jochem; Singh, Vikrant; Singh, Latika; Lein, Pamela J.; Wulff, Heike; Murk, Tinka; Furlow, J.D.


    The essential role of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in mammalian development warrants the examination of man-made chemicals for its disruption. Among vertebrate species, the molecular components of TH signaling are highly conserved, including the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), their heterodimer

  15. Higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations with the Architect PTH assay than with the Elecsys assay in hemodialysis patients, and a simple way to standardize these two methods. (United States)

    Monge, Marie; Jean, Guillaume; Bacri, Jean-Louis; Lemaitre, Vincent; Masy, Eric; Joly, Dominique; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude


    The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) guidelines recommend maintaining serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration between 150 and 300 pg/mL in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5. However, a marked inter-method variability in PTH measurement has been reported recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether harmonization of the results measured with two commercial kits known to produce significantly different serum PTH concentrations could be reasonably achieved by a simple procedure. The study comprised a total of 216 hemodialyzed patients in whom blood was collected immediately before a dialysis session. The patients were from three dialysis centers, which defined three groups (119, 34, and 63 patients for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). PTH was measured by two automated assays, the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics) and Architect (Abbott Diagnostics) assays, in three different laboratories and with different lots of reagents. We arbitrarily chose the Roche assay as the reference method, because several studies had previously shown that the concentrations measured with this assay were very close to the Allegro assay used in the studies that defined the K/DOQI thresholds. Data are median (interquartile range). The median PTH concentrations were higher (pArchitect assay [238 (140-434) pg/mL] when compared to the Elecsys assay [182 (109-338) pg/mL]. Bland-Altman plots in the three groups showed a similar proportional bias between both kits. The Architect PTH/Elecsys PTH ratios were similar in the three groups [1.30 (1.25-1.35), 1.30 (1.19-1.39), and 1.31 (1.25-1.35)], and the ratio was 1.30 (1.25-1.35) in the cohort (pooling the three groups). In the whole population, 53 patients (24.5%) were classified differently by the two kits according to the K/DOQI cut-off values. We divided the Architect values by 1.3 to obtain "corrected" values. These corrected Architect values were not different to the measured Elecsys values, and the

  16. Commercial assays available for insulin-like growth factor I and their use in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency. (United States)

    Clemmons, D R


    Radioimmunoassays of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are commonly used for screening adults and children for growth hormone (GH) deficiency or excess. There are, however, many problems with such assays. Attempts to resolve these problems have focused on methods of separating IGF-I from its binding proteins, and on reducing inter- and intra-assay variability. In particular, the collection of sufficient high-quality normative data is a major difficulty in many laboratories. Clinical evaluation of assays is also problematic. IGF-I levels vary with age after puberty, and this is complicated by the maintenance of IGF-binding protein 3 levels by IGF-II. Generally, studies have shown that IGF-I is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of acromegaly, but screening for GH deficiency (GHD) is less precise. The most commonly used commercial assays are immunoradiometric (IRMA) sandwich assays, using antibodies specific to IGF-I. IRMA assays are quick and accurate, and the two-site antibody reactivity produces a high degree of specificity. Additional techniques such as acid-ethanol extraction or saturation with IGF-II can improve reliability. More recently, the introduction of chemiluminescence has provided enhanced speed and sensitivity. The clinical use of these assays has provided a wealth of information regarding the diagnosis of GHD, and it may be possible to reduce the number of patients who require provocative GH testing. IGF-I assays are also of great use in monitoring GH replacement therapy. Despite the problems, IGF-I measurement is currently the best indirect method available for screening and monitoring patients with GHD. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Comparison of third and second generation parathyroid hormone assays and their use in chronic hemdialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Muryan


    Full Text Available Introduction: This work’s objective is to compare third and second generation assays in patients with normal kidney function and in chronic hemodialysis patients, and the implications on the latter. Methods: 60 chronic hemodialysis patients and 40 patients with normal kidney function were studied and their PTH levels were measured for both assays. Results: In patients population with normal kidney function the average on PTH was 51.8 and 45.6 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. In chronic hemodialysis patients the average PTH was 193.9 and 137.1 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. The difference between assays was 11.3% and 29.3% in patients with normal kidney function and in hemodialysis patients respectively. Third generation assay caused a variation in the amount of patients that fall over seve ral PTH ranges according to KDIGO guidelines, for a lesser value of 2 times the reference upper limit: it changes from 20 to 25 patients, between 2 and 9 times: it changes from 31 to 32 patients, and more than 9 times: it changes from 9 to 3 patients. Conclusions: When PTH concentration increases the difference between both assays also increases, for this reason we cannot use them indiscriminately in a chronic hemodialysis patient population. With third generation assays 11 patients (18.3% changed their classification according to KDIGO guidelines, which will result in a change of treatment.

  18. Reference Values for the Revised Anti-Müllerian Hormone Generation II Assay: Infertile Population-based Study. (United States)

    Lee, Joong Yeup; Ahn, Soyeon; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Chung Hyon; Seo, Soyeon; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun


    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is now accepted as an important clinical marker of ovarian reserve and is increasingly measured as an initial evaluation at infertility clinics. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for the revised second generation (Gen II) assay using population-based data. In this population-based cohort study, AMH data from unselected infertile women aged 25-45 years from June 2013 to June 2014 (n = 15,801) were collected. The AMH values were measured using the revised Gen II assay. We established and validated 5 AMH-age regression models. Based on the optimal AMH-age model, reference values and centile charts were obtained. The quadratic model (log AMH = 0.410 × age -0.008 × age² -3.791) was the most appropriate for describing the age-dependent decrease in AMH measured using the revised Gen II assay. This is the largest population-based study to establish age-specific reference values of AMH using the revised Gen II assay. These reference values may provide more specific information regarding the ovarian reserve estimation of infertile women. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report. (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi


    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody upon improvement of thyroid autoimmunity with thiamazole treatment. Physicians should keep in mind that patients with Graves' disease may show thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results that do not reflect the severity of Graves' disease or indicate the outcome of the disease, and that active Graves' disease may persist even after negative

  20. Technical note: Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for growth hormone in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P.; Adamsen, J.; Lund, Regina Teresa


    for 4 h at 25degreesC. Plates were then washed six times, incubated for 5 to 10 min with 250 muL of enhancement solution, and fluorescence read with a time-resolved fluorometer. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/mL, and the working range was 0.2 to 200 ng/mL. Recovery of quantitative amounts...

  1. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio


    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  2. Inhibition of subcutaneous Ehrlich carcinoma by antihuman-somatotropic hormone serum of the horse as determined by the tumour-tetanus assay of the mouse. (United States)

    Lazarev, A F; Schneeweiss, U; Fabricius, E M


    Utilizing a quantitative tumour tetanus assay of the mouse it could be shown that antisomatotropic hormone serum of the horse exerts protective effects against solid Ehrlich carcinoma of the subcutaneous tissue and concomitantly, against tetanus mortality rates as an indicator of tumour growth. The positive correlation of the inhibitory action of antisomatotropic hormone serum against both transplantable tumour cells and subcutaneous regenerative tissue as a control lends further support to the assumption that a selective mechanism interrelates proliferative mammalian cell populations and multiplying toxinogenic clostridia, thus stimulating a new field of application of antisomatotropic hormone serum.

  3. Hepcidin levels in hyperprolactinemic women monitored by nanopore thin film based assay: correlation with pregnancy-associated hormone prolactin. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Gang; Xu, Zi; Dai, Jiwei; Song, Ping; Shi, Jian; Hu, Ye; Hu, Zhongbo; Nie, Guangjun; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Zhao, Yuliang


    Hepcidin is a central regulator in human iron metabolism. Although it is often regarded as a promising indicator of iron status, the lack of effective quantification method has impeded the comprehensive assessment of its physiological and clinical significance. Herein we applied a newly established, nanopore film enrichment based hepcidin assay to examine the correlation between hepcidin and prolactin, the hormone with an important role during pregnancy and lactation. Women with pathologically elevated prolactin secretion (hyperprolactinemia) were found to have lower serum hepcidin compared to those with normal prolactin levels, without showing significant difference in other hepcidin-regulating factors. Moreover, prolactin-reducing drug bromocriptine mesylate resulted in elevated expression of the hepcidin in hyperprolactinemia patients. These findings suggest a possible role of prolactin in regulation of hepcidin, and may render hepcidin a useful biomarker for progress monitoring and treatment of iron-related diseases under hyperprolactinemic conditions. The level of hepcidin has been shown to reflect the underlying iron status of the patient. Nonentheless, there is an urgent need of reliable, fast and easy-to-do hepcidin assay in the clinical setting. In this paper, the authors described a further modification of their previously described nanopore silica film-based enrichment approach for quantification of hepcidin and found correlation between hepcidin and prolactin. This new knowledge may add to current understanding of iron homeostasis during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of human follicle-stimulating hormone binding to human granulosa cells by an immunoenzymological method. (United States)

    Perrotin, F; Royere, D; Roussie, M; Combarnous, Y; Lansac, J; Müh, J P


    An original, nonradiometric method has been developed for studying the binding parameters of native follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to its specific receptors in human ovarian granulosa cells. After binding and washing of the cells, hFSH was desorbed from its receptors and quantitatively measured by a specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in which nonspecific binding was estimated in the presence of an excess of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG), which binds to human FSH receptors but does not interfere in the hFSH EIA. This method makes use of native nonmodified hFSH molecules (in contrast to radiometric methods) and permits direct estimation of the binding parameters (Kd and total number of sites). The Kd of hFSH for its human granulosa receptors measured by this technique (4.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(-10) M) is close to that determined by other methods. However, we found a total number of specific FSH receptors per granulosa cell (1 to 6 x 10(4) higher than that reported by others by Scatchard analysis of competition dose-response curves in radioreceptor assays. The method is also sensitive enough to measure the in vivo occupancy of receptors by endogenous hFSH, which was found to be less than 6% in women undergoing hormonal treatment for in vitro fertilization.

  5. A synchronized amphibian metamorphosis assay as an improved tool to detect thyroid hormone disturbance by endocrine disruptors and apolar sediment extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Schriks, M.; Mossink, L.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Murk, A.J.


    Amphibian metamorphosis assays are used to evaluate potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on the thyroid hormone axis. In this study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles are kept in a solution of 0.2% thiourea (TU) to arrest and synchronise them in their development. The advantage of this

  6. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi


    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 vs 4.1 - 12.3 In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. A Modified In vitro Invasion Assay to Determine the Potential Role of Hormones, Cytokines and/or Growth Factors in Mediating Cancer Cell Invasion. (United States)

    Bagati, Archis; Koch, Zethan; Bofinger, Diane; Goli, Haneesha; Weiss, Laura S; Dau, Rosie; Thomas, Megha; Zucker, Shoshanna N


    Blood serum serves as a chemoattractant towards which cancer cells migrate and invade, facilitating their intravasation into microvessels. However, the actual molecules towards which the cells migrate remain elusive. This modified invasion assay has been developed to identify targets which drive cell migration and invasion. This technique compares the invasion index under three conditions to determine whether a specific hormone, growth factor, or cytokine plays a role in mediating the invasive potential of a cancer cell. These conditions include i) normal fetal bovine serum (FBS), ii) charcoal-stripped FBS (CS-FBS), which removes hormones, growth factors, and cytokines and iii) CS-FBS + molecule (denoted "X"). A significant change in cell invasion with CS-FBS as compared to FBS, indicates the involvement of hormones, cytokines or growth factors in mediating the change. Individual molecules can then be added back to CS-FBS to assay their ability to reverse or rescue the invasion phenotype. Furthermore, two or more factors can be combined to evaluate the additive or synergistic effects of multiple molecules in driving or inhibiting invasion. Overall, this method enables the investigator to determine whether hormones, cytokines, and/or growth factors play a role in cell invasion by serving as chemoattractants or inhibitors of invasion for a particular type of cancer cell or a specific mutant. By identifying specific chemoattractants and inhibitors, this modified invasion assay may help to elucidate signaling pathways that direct cancer cell invasion.

  8. DNA-based hybridization chain reaction amplification for assaying the effect of environmental phenolic hormone on DNA methyltransferase activity. (United States)

    Xu, Zhenning; Yin, Huanshun; Han, Yunxiang; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun


    In this work, a novel electrochemical protocol with signal amplification for determination of DNA methylation and methyltransferase activity using DNA-based hybridization chain reaction (HCR) was proposed. After the gold electrode was modified with dsDNA, it was treated with M.SssI MTase, HpaII endonuclease, respectively. And then the HCR was initiated by the target DNA and two hairpin helper DNAs, which lead to the formation of extended dsDNA polymers on the electrode surface. The signal was amplified by the labeled biotin on the hairpin probes. As a result, the streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (S-ALP) conjugated on the electrode surface through the specific interaction between biotin and S-ALP. ALP could convert 1-naphthyl phosphate into 1-naphthol and the latter could be electrochemically oxidized, which was used to monitor the methylation event and MTase activity. The HCR assay presents good electrochemical responses for the determination of M.SssI MTase at a concentration as low as 0.0067 uni tmL(-1). Moreover, the effects of anti-cancer drug and environmental phenolic hormone on M.SssI MTase activity were also investigated. The results indicated that 5-fluorouracil and daunorubicin hydrochloride could inhibit the activity, and the opposite results were obtained with bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Therefore, this method can not only provide a platform to screen the inhibitors of DNA MTase and develop new anticancer drugs, but also offer a novel technique to investigate the possible carcinogenesis mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two complementary methods to control gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination (Improvac®) misuse in horseracing: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in plasma and steroidomics in urine. (United States)

    Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Loup, Benoit; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Dreau, Marie-Laure; Garcia, Patrice; Bruyas, Jean-François; Bonnaire, Yves


    Since the availability on the European market of the vaccine Improvac® dedicated to male pig immunological castration, the risk of misuse of this product in horses is now considered as a threat for the horseracing industry. Immunological castration is not allowed by the racing codes (immune system, Article 6). Indeed, this vaccination against the hypothalamic hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) will prevent the release from the anterior pituitary of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which are required for the development and activity of gonads in males (testes) and female (ovaries) and therefore all their subsequent physiological functions. This treatment will induce a strong hormonal variation resulting in a behaviour modification of the animals. In this work, four male standardbreds treated with Improvac® vaccine (two intramuscular injections within 4 weeks) were studied. Monitoring of the total scrotal width showed a decrease of the scrotum size (37%) and production of anti-GnRH antibodies was detected up to 200 days after the first injection. Anti-GnRH antibodies were detected in plasma after caprylic acid precipitation followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a rapid and efficient screening method applicable to routine analysis. These results were correlated to a switch of the sexual status from male group to gelding/female group obtained by a steroidomic approach with urine based on ten endogenous compounds. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Luteal dynamic and functionality assessment in dairy goats by luteal blood flow, luteal biometry, and hormonal assay. (United States)

    Balaro, Mario Felipe A; Santos, Alex S; Moura, Luiz Fernando G M; Fonseca, Jeferson F; Brandão, Felipe Z


    This study aimed to assess the luteal dynamics of pregnant and non-pregnant Saanen goats throughout an estrous cycle by B-mode and color Doppler ultrasonography (US) associated with a P4 hormonal assay. Furthermore, a cutoff point was chosen to determine the corpus luteum (CL) functionality by luteal biometry (LB) measurement and luteal blood flow (LBF) assessment. Ultrasound assessment was carried out daily throughout an entire estrous cycle (21 days) in 23 Saanen goats pre-synchronized and inseminated in the breeding season. The plasmatic P4 concentration was determined daily by radioimmunoassay. LB parameters (diameter, area, and volume) were measured using the maximum area of a cross-section of the CL. LBF assessment was performed subjectively by percentage of area of colored pixels and objectively by calculating the number of the colored pixels. Eventually, 45.0% (9/20) and 55.0% (11/20) of goats became pregnant and or remained non-pregnant, respectively. The LB and LBF demonstrated value stabilization on the 9th day of the estrous cycle and maximum values on the 12th and 13th days of the estrous cycle, respectively. LB presented a progressive decrease in the luteal regression phase, whereas the LBF decreased abruptly in association with P4. The LBF values were more reliable in predicting the luteal functionality when compared to the LB data. The number of colored pixels accurately predicted values of P4 >1.0 ng/mL, reaching only 17% of the maximum values, and 1200 colored pixels as a minimum cutoff point when compared to the use of 53% of the maximum values and a minimum luteal diameter of 9.0 mm as cutoff point for P4 >1.0 ng/mL. The LBF assessment was more informative about the CL functionality throughout the complete luteal phase when compared to the LB. The use of the number of colored pixels is indicated for research regarding luteal functionality due to their greater correlation with P4 values. In addition, the luteal subjective evaluation can be

  11. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. (United States)

    Forsyth, I A


    Prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. Prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. Attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a lagomorph (the rabbit), several carnivores (dog, cat, ferret), perissodactyls (horse, zebra, rhino), and, within the artiodactyls, pigs. Placental lactogenic activity has been detected in primates (chimpanzee, orangutan), rodents (voles, Pinon mouse, guinea-pig, mara), and in numerous artiodactyls (llama, giraffe, several species of deer, antelope, gnu, gazelle, musk ox, cape buffalo, Barbary sheep, several sheep of the genus Ovis, goat, and cow). These results confirm and extend the work of others and are discussed in relation to the evolution of these hormones. In synergism with steroid and thyroid hormones, protein hormones of the prolactin and growth hormone family play a crucial role in stimulating the development of the mammary gland, the differentiation and function of mammary cells to secrete milk, and in the systemic adjustments in maternal metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. Studies in vitro have shown that mammary tissues from several species synthesize milk components in response to insulin plus adrenal corticoid plus prolactin. However, there are also species differences in minimal hormonal requirements for lactogenesis. In vivo, for example, rabbits will initiate or sustain lactation in response to prolactin alone, whereas sheep and goats require prolactin plus growth hormone plus adrenal corticoid plus thyroid hormone. Measurement of hormone concentrations in the plasma of pregnant animals shows considerable differences among species in the pattern of

  12. Performance characteristics of the Access AMH assay for the quantitative determination of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels on the Access* family of automated immunoassay systems. (United States)

    Demirdjian, Gaiane; Bord, Stephanie; Lejeune, Caroline; Masica, Ryan; Rivière, Dominique; Nicouleau, Lucie; Denizot, Philippe; Marquet, Pierre-Yves


    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement is useful as an aid in the evaluation of ovarian reserve. In the past, its conventional use was restricted by the low-throughput and variability of existing manual AMH assays. We developed the automated Access AMH assay for the quantitative determination of AMH levels on the Access family of immunoassay systems. The analytical performance of this new assay was evaluated. Sensitivity, dilution linearity, assay imprecision, AMH sample stability, lot-to-lot comparison and correlation with AMH Gen II assay (Beckman Coulter, Inc.) were evaluated. Reference intervals for Access AMH were established in healthy females, males, newborns (≤60days) and pediatric males classified by Tanner stages. The limit of blank and limit of detection were below 0.0077 and 0.0098ng/mL, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.010ng/mL. The total imprecision ranged from 2.4 to 5.2%. Linearity was observed up to 24ng/mL. Sample storage at room temperature up to 48h, at 2-8°C up to 7days and at -20°C up to 15months had no impact on measured AMH. The correlation study gave a coefficient between 0.99 and 1 and a regression slope between 0.89 and 0.92. Excellent lot-to-lot comparability was observed on controls and patient samples with a maximum bias of 3.7% between 2.81 and 15.03ng/mL. The fully automated Access AMH immunoassay demonstrates excellent analytical performance. As a consequence, the availability of this assay will represent a robust, fast and precise alternative to manual AMH assay testing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  14. Use of the immature rat uterotrophic assay for specific measurements of chorionic gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormones in vivo bioactivities. (United States)

    Lecompte, F; Harbeby, E; Cahoreau, C; Klett, D; Combarnous, Y


    The uterine weight growth stimulation by equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG/PMSG) was found to occur at much lower eCG concentrations than ovarian growth. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) which has only LH activity, was found to be as active as eCG in the uterotrophic assay whereas equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH) which has dual LH+FSH activities like eCG, exhibited a much lower potency. In contrast to hCG, porcine and ovine LH as well as pFSH and oFSH exhibited no uterotrophic activity indicating that only gonadotropins with both LH activity and long half-lives are active alone in this assay. The FSH preparations were nevertheless found to trigger a dose-dependent response, but only in the presence of a subactive dose of hCG. The uterotrophic activity of hCG was found to be suppressed in ovariectomized immature rats and to be diminished after injection of GnRH antagonist suggesting an indirect pathway implicating the hypothalamo-pituitary complex. The data in this report together with the analysis of literature suggest that choriogonadotropins exert their stimulatory role on uterine growth by an indirect mechanism involving an increase in ovarian FSH receptors and FSH release by the pituitary. At the lowest concentrations of hCG, the increase in ovarian FSH receptors without endogenous FSH release is thought to be responsible for the sensitivity of the uterotrophic assay to exogenous FSHs. In conclusion, the immature rat uterotrophic assay is a sensitive and convenient assay for eCG and hCG as well as for FSHs in the presence of a sub-active dose of hCG. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploiting Nanobodies in the Detection and Quantification of Human Growth Hormone via Phage-Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Murad


    Full Text Available BackgroundMonitoring blood levels of human growth hormone (hGH in most children with short stature deficiencies is crucial for taking a decision of treatment with extended course of daily and expensive doses of recombinant hGH (rhGH or Somatropin®. Besides, misusing of rhGH by sportsmen is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and thus sensitive GH-detecting methods are highly welcome in this field. Nanobodies are the tiniest antigen-binding entity derived from camel heavy chain antibodies. They were successfully generated against numerous antigens including hormones.MethodsA fully nanobody-based sandwich ELISA method was developed in this work for direct measurement of GH in biological samples.ResultsTwo major characteristics of nanobody were exploited for this goal: the robust and stable structure of the nanobody (NbGH04 used to capture hGH from tested samples, and the great ability of tailoring, enabling the display of the anti-GH detector nanobody (NbGH07 on the tip of M13-phage. Such huge, stable, and easy-to-prepare phage-Nb was used in ELISA to provide an amplified signal. Previously, NbGH04 was retrieved on immobilized hGH by phage display from a wide “immune” cDNA library prepared from a hGH-immunized camel. Here, and in order to assure epitope heterogeneity, NbGH07 was isolated from the same library using NbGH04-captured hGH as bait. Interaction of both nanobodies with hGH was characterized and compared with different anti-GH nanobodies and antibodies. The sensitivity (~0.5 ng/ml and stability of the nanobody-base sandwich ELISA were assessed using rhGH before testing in the quantification of hGH in blood sera and cell culture supernatants.ConclusionIn regard to all advantages of nanobodies; stability, solubility, production affordability in Escherichia coli, and gene tailoring, nanobody-based phage sandwich ELISA developed here would provide a valuable method for hGH detection and quantification.

  16. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mohr

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1, progesterone receptor (PGR, prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  17. In silico and bio assay of juvenile hormone analogs as an insect growth regulator against Galleria mellonella (wax moth) - Part I. (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Thakur, Sunil; Awasthi, Pamita


    Juvenile hormone (JH) analogs are nowadays in use to control harmful pests. In order to develop new bioactive molecules as potential pesticides, we have incorporated different active structural features like sulfonamide, aromatic rings, amide group, and amino acid moiety to the base structure. We have screened a series of designed novel JH analogs against JH receptor protein (jhbpGm-2RCK) of Galleria mellonella in comparison to commercial insect growth regulators (IGRs) - Pyriproxyfen (T1) and Fenoxycarb (T2). All analogs exhibit the binding energy profile comparable to commercial IGRs. Based upon these results, a series of sulfonamide-based JHAs (T3-T8) as IGRs have been synthesized and characterized. Further, the efficacy of synthesized analogs (T3-T8) and commercial IGRs (Pyriproxyfen and Fenoxycarb) has been assessed against fourth instars larvae of G. mellonella under the laboratory conditions. LC50 values of all the analogs (T1-T8) against the fourth instars larvae were 9.99, 10.12, 24.76, 30.73, 38.45, 34.15, 34.14, 19.48 ppm and the LC90 153.27, 131.69, 112.15, 191.46, 427.02, 167.13, 217.10, 172.00 ppm, respectively. Among these analogs, N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-3-aza-3-N-ethyl-pentanyl)-p-toluene sulfonamide (T8) and N-(1-isopropyl-2-oxo-3-aza-3-N-ethyl-pentanyl) benzene sulfonamide (T7) exhibited the good pest larval mortality at different exposure periods (in hours) and different concentrations (in ppm) in comparison to in use IGRs- T1 and T2. Bio assay results are supported by docking at higher concentration. The present investigation clearly exhibits that analog T8 could serve as a potential IGR in comparison to in use IGRs (T1 and T2). The results are promising and provide new array of synthetic chemicals that may be utilized as IGRs.

  18. Novel in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays elucidating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on thyroid hormone action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.


    The last years, both scientific and public concern about the possible threat of compounds in the environment that may affect endocrine functions has increased. Thus far, the majority of endocrine disruptor research has focused on the interference of compounds with the sex hormone homeostasis. Less

  19. Secretory activity of gonadotropin and the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the annual reproductive cycle of male bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum: analysis by cell immunoblot assay. (United States)

    Kawamoto, K; Tanaka, S; Hayashi, T


    The purpose of this study was to examine secretory activity of gonadotropin (Gn) and the responsiveness of Gn secretion to Gn-releasing hormone (GnRH) in male horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, during the annual reproductive cycle. Anterior pituitary cells were monodispersed and subjected to cell immunoblot assay for Gn. Cell blots specific for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) were quantified using a microscopic image analyzer. The percentages of LH- or FSH-secreting cells detected as immunoreactive cell blots were markedly increased in the spermatogenic period (summer) and decreased in the hibernation period (winter). The mean Gn secretion from individual cells and total Gn secretion per unit area of the transfer membrane also showed similar changes. The responsiveness of Gn secretion to GnRH was greater in the spermatogenic period than in other seasons. On the other hand, although the secretory activity of Gn was markedly decreased during hibernation, a stimulatory effect of GnRH on Gn secretion was observed. These findings suggest that seasonal changes in the release of Gn required for gametogenesis and gonadal steroidogenesis varied depending on the reproductive activity and seasonal changes in Gn sensitivity to stimulatory effects of GnRH due to alterations in GnRH receptor numbers and/or in postreceptor events of gonadotrophs.

  20. Standardization of hormone determinations. (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan


    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke


    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination...... of steroid hormones in plasma, testes, and H295R cell medium corresponded well with previous studies. The off-line SPE method was validated using spiked charcoal-stripped serum. Method recovery, accuracy, precision and robustness were all good. Instrument sensitivity was in the range of 55-530 pg/mL (LLOQ)....

  2. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.


    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  3. Human skin melanocyte migration towards stromal cell-derived factor-1α demonstrated by optical real-time cell mobility assay: modulation of their chemotactic ability by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. (United States)

    Yamauchi, Akira; Hadjur, Christophe; Takahashi, Tadahito; Suzuki, Itaru; Hirose, Kunitaka; Mahe, Yann F


    To identify potential regulators of normal human melanocyte behaviour, we have developed an in vitro human melanocyte migration assay, using the optically accessible, real-time cell motility assay device TAXIScan. Coating of the glass surface with an extracellular matrix that served as scaffolding molecule was essential to demonstrate efficient melanocyte migration. Among several chemokines tested, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1α/CXCL12 was the most effective driver of human normal skin melanocytes. Incubation of melanocytes with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) before the assay specifically enhanced CXCR4 expression and consequently chemotaxis towards SDF-1α/CXCL12. These results suggest that α-MSH acts on melanocytes to produce melanin as well as stimulates the cells to migrate to the site where they work through CXCR4 up-regulation, which is a new dynamic mode of action of α-MSH on melanocyte physiology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. radiommunological assays for triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) or thyroxine (T/sub 4/) in sera containing antibodies against the hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidnes, A. (Hemark Central Hospital, Elverum (Norway)); Silsand, T. (Telemark Centrl Hospital, Porsgrunn (Norway))


    For serum samples containing antibodies in vivo against triidothyronine or thyroxine, the radioimmunoassays in use may give highly erroneous results. The effects of two different radioimmunoassay systems on such sera were compared, and an extraction procedure for use before such assays was developed. Very different results were obtained with the use of single antibody or double antibody techniques on unextracted sera. The highest recoveries of total T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ from sera were found with two successive ethanol extractions.

  5. Pulsatile characteristics of spontaneous growth hormone (GH) concentration profiles in boys evaluated by an ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay: Evidence for ultradian periodicity of GH secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goji, Katsumi (Kobe Children' s Hospital (Japan))


    To investigate underlying ultradian periodicities in spontaneous circulating GH concentrations, blood samples were drawn from 15 normal short boys every 20 min over a 24-h period, and plasma GH concentrations were measured using an ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay. The limit of detection for the GH assay was 0.01 [mu]g/L. The GH time series were analyzed using the Cluster program, Ultra program, cosinor analysis, and autocorrelation analysis. Plasma GH concentrations in 1,095 samples derived from 15 normal short boys were all within the detectable range of the assay and ranged from 0.07-52.2 [mu]g/L. Thirty-six percent of the GH values in the 1,095 samples from 15 normal short boys were below 1 [mu]g/L, and 82% of them occurred during the diurnal awakening period. Cluster analysis disclosed a total of 176 peaks in 15 normal short boys, with a mean [+-] SEM number of significant GH peaks of 12.1 [+-] 0.5/24 h. Twelve percent of the 176 peaks were below 1 [mu]g/L, and 95% of them occurred during the diurnal awakening period. In addition, Cluster analysis disclosed 161 interpulse intervals in total, with a mean [+-] SEM interval of 116.5 [+-] 4.3 min. The GH interpulse interval did not show a significant 24-h rhythm, whereas the GH peak height increased significantly at night. An independent discrete peak detection in program, Ultra, identified 12.6 [+-] 0.5 GH peaks/24 h. This result was in good agreement with that from analysis by the Cluster program (P = NS). Autocorrelation analysis revealed that GH time series were significantly autocorrelated in 9 of the 15 boys, with maximal autocorrelation coefficients at 115.5 min, on the average. The mean autocorrelation coefficient for a group of 15 normal short boys was significantly positive at a 100-min lag. These findings suggest that there could be a regularly occurring periodicity of approximately 100-120 min in the human GH time series. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland: a pitfall of scintigraphy imaging and hormone assays in the detection of adrenal metastasis. (United States)

    Thorin-Savouré, Adeline; Tissier-Rible, Frédérique; Guignat, Laurence; Pellerin, Anne; Bertagna, Xavier; Bertherat, Jérome; Lefebvre, Hervé


    In patients with a history of extraadrenal tumor, incidental discovery of an adrenal mass necessitates excluding the possibility of metastatic malignancy. Detection of the malignant tissue is a difficult challenge when metastasis occurs in an adrenal adenoma, forming a collision/composite tumor. We report two patients with adrenal collision/composite tumors referred to two French university hospitals. Two patients with histories of mammary and sigmoid carcinomas, respectively, presented with adrenal mass discovered 8 and 3 yr after surgical removal of the primary tumor. In the two cases, computerized tomographic scan showed that the adrenal tumor contained two components with low and high attenuation values, respectively. Uptake of iodocholesterol by the adrenal tumor in case 1 and elevated plasma ACTH-stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone values in case 2 strongly argued for the diagnosis of primary adrenocortical tumors. Enlargement of the adrenal mass during follow-up in case 1 and association of the adrenal lesion with a hepatic mass in case 2 led to adrenalectomy. In both cases, histological examination of the tumor demonstrated the presence of metastatic carcinoma tissue in an adrenocortical adenoma, allowing classification of the neoplasia as a collision/composite tumor. These observations show that collision/composite tumors of the adrenal gland formed by carcinoma metastasis in benign adenomas are a pitfall of iodocholesterol scintigraphy and/or plasma steroid assays to exclude the diagnosis of adrenal metastasis. Conversely, computerized tomographic scan is a useful tool for the distinction between the benign and malignant tissues in adrenal collision/composite tumors.

  7. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  8. {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy for patients with endocrine neoplasm and the individualized semi-automatic dosimetry. A retrospective analysis; {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE-Peptid-Radio-Rezeptor-Therapie bei Patienten mit neuroendokrinen Neoplasien und die individualisierte, semi-automatische-Dosimetrie. Eine retrospektive Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, Anastassia


    The {sup 177}lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy is a promising approach for the palliative treatment of patients with inoperable endocrine neoplasm. The individually variable biological dispersion and the tumor uptake including the protection of critical organs require a precise and reliable organ and tumor dosimetry. The HERMES Hybrid dosimetry module has appeared as reliable and user-friendly tool for clinical application. The next step is supposed to by the complete integration of 3D SPECT imaging.


    Ozderya, Aysenur; Temizkan, Sule; Cetin, Kenan; Ozugur, Sule; Gul, Aylin Ege; Aydin, Kadriye


    This study aimed to evaluate the results of parathyroid hormone (PTH) assay in parathyroid aspirates to determine uniglandular disease by an endocrinologist-performed ultrasound (US) in patients with discordant or negative technetium-sestamibi scans and to evaluate whether this procedure increases the number of focused parathyroidectomies (FPs). We analyzed the data of 65 patients who underwent an endocrinologist-performed US-guided parathyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with PTH wash-out, retrospectively. The results of PTH wash-out procedure and the reports of parathyroid surgery and pathology were reviewed. Of 65 patients, 54 had positive PTH wash-out results. The median serum PTH level of patients with positive and negative PTH wash-out results was 143 (25 and 75% interquartile range [IQR], 114 to 197) versus 154 (IQR, 115 to 255) pg/mL (P = .45), and the median PTH in FNA was 3,533 (IQR, 1,481 to 3,534) versus 6.0 (IQR, 1 to 6) pg/mL (P<.001), respectively. Forty-five patients underwent surgery. Of the operated patients, 42 had positive PTH wash-out results and had successful FP. Four patients with redo surgery had positive PTH wash-out results and were successfully re-operated with FP. Of 11 patients with negative PTH wash-out results, 3 had bilateral neck exploration (BNE) surgery and 2 patients were successfully operated, while surgery was unsuccessful in 1 patient, despite BNE. Our study results suggest that endocrinologist-performed US and parathyroid FNA with PTH wash-out increases the number and success of FPs. In particular, patients with redo surgery may benefit from this procedure. 4D-CT = four-dimensional computed tomography BNE = bilateral neck exploration FNA = fine-needle aspiration FNAB = fine-needle aspiration biopsy FP = focused parathyroidectomy IQR = 25 and 75% inter-quartile range PHPT = primary hyperparathyroidism PPV = positive predictive value PTH = parathyroid hormone (99m)Tc = technetium US = ultrasound.

  10. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B


    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...

  11. Hormone Therapy (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  12. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... of GHD and/or hypopituitarism , such as: Decreased bone density Fatigue Adverse lipid changes, such as high cholesterol Reduced exercise tolerance Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing , ...

  13. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003706.htm . Accessed October 2010. (© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8688: Growth Hormone, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical ...

  14. Hormone Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  15. Enzyme assays


    Bisswanger, Hans


    The essential requirements for enzyme assays are described and frequently occurring errors and pitfalls as well as their avoidance are discussed. The main factors, which must be considered for assaying enzymes, are temperature, pH, ionic strength and the proper concentrations of the essential components like substrates and enzymes. Standardization of these parameters would be desirable, but the diversity of the features of different enzymes prevents unification of assay conditions. Neverthele...

  16. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.


    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  17. Types of hormone therapy (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  18. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  19. Growth hormone test (United States)

    ... this page: // Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  20. Growth hormone suppression test (United States)

    ... this page: // Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  1. Unexpected Elevated Free Thyroid Hormones in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Teti, Claudia; Nazzari, Elena; Galletti, Marina Raffaella; Mandolfino, Mattia Grazia; Pupo, Francesca; Pesce, Giampaola; Lillo, Flavia; Bagnasco, Marcello; Benvenga, Salvatore


    The use of thyrotropin and free thyroid hormone assays to evaluate thyroid function is widespread, but in some situations the results are inconsistent with the patient's thyroid status. A 35-year-old woman with a known diagnosis of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis was referred to the authors' clinic at week 26 of her second pregnancy. The patient was clinically euthyroid. Consistent with this, her serum thyrotropin (TSH) was normal (0.79 mIU/L), but she had elevated free thyroid hormones-free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4)-as determined by a one-step chemiluminescent assay. The patient was taking levothyroxine replacement therapy (125 μg/day), and the dose was confirmed. Previous blood tests showed concordance between TSH and free thyroid hormone values. The patient was followed up throughout gestation and at 12 months postpartum. During gestation, her free thyroid hormones remained high using one-step methods, while the total thyroid hormone concentration values were within the reference range, in agreement with the TSH values. Postpartum fT4 and fT3 values returned progressively to normality, in agreement with the TSH values. The presence of circulating thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAb) was hypothesized, which are known to interfere, although to a variable extent, with thyroid hormone one-step assays. Using stored frozen sera, this hypothesis was confirmed indirectly by measuring normal levels of fT3 and fT4 with a two-step method, and directly by demonstrating THAb against the two hormones. Despite their relative rarity, circulating THAb may be suspected when laboratory data are not consistent and contrast with the clinical picture. To the authors' knowledge, no previous case of transient appearance of THAb in pregnancy has been described.

  2. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.


    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  3. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.


    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  4. Hyponatremia of hypothyroidism. Appropriate suppression of antidiuretic hormone levels. (United States)

    Macaron, C; Famuyiwa, O


    A hypothyroid, 72-year-old woman with idiopathic hypopituitarism manifested severe hyponatremia, plasma hypoosmolality, and inappropriately elevated urine osmolality suggestive of a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretions. The hyponatremia did not respond to demeclocycline hydrochloride, and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels measured by a specific radioimmunoassay were appropriately suppressed. Subsequent replacement therapy with levothyroxine sodium resulted in correction of the hyponatremia. Thus, both direct assay as well as hormone blockade failed to show an action of ADH in mediating the water retention.

  5. Relationship between sex hormone levels, bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  6. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi


    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  7. Deciding about hormone therapy (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  8. Hormones and Hypertension (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  9. Menopause and Hormones (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  10. Antidiuretic hormone blood test (United States)

    ... Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  11. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (United States)

    ... Balance › Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults Patient Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs English ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of ...

  12. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Lei et al., 2007). Recently, the effects of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism at codon 127 and 172 were determined on carcass traits and fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle using allele specific-multiplex ...

  13. Hormonal therapy for acne. (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane


    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  14. Awareness of antimullerian hormone assay and its relevance in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: infertility is a challenging medical disorder affecting 1 in every 6 couples. In-Vitro fertilization(IVF) offers hope for couples to actualize their dreams of procreation. Success with IVF is determined by several factors including ovarian reserve which can be determined by measuring serum levels of Antimullerian ...

  15. some considerations on the value of hormonal assays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of dairy cattle, commonly associated with the use of frozen semen. T.J. Robinson. 1974. scientist or group of scientists is capable of such a sorting process. ..... A low concentration of progesterone in milk at the time of breeding followed by a high value from a sample taken 22 to 24 days later from a cow not observed in heat ...

  16. Sex hormones and hypertension


    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Oparil, Suzanne; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K.


    Gender has an important influence on blood pressure, with premenopausal women having a lower arterial blood pressure than age-matched men. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women have higher blood pressures, suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate blood pressure. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ovarian hormones account for differences in blood pressure in premenopausal ver...

  17. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 Labeled Antagonist of the A2A Adenosine Receptor: Application to a Fluorescence Polarization-Based Receptor Binding Assay (United States)

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.


    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A2A adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A2AAR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a Ki value of 111±16 nM in radioligand binding using [3H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A2AAR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A2AAR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A1 and A3 ARs in binding or the A2BAR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10 μM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A2AAR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20 nM MRS5346 and 150 μg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The Kdvalue of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5 ± 4.7 nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, Ki values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with Ki values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs. PMID:20438717

  18. Novel Alexa Fluor-488 labeled antagonist of the A(2A) adenosine receptor: Application to a fluorescence polarization-based receptor binding assay. (United States)

    Kecskés, Miklós; Kumar, T Santhosh; Yoo, Lena; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A


    Fluorescence polarization (FP) assay has many advantages over the traditional radioreceptor binding studies. We developed an A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) FP assay using a newly synthesized fluorescent antagonist of the A(2A)AR (MRS5346), a pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine derivative conjugated to the fluorescent dye Alexa Fluor-488. MRS5346 displayed a K(i) value of 111+/-16nM in radioligand binding using [(3)H]CGS21680 and membranes prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing the human A(2A)AR. In a cyclic AMP functional assay, MRS5346 was shown to be an A(2A)AR antagonist. MRS5346 did not show any effect on A(1) and A(3) ARs in binding or the A(2B)AR in a cyclic AMP assay at 10microM. Its suitability as a fluorescent tracer was indicated in an initial observation of an FP signal following A(2A)AR binding. The FP signal was optimal with 20nM MRS5346 and 150microg protein/mL HEK293 membranes. The association and dissociation kinetic parameters were readily determined using this FP assay. The K(d) value of MRS5346 calculated from kinetic parameters was 16.5+/-4.7nM. In FP competition binding experiments using MRS5346 as a tracer, K(i) values of known AR agonists and antagonists consistently agreed with K(i) values from radioligand binding. Thus, this FP assay, which eliminates using radioisotopes, appears to be appropriate for both routine receptor binding and high-throughput screening with respect to speed of analysis, displaceable signal and precision. The approach used in the present study could be generally applicable to other GPCRs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Sex hormones and urticaria. (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B


    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Injection (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  1. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  2. Aging changes in hormone production (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  3. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  4. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  5. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?


    Smith, P J; Brook, C G


    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  6. [Hormonal contraception in men]. (United States)

    de Ronde, W; Meuleman, E J H


    Over the past few decades, female hormonal contraception has been seen to be very successful. However, this has still not resulted in a hormonal contraceptive for men. Certain injectable combinations ofandrogens and progestagens have been found to suppress spermatogenesis. All combinations that have been tested so far suffer from a relative lack of efficacy, a long lag time to achieve azoospermia, requiring the user to undergo one or more semen analyses, a moderate user friendliness, and concerns about the long-term safety and reversibility. It is not to be expected that male hormonal contraception will become a serious alternative to the already existing female equivalent during the coming 5 years.

  7. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  8. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D Tests ...

  9. Hormonal effects in newborns (United States)

    ... can cause an infection under the skin ( abscess ). Hormones from the mother may also cause some fluid to leak from the infant's nipples. This is called witch's milk. It is common and most often goes away ...

  10. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡ (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron


    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  11. Body segments and growth hormone.


    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G


    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  12. Evaluation of the 2. generation radio-receptional assay for anti-TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb) in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Comparison with 1. generation and anti-thyroperoxidae antibodies (AbTPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanella, L.; Ceriani, L.; Garacini, S. [University Hospital Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Lab. of Endocrinology and Thyroid Unit, Varese (Italy)


    The detection of autoantibodies to the TSH-receptor (TRAb) by radio-receptor assays (RRA) is widely requested in clinical practice for the diagnostic work-up of Graves' disease and its differentiation from diffuse thyroid autonomy. Additionally, TRAb measurement can be useful during antithyroid drug treatment of Graves' disease to evaluate the risk of relapse after therapy discontinuation. Nevertheless, some patients affected by Graves' disease are TRAb-negative when 1. generation assay is used. In this study the diagnostic performance of a newly developed 2. generation TRAb assay (TRAK human DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) was evaluated in 74 untreated patients affected by Graves' disease, in 53 untreated patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis and in 88 patients affected by euthyroid nodular goiter. It was also compared the new TRAb assay with the 1. generation test (TRAK(R) Assay, BRAHMS Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and anti-thyroperoxidase assay (AbTPO DYNOtest(R), BRAHMS GmbH, Berlin). The 2. generation TRAb assay showed the better diagnostic sensitivity in Graves' disease (97%) with respect to the 1. generation assay (85%) and AbTPO assay (64%). The AbTPO assay was positive in 50 of 53 (94%) patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. The 1. and 2. generation TRAb assays were positive in 4 (7%) and 7 (13%) of 53 patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis, respectively. No patients affected by nodular goiter showed positive 1. and 2. generation TRAb assay while AbTPO levels were positive in 8 of 88 patients (specificity 91%). In conclusion, the 2. generation TRAb assay is clearly more sensitive than the 1. generation test and should be used in clinical practice to minimize the incidence of TRAb-negative Graves' disease. Long term prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic role of 2. generation TRAb assay in Graves' disease. The assay of AbTPO is the best marker for

  13. Possible role of human growth hormone in penile erection. (United States)

    Becker, A J; Uckert, S; Stief, C G; Truss, M C; Machtens, S; Scheller, F; Knapp, W H; Hartmann, U; Jonas, U


    Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency increases nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We examined the functional in vitro effects of recombinant human growth hormone on tissue tension and cyclic nucleotide levels of human corpus cavernosum and detected changes in growth hormone in the cavernous and peripheral blood during different phases of penile erection. Relaxant responses of human corpus cavernosum were investigated using the organ bath technique. Tissue levels of cGMP were determined by a specific radioimmunoassay after dose dependent exposition of isolated human corpus cavernosum strips to recombinant human growth hormone. In 35 healthy potent volunteers blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the corpus cavernosum and cubital vein during different functional conditions of the penis, including flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Penile erection was induced by audiovisual and tactile stimulation. Serum growth hormone was determined by an immunoradiometric assay. Recombinant human growth hormone elicited dose dependent relaxation of human corpus cavernosum strips in vitro. The relaxing potency of recombinant human growth hormone was paralleled by its ability to elevate intracellular levels of cGMP. In vivo the peripheral growth hormone serum profile of the respective penile conditions did not significantly differ from those of cavernous serum. The main increase in growth hormone to greater than 90% was determined during developing penile tumescence, followed by a transient decrease afterward. These results suggest that penile erection may probably be induced by growth hormone through its cGMP stimulating activity on human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

  14. A Nested Case-Control Study of Luteinizing Hormone Variants and Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toniolo, Paolo


    An immunological variant of luteinizing hormone (LH) dependent on two point mutations in the gene of the LH beta-subunit has increased in vitro bioactivity and is detectable in serum with immunofluorometric assays (IFMA...

  15. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone and ... in testosterone levels were dose dependent as there were consistent increment in groups II and III after which the levels ..... hepatic metabolism of copper and zinc: special reference to ...

  16. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh


    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  17. Immunoassays for the incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J


    The measurement of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), using immunologically based assays is made difficult by the fact that the processing of the precursor molecules gives rise to a number of different peptides which cross......-react with antisera raised against the two hormones. For GLP-1, the picture is further complicated because of the necessity to differentiate between the intestinal and pancreatic proglucagon products. Finally, once secreted, both incretins are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to generate....... The use of highly specific assays using well-characterised antisera and careful sample handling is therefore required for a reliable determination of incretin hormone concentrations....

  18. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas


    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  19. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir


    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  20. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael


    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...

  1. Free thyroid assay, a logical evolution of thyroid function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blockx, P. (Hopital Universitaire d' Anvers (Belgium))


    It is generally accepted nowadays that the serum levels of free thyroid hormones are the most discriminating physiological parameters regarding the thyroid status. During the last few years, various methodologies for determining these free thyroid hormones have been proposed as substitutes for the equilibrium dialysis reference method, which is rather of a cumbersome use in routine clinical conditions. Generally, these new methods yield good correlations with the reference method, as well as with the clinical evaluation of the patients' thyroid status. Nevertheless, some artifacts, inherent to these new methodologies, have been described, mainly regarding the direct assays using a labeled thyroxine or triiodothyronine analog. Other discrepancies, described as artifacts, in fact originate in a rupture between clinical status and true serum levels of the free thyroid hormones. In these cases, one cannot really speak of methodological artifacts. In fact, this discrepancy may be observed in various physiological (e.g. pregnancy) and pathological (e.g. ''euthyroid sick syndrome'') states. These conditions, frequently unrecognized with the total thyroid hormone assays, suggest the need to revise some physiopathological concepts. The present review tries to make an objective analysis of recent literature data on free thyroid hormones, and to determine the indications of their assay in daily clinical practice. Because of the simplicity of the procedure and the very low prevalence of the ''real'' artifacts, the direct assays of free thyroid hormones can be considered as a logical next step in the evolution of laboratory thyroid function tests.

  2. Absolute nuclear material assay (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA


    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA


    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. Ovarian hormones and obesity. (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori


    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... period and ovulation in rats.J. Endocr. 57,235. JOcHLE, W., 1969. Latest trends and practical problems arising during oestrus synchronisation. Proc. S. Afr. Soc. Anim. Prod. 8,23. KANN, G., 1971. Variations des concentrations plasmatiques de l'hormone luteinisant et de la prolactin au cours du cycle oestrien de la brebis.

  6. Thyroid hormone and obesity. (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N


    To review several of the most recent and most important clinical studies regarding the effects of thyroid treatments on weight change, associations between thyroid status and weight, and the effects of obesity and weight change on thyroid function. Weight decreases following treatment for hypothyroidism. However, following levothyroxine treatment for overt hypothyroidism, weight loss appears to be modest and mediated primarily by loss of water weight rather than fat. There is conflicting evidence about the effects of thyroidectomy on weight. In large population studies, even among euthyroid individuals, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone is typically positively associated with body weight and BMI. Both serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and T3 are typically increased in obese compared with lean individuals, an effect likely mediated, at least in part, by leptin. Finally, there is no consistent evidence that thyroid hormone treatment induces weight loss in obese euthyroid individuals, but thyroid hormone analogues may eventually be useful for weight loss. The interrelationships between body weight and thyroid status are complex.

  7. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.


    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  8. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  9. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas


    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  10. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  11. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... hormones? Hormones are substances that function as chemical messengers in the body. They affect the actions of ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  12. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin) (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  13. Melatonin – apleiotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Brzęczek


    Full Text Available Melatonin, a tryptophan derivative, is synthesised in mammals mainly in the pineal gland. It coordinates the biological clock by regulating the circadian rhythm. Its production is dependent on light and its concentrations change with age. Thanks to its specific chemical structure, melatonin is capable of crossing all biological barriers in the organism and affecting other tissues and cells, both in indirect and direct ways. Its mechanism of action involves binding with membrane receptors, nuclear receptors and intracellular proteins. Melatonin shows antioxidant activity. Moreover, its immunomodulatory and antilipid effects as well as its role in secreting other hormones, such as prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, somatotropin, thyroliberin, adrenocorticotropin hormone or corticosteroids, are essential. In the recent years, research studies have been mainly focussed on the potential influence of melatonin on the aetiology and development of various disease entities, such as sleep disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, cancers, psychiatric and neurological conditions, cardiovascular diseases or conditions with bone turnover disorders. Indications for melatonin use in paediatrics are being discussed more and more frequently. Among others, authors debate on its use in dyssomnias in children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, supportive treatment in febrile seizures and epilepsy as well as potential use in paediatric anaesthesia. The molecular mechanism and broad-spectrum action of melatonin have not been sufficiently researched and its clinical relevance is often underestimated. This hormone is a promising link in achieving alternative therapeutic solutions.

  14. Hormone Profiling in Plant Tissues. (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi


    Plant hormones are for a long time known to act as chemical messengers in the regulation of physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence. Furthermore, plant hormones simultaneously coordinate physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. To study the hormonal regulation of physiological processes, three main approaches have been used (1) exogenous application of hormones, (2) correlative studies through measurements of endogenous hormone levels, and (3) use of transgenic and/or mutant plants altered in hormone metabolism or signaling. A plant hormone profiling method is useful to unravel cross talk between hormones and help unravel the hormonal regulation of physiological processes in studies using any of the aforementioned approaches. However, hormone profiling is still particularly challenging due to their very low abundance in plant tissues. In this chapter, a sensitive, rapid, and accurate method to quantify all the five "classic" classes of plant hormones plus other plant growth regulators, such as jasmonates, salicylic acid, melatonin, and brassinosteroids is described. The method includes a fast and simple extraction procedure without time consuming steps as purification or derivatization, followed by optimized ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. This protocol facilitates the high-throughput analysis of hormone profiling and is applicable to different plant tissues.

  15. Estrogen and Progestin (Hormone Replacement Therapy) (United States)

    ... Estrogen and progestin are two female sex hormones. Hormone replacement therapy works by replacing estrogen hormone that is no ... menopausal women. Progestin is added to estrogen in hormone replacement therapy to reduce the risk of uterine cancer in ...

  16. Development of a thyroperoxidase inhibition assay for high-throughput screening (United States)

    High-throughput screening (HTPS) assays to detect inhibitors of thyroperoxidase (TPO), the enzymatic catalyst for thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, are not currently available. Herein we describe the development of a HTPS TPO inhibition assay. Rat thyroid microsomes and a fluores...

  17. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.


    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  18. Hormonal Control of Lactation


    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine


    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  19. Lateral flow assays. (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Lateral flow assays (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  1. Tube-Forming Assays. (United States)

    Brown, Ryan M; Meah, Christopher J; Heath, Victoria L; Styles, Iain B; Bicknell, Roy


    Angiogenesis involves the generation of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature and is dependent on many growth factors and signaling events. In vivo angiogenesis is dynamic and complex, meaning assays are commonly utilized to explore specific targets for research into this area. Tube-forming assays offer an excellent overview of the molecular processes in angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube forming assay is a simple-to-implement but powerful tool for identifying biomolecules involved in angiogenesis. A detailed experimental protocol on the implementation of the assay is described in conjunction with an in-depth review of methods that can be applied to the analysis of the tube formation. In addition, an ImageJ plug-in is presented which allows automatic quantification of tube images reducing analysis times while removing user bias and subjectivity.

  2. Modelling the comet assay. (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; McKerr, George; Howard, C Vyvyan; Saetzler, Kurt; Wasson, Gillian R


    The single-cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay is widely regarded as a quick and reliable method of analysing DNA damage in individual cells. It has a proven track record from the fields of biomonitoring to nutritional studies. The assay operates by subjecting cells that are fixed in agarose to high salt and detergent lysis, thus removing all the cellular content except the DNA. By relaxing the DNA in an alkaline buffer, strands containing breaks are released from supercoiling. Upon electrophoresis, these strands are pulled out into the agarose, forming a tail which, when stained with a fluorescent dye, can be analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The intensity of this tail reflects the amount of DNA damage sustained. Despite being such an established and widely used assay, there are still many aspects of the comet assay which are not fully understood. The present review looks at how the comet assay is being used, and highlights some of its limitations. The protocol itself varies among laboratories, so results from similar studies may vary. Given such discrepancies, it would be attractive to break the assay into components to generate a mathematical model to investigate specific parameters.

  3. The OECD validation program of the H295R steroidogenesis assay: Phase 3. Final inter-laboratory validation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Cooper, Ralph


    on hormone production, confounding factors, such as cell viability and possible direct interference of test substances with antibody-based hormone detection assays, were assessed. Prior to and during the conduct of exposure experiments, each laboratory had to demonstrate that they were able to conduct...

  4. Growth Hormone and Aging (United States)


    34Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed., Diaz de al 1999), together with an increase in physical Santos. Madrid. pp 365-376 (1996). capacity (Jorgensen et al 1991...A, Marrama P, Agnati LF, Moiller EE. "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2’ Ed., Diaz de Reduced growth hormone releasing factor Santos. Madrid. pp 377-396...P, Skakkeback, Christiansen JS. variantes en (Moreno y Tresguerres dir). Three years of GH treatment in GH deficient "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed

  5. Simultaneous detection of three sex steroid hormone classes using a novel yeast-based biosensor. (United States)

    Chamas, Alexandre; Pham, Ha Thi Minh; Jähne, Martin; Hettwer, Karina; Uhlig, Steffen; Simon, Kirsten; Einspanier, Almuth; Baronian, Kim; Kunze, Gotthard


    A biosensor detecting estrogens, progestogens, and androgens in complex samples and in a single step is described. Three Arxula adeninivorans yeast strains were created, each strain producing a different recombinant human hormone receptor and a different fluorescent reporter protein. These strains were then mixed to create G1212/YRC102-hHR-fluo, the biological component of the biosensor. During incubation with G1212/YRC102-hHR-fluo, hormones present in a sample bind to their target receptor, which leads to the production of a specific fluorescent protein. Three fluorescence scans of the yeast suspension determine which fluorescence protein has been produced, thus revealing which hormone receptor (estrogen, progesterone, and androgen) has been activated by the hormones or hormone mimics present in the sample. The biosensor has similar sensitivities to the existing A. adeninivorans cell-based assays. The detection of the three hormone classes in one single experiment reduces the labor and time required to assay for the three hormone classes. The biosensor was also trialed with animal serum samples for the detection of progestogens, androgens, and estrogens and gave results that correlated well with ELISA analysis in case of progestogens. These results highlight the potential usefulness of the biosensor for comprehensive determination of hormone status in samples from veterinary origin. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1539-1549. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Lateral flow strip assay (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA


    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  8. Hormonal Regulation of Adipogenesis. (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jeong


    Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy. Remodeling adipose tissue to replace dysfunctional adipocytes that accumulate with obesity and age also requires new fat cell formation and is necessary to maintain metabolic health. Adipogenesis is the process by which adipose progenitors become committed to an adipogenic lineage and differentiate into mature adipocytes. This transition is regulated by complex array of transcriptional factors and numerous autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signals. We will focus on hormonal factors that regulate adipocyte differentiation and their molecular mechanisms of actions on adipogenesis as studied in vitro and in vivo. Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose progenitors isolated from different adipose tissues exhibit intrinsic differences in adipogenic potential that may contribute to the depot and sex differences in adipose expansion and remodeling capacity. We will put special emphasis on the hormonal factors that are known to depot-dependently affect body fat accumulation and adipocyte development. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:1151-1195, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  10. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H


    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  11. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    need to understand the role of reproductive hormones in psy- chiatric disorders. There is much research on the interaction between mood and endocrine factors that is impacting on the practice of women's health. Hormone fluctuations are linked to behavioural changes as well as the onset and recurrence of mood disorders.

  12. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind


    INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  13. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana


    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  14. Sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.S.M.


    In this thesis, we set out to investigate the complex relationship between endogenous sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in men and women. The first part of this thesis is devoted to studies in women, and the second part describes the association between sex hormones and cardiometabolic risk in

  15. Oxytocin - The Sweet Hormone? (United States)

    Leng, Gareth; Sabatier, Nancy


    Mammalian neurons that produce oxytocin and vasopressin apparently evolved from an ancient cell type with both sensory and neurosecretory properties that probably linked reproductive functions to energy status and feeding behavior. Oxytocin in modern mammals is an autocrine/paracrine regulator of cell function, a systemic hormone, a neuromodulator released from axon terminals within the brain, and a 'neurohormone' that acts at receptors distant from its site of release. In the periphery oxytocin is involved in electrolyte homeostasis, gastric motility, glucose homeostasis, adipogenesis, and osteogenesis, and within the brain it is involved in food reward, food choice, and satiety. Oxytocin preferentially suppresses intake of sweet-tasting carbohydrates while improving glucose tolerance and supporting bone remodeling, making it an enticing translational target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Hormonal treatment of transsexual persons]. (United States)

    Tinkanen, Helena; Das, Pia


    The primary investigations and starting the hormonal treatment of transsexual persons takes place in Helsinki and Tampere University hospitals as part of the real life period. The hormones used are estrogen and anti-androgen for MtoF and testosterone for FtoM persons. The medication suppresses the endogenous sex-hormone production and brings about the desired features of the other sex. While the recommended doses result in physiological hormone levels, higher doses do not hasten or increase the desired changes and are a health risk. After the transition period, the follow up is referred to the person's home district. The physical and psychological status and laboratory values are evaluated at the yearly follow-up doctor visits. Although the hormone doses are lowered and percutaneous administration route is favored upon aging, stopping the medication is not recommended.

  17. Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in the paediatric and transitional age. (United States)

    Chinoy, A; Murray, P G


    Growth hormone deficiency is a rare cause of childhood short stature, but one for which treatment exists in the form of recombinant human growth hormone. A diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency is made based on auxology, biochemistry and imaging. Although no diagnostic gold standard exists, growth hormone provocation tests are considered the mainstay of diagnostic investigations. However, these must be interpreted with caution in view of issues with variability and reproducibility, as well as the limited evidence-base for cut-off values used to distinguish growth hormone deficient and non-growth hormone deficient subjects. In addition, nutritional and pubertal status can affect results, with no consensus on the role of priming with sex steroid hormones. Difficulties with assays exist both for growth hormone as well as insulin-like growth factor-1. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging is a useful diagnostic, and possibly prognostic, aid. Although genetic testing is not routine, the discovery of more relevant mutations makes it an increasingly important investigation. Children with growth hormone deficiency are retested biochemically on completion of growth, to assess whether they remain so into adulthood. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection? (United States)

    ... make headaches worse. Though fluctuating hormone levels can influence headache patterns, you're not completely at the mercy of your hormones. Your doctor can help you treat — or prevent — hormone-related ...

  19. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image) (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  20. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  1. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  2. Global assays of fibrinolysis. (United States)

    Ilich, A; Bokarev, I; Key, N S


    Fibrinolysis is an important and integral part of the hemostatic system. Acting as a balance to blood coagulation, the fibrinolytic system protects the body from unwanted thrombus formation and occlusion of blood vessels. As long as blood coagulation and fibrinolysis remain in equilibrium, response to injury, such as vessel damage, is appropriately regulated. However, alterations in this balance may lead to thrombosis or bleeding. A variety of methods have been proposed to assess fibrinolytic activity in blood or its components, but due to the complexity of the system, the design of a "gold standard" assay that reflects overall fibrinolysis has remained an elusive goal. In this review, we describe the most commonly used methods that have been described, such as thromboelastography (TEG and ROTEM), global fibrinolytic capacity in plasma and whole blood, plasma turbidity methods, simultaneous thrombin and plasmin generation assays, euglobulin clot lysis time and fibrin plate methods. All of these assays have strengths and limitations. We suggest that some methods may be preferable for detecting hypofibrinolytic conditions, whereas others may be better for detecting hyperfibrinolytic states. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. PTH Assays: Understanding What We Have and Forecasting What We Will Have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto H. Vieira


    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays. The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric “sandwich-type”. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids or the “intact” PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other “long” carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 7–84-PTH. Assays for “intact” PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone.

  4. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  5. Compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy. (United States)


    Although improvement in long-term health is no longer an indication for menopausal hormone therapy, evidence supporting fewer adverse events in younger women, combined with its high overall effectiveness, has reinforced its usefulness for short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms. Menopausal therapy has been provided not only by commercially available products but also by compounding, or creation of an individualized preparation in response to a health care provider's prescription to create a medication tailored to the specialized needs of an individual patient. The Women's Health Initiative findings, coupled with an increase in the direct-to-consumer marketing and media promotion of compounded bioidentical hormonal preparations as safe and effective alternatives to conventional menopausal hormone therapy, have led to a recent increase in the popularity of compounded bioidentical hormones as well as an increase in questions about the use of these preparations. Not only is evidence lacking to support superiority claims of compounded bioidentical hormones over conventional menopausal hormone therapy, but these claims also pose the additional risks of variable purity and potency and lack efficacy and safety data. The Committee on Gynecologic Practice of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine provide an overview of the major issues of concern surrounding compounded bioidentical menopausal hormone therapy and provide recommendations for patient counseling. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A High-Throughput Screening Assay to Detect ... (United States)

    In support of the Endocrine Disruption Screening Program (EDSP21), the US EPA ToxCast program is developing assays to enable screening for chemicals that may disrupt thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is critical for TH synthesis and is a known target of thyroid-disrupting chemicals that adversely impact neurodevelopment. The AUR-TPO assay was recently developed to screen >1,900 ToxCast chemicals for potential TPO inhibition activity. Parallel assays were used to determine which AUR-TPO actives were more selective for TPO inhibition. Additionally, the TPO inhibition activities of 150 chemicals were compared between the AUR-TPO assay and an orthogonal peroxidase oxidation assay using guaiacol as substrate to confirm putative TPO inhibition profiles. Bioactivity results from the AUR-TPO assay were used to identify chemical substructures associated with in vitro TPO inhibition. Substructure profiles were generated for each chemical in the ToxCast test set using the publicly-available ToxPrint 2.0 chemotypes. Chemotypes enriched among the putative TPO inhibitors were identified using a cumulative hypergeometric probability (p assay:

  7. Vitamins as hormones. (United States)

    Reichrath, J; Lehmann, B; Carlberg, C; Varani, J; Zouboulis, C C


    Vitamins A and D are the first group of substances that have been reported to exhibit properties of skin hormones, such as organized metabolism, activation, inactivation, and elimination in specialized cells of the tissue, exertion of biological activity, and release in the circulation. Vitamin A and its two important metabolites, retinaldehyde and retinoic acids, are fat-soluble unsaturated isoprenoids necessary for growth, differentiation and maintenance of epithelial tissues, and also for reproduction. In a reversible process, vitamin A is oxidized IN VIVO to give retinaldehyde, which is important for vision. The dramatic effects of vitamin A analogues on embryogenesis have been studied by animal experiments; the clinical malformation pattern in humans is known. Retinoic acids are major oxidative metabolites of vitamin A and can substitute for it in vitamin A-deficient animals in growth promotion and epithelial differentiation. Natural vitamin A metabolites are vitamins, because vitamin A is not synthesized in the body and must be derived from carotenoids in the diet. On the other hand, retinoids are also hormones - with intracrine activity - because retinol is transformed in the cells into molecules that bind to and activate specific nuclear receptors, exhibit their function, and are subsequently inactivated. The mechanisms of action of natural vitamin A metabolites on human skin are based on the time- and dose-dependent influence of morphogenesis, epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, epithelial and mesenchymal synthetic performance, immune modulation, stimulation of angiogenesis and inhibition of carcinogenesis. As drugs, vitamin A and its natural metabolites have been approved for the topical and systemic treatment of mild to moderate and severe, recalcitrant acne, photoaging and biologic skin aging, acute promyelocytic leukaemia and Kaposi's sarcoma. On the other hand, the critical importance of the skin for the human body's vitamin D endocrine

  8. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana


    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  9. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)


    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  10. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image) (United States)

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce ...

  11. Hormonal modulation of plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Does, D. van der; Zamioudis, C.; Leon-Reyes, A.; Wees, A.C.M. van


    Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling

  12. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad


    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  13. Hormone replacement therapy in menopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pardini, Dolores


    Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than six decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET...

  14. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003690.htm Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... to measure the amount of PTH in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  15. Thyroid hormone receptors in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, A.; Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.


    Thyroid hormones (TH) play a key role in energy homeostasis throughout life. Thyroid hormone production and secretion by the thyroid gland is regulated via the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT)-axis. Thyroid hormone has to be transported into the cell, where it can bind to the thyroid hormone

  16. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  17. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  18. Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos (United States)

    Fini, Jean-Baptiste; Mughal, Bilal B.; Le Mével, Sébastien; Leemans, Michelle; Lettmann, Mélodie; Spirhanzlova, Petra; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Demeneix, Barbara A.


    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with decreased offspring IQ and modified brain structure. As numerous environmental chemicals disrupt thyroid hormone signalling, we questioned whether exposure to ubiquitous chemicals affects thyroid hormone responses during early neurogenesis. We established a mixture of 15 common chemicals at concentrations reported in human amniotic fluid. An in vivo larval reporter (GFP) assay served to determine integrated thyroid hormone transcriptional responses. Dose-dependent effects of short-term (72 h) exposure to single chemicals and the mixture were found. qPCR on dissected brains showed significant changes in thyroid hormone-related genes including receptors, deiodinases and neural differentiation markers. Further, exposure to mixture also modified neural proliferation as well as neuron and oligodendrocyte size. Finally, exposed tadpoles showed behavioural responses with dose-dependent reductions in mobility. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture of ubiquitous chemicals at concentrations found in human amniotic fluid affect thyroid hormone-dependent transcription, gene expression, brain development and behaviour in early embryogenesis. As thyroid hormone signalling is strongly conserved across vertebrates the results suggest that ubiquitous chemical mixtures could be exerting adverse effects on foetal human brain development.

  19. Analysis of Paired Primary-Metastatic Hormone-Receptor Positive Breast Tumors (HRPBC Uncovers Potential Novel Drivers of Hormonal Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manso

    Full Text Available We sought to identify genetic variants associated with disease relapse and failure to hormonal treatment in hormone-receptor positive breast cancer (HRPBC. We analyzed a series of HRPBC with distant relapse, by sequencing pairs (n = 11 of tumors (primary and metastases at >800X. Comparative genomic hybridization was performed as well. Top hits, based on the frequency of alteration and severity of the changes, were tested in the TCGA series. Genes determining the most parsimonious prognostic signature were studied for their functional role in vitro, by performing cell growth assays in hormonal-deprivation conditions, a setting that mimics treatment with aromatase inhibitors. Severe alterations were recurrently found in 18 genes in the pairs. However, only MYC, DNAH5, CSFR1, EPHA7, ARID1B, and KMT2C preserved an independent prognosis impact and/or showed a significantly different incidence of alterations between relapsed and non-relapsed cases in the TCGA series. The signature composed of MYC, KMT2C, and EPHA7 best discriminated the clinical course, (overall survival 90,7 vs. 144,5 months; p = 0.0001. Having an alteration in any of the genes of the signature implied a hazard ratio of death of 3.25 (p<0.0001, and early relapse during the adjuvant hormonal treatment. The presence of the D348N mutation in KMT2C and/or the T666I mutation in the kinase domain of EPHA7 conferred hormonal resistance in vitro. Novel inactivating mutations in KMT2C and EPHA7, which confer hormonal resistance, are linked to adverse clinical course in HRPBC.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention...... is adapted to receive one or more replaceable solid support(s) (40) onto which chemical entities (41) are attached, said device comprising a base (1, 60, 80, 300, 400, 10, 70, 140, 20, 90, 120, 150, 30, 100), one or more inlet(s) (5), one or more outlet(s) (6). The base and the solid support (40) defines......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  1. Survival assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Park, Hae-Eun H; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V


    Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism with many useful features, including rapid development and aging, easy cultivation, and genetic tractability. Survival assays using C. elegans are powerful methods for studying physiological processes. In this review, we describe diverse types of C. elegans survival assays and discuss the aims, uses, and advantages of specific assays. C. elegans survival assays have played key roles in identifying novel genetic factors that regulate many aspects of animal physiology, such as aging and lifespan, stress response, and immunity against pathogens. Because many genetic factors discovered using C. elegans are evolutionarily conserved, survival assays can provide insights into mechanisms underlying physiological processes in mammals, including humans.

  2. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco


    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  3. Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity Assays. (United States)

    Adan, Aysun; Kiraz, Yağmur; Baran, Yusuf

    Cell viability is defined as the number of healthy cells in a sample and proliferation of cells is a vital indicator for understanding the mechanisms in action of certain genes, proteins and pathways involved cell survival or death after exposing to toxic agents. Generally, methods used to determine viability are also common for the detection of cell proliferation. Cell cytotoxicity and proliferation assays are generally used for drug screening to detect whether the test molecules have effects on cell proliferation or display direct cytotoxic effects. Regardless of the type of cell-based assay being used, it is important to know how many viable cells are remaining at the end of the experiment. There are a variety of assay methods based on various cell functions such as enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability, cell adherence, ATP production, co-enzyme production, and nucleotide uptake activity. These methods could be basically classified into different categories: (I) dye exclusion methods such as trypan blue dye exclusion assay, (II) methods based on metabolic activity, (III) ATP assay, (IV) sulforhodamine B assay, (V) protease viability marker assay, (VI) clonogenic cell survival assay, (VII) DNA synthesis cell proliferation assays and (V) raman micro-spectroscopy. In order to choose the optimal viability assay, the cell type, applied culture conditions, and the specific questions being asked should be considered in detail. This particular review aims to provide an overview of common cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays together with their own advantages and disadvantages, their methodologies, comparisons and intended purposes.

  4. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.


    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  5. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo determination of thyroid hormone modulating activity of benzothiazoles (United States)

    As in vitro assays are increasingly used to screen chemicals for their potential to produce endocrine disrupting adverse effects, it is important to understand their predictive capacity. The potential for a set of six benzothiazoles to affect endpoints related to thyroid hormone ...

  6. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark


    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  7. Uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage. The influence of growth hormone and prolactin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takehisa; Kikuyama, Sakae (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin. The growth promoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60-80 % of the label most of which was incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the /sup 35/S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians.

  8. Lateral flow (immuno) assay : its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, Geertruida A.; Korf, Jakob; van Amerongen, Aart

    Lateral flow (immuno) assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  9. Lateral flow (immuno)assay: its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Korf, J.; Amerongen, van A.


    Lateral flow (immuno)assays are currently used for qualitative, semiquantitative and to some extent quantitative monitoring in resource-poor or non-laboratory environments. Applications include tests on pathogens, drugs, hormones and metabolites in biomedical, phytosanitary, veterinary, feed/food

  10. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  11. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses. (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal


    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress hormones and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available Hormone secretion during physical activity of specific duration and intensity is part of the stress response. In a study to investigate the secretion of ß-endorphin, leucine enkephalin and other recognised stress hormones during physical exercise, blood samples were taken from fourteen (14 healthy, male athletes who competed in a 21 km roadrace. Blood samples were collected before and after completion of the race. This study shows that ß-endorphin/ß-lipotropin, leucine enkephalin, prolactin, and melatonin may be classified as stress hormones in physical activity of duration 80 to 120 minutes and intensity exceeding 75%-V0₂max. Widespread intra-individual variation in serum cortisol concentrations prevent definite conclusion. The un­expected increase in serum testosterone levels warrants further research.

  13. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  14. Genetic variations in FSH action affect sex hormone levels and breast tissue size in infant girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Louise Scheutz; Hagen, Casper P; Assens, Maria


    , especially FSHR -29G>A and FSHR 2039A>G, affect female hormone profile and glandular breast tissue development already during minipuberty. Thus, genetic variations of FSH signaling appear to determine the individual set point of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis already early in life.......Context: Single nucleotide polymorphisms altering FSH action (FSHB -211G>T, FSHR -29G>A, and FSHR 2039A>G) are associated with peripubertal and adult levels of reproductive hormones and age at pubertal onset in girls. Objective: To investigate whether genetic polymorphisms altering FSH action...... by PCR using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR genotyping assays; identification of glandular breast tissue by palpation and measurement of the diameter. Serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone, FSH, LH, estradiol, inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin were assessed by immunoassays. Results: FSHR -29G...

  15. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie ML


    Full Text Available Mohamed L Elsaie Department of Dermatology and Venereology, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. Keywords: acne, hormones, hyperandrogenism

  16. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta


    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  17. Advances in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina


    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  18. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette


    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...

  19. Pituitary hormone circadian rhythm alterations in cirrhosis patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karanikolas, Menelaos; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Solomou, Ekaterini; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Thomopoulos, Konstantinos; Labropoulou-Karatza, Chrissoula


    To analyze pituitary hormone and melatonin circadian rhythms, and to correlate hormonal alterations with clinical performance, hepatic disease severity and diagnostic tests used for the detection of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. Twenty-six patients with cirrhosis were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients hospitalized for systemic diseases not affecting the liver were included as controls. Liver disease severity was assessed by the Child-Pugh score. All patients underwent detailed neurological assessment, electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), assays of pituitary hormone, cortisol and melatonin, and complete blood chemistry evaluation. Pituitary hormone and melatonin circadian patterns were altered in cirrhosis patients without clinical encephalopathy. Circadian hormone alterations were different in cirrhosis patients compared with controls. Although cortisol secretion was not altered in any patient with cirrhosis, the basal cortisol levels were low and correlated with EEG and brain MRI abnormalities. Melatonin was the only hormone associated with the severity of liver insufficiency. Abnormal pituitary hormone and melatonin circadian patterns are present in cirrhosis before the development of hepatic encephalopathy. These abnormalities may be early indicators of impending hepatic encephalopathy. Factors affecting the human biologic clock at the early stages of liver insufficiency require further study.

  20. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang


    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  1. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts. (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su


    BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  2. Assessment of acute and chronic changes in parathyroid hormone secretion by a radioimmunoassay with predominant specificity for the carboxy-terminal region of the molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthemore, J.G.; Roos, B.A.; Parker, D.C.; Kripke, D.F.; Avioli, L.V.; Deftos, L.J.


    A sensitive RIA for parathyroid hormone (PTH) with specificity for the carboxy-terminal region of the hormone was developed and applied to clinical studies. The assay was useful in identifying patients with chronic hyperparathyroid states, such as primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. In addition, the assay could detect acute changes in PTH seen during calcium, pentagastrin, and EDTA infusions and after parathyroidectomy. These studies demonstrated that an immunoassay with predominant specificity for the carboxy-terminal fragment of PTH can be used to evaluate acute as well as chronic changes in hormone secretion.

  3. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)


    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  4. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.


    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect

  5. Anti-Müllerian Hormone (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... . Accessed May 2011. (© 1995–2011). Unit Code 89711: Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum. Mayo Clinic Mayo ...

  6. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E


    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  7. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.


    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous

  8. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.


    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  9. Hormones, Women and Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... women who • Are older • Have no children • Delayed pregnancy until after age 30 • Have used combination hormone therapy (estrogen plus progestin) for more than five years • Have a mother, sister, or daughter who has had breast cancer Did you know? Breast pain alone is not ...

  10. Sex, hormones and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lunsen, R. H.; Laan, E.


    The human sexual response is a complicated biopsychosocial phenomenon in which internal and external stimuli are modulated by the central and peripheral nervous system, resulting in a cascade of biochemical, hormonal and circulatory changes that lead to cognitive and physical sexual arousal. In this

  11. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone delivery. Keywords: Transdermal, Delivery systems, ... delivery compared with gels, emulsions, patches, and subcutaneous implants. Among .... In a safety announcement, the US Food and. Drug Administration (FDA) warned that ...

  12. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  13. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.


    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  14. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood ... their thyroid gland removed is receiving too little thyroid hormone replacement medication and the dose may need to ...

  15. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings. (1) The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. (2) The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem...... organization, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. (3) Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others...

  16. Sulforhodamine B assay and chemosensitivity. (United States)

    Voigt, Wieland


    The sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was developed by Skehan and colleagues to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity and cell proliferation for large-scale drug-screening applications. Its principle is based on the ability of the protein dye sulforhodamine B to bind electrostatically and pH dependent on protein basic amino acid residues of trichloroacetic acid-fixed cells. Under mild acidic conditions it binds to and under mild basic conditions it can be extracted from cells and solubilized for measurement. Results of the SRB assay were linear with cell number and cellular protein measured at cellular densities ranging from 1 to 200% of confluence. Its sensitivity is comparable with that of several fluorescence assays and superior to that of Lowry or Bradford. The signal-to-noise ratio is favorable and the resolution is 1000-2000 cells/well. It performed similarly compared to other cytotoxicity assays such as MTT or clonogenic assay. The SRB assay possesses a colorimetric end point and is nondestructive and indefinitely stable. These practical advances make the SRB assay an appropriate and sensitive assay to measure drug-induced cytotoxicity even at large-scale application.

  17. Digital Assays Part II: Digital Protein and Cell Assays. (United States)

    Basu, Amar S


    A digital assay is one in which the sample is partitioned into many containers such that each partition contains a discrete number of biological entities (0, 1, 2, 3, . . .). A powerful technique in the biologist's toolkit, digital assays bring a new level of precision in quantifying nucleic acids, measuring proteins and their enzymatic activity, and probing single-cell genotype and phenotype. Where part I of this review focused on the fundamentals of partitioning and digital PCR, part II turns its attention to digital protein and cell assays. Digital enzyme assays measure the kinetics of single proteins with enzymatic activity. Digital enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) quantify antigenic proteins with 2 to 3 log lower detection limit than conventional ELISA, making them well suited for low-abundance biomarkers. Digital cell assays probe single-cell genotype and phenotype, including gene expression, intracellular and surface proteins, metabolic activity, cytotoxicity, and transcriptomes (scRNA-seq). These methods exploit partitioning to 1) isolate single cells or proteins, 2) detect their activity via enzymatic amplification, and 3) tag them individually by coencapsulating them with molecular barcodes. When scaled, digital assays reveal stochastic differences between proteins or cells within a population, a key to understanding biological heterogeneity. This review is intended to give a broad perspective to scientists interested in adopting digital assays into their workflows.

  18. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller


    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... of considerable disagreement between human papillomavirus assays. This suggested that the extent of disagreement in primary screening is neither population- nor storage media-specific, leaving assay design differences as the most probable cause. The substantially different selection of women testing positive...... on the various human papillomavirus assays represents an unexpected challenge for the choice of an assay in primary cervical screening, and for follow up of in particular HPV positive/cytology normal women....

  19. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight hormonal combinations were formulated and tested using a completely randomized design with three replicates in the tissue culture laboratory. Ten shoot tips from in-vitro raised plantlets were excised and transferred to each of these hormonal combinations. The effect of hormonal combinations was variety dependant ...

  20. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  1. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835595


    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken

  2. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection? (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...



    Sharique; Suraj; Sharma


    BACKGROUND: Melasma is a commonly acquired hyperpigmentation which present as irregular, light to dark brown macules on sun exposed skin due to various etiological factors including hormonal imbalance. AIM : To assist the level of various hormones and study the clinical and hormonal correlation in patients of melasma. METHODS : 50 female p...

  4. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... for you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal women ...

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  6. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Johannsen, Trine Holm


    Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay and conver......Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay...

  7. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  8. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L


    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  9. Growth hormone insensitivity: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, S; Hatipoglu, N


    Growth hormone resistance defines several genetic (primary) and acquired (secondary) pathologies that result in completely or partially interrupted activity of growth hormone. An archetypal disease of this group is the Laron-type dwarfism caused by mutations in growth hormone receptors. The diagnosis is based on high basal levels of growth hormone, low insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) level, unresponsiveness to IGF generation test and genetic testing. Recombinant IGF-1 preparations are used in the treatment In this article, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of the genetic and other diseases leading to growth hormone insensitivity are reviewed.

  10. Mechanisms of hormonal therapy resistance in breast cancer. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Mariko


    Whilst estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers are preferentially treated with hormone therapy, approximately one-third of them relapse. The mechanisms of refractoriness have been investigated by numerous studies but have not been fully clarified. Hormonal therapy resistance, particularly aromatase inhibitor (AI) resistance, may be related to the acquisition of alternative intracellular ER signaling. We have been investing the mechanisms using cancer specimens and cell lines by monitoring the transcription activity of ERs. AI refractory specimens showed diverse ER activity in the adenovirus estrogen receptor element-green fluorescent protein (ERE-GFP) assay and varied sensitivity to anti-estrogens, indicating the existence of multiple resistant mechanisms. We established six different types of cell lines mimicking AI resistance from ERE-GFP-introduced ER-positive cell lines. They revealed that multiple and alternative ER activating pathways were involved in the resistance, such as phosphorylation-dependent or androgen metabolite-dependent mechanisms. The response to fulvestrant and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor also varied among individual resistant cell lines. These results indicate that further subclassification of ER-positive breast cancer is extremely important to decide the therapeutic management of not only hormonal therapy but also new molecular target therapy.

  11. Modeling the Nonlinear Time Dynamics of Multidimensional Hormonal Systems* (United States)

    Keenan, Daniel M.; Wang, Xin; Pincus, Steven M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.


    In most hormonal systems (as well as many physiological systems more generally), the chemical signals from the brain, which drive much of the dynamics, can not be observed in humans. By the time the molecules reach peripheral blood, they have been so diluted so as to not be assayable. It is not possible to invasively (surgically) measure these agents in the brain. This creates a difficult situation in terms of assessing whether or not the dynamics may have changed due to disease or aging. Moreover, most biological feedforward and feedback interactions occur after time delays, and the time delays need to be properly estimated. We address the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to devise a combination of clinical experiments by which, via exogenous inputs, the hormonal system can be perturbed to new steady-states in such a way that information about the unobserved components can be ascertained; and, (2) Can one devise methods to estimate (possibly, time-varying) time delays between components of a multidimensional nonlinear time series, which are more robust than traditional methods? We present methods for both questions, using the Stress (ACTH-cortisol) hormonal system as a prototype, but the approach is more broadly applicable. PMID:22977290

  12. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and dopamine release in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Payer, Doris; Williams, Belinda; Mansouri, Esmaeil; Stevanovski, Suzanna; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Le Foll, Bernard; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Mizrahi, Romina; George, Susan R; George, Tony P; Boileau, Isabelle


    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a key component of the neuroendocrine response to stress. In animal models, CRH has been shown to modulate dopamine release, and this interaction is believed to contribute to stress-induced relapse in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we investigated whether CRH administration induces dopamine release in humans, using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight healthy volunteers (5 female, 22-48 years old) completed two PET scans with the dopamine D2/3 receptor radioligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO: once after saline injection, and once after injection of corticorelin (synthetic human CRH). We also assessed subjective reports and measured plasma levels of endocrine hormones (adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol). Relative to saline, corticorelin administration decreased binding of the D2/3 PET probe [11C]-(+)-PHNO, suggesting dopamine release. Endocrine stress markers were also elevated, in line with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but we detected no changes in subjective ratings. Preliminary results from this proof-of-concept study suggests that CRH challenge in combination with [11C]-(+)-PHNO PET may serve as an assay of dopamine release, presenting a potential platform for evaluating CRH/dopamine interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and CRH antagonists as potential treatment avenues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serum level of hormone and metabolites in pregnant rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Brecchia


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the hormones and metabolites serum levels and the reproductive performances of nulliparous (n=100 and primiparous pregnant does submitted to artificial insemination (AI 11 days post-partum. On the day of AI, all the does were weighed and the sexual receptivity was evaluated. The kits were weaned at 26 day. Blood samples were collect by punc- ture of the marginal ear vein from one day before AI until few days before the kindling and assayed for hormones and metabolites. The higher sexual receptivity and the fertility in nulliparous than in primiparous does confirmed the negative effect of lactation. Nulliparous does showed higher blood con- centration of leptine than primiparous, and in both the groups such level lowered during pregnancy, probably reflecting the reduction of the fat reserve. The insuline level increased during pregnancy in either groups as a consequence of the growing of the foetuses. In nulliparous does the cortisol, NEFA and T3 concentrations were higher than primiparous does. The glucose levels were similar in both the groups probably due to the homeostatic mechanisms controlling the glycemia. Hormonal and metabo- lite analyses represent a good tool for understanding the physiological mechanisms required to meet higher reproductive performance.

  14. Menopause, micronutrients, and hormone therapy. (United States)

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith


    Micronutrient and herbal/phytochemical supplements are of increasing interest as potential alternatives to using estrogen therapy in treating menopausal symptoms. This article provides an overview of the questionnaires that assess menopausal symptoms and research efforts to better standardize symptom assessment. The reported rate of symptoms varies by ethnicity, stage of menopause, hormonal therapy and the measurement method. The use of estrogen therapy has declined sharply after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Hormone Trial was stopped early because the potential risks outweighed potential benefits. There is a limited research base that addresses the efficacy of supplements in controlling menopausal symptoms. The generalizability of several studies is limited because the study participants experiences menopause as the results of treatment for breast cancer. The article concludes with a review of guidelines and of issues that need to be addressed in future research studies with emphasis on questions related to clinical practice.

  15. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bińkowska


    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  16. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy. (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E


    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun


    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  18. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.


    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  19. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone


    Gutkowska, J.; Jankowski, M.; Mukaddam-Daher, S.; McCann, S.M.


    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, sugges...

  20. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy


    Jennifer A. Robinson; Burke, Anne E.


    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  1. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente


    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  2. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak


    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  3. Nuclear Import and Export of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor. (United States)

    Zhang, Jibo; Roggero, Vincent R; Allison, Lizabeth A


    The thyroid hormone receptors, TRα1 and TRβ1, are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that forms one of the most abundant classes of transcription factors in multicellular organisms. Although primarily localized to the nucleus, TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The fine balance between nuclear import and export of TRs has emerged as a critical control point for modulating thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression. Mutagenesis studies have defined two nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs that direct nuclear import of TRα1: NLS-1 in the hinge domain and NLS-2 in the N-terminal A/B domain. Three nuclear export signal (NES) motifs reside in the ligand-binding domain. A combined approach of shRNA-mediated knockdown and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that nuclear entry of TRα1 is facilitated by importin 7, likely through interactions with NLS-2, and importin β1 and the adapter importin α1 interacting with both NLS-1 and NLS-2. Interestingly, TRβ1 lacks NLS-2 and nuclear import depends solely on the importin α1/β1 heterodimer. Heterokaryon and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shuttling assays identified multiple exportins that play a role in nuclear export of TRα1, including CRM1 (exportin 1), and exportins 4, 5, and 7. Even single amino acid changes in TRs dramatically alter their intracellular distribution patterns. We conclude that mutations within NLS and NES motifs affect nuclear shuttling activity, and propose that TR mislocalization contributes to the development of some types of cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone syndrome. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological assays in microfabricated structures (United States)

    Fishman, Daniel M.; Fare, Thomas L.; Dong, Qianping; Fan, Z. Hugh; Davis, Timothy J.; Kumar, Rajan


    Microfluidic control in microfabricated glass channels enables miniaturized, fast, and multianalyte assays. We are applying this technology in several areas, including real- time environmental monitoring for airborne biological agents. Two complementary approaches are being used in parallel. the first is assaying for the presence of nucleotide sequences that are markers for specific hazardous, engineered bacteria. The second is an assay that monitors the functionality of an in vitro biochemical pathway, in which the pathway that is chosen is sensitive to the presence of the class of toxins to be detected. The first approach is discussed here. The detected signal from the nucleic-acid-based assay is from fluorescently labeled probes that hybridize to bead-bound amplified DNA sequences. Detection approaches and their benefits will be discussed.

  5. Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay. (United States)

    O'Toole, George A


    Biofilms are communities of microbes attached to surfaces, which can be found in medical, industrial and natural settings. In fact, life in a biofilm probably represents the predominate mode of growth for microbes in most environments. Mature biofilms have a few distinct characteristics. Biofilm microbes are typically surrounded by an extracellular matrix that provides structure and protection to the community. Microbes growing in a biofilm also have a characteristic architecture generally comprised of macrocolonies (containing thousands of cells) surrounded by fluid-filled channels. Biofilm-grown microbes are also notorious for their resistance to a range of antimicrobial agents including clinically relevant antibiotics. The microtiter dish assay is an important tool for the study of the early stages in biofilm formation, and has been applied primarily for the study of bacterial biofilms, although this assay has also been used to study fungal biofilm formation. Because this assay uses static, batch-growth conditions, it does not allow for the formation of the mature biofilms typically associated with flow cell systems. However, the assay has been effective at identifying many factors required for initiation of biofilm formation (i.e, flagella, pili, adhesins, enzymes involved in cyclic-di-GMP binding and metabolism) and well as genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide production. Furthermore, published work indicates that biofilms grown in microtiter dishes do develop some properties of mature biofilms, such a antibiotic tolerance and resistance to immune system effectors. This simple microtiter dish assay allows for the formation of a biofilm on the wall and/or bottom of a microtiter dish. The high throughput nature of the assay makes it useful for genetic screens, as well as testing biofilm formation by multiple strains under various growth conditions. Variants of this assay have been used to assess early biofilm formation for a wide variety of microbes

  6. Effects of chronic and subtoxic chlorobenzenes on adrenocorticotrophic hormone release. (United States)

    Molnár, Zsolt; Pálföldi, Regina; László, Anna; Radács, Marianna; Sepp, Krisztián; Hausinger, Péter; Tiszlavicz, László; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Gálfi, Márta


    Many environmental chemicals and pesticides have been found to alter neuroendocrine communication in exposed biological objects. The environmental loads have primary and secondary effects that can alter the homeostatic regulation potential. Since it is difficult to avoid human exposition, a potentially important area of research to develop in vivo and in vitro experimental models. In this context, the primary aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of chlorobenzenes on adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) release. In our experimental study, male Wistar rats were exposed to 0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/b.w. (body weight)kg of 1,2,4- trichlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene (ClB) mix via gastric tube for 30, 60 or 90 days. At the endpoints of the experiment blood samples were taken and animals were decapitated. Primary, monolayer adenohypophysis cell cultures were prepared by enzymatic and mechanical digestion. The ACTH hormone content in serum and supernatant media was measured by immuno-chemiluminescence assay. The Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity was determined by modified method of Martin and Dotty. Significant differences were detected in the hormone release between the control and treated groups. The hormone release was enhanced characteristically in exposed groups depending upon the dose and duration of exposure. The Mg(2+)-ATPase activity enhanced after chronic and subtoxic ClB exposition. Light microscopy revealed that the adenohypophysis seemed to be more abundant. Results indicate that Wistar rats exposed to subtoxic ClB have direct and indirect effects on hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal axis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma (United States)

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor


    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  8. Thyroid hormone response element half-site organization and its effect on thyroid hormone mediated transcription. (United States)

    Paquette, Martin A; Atlas, Ella; Wade, Mike G; Yauk, Carole L


    Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts its effects by binding to the thyroid hormone receptor (TR), which binds to TH response elements (TREs) to regulate target gene expression. We investigated the relative ability of liganded homodimers TR and retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the heterodimer TR/RXR, to regulate gene expression for the TRE half-site organizations: direct repeat 4 (DR4), inverted repeat 0 (IR0) and everted repeat 6 (ER6). Luciferase reporter assays using a DR4 TRE suggest that both the TR homodimer and TR/RXR heterodimer regulate luciferase expression in the presence of their respective ligands. However, in the presence of the IR0 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR and RXR alone increased luciferase activity and there was no effect of TR alone. The presence of 9-cis-retinoic acid was necessary for luciferase expression, whereas TH treatment alone was insufficient. For the ER6 TRE, transfection with TR/RXR, TR alone and RXR alone (in the presence of their respective ligands) all caused a significant increase in luciferase activity. When both ligands were present, transfection with both TR/RXR caused more activation. Finally, we investigated the efficacy of the TR-antagonist 1-850 in inhibiting transcription by TR or TR/RXR at DR4 and ER6 TREs. We found that 1-850 did not suppress luciferase activation in the presence of TR/RXR for the ER6 TRE, suggesting conformational changes of the ligand binding domain of the TR when bound to different TRE half-site organizations. Collectively, the findings indicate that there are fundamental differences between TRE configurations that affect nuclear receptor interactions with the response element and ability to bind ligands and antagonists.

  9. The Time- and Age-dependent Effects of the Juvenile Hormone Analog Pesticide, Pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna Reproduction


    Ginjupalli, Gautam K.; Baldwin, William S.


    Pyriproxyfen is an insecticidal juvenile hormone analog that perturbs insect and tick development. Pyriproxyfen also alters parthenogenic reproduction in non-target cladoceran species as it induces male production that can lead to a decrease in fecundity, a reduction in population density, and subsequent ecological effects. In this study, we investigate the impacts of pyriproxyfen on Daphnia magna reproduction using a series of male production screening assays. These assays demonstrate that p...

  10. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari


    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  11. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira


    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  12. Cross-reactivity of steroid hormone immunoassays: clinical significance and two-dimensional molecular similarity prediction. (United States)

    Krasowski, Matthew D; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory S; Maakestad, Jon; Blau, John L; Ekins, Sean


    Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standard clinical chemistry analyzers, thus allowing even small clinical laboratories to do analysis on-site. One limitation of steroid hormone immunoassays is interference caused by compounds with structural similarity to the target steroid of the assay. Interfering molecules include structurally related endogenous compounds and their metabolites as well as drugs such as anabolic steroids and synthetic glucocorticoids. Cross-reactivity of a structurally diverse set of compounds were determined for the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assays for cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone. These data were compared and contrasted to package insert data and published cross-reactivity studies for other marketed steroid hormone immunoassays. Cross-reactivity was computationally predicted using the technique of two-dimensional molecular similarity. The Roche Elecsys Cortisol and Testosterone II assays showed a wider range of cross-reactivity than the DHEA sulfate, Estradiol II, and Progesterone II assays. 6-Methylprednisolone and prednisolone showed high cross-reactivity for the cortisol assay, with high likelihood of clinically significant effect for patients administered these drugs. In addition, 21-deoxycortisol likely produces clinically relevant cross-reactivity for cortisol in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, while 11-deoxycortisol may produce clinically relevant cross-reactivity in 11β-hydroxylase deficiency or following metyrapone challenge. Several anabolic steroids may produce clinically significant false positives on the testosterone assay, although interpretation is limited by sparse pharmacokinetic data for some of these drugs. Norethindrone therapy may impact immunoassay measurement of testosterone in women

  13. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra


    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  14. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  15. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueber, V.


    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T/sub 3/ technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T/sub 3/ is slightly enhanced. Free T/sub 4/ can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T/sub 4/ substitution free T/sub 4/ is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis.

  16. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.


    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies......, although some studies have demonstrated reduced incretin hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes our knowledge on regulation of incretin hormone secretion and its potential changes in disease states....

  17. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell


    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  18. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P


    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...

  19. Optimized separation procedures for the simultaneous assay of three plant hormones in liquid biofertilizers (United States)

    The overuse of petrochemical-based synthetic fertilizers has caused detrimental effects to soil, water supplies, foods, and animal health. This, in addition to increased awareness of organic farming, has generated considerable interest in the evaluation of renewable biofertilizers. In order to stu...

  20. [Peroperative parathyroid hormone assay: assurance of successful surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism]. (United States)

    Smit, P C; Thijssen, J H; Borel Rinkes, I H; van Vroonhoven, T J


    To study the reliability and applicability of a rapid parathormone (PTH) test as predictor of successful surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. Prospective. All 35 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism in the University Hospital Utrecht, the Netherlands, in august 1997-august 1998, were tested just prior to surgery, and immediately following adenomectomy. The rapid PTH test consisted of a modification of the computerized immunometric detection by chemoluminescence. The decrease of serum PTH as estimated with the rapid test was correlated with surgical findings as well as postoperative serum calcium levels. In the first 25 patients (group A) the reliability of the test was investigated. In the next 10 patients (group B) the PTH test results were allowed to have implications for surgical management, i.e. an insufficient (postoperative serum calcium levels. In group A 21/25 patients showed adequate (> 50%) decrease of their serum PTH levels; the 4 patients without such decrease were the ones displaying persistent postoperative hypercalcaemia. In group B 9/10 patients had adequate PTH decrease immediately following adenomectomy, while in one patient this was only attained after further exploration and excision of a second adenoma. No false-positive or false-negative measurements were encountered. The rapid PTH test used is a reliable predictor of successful adenomectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism, also in minimally invasive surgery.

  1. Pharmacologic development of male hormonal contraceptive agents. (United States)

    Roth, M Y; Amory, J K


    The world population continues to increase dramatically despite the existence of contraceptive technology. The use of male hormonal contraception may help in preventing un intended pregnancies and managing future population growth. Male hormonal contraception relies on the administration of exogenous hormones to suppress spermatogenesis. Clinical trials have tested several regimens using testosterone, alone or in combination with a progestin. These regimens were shown to be >90% effective in preventing conception and were not associated with serious adverse events.

  2. Activity Assays for Rhomboid Proteases. (United States)

    Arutyunova, E; Strisovsky, K; Lemieux, M J


    Rhomboids are ubiquitous intramembrane serine proteases that are involved in various signaling pathways. This fascinating class of proteases harbors an active site buried within the lipid milieu. High-resolution structures of the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG with various inhibitors revealed the catalytic mechanism for rhomboid-mediated proteolysis; however, a quantitative characterization was lacking. Assessing an enzyme's catalytic parameters is important for understanding the details of its proteolytic reaction and regulatory mechanisms. To assay rhomboid protease activity, many challenges exist such as the lipid environment and lack of known substrates. Here, we summarize various enzymatic assays developed over the last decade to study rhomboid protease activity. We present detailed protocols for gel-shift and FRET-based assays, and calculation of KM and Vmax to measure catalytic parameters, using detergent solubilized rhomboids with TatA, the only known substrate for bacterial rhomboids, and the model substrate fluorescently labeled casein. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke


    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  4. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie


    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  5. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology. (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin


    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation. (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J


    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  7. Evidence for a novel thioredoxin-like catalytic property of gonadotropic hormones. (United States)

    Boniface, J J; Reichert, L E


    It has been proposed that dithiol-disulfide interchange and oxidation-reduction reactions may play a role in hormone-induced receptor activation. Inspection of the sequences of the gonadotropic hormones revealed a homologous tetrapeptide (Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys) between the beta subunit of lutropin (LH) and the active site of thioredoxin (TD). The beta subunit of follitropin (FSH) has a similar sequence (Cys-Gly-Lys-Cys). Thioredoxin is a ubiquitous protein serving as an electron donor for ribonucleotide reductase, but it also exhibits disulfide isomerase activity. The catalytic activity of TD was assayed by its ability to reactivate reduced and denatured ribonuclease. In this assay, the purified ovine FSH and bovine LH preparations tested were approximately 60 and approximately 300 times, respectively, as active as TD on a molar basis. This heretofore unsuspected catalytic property of FSH and LH may be important in understanding their mechanism of receptor activation and signal transduction.

  8. Hormone-Sensitive Lipase Knockouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Wen-Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract All treatments for obesity, including dietary restriction of carbohydrates, have a goal of reducing the storage of fat in adipocytes. The chief enzyme responsible for the mobilization of FFA from adipose tissue, i.e., lipolysis, is thought to be hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL. Studies of HSL knockouts have provided important insights into the functional significance of HSL and into adipose metabolism in general. Studies have provided evidence that HSL, though possessing triacylglycerol lipase activity, appears to be the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesteryl ester and diacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue and is essential for complete hormone stimulated lipolysis, but other triacylglycerol lipases are important in mediating triacylglycerol hydrolysis in lipolysis. HSL knockouts are resistant to both high fat diet-induced and genetic obesity, displaying reduced quantities of white with increased amounts of brown adipose tissue, increased numbers of adipose macrophages, and have multiple alterations in the expression of genes involved in adipose differentiation, including transcription factors, markers of adipocyte differentiation, and enzymes of fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis. With disruption of lipolysis by removal of HSL, there is a drastic reduction in lipogenesis and alteration in adipose metabolism.

  9. Gastrin: old hormone, new functions. (United States)

    Dockray, Graham; Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea


    It is exactly a century since the gastric hormone gastrin was first described as a blood-borne regulator of gastric acid secretion. The identities of the main active forms of the hormone (the "classical gastrins") and their cellular and molecular sites of action in regulating acid secretion have all attracted sustained attention. However, recent work on peptides derived from the gastrin precursor that do not stimulate acid secretion ("non-classical gastrins"), together with studies on mice over-expressing the gene, or in which the gastrin gene has been deleted, suggest hitherto unsuspected roles in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Moreover, microarray and proteomic studies have identified previously unsuspected target genes of the classical gastrins. Some of the newer actions have implications for our understanding of the progression to cancer in oesophagus, stomach, pancreas and colon, all of which have recently been linked in one way or another to dysfunctional signalling involving products of the gastrin gene. The present review focuses on recent progress in understanding the biology of both classical and non-classical gastrins.

  10. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and cognition. (United States)

    McCarrey, Anna C; Resnick, Susan M


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Prior to the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) in 2002, estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT) was used to prevent age-related disease, especially cardiovascular disease, and to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes and sleep disruptions. Some observational studies of HT in midlife and aging women suggested that HT might also benefit cognitive function, but randomized clinical trials have produced mixed findings in terms of health and cognitive outcomes. This review focuses on hormone effects on cognition and risk for dementia in naturally menopausal women as well as surgically induced menopause, and highlights findings from the large-scale WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) which, contrary to expectation, showed increased dementia risk and poorer cognitive outcomes in older postmenopausal women randomized to HT versus placebo. We consider the 'critical window hypothesis', which suggests that a window of opportunity may exist shortly after menopause during which estrogen treatments are most effective. In addition, we highlight emerging evidence that potential adverse effects of HT on cognition are most pronounced in women who have other health risks, such as lower global cognition or diabetes. Lastly, we point towards implications for future research and clinical treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Elevated Plasma Factor IXa Activity in Premenopausal Women on Hormonal Contraception. (United States)

    Tanratana, Pansakorn; Ellery, Paul; Westmark, Pamela; Mast, Alan E; Sheehan, John P


    Combined oral contraceptives induce a reversible hypercoagulable state with an enhanced risk of venous thromboembolism, but the underlying mechanism(s) remain unclear. Subjects on combined oral contraceptives also demonstrate a characteristic resistance to APC (activated protein C) in the thrombin generation assay. Here, we report the potential role of plasma factor IXa (FIXa) as a mechanism for hormone-induced systemic hypercoagulability. A novel assay was used to determine FIXa activity in plasma samples from volunteer blood donors. Plasma from 36 premenopausal females on hormonal contraception and 35 not on hormonal contraception, 35 postmenopausal females, and 10 males were analyzed for FIXa activity, total PS (protein S), total tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), and TFPI-α antigen. Premenopausal females on hormonal contraception demonstrated significantly increased FIXa activity and decreased TFPI-α compared with the other groups. Remarkably, FIXa values were not normally distributed in the hormonal contraception group, but skewed toward the high end. Plasma FIXa activity inversely correlated with both TFPI-α and total PS antigen. Ex vivo determination of TF-dependent FIX activation in FV-deficient plasma demonstrated that inhibitory anti-TFPI antibodies enhanced FIXa generation by 2- to 3-fold, whereas addition of 75 nmol/L PS reduced FIXa generation by ≈2-fold. Further, increasing FIXa concentration enhanced APC resistance during TF-triggered plasma thrombin generation. Elevation of plasma FIXa activity in association with reductions in TFPI-α and PS is a potential mechanism for systemic hypercoagulability and resistance to APC in premenopausal females on hormonal contraception. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. The Genomic Grade Assay Compared With Ki67 to Determine Risk of Distant Breast Cancer Recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatiadis, Michail; Azim, Hatem A; Desmedt, Christine


    % (95% CI, 90%-98%), and for GG3 patients, the 10-year DRFI was 87% (95% CI, 80%-94%). Conclusions and Relevance: Either the GG assay or centrally reviewed Ki67 significantly improves clinicopathological models to determine distant recurrence of breast cancer. Compared with the histological grade...... was developed and named the Genomic Grade (GG). The GG assay has the potential to increase the clinical application of the GGI, but robust demonstration of the clinical validity of the GG assay is required. Objective: To evaluate the prognostic ability of the GG assay to detect breast cancer recurrence compared...... and survival end points were evaluated using Cox regression models stratified for chemotherapy use; the 2 vs 4 arm randomization option; and endocrine therapy assignment with and without adjustment for clinicopathological parameters, including centrally reviewed histological grade, hormone receptors, and ERBB2...

  13. Associations between testicular hormones at adolescence and attendance at chlorinated swimming pools during childhood. (United States)

    Nickmilder, M; Bernard, A


    The goal was to evaluate the associations between testicular hormones at adolescence and the exposure to chlorination by-products when attending chlorinated swimming pools. We obtained serum samples from 361 school male adolescents (aged 14-18years) who had visited swimming pools disinfected with chlorine or by copper-silver ionization. We analysed serum concentrations of inhibin B (two different assays), total and free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS). There were strong inverse associations between serum levels of inhibin B (both assays) or of total testosterone, adjusted or unadjusted for gonadotropins and the time adolescents had spent in indoor chlorinated pools, especially during their childhood. Adolescents having attended indoor chlorinated pools for more than 250h before the age of 10years or for more than 125h before the age of 7years were about three times more likely to have an abnormally low serum inhibin B and/or total testosterone (copper-silver pool. Swimming in indoor chlorinated pools during childhood is strongly associated with lower levels of serum inhibin B and total testosterone. The absorption of reprotoxic chlorination by-products across the highly permeable scrotum might explain these associations. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric


    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  15. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L


    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH...

  16. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome. (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.


    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  17. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh


    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  18. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan (Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan))


    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author).

  19. Age, sex, and gonadal hormones differently influence anxiety- and depression-related behavior during puberty in mice. (United States)

    Boivin, Josiah R; Piekarski, David J; Wahlberg, Jessica K; Wilbrecht, Linda


    Anxiety and depression symptoms increase dramatically during adolescence, with girls showing a steeper increase than boys after puberty onset. The timing of the onset of this sex bias led us to hypothesize that ovarian hormones contribute to depression and anxiety during puberty. In humans, it is difficult to disentangle direct effects of gonadal hormones from social and environmental factors that interact with pubertal development to influence mental health. To test the role of gonadal hormones in anxiety- and depression-related behavior during puberty, we manipulated gonadal hormones in mice while controlling social and environmental factors. Similar to humans, we find that mice show an increase in depression-related behavior from pre-pubertal to late-pubertal ages, but this increase is not dependent on gonadal hormones and does not differ between sexes. Anxiety-related behavior, however, is more complex during puberty, with differences that depend on sex, age, behavioral test, and hormonal status. Briefly, males castrated before puberty show greater anxiety-related behavior during late puberty compared to intact males, while pubertal females are unaffected by ovariectomy or hormone injections in all assays except the marble burying test. Despite this sex-specific effect of pubertal hormones on anxiety-related behavior, we find no sex differences in intact young adults, suggesting that males and females use separate mechanisms to converge on a similar behavioral phenotype. Our results are consistent with anxiolytic effects of testicular hormones during puberty in males but are not consistent with a causal role for ovarian hormones in increasing anxiety- and depression-related behavior during puberty in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.


    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  1. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.


    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones.

  2. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A.; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.


    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)—tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  3. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release. (United States)

    Steyn, F J


    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  4. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijaya Gowri


    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  5. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.


    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  6. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A


    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  7. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake (United States)

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen


    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake. PMID:17448988

  8. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Glycoprotein hormone receptor; gonadotropin receptor; Labeo rohita; luteinizing hormone receptor; mariner transposon; PCR cloning. Abstract. A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding ...

  9. Hormones and absence epilepsy in genetic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van


    Steroid hormones are known to have a tremendous impact on seizures and might play a prominent role in epileptogenesis. However, little is known about the role of steroid hormones in absence epilepsy. Here we review recently combined electrophysiological, pharmacological and behavioural studies in a

  10. Review of hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 28, 2011 ... cancer, cases of hormone resistance breast cancer have been described recently in the literature. This can happen from the beginning, or during treatment. Therefore, we aim to examine the causes of resistance to hormonal treatment with a view to understand the options of tackling this problem, and ...

  11. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul


    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  12. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  13. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S


    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  14. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K


    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  15. Relationship between Thyroid Hormone levels and Hyperthyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    12 (80%) had Graves disease while 3 (20%) had toxic multinodular goiter. All subjects had elevated thyroid hormones and Waynes score but HSS was normal in 6 940%) patients. WS corrected positively with HSS (r=0.66, p<0.05). There was no significant correlation between both parameters and thyroid hormone levels.

  16. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  17. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones. (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N


    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  18. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows. (United States)

    Gaard, Greta


    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  19. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  20. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers. (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun


    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  1. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators]. (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina


    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  2. Assay reproducibility of serum androgen measurements using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Xu, Xia; Falk, Roni T; Guillemette, Chantal; Stanczyk, Frank Z; McGlynn, Katherine A


    Valid and precise measures of androgen concentrations are needed for etiologic studies of hormonally-related cancers. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with two sample preparations to measure 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites. Androgen levels were measured in serum from 20 healthy volunteers (5 men, 10 premenopausal women, 5 postmenopausal women). Two blinded, randomized aliquots per individual were assayed in each of three batches. A fourth batch of samples was measured at an external laboratory using comparable methodology to measure 9 of the 11 androgens. Coefficients of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated from the individual components of variance. Comparability of 9 androgens across laboratories was assessed using Spearman ranked correlations, Deming regression and bias plots. The laboratory CVs were 95%) for all androgens measured across sex/menopausal status groups. Spearman ranked correlations for 9 hormones measured in the comparison laboratory were high (>0.85), suggesting good agreement. Our high-performance LC-MS/MS assays of 11 androgens, including adrenal and gonadal androgenic precursors and their 5α-reduced metabolites demonstrated excellent laboratory reproducibility, and good comparability with an established method that measured 9 of the 11 hormones tested. The serum androgen metabolite assays are suitable for use in epidemiologic research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Non-hormonal management of vasomotor symptoms. (United States)

    Sassarini, J; Lumsden, M A


    Vasomotor symptoms are the most common indication for the prescription of hormone replacement therapy since it is effective in over 80% of cases. In 1995, 37% of American women took hormone replacement therapy, principally for this purpose. However, following the publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative, as many as half of these women in the US and in the UK and New Zealand discontinued hormone therapy. Discontinuation of estrogen is often accompanied by a return of vasomotor symptoms; however, only a small number (18%) of women report restarting hormone therapy. Alternatives are available, but limited knowledge on etiology and mechanisms of hot flushing represents a major obstacle for the development of new, targeted, non-hormonal treatments, and no current alternatives are as effective as estrogen.

  4. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael


    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  5. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E


    . This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes......The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  6. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  7. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms


    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  8. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  9. Sexual Desire and Hormonal Contraception. (United States)

    Boozalis, Amanda; Tutlam, Nhial T; Chrisman Robbins, Camaryn; Peipert, Jeffrey F


    To examine the effect of hormonal contraception on sexual desire. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 1,938 of the 9,256 participants enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. This subset included participants enrolled between April and September 2011 who completed a baseline and 6-month telephone survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between contraceptive method and report of lacking interest in sex controlling for potential confounding variables. More than 1 in 5 participants (23.9%) reported lacking interest in sex at 6 months after initiating a new contraceptive method. Of 262 copper intrauterine device (IUD) users (referent group), 18.3% reported lacking interest in sex. Our primary outcome was more prevalent in women who were young (younger than 18 years: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.04), black (adjusted OR 1.78), and married or living with a partner (adjusted OR 1.82). Compared with copper IUD users, participants using depot medroxyprogesterone (adjusted OR 2.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47-4.61), the vaginal ring (adjusted OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.37-4.69), and the implant (adjusted OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.03-2.49) more commonly reported lack of interest in sex. We found no association between use of the hormonal IUD, oral contraceptive pill, and patch and lack of interest in sex. CHOICE participants using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, the contraceptive ring, and implant were more likely to report a lack of interest in sex compared with copper IUD users. Future research should confirm these findings and their possible physiologic basis. Clinicians should be reassured that most women do not experience a reduced sex drive with the use of most contraceptive methods.

  10. Changes in Metabolic Hormones in Malaysian Young Adults following Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wan-Chen Yap

    Full Text Available More than half of the world's adults carry Helicobacter pylori. The eradication of H. pylori may affect the regulation of human metabolic hormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in appetite-controlled insulinotropic and digestive hormones, and to assess post-eradication changes in body mass index as part of a currently on-going multicentre ESSAY (Eradication Study in Stable Adults/Youths study.We enrolled 29 H. pylori-positive young adult (18-30 year-old volunteer subjects to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes on eight gastrointestinal hormones, using a multiplex bead assay. Changes in body mass index and anthropometric measurements were recorded, pre- and post-eradication therapy.Pre-prandial active amylin, total peptide YY (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP levels were significantly elevated 12 months post-eradication compared with baseline (n = 18; Wilcoxon's signed rank test, p<0.05. Four of the post-prandial gut metabolic hormones levels (GLP-1, total PYY, active amylin, PP were significantly higher 12 months post-eradication compared to baseline (n = 18; p<0.05. Following H. pylori eradication, the BMI and anthropometric values did not significantly change.Our study indicates that H. pylori eradication was associated with long-term disturbance in three hormones (active amylin, PP and total PYY both pre- and post-prandially and one hormone (GLP-1 post-prandially. Longer post-eradication monitoring is needed to investigate the long-term impact of the observed hormonal changes on metabolic homeostasis.

  11. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato


    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hormonal state influences aspects of female mate choice in the Túngara Frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). (United States)

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Crews, David; Ryan, Michael J; Wilczynski, Walter


    Females alter their mate choices as they transition through different reproductive stages; however, the proximal mechanisms for such behavioral fluctuation are unclear. In many taxa, as females transition through different reproductive stages, there is an associated change in hormone levels; therefore, we examined whether fluctuation in hormone levels serves as a proximal mechanism for within-individual variation in mate choice in female túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus). We manipulated hormone levels of females by administering 0, 10, 100, 500 or 1,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which is a ligand for luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors and will therefore cause increased gonadal hormone production. Phonotaxis assays were conducted to measure three aspects of mate choice behavior before and after HCG administration; receptivity (response to a conspecific mate signal), permissiveness (response to a signal that is less attractive than conspecific signals) and discrimination (ability to discern signal differences). The probability of response to a conspecific and an artificial hybrid signal significantly increased at the highest HCG doses. The difference in mean response time between pre- and post-HCG tests was significantly different for both the receptivity and permissiveness tests among the five doses. Increased permissiveness, however, was not due to decreased discrimination because females could discriminate between calls even at the highest HCG doses. These hormonal manipulations caused the same behavioral pattern we reported in females as they transitioned through different reproductive stages (Lynch, K.S., Rand, A.S., Ryan, M.J., Wilczynski, W., 2005. Plasticity in female mate choice associated with changing reproductive states. Anim. Behav. 69, 689-699), suggesting that changes in hormone levels can influence the female's mate choice behavior.

  13. Effects of Steroidal Antiandrogen or 5-alpha-reductase Inhibitor on Prostate Tissue Hormone Content. (United States)

    Shibata, Yasuhiro; Arai, Seiji; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Shuto, Takahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro


    The effects of a steroidal antiandrogen (AA) and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) on prostate tissue hormone content and metabolism are not fully elucidated. The objective of this study is to investigate the hormone content and metabolism of the prostate tissues of patients treated with AA or 5ARI using the ultra-sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Thirty-nine patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) undergoing transurethral surgery were included. Serum and prostate tissue hormone and prostate tissue hormone metabolism analyses were performed using LC-MS/MS after 1 month of treatment with chlormadinone acetate (CMA; steroidal AA, 50 mg/day) or dutasteride (DUTA; dual 5ARI, 0.5 mg/day). Serum testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and adrenal androgen levels were lower in the CMA group than the control group. Prostate tissue T and DHT levels were also lower in the CMA group than the control group. In the DUTA group, only serum and prostate DHT concentrations were reduced compared to the control group; in contrast, those of other hormones, especially T and 4-androstene-3,17-dione in the prostate tissue, showed marked elevations up to 70.4- and 11.4-fold normal levels, respectively. Moreover, the hormone metabolism assay confirmed that the conversion of T to DHT was significantly suppressed while that of T to 4-androstene-3,17-dione was significantly accelerated in the prostate tissue of DUTA-treated patients. Although treatment with AA and 5ARI show similar clinical outcomes, their effect on tissue hormone content and metabolism varied greatly. Prostate 77: 672-680, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Can It Cause Vaginal Bleeding? (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy: Can it cause vaginal bleeding? I'm taking hormone therapy for menopause symptoms, and my monthly ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. Receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and thyroid hormones in the macaque uterus: effects of long-term sex hormone treatment. (United States)

    Hulchiy, Mariana; Zhang, Hua; Cline, J Mark; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén; Sahlin, Lena


    Thyroid gland dysfunction is associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, infertility, and increased risk of miscarriage, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. However, little is known about the regulation of these receptors in the uterus. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of long-term treatment with steroid hormones on the expression, distribution, and regulation of the receptors for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRHR) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR), thyroid hormone receptor α1/α2 (THRα1/α2), and THRβ1 in the uterus of surgically menopausal monkeys. Eighty-eight cynomolgus macaques were ovariectomized and treated orally with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; n = 20), a combination of CEE and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; n = 20), or tibolone (n = 28) for 2 years. The control group (OvxC; n = 20) received no treatment. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the protein expression and distribution of the receptors in luminal epithelium, glands, stroma, and myometrium of the uterus. Immunostaining of TRHR, TSHR, and THRs was detected in all uterine compartments. Epithelial immunostaining of TRHR was down-regulated in the CEE + MPA group, whereas in stroma, both TRHR and TSHR were increased by CEE + MPA treatment as compared with OvxC. TRHR immunoreactivity was up-regulated, but THRα and THRβ were down-regulated, in the myometrium of the CEE and CEE + MPA groups. The thyroid-stimulating hormone level was higher in the CEE and tibolone groups as compared with OvxC, but the level of free thyroxin did not differ between groups. All receptors involved in thyroid hormone function are expressed in monkey uterus, and they are all regulated by long-term steroid hormone treatment. These findings suggest that there is a possibility of direct actions of thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on uterine function.

  16. Anti-Müllerian hormone and polycystic ovary syndrome. (United States)

    Bhide, Priya; Homburg, Roy


    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is expressed by the granulosa cells of the pre-antral and small antral follicles in the ovary. It is significantly higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) due to an increased number of antral follicles and also a higher production per antral follicle. It is postulated to have an inhibitory role in folliculogenesis and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of anovulation associated with PCOS. Measurement of the serum AMH levels is very useful for the identification of PCOS and has been suggested as a diagnostic criterion. An international standardisation of the AMH assay, large population-based studies and a global consensus are needed before its incorporation into routine diagnosis. Serum AMH levels add significant value to the clinical markers for the prediction of hyperresponse to controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilisation treatment and development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Hormones and Pod Development in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) 1 (United States)

    de Bouille, Pierre; Sotta, Bruno; Miginiac, Emile; Merrien, André


    The endogenous levels of several plant growth substances (indole acetic acid, IAA; abscisic acid, ABA; zeatin, Z; zeatin riboside, [9R]Z; isopentenyladenine, iP; and isopentenyladenosine, [9R]iP were measured during pod development of field grown oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. var oleifera cv Bienvenu) with high performance liquid chromatography and immunoenzymic (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) techniques. Results show that pod development is characterized by high levels of Z and [9R]Z in 3 day old fruits and of IAA on the fourth day. During pod maturation, initially a significant increase of IAA and cytokinins was observed, followed by a progressive rise of ABA levels and a concomitant decline of IAA and cytokinin (except iP) levels. The relationship between hormone levels and development, especially pod number, seed number per pod, and seed weight determination, will be discussed. PMID:16666891

  18. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention. (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina


    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  19. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.


    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  20. Analysis of sex hormones in groundwater using electron impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonschorowski, Graciele Pereira da Cruz, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Gonschorowski, Juliano dos Santos, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Tecnologica do Parana (UTFPR), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Shihomatsu, Helena M.; Bustillos, Jose Oscar Vega, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Limeira, Larissa, E-mail: [Centro Universitario FIEO (UNIFIEO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A wide range of estrogenic contaminants has been detected in the aquatic environment, both in natural and synthetic forms. Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting compounds, which affect the endocrine system at very low concentrations. This work presents the development of an analytical procedure for the determination of five sexual steroid hormones, 17β-estradiol, estrone, progesterone, and the synthetics contraceptives, 17α-ethynylestradiol and norgestrel in groundwater from Sao Paulo University campus, specifically at Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN). The analytical procedure starting with the sample pre-treatment, where the samples were first filtered and then extracted through solid-phase extraction, using Strata-X cartridges, and ending with detection. The separation method used was gas chromatography (GC), and the detection method was mass spectrometry (MS). The ion source used was electron impact ionization which produced an electron beam generated by an incandescent tungsten/thorium filament, which collide with molecules of gas sample. This interaction between the electrons and molecules, produce ions of the sample. The detection limits 0.06μg.L{sup -1} for estrone, 0.13 μg. L{sup -1} for 17β-estradiol, 0.13 μg.L{sup -1} for 17α-ethynylestradiol, 0.49 μg.L{sup -1} for norgestrel and 0.02 μg.L{sup -1} for progesterone were detected in assays matrix. Validating tests were also used in this work. (author)

  1. Parathyroid hormone-related protein in preterm human milk. (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Weisman, Yosef; Dollberg, Shaul; Herman, Lea; Mandel, Dror


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has the ability to activate parathyroid hormone receptors and cause hypercalcemia. High concentrations of PTHrP are found in human breastmilk of mothers of term-infants. It is not known whether PTHrP is excreted in preterm human milk. This study tested the hypothesis that PTHrP concentrations in milk obtained from mothers of preterm infants are similar to those found in milk from mothers of term infants. We collected samples of expressed human milk obtained from 27 mothers of preterm infants (27-34 weeks' gestation) and from 16 mothers of full-term infants. Samples were collected within the first 72 hours postpartum (colostrum) and again at 1 and 2 weeks postpartum. PTHrP concentrations in these samples were measured by two-site immunoradiometric assay. PTHrP concentrations were significantly higher in samples obtained after 1 week postpartum than in samples obtained during the first 72 hours of life in breastmilk obtained from mothers of both term and preterm infants (P milk. PTHrP concentrations after 2 weeks of lactation were significantly higher in samples obtained from mothers of term infants (P milk expressed by mothers of preterm infants contains amounts of PTHrP similar to those measured in milk expressed by mothers of term infants.

  2. Strigolactones, a novel carotenoid-derived plant hormone

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Babili, Salim


    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived plant hormones and signaling molecules. When released into the soil, SLs indicate the presence of a host to symbiotic fungi and root parasitic plants. In planta, they regulate several developmental processes that adapt plant architecture to nutrient availability. Highly branched/tillered mutants in Arabidopsis, pea, and rice have enabled the identification of four SL biosynthetic enzymes: a cis/trans-carotene isomerase, two carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, and a cytochrome P450 (MAX1). In vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and analysis of mutants have shown that the pathway involves a combination of new reactions leading to carlactone, which is converted by a rice MAX1 homolog into an SL parent molecule with a tricyclic lactone moiety. In this review, we focus on SL biosynthesis, describe the hormonal and environmental factors that determine this process, and discuss SL transport and downstream signaling as well as the role of SLs in regulating plant development. ©2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and binding affinity of an iodinated juvenile hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D.; Eng, W.S.; Robles, S.; Vogt, R.G.; Wisniewski, J.R.; Wawrzenczyk, C.


    The synthesis of the first iodinated juvenile hormone (JH) in enantiomerically enriched form is reported. This chiral compound, 12-iodo-JH I, has an iodine atom replacing a methyl group of the natural insect juvenile hormone, JH I, which is important in regulating morphogenesis and reproduction in the Lepidoptera. The unlabeled compound shows approximately 10% of the relative binding affinity for the larval hemolymph JH binding protein (JHBP) of Manduca sexta, which specifically binds natural /sup 3/H-10R,11S-JH I (labeled at 58 Ci/mmol) with a KD of 8 X 10(-8) M. It is also approximately one-tenth as biologically active as JH I in the black Manduca and epidermal commitment assays. The 12-hydroxy and 12-oxo compounds are poor competitors and are also biologically inactive. The radioiodinated (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I can be prepared in low yield at greater than 2500 Ci/mmol by nucleophilic displacement using no-carrier-added /sup 125/I-labeled sodium iodide in acetone; however, synthesis using sodium iodide carrier to give the approximately 50 Ci/mmol radioiodinated ligand proceeds in higher radiochemical yield with fewer by-products and provides a radioligand which is more readily handled in binding assays. The KD of (/sup 125/I)12-iodo-JH I was determined for hemolymph JHBP of three insects: M. sexta, 795 nM; Galleria mellonella, 47 nM; Locusta migratoria, 77 nM. The selectivity of 12-iodo-JH I for the 32-kDa JHBP of M. sexta was demonstrated by direct autoradiography of a native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel of larval hemolymph incubated with the radioiodinated ligand. Thus, the in vitro and in vivo activity of 12-iodo-JH I indicate that it can serve as an important new gamma-emitting probe in the search for JH receptor proteins in target tissues.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nyushko


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is one of the most actual problems of modern oncourology. Hormone therapy (HT using medical castration is the main method of treatment of patients with metastatic PC. HT with usage of the new class of drugs that block the receptors for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH is a promising and effective method of castration therapy that has a number of significant advantages over the use of analogues LHRH. This article presents areview of studies that compared the effectiveness and side effects of HT using antagonists and analogues LHRH.

  5. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays. (United States)

    Soufan, Othman; Ba-alawi, Wail; Afeef, Moataz; Essack, Magbubah; Rodionov, Valentin; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B


    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at and can be found on Figshare.

  6. Mining Chemical Activity Status from High-Throughput Screening Assays

    KAUST Repository

    Soufan, Othman


    High-throughput screening (HTS) experiments provide a valuable resource that reports biological activity of numerous chemical compounds relative to their molecular targets. Building computational models that accurately predict such activity status (active vs. inactive) in specific assays is a challenging task given the large volume of data and frequently small proportion of active compounds relative to the inactive ones. We developed a method, DRAMOTE, to predict activity status of chemical compounds in HTP activity assays. For a class of HTP assays, our method achieves considerably better results than the current state-of-the-art-solutions. We achieved this by modification of a minority oversampling technique. To demonstrate that DRAMOTE is performing better than the other methods, we performed a comprehensive comparison analysis with several other methods and evaluated them on data from 11 PubChem assays through 1,350 experiments that involved approximately 500,000 interactions between chemicals and their target proteins. As an example of potential use, we applied DRAMOTE to develop robust models for predicting FDA approved drugs that have high probability to interact with the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) in humans. Our findings are further partially and indirectly supported by 3D docking results and literature information. The results based on approximately 500,000 interactions suggest that DRAMOTE has performed the best and that it can be used for developing robust virtual screening models. The datasets and implementation of all solutions are available as a MATLAB toolbox online at and can be found on Figshare.

  7. Perioperative Management of Female Hormone Medications. (United States)

    Seim, Lynsey A; Irizarry-Alvarado, Joan M


    No clear guideline exists for the management of female hormone therapy in the perioperative period. Besides oral contraceptives (OCPs), hormone medications have been prescribed to treat cancer, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Since the introduction of OCPs in the 1960s, the thromboembolic risk associated with these medications has been studied and alterations have been made in the hormone content. The continuation of hormone therapy in the perioperative period and its possible interactions with commonly used anesthetic agents are important information for all perioperative health care providers. A review was done on the current guideline and available literature for the mechanisms of action and perioperative management of OCPs, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and antineoplastic hormonal modulators. Available guidelines and literature were reviewed and summarized. Based on the available literature, no definite guidelines have been established for perioperative management of OCPs and HRT. However, manufacturers have recommended that these medications should be held perioperatively. Other antineoplastic hormonal modulators have increased the risk of venous thromboembolism and have perioperative implications that should be discussed with the prescribing physicians and addressed with the patient. Until additional studies are performed, the risks and benefits must be weighed on an individual basis with consideration of prophylaxis when a decision is made to continue these medications in the perioperative period. Part of this decision making includes the risk of fetal harm in an unwanted pregnancy in preparation for nonobstetric surgery versus an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  8. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.


    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  9. Hormonal Factors and Disturbances in Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Racine, Sarah E; Klump, Kelly L


    This review summarizes the current state of the literature regarding hormonal correlates of, and etiologic influences on, eating pathology. Several hormones (e.g., ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, PYY, leptin, oxytocin, cortisol) are disrupted during the ill state of eating disorders and likely contribute to the maintenance of core symptoms (e.g., dietary restriction, binge eating) and/or co-occurring features (e.g., mood symptoms, attentional biases). Some of these hormones (e.g., ghrelin, cortisol) may also be related to eating pathology via links with psychological stress. Despite these effects, the role of hormonal factors in the etiology of eating disorders remains unknown. The strongest evidence for etiologic effects has emerged for ovarian hormones, as changes in ovarian hormones predict changes in phenotypic and genetic influences on disordered eating. Future studies would benefit from utilizing etiologically informative designs (e.g., high risk, behavioral genetic) and continuing to explore factors (e.g., psychological, neural responsivity) that may impact hormonal influences on eating pathology.

  10. Antiproliferative effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH antagonist on ovarian cancer cells through the EGFR-Akt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Jozsef


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH are being developed for the treatment of various human cancers. Methods MTT assay was used to test the proliferation of SKOV3 and CaOV3. The splice variant expression of GHRH receptors was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of protein in signal pathway was examined by Western blotting. siRNA was used to block the effect of EGFR. Results In this study, we investigated the effects of a new GHRH antagonist JMR-132, in ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and CaOV3 expressing splice variant (SV1 of GHRH receptors. MTT assay showed that JMR-132 had strong antiproliferative effects on SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. JMR-132 also induced the activation and increased cleaved caspase3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. In addition, JMR-132 treatments decreased significantly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR level and the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt, suggesting that JMR-132 inhibits the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells. More importantly, treatment of SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells with 100 nM JMR-132 attenuated proliferation and the antiapoptotic effect induced by EGF in both cell lines. After the knockdown of the expression of EGFR by siRNA, the antiproliferative effect of JMR-132 was abolished in SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of the GHRH antagonist JMR-132 on proliferation is due, in part, to an interference with the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

  11. Mechanisms of genotoxic effects of hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelić Ninoslav J.


    Full Text Available A concept that compounds commonly present in biological systems lack genotoxic and mutagenic activities is generally in use, hence a low number of endogenous substances have ever been tested to mutagenicity. Epidemiological and experimental analyses indicated, however, that sexual steroids could contribute to initiation and/or continuation of malign diseases. Detailed studies using methods of biochemistry, molecular biology, cytogenetics and other branches, showed that not only epigenetic mechanisms, such as a stimulation of cell proliferation, but also certain hormones, that can express genotoxic effects, such as covalent DNA modification, then chromosomal lesions and chromosomal aberrations, are in the background of malign transformation under activities of hormones. In the case of oestrogens, it was shown that excessive hormonal stimulation led to a metabolic conversion of these hormones to reactive intermediates with formation of reactive oxygenic derivates, so that cells were virtually under conditions of oxidative stress. Individual and tissue susceptibility to occurrence of deterioration of DNA and other cell components generally results from the differences in efficiency of enzymic and non-enzymic mechanisms of resistance against oxidative stress. Besides, steroid thyeroid hormones and catecholamine (dopamine, noradrenaline/norepinephrine and adrenaline can express genotoxic effects in some test-systems. It is interesting that all above mentioned hormones have a phenolic group. Data on possible genotoxic effects of peptide and protein hormones are very scarce, but based on the available literature it is considered that this group of hormones probably lacks mutagenic activities. The possibility that hormones, as endogenous substances, express mutagenic activities results from the fact that DNA is, regardless of chemical and metabolic stability susceptible, to a certain extent, to changeability compatible with the processes of the

  12. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.


    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  13. Radioimmunoassay of bovine, ovine and porcine luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosberg, M.; Tagle, R.; Madej, A.; Molina, J.R.; Carlsson, M.-A.


    A radioimmunoassay for bovine (bLH), ovine (oLH) and porcine (pLH) luteinizing hormone was developed using a human [sup 125]ILH tracer from a commercial kit and a monoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. Standard curves demonstrated similar binding kinetics when bLH, oLH and pLH were incubated with tracer and antibody for 2 h at room temperature. A 30-min delay in the addition of the tracer gave sufficient sensitivity when analysing pLH. Separation of antibody-bound LH from free hormone was achieved by using second antibody-coated micro Sepharose beads. The assay was validated and the performance compared with that of an RIA currently in use for determination of bLH (coefficient of correlation: 0.99 and 0.98). Regardless of the standards used, intra-assay coefficients of variation were <10% for LH concentrations exceeding 1 [mu]g/L. The inter-assay coefficients of variation were <15%. The assay was used for clinical evaluation demonstrating the pre-ovulatory LH surge in two cyclic cows, LH pulsatility in an oophorectomized ewe and LH response to GnRH injection in a boar. (au) (7 refs.).

  14. Parathyroid hormone binding to cultured avian osteoclasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teti, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Zambonin Zallone, A. (Univ. of Bari (Italy))


    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases serum calcium concentration via a controversial cellular mechanism. We investigated whether PTH binds avian osteoclasts. Isolated hypocalcaemic hen osteoclasts were incubated with ({sup 125}I)--bovine PTH (1-84). Specific binding of the hormone to the cells, which reached the equilibrium within 60 min, was observed. Half maximal binding was reached by 10 min. Binding was competitively inhibited by increasing doses of unlabeled PTH, and was about 55% displaced by adding, at the equilibrium, 10(-6) M unlabeled PTH. Autoradiography demonstrated specific label on the osteoclast. The cellular mechanism activated by the hormone remains to be elucidated.

  15. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo


    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili


    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  16. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  17. Estrogen receptor activation by tobacco smoke condensate in hormonal therapy-resistant breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Niwa, Toshifumi; Shinagawa, Yuri; Asari, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kanae; Takanobu, Junko; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi


    The relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence has been studied for many years, but the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy has not been previously reported. We investigated the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy by performing in vitro experiments. We first prepared tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) and examined its effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activity. The ER activity was analyzed using MCF-7-E10 cells into which the estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene had been stably introduced (GFP assay) and performing an ERE-luciferase assay. TSC significantly activated ERs, and upregulated its endogenous target genes. This activation was inhibited by fulvestrant but more weakly by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the activation mechanism may be different from that for estrogen. Furthermore, using E10 estrogen depletion-resistant cells (EDR cells) established as a hormonal therapy-resistant model showing estrogen-independent ER activity, ER activation and induction of ER target genes were significantly higher following TSC treatment than by estradiol (E2). These responses were much higher than those of the parental E10 cells. In addition, the phosphorylation status of signaling factors (ERK1/2, Akt) and ER in the E10-EDR cells treated with TSC increased. The gene expression profile induced by estrogenic effects of TSC was characterized by microarray analysis. The findings suggested that TSC activates ER by both ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although TSC constituents will be metabolized in vivo, breast cancer tissues might be exposed for a long period along with hormonal therapy. Tobacco smoke may have a possibility to interfere with hormonal therapy for breast cancer, which may have important implications for the management of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction. (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal regulation of energy partitioning. (United States)

    Rohner-Jeanrenaud, F


    A loop system exists between hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peripheral adipose tissue leptin to maintain normal body homeostasis. When hypothalamic NPY levels are increased by fasting or by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion, food intake and body weight increase. NPY has genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It increases insulin and corticosterone secretion relative to controls. These hormonal changes, acting singly or combined, favor adipose tissue lipogenic activity, while producing muscle insulin resistance. They also promote leptin release from adipose tissue. When infused i.c.v. to normal rats to mimic its central effects, leptin decreases NPY levels, thus food intake and body weight. Leptin i.c.v. has also genuine hormono-metabolic effects. It decreases insulinemia and adipose tissue storage ability, enhancing glucose disposal. Leptin increases the expression of uncoupling proteins (UCP-1, -2, -3) and thus energy dissipation. Leptin-induced changes favor oxidation at the expense of storage. Circadian fluctuations of NPY and leptin levels maintain normal body homeostasis. In animal obesity, defective hypothalamic leptin receptor activation prevent leptin from acting, with resulting obesity, insulin and leptin resistance.

  20. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I


    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  1. Menopause, hormone therapy and diabetes. (United States)

    Stuenkel, C A


    Over the past three decades, the prevalence of diabetes has increased four-fold. Coupled with the global obesity epidemic and aging of the world's population, a perfect metabolic storm is brewing. The influence of menopause and exogenous estrogen and progestogens must be included in this equation. In this review, criteria for diagnosing diabetes and recommendations for screening are described. The reported effects of menopause on diabetes risk in healthy women are reviewed as well as the relationship between established diabetes and the timing of menopause. The effects of menopausal hormone therapies (MHT) on glucose control in women with diabetes and the effect of MHT on diabetes risk in menopausal women without diabetes are described. Evidence-based strategies to prevent diabetes in midlife women are highlighted. The augmenting effect of diabetes on chronic health concerns of aging women, such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, along with current recommendations for screening and prevention are presented. Given the current demographics of today's world, the content of this review may apply to as many as one-third of the average practitioner's postmenopausal patient population.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjetka Uršič Vrščaj


    Full Text Available Background. Sex steroids are not known to damage DNA directly. They can stimulate or inhibit cell proliferation, and thus can modulate tumor developmental progression.Results. Sex steroids-related tumors in women are represented by breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and a possible relationship exists between sex steroids and both ovarian and colon cancer. Among current ERT users or those who stopped use 1–4 years previously, the relative risk of having breast cancer diagnosed is low, increases by factor of 1.023 for each year of hormone use. An appropriate combination of estrogen and progestin does not appear to increase, and may even decrease, the risk of endometrial cancer. Studies on HRT and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer have produced conflicting results but most data seem to exclude a strong assotiation. It is important that available data suggest a reduced risk of benign colorectal adenoma and colon cancer for 30–40%.Conclusions. After breast cancer, endometrial cancer, melanoma or epithelial ovarian cancer HRT is not absolute contraindication. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma should be considered to be a contraindication to HRT.

  3. Key learnings from performance of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 in vitro assays. (United States)

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Coady, Katie K; O'Connor, John C; Nabb, Diane L; Markell, Lauren K; Snajdr, Suzanne; Sue Marty, M


    Tier 1 of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program comprises 11 studies: five in vitro assays, four in vivo mammalian assays, and two in vivo nonmammalian assays. The battery is designed to detect compounds with the potential to interact with the estrogen, androgen, or thyroid signaling pathways. This article examines the procedures, results, and data interpretation for the five Tier 1 in vitro assays: estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor binding assays, an ER transactivation assay, an aromatase assay, and a steroidogenesis assay. Data are presented from two laboratories that have evaluated approximately 11 compounds in the Tier 1 in vitro assays. Generally, the ER and androgen receptor binding assays and the aromatase assay showed good specificity and reproducibility. As described in the guideline for the ER transactivation assay, a result is considered positive when the test compound induces a reporter gene signal that reaches 10% of the response seen with 1 nM 17β-estradiol (positive control). In the experience of these laboratories, this cutoff criterion may result in false-positive responses. For the steroidogenesis assay, there is variability in the basal and stimulated production of testosterone and estradiol by the H295R cells. This variability in responsiveness, coupled with potential cell stress at high concentrations of test compound, may make it difficult to discern whether hormone alterations are specific steroidogenesis alterations (i.e., endocrine active). Lastly, both laboratories had difficulty meeting some recommended performance criteria for each Tier 1 in vitro assay. Data with only minor deviations were deemed valid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Fluorochemicals used in food packaging inhibit male sex hormone synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)


    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate surfactants (PAPS) are widely used in food contact materials (FCMs) of paper and board and have recently been detected in 57% of investigated materials. Human exposure occurs as PAPS have been measured in blood; however knowledge is lacking on the toxicology of PAPS. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of six fluorochemicals on sex hormone synthesis and androgen receptor (AR) activation in vitro. Four PAPS and two metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) were tested. Hormone profiles, including eight steroid hormones, generally showed that 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH led to decreases in androgens (testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione) in the H295R steroidogenesis assay. Decreases were observed for progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone as well. These observations indicated that a step prior to progestagen and androgen synthesis had been affected. Gene expression analysis of StAR, Bzrp, CYP11A, CYP17, CYP21 and CYP19 mRNA showed a decrease in Bzrp mRNA levels for 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH indicating interference with cholesterol transport to the inner mitochondria. Cortisol, estrone and 17β-estradiol levels were in several cases increased with exposure. In accordance with these data CYP19 gene expression increased with 8:2 diPAPS, 8:2 monoPAPS and 8:2 FTOH exposures indicating that this is a contributing factor to the decreased androgen and the increased estrogen levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that fluorochemicals present in food packaging materials and their metabolites can affect steroidogenesis through decreased Bzrp and increased CYP19 gene expression leading to lower androgen and higher estrogen levels. -- Highlights: ► Fluorochemicals found in 57% of paper and board food packaging were tested. ► Collectively six fluorochemicals were tested for antiandrogenic potential in vitro. ► Three out of six tested fluorochemicals inhibited

  5. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?]. (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello


    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  6. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie


    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  7. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency (United States)

    ... are four types of isolated growth hormone deficiency differentiated by the severity of the condition, the gene ... Practice and Guidelines Committee. ACMG practice guideline: genetic evaluation of short stature. Genet Med. 2009 Jun;11( ...

  8. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses

  9. Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology, Iodine Metabolism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0. Maintaining Euthyroidism: Fundamentals of Thyroid Hormone Physiology,. Iodine Metabolism and Hypothyroidism. De Wet Wolmarans*. Division of Pharmacology, Center of Excellence for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of ...

  10. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)


    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  11. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.


    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram

  12. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.


    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877


    ABSTRACTThe pituitary hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the ovarian hormones, estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), and inhibin (Ih), are five hormones important for the regulation and maintenance of the human menstrual cycle. The...

  14. Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fooladsaz K


    Full Text Available Nowadays immunochemical techniques have played a very important and valuable role in quantitative and qualitative assays of liquid compounds of the body. Producing antibody against immunogenes is the first step to make immunochemical kits. In this study production and purification of polyclonal antibody against melatonin has been considered. This hormone which has several important functions in physiological conditions such as migraine, cirrhosis, mammary gland cancer and other diseases, is the most important pineal gland secretion. This gland is a circumventricular organ of brain and according to histological and anatomical studies, it is a high secretory organ, that secretes active biological substances like melatonin, oxytocin, serotonin and ect. In this study, melatonin has been considered as hapten and has become an immunogen by being linked to the bovine serum Albumin. Then, by the immunization of three white New Zeland rabbits that had the booster injections in regular intervals, the antibody titer was detected to be 1/2000, by using checkboard curves, and with the use of melatonin linked to penicillinase as a labeled antigen, the titer was detected 1/200. Finally an antibody with high purification rate has been obtained, which can be used in immunochemical assays like RIA, ELISA, and EIA.

  15. Screening of potentially hormonally active chemicals using bioluminescent yeast bioreporters. (United States)

    Sanseverino, John; Eldridge, Melanie L; Layton, Alice C; Easter, James P; Yarbrough, Jason; Schultz, Terry Wayne; Sayler, Gary S


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioluminescent bioreporter assays were developed previously to assess a chemical's estrogenic or androgenic disrupting potential. S. cerevisiae BLYES, S. cerevisiae BLYAS, S. cerevisiae BLYR, were used to assess their reproducibility and utility in screening 68, 69, and 71 chemicals for estrogenic, androgenic, and toxic effects, respectively. EC(50) values were 6.3 +/- 2.4 x 10(-10)M (n = 18) and 1.1 +/- 0.5 x 10(-8)M (n = 13) for BLYES and BLYAS, using 17beta-estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone over concentration ranges of 2.5 x 10(-12) through 1.0 x 10(-6)M, respectively. Based on analysis of replicate standard curves and comparison to background controls, a set of quantitative rules have been formulated to interpret data and determine if a chemical is potentially hormonally active, toxic, both, or neither. The results demonstrated that these assays are applicable for Tier I chemical screening in Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program as well as for monitoring endocrine-disrupting activity of unknown chemicals in water.

  16. Growth hormone regulates the expression of UCP2 in myocytes. (United States)

    Futawaka, Kumi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Yuki; Koyama, Rie; Nushida, Ayaka; Nezu, Syoko; Imamoto, Miyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Moriyama, Kenji


    To determine if and how growth hormone (GH) signaling is involved in energy metabolism. We used human embryonic kidney TSA201 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, and murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts to investigate GH-induced expression of uncoupling protein2 (UCP2) to the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway by a combination of a reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting. We demonstrated that the regulation energy metabolism, which was hypothesized to be directly acted on by GH, involves UCP2 via activated STAT5B, a signal transducer downstream of GH. We also showed that the sequence at the -586 'TTCnGA' may function as a novel putative consensus sequence of STAT5s. The results suggest that GH regulates energy metabolism directly in myocytes and that UCP2 participates in the signal transduction pathway that functions downstream of the GHR/JAK/STAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidants and the Comet assay. (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana


    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  18. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay (United States)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.


    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  19. Reporter Gene Assays in Ecotoxicology. (United States)

    Elad, Tal; Belkin, Shimshon

    The need for simple and rapid means for evaluating the potential toxic effects of environmental samples has prompted the development of reporter gene assays, based on tester cells (bioreporters) genetically engineered to report on sample toxicity by producing a readily quantifiable signal. Bacteria are especially suitable to serve as bioreporters owing to their fast responses, low cost, convenient preservation, ease of handling, and amenability to genetic manipulations. Various bacterial bioreporters have been introduced for general toxicity and genotoxicity assessment, and the monitoring of endocrine disrupting and dioxin-like compounds has been mostly covered by similarly engineered eukaryotic cells. Some reporter gene assays have been validated, standardized, and accredited, and many others are under constant development. Efforts are aimed at broadening detection spectra, lowering detection thresholds, and combining toxicity identification capabilities with characterization of the toxic effects. Taking advantage of bacterial robustness, attempts are also being made to incorporate bacterial bioreporters into field instrumentation for online continuous monitoring or on-site spot checks. However, key hurdles concerning test validation, cell preservation, and regulatory issues related to the use of genetically modified organisms still remain to be overcome.

  20. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer (United States)


    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0062 TITLE: Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Atish Choudhury...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 REPORT DATE: July 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army...Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0062 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Atish

  1. A rare syndrome: Thyroid hormone resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus İlyas Kibar


    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTH is a rare disorder, usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but can occasionally present with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis or rarely with hypothyroidism. We present a patient with interesting syndrome as RTH but no family history. Goiter, increased weight gain and normal mental status were observed despite high serum thyroid hormones and normal TSH levels

  2. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals


    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.


    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokineti...

  3. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome]. (United States)

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María


    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of hormones in muscle hypertrophy. (United States)

    Fink, Julius; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Nakazato, Koichi


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations. Therefore, some bodybuilders employ RT protocols designed to elevate hormonal levels in order to maximize anabolic responses. In this article, we reviewed current RT protocol outcomes with and without performance enhancing drug usage. Acute RT-induced hormonal elevations seem not to be directly correlated with muscle growth. On the other hand, supplementation with AAS and other hormones might lead to supraphysiological muscle hypertrophy, especially when different compounds are combined.

  5. Isotretinoin, tetracycline and circulating hormones in acne. (United States)

    Palatsi, R; Ruokonen, A; Oikarinen, A


    Isotretinoin, used to treat severe acne, has been shown to induce hormonal changes, especially to reduce 5 alpha-reductase in the production of the tissue-derived dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolite 3 alpha-Adiol G. However, the effects of isotretinoin on other pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the present study, isotretinoin administered at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks caused no marked changes in the serum levels of pituitary, adrenal or gonadal hormones or 3 alpha-Adiol G in patients with severe papulopustulotic acne (n = 19). After 12 weeks of therapy, there was a decrease in the levels of the precursor androgens androstenedione, testosterone and 3 alpha-Adiol G in 6/9 patients. Acne improved after 4.5 months in all but 2 male patients, who had very low serum hormone binding globulins (SHBG) and a high free androgen index (FAI). Isotretinoin did not affect the elevated LH/FSH ratio in a patient with the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS); nor did it change the high FAI or low SHBG in the male patients. For comparison, tetracycline had no effects on the serum hormonal levels of patients with mild acne (n = 19) after 7 days of treatment. This study confirms that the effects of isotretinoin on the serum hormone levels are small and unlikely to be of relevance for the resolution of acne or the suppression of sebum excretion.

  6. Thyroid Hormones and Glycaemic Indices in Types 1 and 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies comparing the relationship between thyroid hormones and the glycaemic indices in Types 1 and 2 diabetics are scanty. This study compared the relationship between thyroid hormones and glycaemic indices in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetics on various therapies. The thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone ...

  7. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin)


    textabstractTThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH

  8. Simultaneous measurement of hormone release and secretagogue binding by individual pituitary cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.F.; Neill, J.D.


    The quantitative relationship between receptor binding and hormone secretion at the single-cell level was investigated in the present study by combining a reverse hemolytic plaque assay for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from individual pituitary cells with an autoradiographic assay of /sup 125/I-labeled gonadontropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist binding to the same cells. In the plaque assay, LH secretion induces complement-mediated lysis of the LH-antibody-coated erythrocytes around the gonadotropes, resulting in areas of lysis (plaques). LH release from individual gonadotropes was quantified by comparing radioimmunoassayable LH release to hemolytic area in similarly treated cohort groups of cells; plaque area was linearly related to the amount of LH secreted. Receptor autoradiography was performed using /sup 125/I-labeled GnRH-A (a superagonist analog of GnRH) both as the ligand and as the stimulant for LH release in the plaque assay. The grains appeared to represent specific and high-affinity receptors for GnRH because (i) no pituitary cells other than gonadotropes bound the labeled ligand and (ii) grain development was progressively inhibited by coincubation with increasing doses of unlabeled GnRH-A. The authors conclude that GnRH receptor number for any individual gonadotrope is a weak determinant of the amount of LH it can secrete; nevertheless, full occupancy of all its GnRH receptors is required for any gonadotrope to reach its full LH-secretory capacity. Apparently the levels of other factors comprising the steps along the secretory pathway determine the secretory capacity of an individual cell.

  9. Granulosa cell tumor associated with secondary amenorrhea and serum luteinizing hormone elevation. (United States)

    Nasu, Kaei; Fukuda, Junichiro; Yoshimatsu, Jun; Takai, Noriyuki; Kashima, Kenji; Narahara, Hisashi


    Adult granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common type of ovarian sex cord tumors. Menstrual irregularity, menorrhagia, or even secondary amenorrhea is frequently observed in premenopausal women bearing GCTs with hormonal activity. We report herein a case of GCT in a patient presenting with secondary amenorrhea and serum luteinizing hormone elevation. A 28-year-old primigravid Japanese woman was admitted complaining of secondary amenorrhea of 2 years' duration. Pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left ovarian tumor 4 cm in diameter. Serum hormone assays revealed a follicle-stimulating hormone level of 4.8 mIU/ml, luteinizing hormone (LH) of 35.8 mIU/ml, estradiol of 24 pg/ml, progesterone of 1.6 ng/ml, and testosterone of 40 ng/dl. A left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The tumor was diagnosed as an adult-type GCT stage IIb (FIGO [International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists], 1988). Spontaneous menstruation occurred soon after the surgery. Serum levels of LH also decreased to normal levels and showed cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle. Subsequently, the patient conceived and delivered a healthy female baby. The tumor recurred in the pelvis 50 months after the initial conservative surgery, with elevated serum LH levels of 36.0 mIU/ml and amenorrhea. The patient was treated by hysterectomy, right salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, paraaortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and low anterior resection of the recto-sigmoid colon. Her hormone levels progressed to the postmenopausal state after this surgery. Although LH elevation in patients with GCT is rare and its mechanism is unknown, monitoring of serum LH may provide an additional tumor marker after conservative surgery in such patients.

  10. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Yılmaz


    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  11. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad


    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  12. Development of a radioimmunoassay for measuring gonadotrophin releasing hormone in patients receiving treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobsby, V.A.; Knapp, M.L.; Mayne, P.D. (Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, Westminster, London (UK)); Fink, R.S. (West Middlesex Univ. Hospital, Isleworth (UK)); Osgood, V.M. (Royal Free Hospital, London (UK))


    This gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) assay showed good precision, recovery, and parallelism over a wide range of GnRH concentrations with a sensitivity of 15 pg/ml. The assay was compared with a commercially available kit (Buhlmann Laboratories). Although the Buhlmann kit showed acceptable precision, recovery, sensitivity, and correlation with the developed GnRH assay for plasma samples, lack of parallelism of serially diluted plasma and urine samples was consistently observed, together with poor correlation with the developed GnRH assay for urine, suggesting a matrix effect with the Buhlmann kit. The developed assay is suitable for measuring GnRH in samples obtained from patients receiving pulsatile infusions of GnRH. In contrast, the commercially available Buhlmann kit was unsuitable for measuring plasma GnRH as the kit had a top standard of only 160 pg/ml, well below peak plasma concentration. It would not be possible to dilute samples for analysis because of lack of parallelism of diluted samples compared with standards obtained with the Buhlmann assay. (author).

  13. Development of a radioimmunoassay for measuring gonadotrophin releasing hormone in patients receiving treatment. (United States)

    Mosby, V A; Knapp, M L; Fink, R S; Osgood, V M; Mayne, P D


    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) in plasma and urine using readily available reagents was developed. The GnRH assay showed good precision, recovery, and parallelism over a wide range of GnRH concentrations with a sensitivity of 15 pg/ml. The assay was compared with a commercially available kit (Buhlmann Laboratories). Although the Buhlmann kit showed acceptable precision, recovery, sensitivity, and correlation with the developed GnRH assay for plasma samples, lack of parallelism of serially diluted plasma and urine samples was consistently observed, together with a poor correlation with the developed GnRH assay for urine, suggesting a matrix effect with the Buhlmann kit. The developed assay is suitable for measuring GnRH in samples obtained from patients receiving pulsatile infusions of GnRH. In contrast, the commercially available Buhlmann kit was unsuitable for measuring plasma GnRH as the kit had a top standard of only 160 pg/ml, well below the peak plasma concentration. It would not be possible to dilute samples for analysis because of the lack of parallelism of diluted samples compared with standards obtained with the Buhlmann assay.

  14. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System. (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan


    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks contribute

  15. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR, the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5 was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in

  16. In vivo transgenic mutation assays. (United States)

    Thybaud, Véronique; Dean, Stephen; Nohmi, Takehiko; de Boer, Johan; Douglas, George R; Glickman, Barry W; Gorelick, Nancy J; Heddle, John A; Heflich, Robert H; Lambert, Iain; Martus, Hans-Jörg; Mirsalis, Jon C; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Yajima, Nobuhiro


    Transgenic rodent gene-mutation models provide relatively quick and statistically reliable assays for gene mutations in the DNA from any tissue. This report summarizes those issues that have been agreed upon at a previous IWGT meeting [Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 35 (2000) 253], and discusses in depth those issues for which no consensus was reached before. It was previously agreed that for regulatory applications, assays should be based upon neutral genes, be generally available in several laboratories, and be readily transferable. For phage-based assays, five to ten animals per group should be analyzed, assuming a spontaneous mutant frequency (MF) of approximately 3x10(-5) mutants/locus and 125,000-300,000 plaque or colony forming units (pfu or cfu) per tissue per animal. A full set of data should be generated for a vehicle control and two dose groups. Concurrent positive control animals are only necessary during validation, but positive control DNA must be included in each plating. Tissues should be processed and analyzed in a blocked design, where samples from negative control, positive control and each treatment group are processed together. The total number of pfus or cfus and the MF for each tissue and animal are reported. Statistical tests should consider the animal as the experimental unit. Nonparametric statistical tests are recommended. A positive result is a statistically significant dose-response and/or statistically significant increase in any dose group compared to concurrent negative controls using an appropriate statistical model. A negative result is a statistically non-significant change, with all mean MFs within two standard deviations of the control. During the current workshop, a general protocol was agreed in which animals are treated daily for 28 consecutive days and tissues sampled 3 days after the final treatment. This recommendation could be modified by reducing or increasing the number of treatments or the length of the treatment period, when

  17. Development of radiolabeling method for natural juvenile hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Takashi; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Kotaki, Toyomi [National Inst. of Sericultural and Entomological Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    This study aimed to develop a new assay method for accurate determination of juvenile hormone (JH) using radioisotope. A new measuring method for JH was designed based on the principle of molecular competition. Namely, JH-binding protein in the insect was used to form a selective binding to JH. At first, corpus allatum was cultured in a medium containing {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C epoxyfarnesyldiazoacetate (EFDA), which is a photoaffinity labeling reagent and JH binding protein (JHBP) was purified using {sup 3}H or {sup 14}C labeled EFDA. Since several kinds of JH homologues different in the molecular structure have been known, it was needed to establish each labeling method appropriate to those homologues. Then, an assay method for micro-quantitative measurement of JH was established utilizing the competition between labeled natural JH and JHBP. Thus, the authors succeeded in the overexpression of the blood JHBA of kind of tabaco moth, H.virescens and also in cloning and overexpression of JHBP in the silk worm. It was confirmed that these JHBPs specifically bind to {sup 3}H labeled JH3, leading to stable supply of blood JHBP. Thus, accurate assay for JH concentration became possible by the use of the labeled JH with natural configuration and the blood JHBP. In the course of this study, several findings were obtained as follows: The JHBP of a sting bug was different from the previously reported ones. The regulation of JH synthesis in the corpus allatum was closely related to the control of diapause in several insects. The JHBP isolated from the cytosol of silk gland was a new protein in respect of amino acid sequence. (M.N.)

  18. Predictive Assay For Cancer Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Nguyen, C; Sorensen, K; Montgomery, J; Souza, B; Kulp, K; Dugan, L; Christian, A


    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  19. Predictive assay for cancer targets (United States)

    Suess, Amanda; Nguyen, Christine; Sorensen, Karen; Montgomery, Jennifer; Souza, Brian; Kulp, Kris; Dugan, Larry; Christian, Allen


    Early detection of cancer is a key element in successful treatment of the disease. Understanding the particular type of cancer involved, its origins and probable course, is also important. PhIP (2-amino-1- methyl-6 phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine), a heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meat at elevated temperatures, has been shown to induce mammary cancer in female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumors induced by PhIP have been shown to contain discreet cytogenetic signature patterns of gains and losses using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). To determine if a protein signature exists for these tumors, we are analyzing expression levels of the protein products of the above-mentioned tumors in combination with a new bulk protein subtractive assay. This assay produces a panel of antibodies against proteins that are either on or off in the tumor. Hybridization of the antibody panel onto a 2-D gel of tumor or control protein will allow for identification of a distinct protein signature in the tumor. Analysis of several gene databases has identified a number of rat homologs of human cancer genes located in these regions of gain and loss. These genes include the oncogenes c-MYK, ERBB2/NEU, THRA and tumor suppressor genes EGR1 and HDAC3. The listed genes have been shown to be estrogen-responsive, suggesting a possible link between delivery of bio-activated PhIP to the cell nucleus via estrogen receptors and gene-specific PhIP-induced DNA damage, leading to cell transformation. All three tumors showed similar silver staining patterns compared to each other, while they all were different than the control tissue. Subsequent screening of these genes against those from tumors know to be caused by other agents may produce a protein signature unique to PhIP, which can be used as a diagnostic to augment optical and radiation-based detection schemes.

  20. Harmonization of growth hormone measurements with different immunoassays by data adjustment. (United States)

    Müller, Anne; Scholz, Markus; Blankenstein, Oliver; Binder, Gerhard; Pfäffle, Roland; Körner, Antje; Kiess, Wieland; Heider, Annegret; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Thiery, Joachim; Kratzsch, Jürgen


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the between-assay variability of commercially available immunoassays for the measurement of human growth hormone (hGH). In addition, we asked whether the comparability of the diagnosis of childhood onset growth hormone deficiency could be improved by adjusting hGH results by statistical methods, such as linear regression, conversion factors, and quantile transformation. In archived sera from 312 children and adolescents (age: 17 days-17 years) hGH values between 0.01 and 16.5 ng/mL were determined by using the following immunoassays: AutoDELFIA (PerkinElmer), BC-IRMA (Beckman-Coulter), ELISA (Mediagnost), IMMULITE 2000 (Siemens), iSYS (IDS), Liaison (DiaSorin), UniCel DxI 800 Access (BeckmanCoulter) and "In house"-RIA (Tübingen). The assays differed in median hGH concentrations by as much as 5.44 ng/mL (Immulite), and as little as 2.67 ng/mL (BC-IRMA). The mean difference between assays ranged from 0.35 to 2.71 ng/mL, whereas several samples displayed differences up to 11.4 ng/mL. The best correlation (r=0.992) was found between AutoDELFIA and Liasion, the lowest (r=0.864) was between an in-house RIA and iSYS. The between-assay CV (mean ± SD) of values within the cut-off range was 24.3% ± 7.4%, resulting in an assay-dependent diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in more than 27% of patients. Yet, adjustment of this data by linear regression or a conversion factor reduced the CV below 14%, and the ratio of assay-dependent diagnoses below 8%. Using quantile transformation, the CV and ratio were reduced to 11.4% and <1%, respectively. hGH measurements using different assays vary significantly. Linear regression, conversion factors, or particularly quantile transformation are useful tools to improve comparability in the diagnostic procedure for the confirmation of GHD in childhood and adolescence.

  1. The role of plasma female sex hormones on gingivitis in pregnancy: a clinicobiochemical study. (United States)

    Nayak, Rashmita; Choudhury, Gopal Krishna; Prakash, Sandeep; Deshpande, Sumit; Ashok, K P; Spoorthi, B R


    To correlate the changes in the level of female sex hormones (progesterone, estrogen) in plasma with the changes in severity of gingivitis in various trimesters of pregnancy till the postparturition. This study comprised of 20 pregnant women with good oral hygiene who were followed up in each trimester till 3rd month of postpartum by screening their oral hygiene status following OHI-S index by Greene and Vermillion. Clinically to correlate gingivitis, gingival index by Loe and Sillness was carried out in each trimester till postpartum. For hormonal assay, blood sampling by venipuncture was done and quantative analysis of the hormones was done by ELISA test. The severity of gingivitis gradually increased and reached its peak in 3rd trimester followed by sudden decline in the severity in postpartum which correlated with gradual increase in the plasma level of progesterone and estrogen levels to reach their peak in the 3rd trimester and sudden fall after the postpartum. This study shows the role of female sex hormones in aggravating gingivitis to its peak in the 3rd trimester, even though the oral hygiene remains fairly good constantly. This study signifies the gingivitis status during different trimesters of pregnancy and postpartum indicating the general practitioner to take appropriate oral hygiene measures.

  2. The relationship between iron status and thyroid hormone concentration in iron-deficient adolescent Iranian girls. (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad Hassan; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali; Jalali, Mahmood; Elguero, Eric; Eshraghian, Mohammad R; Simondon, Kirsten B


    Extensive data from animal and human studies indicate that iron deficiency impairs thyroid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine thyroid hormone status in iron-deficient adolescent girls. By stepwise random sampling from among all public high schools for girls in Lar and its vicinity in southern Iran, 103 out of 431 iron deficient subjects were selected. Urine and serum samples were collected and assayed for urinary iodine and serum ferritin, iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroid hormones (fT4 and fT3), triiodothyronine resin uptake (T3RU), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3), selenium and albumin concentrations. Hematological indices for iron status confirmed that all subjects were iron-deficient. There was a significant correlation between T4 and ferritin (r = 0.52, P < 0.001) and between TSH and ferritin (r = -0.3, P < 0.05). Subjects with low serum ferritin had a higher ratio of T3/T4 (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). Using stepwise regression analysis, only ferritin contributed significantly to the rT3 concentration (r = -0.35, P < 0.01). The results indicate that the degree of iron deficiency may affect thyroid hormone status in iron-deficient adolescent girls.

  3. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.


    Smith, P J; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G


    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  4. Protection of germinal epithelium with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Huben, R.P.; Klioze, S.S.; Pontes, J.E.


    A dog model for chemotherapy and radiation-induced testicular damage was created to study the protective potential of superactive analogue of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, buserelin. Buserelin appeared to offer protection of the canine germinal epithelium against cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and radiation. Clinical trials with buserelin in patients of reproductive age undergoing treatment for cancer should be encouraged.

  5. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods


    Claudia eBarth; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Arno eVillringer; Julia eSacher; Julia eSacher


    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories o...

  6. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  7. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van


    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  8. Efficacy of chemotherapy after hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Mori


    Full Text Available Objective: According to the guidelines for metastatic breast cancer, hormone therapy for hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer without life-threatening metastasis should be received prior to chemotherapy. Previous trials have investigated the sensitivity of chemotherapy for preoperative breast cancer based on the efficacy of neoadjuvant hormone therapy. In this retrospective study, we investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer in hormone therapy–effective and hormone therapy–ineffective cases. Methods: Patients who received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer between 2006 and 2013 at our institution were investigated. Results: A total of 32 patients received chemotherapy after hormone therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The median patient age was 59 years, and most of the primary tumors exhibited a T2 status. A total of 26 patients had an N(+ status, while 7 patients had human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive tumors. A total of 13 patients received clinical benefits from hormone therapy, with a rate of clinical benefit of subsequent chemotherapy of 30.8%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the hormone therapy–ineffective patients (52.6%. A total of 13 patients were able to continue the hormone therapy for more than 1 year, with a rate of clinical benefit of chemotherapy of 38.5%, which was not significantly different from that observed in the short-term hormone therapy patients (47.4%. The luminal A patients were able to continue hormone therapy for a significantly longer period than the non-luminal A patients (median survival time: 17.8 months vs 6.35 months, p = 0.0085. However, there were no significant differences in the response to or duration of chemotherapy. Conclusion: The efficacy of chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer cannot be predicted based on the efficacy of prior hormone therapy or tumor subtype

  9. Growth hormone receptor gene expression in puberty. (United States)

    Pagani, S; Meazza, C; Gertosio, C; Bozzola, E; Bozzola, M


    The mechanisms regulating the synergic effect of growth hormone and other hormones during pubertal spurt are not completely clarified. We enrolled 64 females of Caucasian origin and normal height including 22 prepubertal girls, 26 pubertal girls, and 16 adults to evaluate the role of Growth Hormone/Insulin-like growth factor-I axis (GH/IGF-I) during the pubertal period. In these subjects both serum IGF-I and growth hormone binding protein levels, as well as quantitative growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression were evaluated in peripheral lymphocytes of all individuals by real-time PCR. Our results showed significantly lower IGF-I levels in women (148±10 ng/ml) and prepubertal girls (166.34±18.85 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (441.95±29.42 ng/ml; p<0.0001). Serum GHBP levels were significantly higher in prepubertal (127.02±20.76 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (16.63±2.97 ng/ml; p=0.0001) and adult women (19.95±6.65 ng/ml; p=0.0003). We also found higher GHR gene expression levels in pubertal girls [174.73±80.22 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] compared with other groups of subjects [women: 42.52±7.66 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase); prepubertal girls: 58.45±0.18.12 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)], but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that sexual hormones could positively influence GHR action, during the pubertal period, in a dual mode, that is, increasing GHR mRNA production and reducing GHR cleavage leading to GHBP variations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Primary structure of two neuropeptide hormones with adipokinetic and hypotrehalosemic activity isolated from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera). (United States)

    Jaffe, H; Raina, A K; Riley, C T; Fraser, B A; Nachman, R J; Vogel, V W; Zhang, Y S; Hayes, D K


    The primary structures of two neuropeptides, Tabanus atratus adipokinetic hormone (Taa-AKH) and Tabanus atratus hypotrehalosemic hormone (Taa-HoTH), from the corpora cardiaca of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) have been determined. Amino acid sequences of Taa-AKH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2) and Taa-HoTH (less than Glu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Gly-Trp-Gly-Tyr-NH2) (where less than Glu = pyroglutamic acid) were determined by automated gas-phase Edman degradation of the peptides deblocked by pyroglutamate aminopeptidase and by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The hormones were synthesized, and the natural and synthetic peptides exhibited identical chromatographic, spectroscopic, and biological properties. When assayed in adult face fly males, Taa-AKH and Taa-HoTH demonstrated hyperlipemic activity, in addition, Taa-HoTH also demonstrated a significant hypotrehalosemic activity. PMID:2813385

  11. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception (United States)

    Amory, John K.


    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  12. Drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals (United States)

    Nanda, Kavita; Stuart, Gretchen S.; Robinson, Jennifer; Gray, Andrew L.; Tepper, Naomi K.; Gaffield, Mary E.


    Objective: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. Design: Systematic review of the published literature. Methods: We searched PubMed, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception to 21 September 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, or pharmacokinetics. We used standard abstraction forms to summarize and assess strengths and weaknesses. Results: Fifty reports from 46 studies were included. Most antiretrovirals whether used for therapy or prevention, have limited interactions with hormonal contraceptive methods, with the exception of efavirenz. Although depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is not affected, limited data on implants and combined oral contraceptive pills suggest that efavirenz-containing combination antiretroviral therapy may compromise contraceptive effectiveness of these methods. However, implants remain very effective despite such drug interactions. Antiretroviral plasma concentrations and effectiveness are generally not affected by hormonal contraceptives. Conclusion: Women taking antiretrovirals, for treatment or prevention, should not be denied access to the full range of hormonal contraceptive options, but should be counseled on the expected rates of unplanned pregnancy associated with all contraceptive methods, in order to make their own informed choices. PMID:28060009

  13. Obestatin: an interesting but controversial gut hormone. (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Antonio; Donato, Valentina; Chirico, Valeria; Buemi, Antoine; Buemi, Michele


    Obestatin is a 23-amino acid peptide hormone released from the stomach and is present not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in the spleen, mammary gland, breast milk and plasma. Obestatin appears to function as part of a complex gut-brain network whereby hormones and substances from the stomach and intestines signal the brain about satiety or hunger. In contrast to ghrelin, which causes hyperphagia and obesity, obestatin appears to act as an anorectic hormone, decreasing food intake and reducing body weight gain. Further studies have shown that obestatin is also involved in improving memory, regulating sleep, affecting cell proliferation, increasing the secretion of pancreatic juice enzymes and inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. This hormone has not only been studied in the field of physiology but also in the fields of obesity and diabetes mellitus, and in patients with psychogenic eating disorders. Obestatin has a role in regulating the cell cycle by exerting proliferative effects that may be seen in cell physiology and oncology. Given the current controversy regarding the effects of obestatin and its cognate ligand, this article provides the latest review of the physiological and pathological characteristics of this hormone. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents. (United States)

    Sucato, Gina S; Gerschultz, Kelly L


    There is increasing interest in the use of extended cycles of hormonal contraception to manage menstrual cycle-related complaints in adolescents and to accommodate the menstrual preferences of patients using hormonal contraception. This review summarizes recent findings related to the use of extended cycles and highlights their relevance to adolescents. Many adolescents would prefer to menstruate less frequently. Among health care providers who prescribe hormonal contraceptives, the majority believe suppressing withdrawal bleeding is well tolerated and prescribe extended cycling regimens to their patients. Shortening or eliminating the hormone-free interval results in greater ovarian suppression and thus may increase contraceptive efficacy. Studies in adult women have not identified changes in metabolic parameters beyond what would be expected from traditional cyclic use. New endometrial biopsy data have found no pathologic changes; most women using an extended cycle had atrophic endometriums. Extended cycling is frequently associated with breakthrough bleeding. In some women, this can be managed with a brief hormone-free interval. Recent findings demonstrate high levels of interest in extended cycling among adolescents and providers, and continue to add to the growing body of literature supporting the safety and improved contraceptive efficacy of extended regimens. Further research is warranted to focus on issues including cancer, thrombotic disease and fertility, and should enroll a sufficient adolescent sample.

  15. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis. (United States)

    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D


    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormones on metabolism. (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Alvarez, Clara V; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel


    Over the past few decades, obesity and its related metabolic disorders have increased at an epidemic rate in the developed and developing world. New signals and factors involved in the modulation of energy balance and metabolism are continuously being discovered, providing potential novel drug targets for the treatment of metabolic disease. A parallel strategy is to better understand how hormonal signals, with an already established role in energy metabolism, work, and how manipulation of the pathways involved may lead to amelioration of metabolic dysfunction. The thyroid hormones belong to the latter category, with dysregulation of the thyroid axis leading to marked alterations in energy balance. The potential of thyroid hormones in the treatment of obesity has been known for decades, but their therapeutic use has been hampered because of side-effects. Data gleaned over the past few years, however, have uncovered new features at the mechanisms of action involved in thyroid hormones. Sophisticated neurobiological approaches have allowed the identification of specific energy sensors, such as AMP-activated protein kinase and mechanistic target of rapamycin, acting in specific groups of hypothalamic neurons, mediating many of the effects of thyroid hormones on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular function. More extensive knowledge about these molecular mechanisms will be of great relevance for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study and development of a radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone sensitive at 10/sup -12/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillens, H.; Rousselet, F. (Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, (France)); Paillard, F. (Hopital Tenon, Paris (France))


    A radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone is described. The antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with lysine vasopressin conjugated to hemocyanine. The specificity of the antibody was selective and directed against the pentapeptide ring of the vasopressin molecule: oxytocin showed no cross-reactivity at 10/sup -9/M. The labelled hormone (/sup 125/I-AVP) prepared using the chloramine-T method had a high specific activity (1860 Ci/mmol). Incubation was performed in an equilibrium system. Comparative studies of different separation methods of bounds and free /sup 125/I-AVP showed that the sensitivity and the precision of the standard curve were better using charcoal dextran. The limit of detection of the assay was 1,6 pg per ml.

  18. Sulforaphane induced adipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation, regulated by AMPK signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Park, Yang-Gyu; Lee, You-Jin; Seol, Jae-Won; Park, Sang-Youel


    Sulforaphane, an aliphatic isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is known for its antidiabetic properties. The effects of sulforaphane on lipid metabolism in adipocytes are not clearly understood. Here, we investigated whether sulforaphane stimulates lipolysis. Mature adipocytes were incubated with sulforaphane for 24h and analyzed using a lipolysis assay which quantified glycerol released into the medium. We investigated gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), and levels of HSL phosphorylation and AMP-activated protein kinase on sulforaphane-mediated lipolysis in adipocytes. Sulforaphane promoted lipolysis and increased both HSL gene expression and HSL activation. Sulforaphane suppressed AMPK phosphorylation at Thr-172 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with a decrease in HSL phosphorylation at Ser-565, enhancing the phosphorylation of HSL Ser-563. Taken together, these results suggest that sulforaphane promotes lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase activation mediated by decreasing AMPK signal activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of cortisol and thyroid hormones between tuberculosis-suspect and healthy elephants of Nepal. (United States)

    Paudel, Sarad; Brown, Janine L; Thapaliya, Sharada; Dhakal, Ishwari P; Mikota, Susan K; Gairhe, Kamal P; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio


    We compared cortisol and thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) concentrations between tuberculosis (TB)-suspected (n=10) and healthy (n=10) elephants of Nepal. Whole blood was collected from captive elephants throughout Nepal, and TB testing was performed using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK® and DPP VetTB® serological assays that detect antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis in elephant serum. Cortisol, T3 and T4 were quantified by competitive enzyme immunoassays, and the results showed no significant differences in hormone concentrations between TB-suspect and healthy elephants. These preliminary data suggest neither adrenal nor thyroid function is altered by TB disease status. However, more elephants, including those positively diagnosed for TB by trunk wash cultures, need to be evaluated over time to confirm results.

  20. The biological effects of sex hormones on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. (United States)

    Chang, Shwu Jen; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Lin, Yen Ting; Yang, Shan-Wei


    The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of sex hormones (17β-estradiol and testosterone) on rabbit articular chondrocytes from different genders. We cultured primary rabbit articular chondrocytes from both genders with varying concentration of sex hormones. We evaluate cell proliferation and biochemical functions by MTT and GAG assay. The chondrocyte function and phenotypes were analyzed by mRNA level using RT-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining was also used to evaluate the generation of collagen-II. This study demonstrated that 17β-estradiol had greater positive regulation on the biological function and gene expressions of articular chondrocytes than testosterone, with the optimal concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-7) M, particularly for female chondrocytes.

  1. Comparison of in vitro and ex vivo thyroid hormone synthesis inhibition results and in vivo outcomes for a series of benzothiazoles (United States)

    Assessing how in vitro data may be used to predict adverse effects in vivo is critical as efforts are advanced to incorporate in vitro assays into a risk assessment framework. Within the context of a thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis inhibition adverse outcome pathway (AOP), in vitr...

  2. Detailed review of transgenic rodent mutation assays. (United States)

    Lambert, Iain B; Singer, Timothy M; Boucher, Sherri E; Douglas, George R


    Induced chromosomal and gene mutations play a role in carcinogenesis and may be involved in the production of birth defects and other disease conditions. While it is widely accepted that in vivo mutation assays are more relevant to the human condition than are in vitro assays, our ability to evaluate mutagenesis in vivo in a broad range of tissues has historically been quite limited. The development of transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation models has given us the ability to detect, quantify, and sequence mutations in a range of somatic and germ cells. This document provides a comprehensive review of the TGR mutation assay literature and assesses the potential use of these assays in a regulatory context. The information is arranged as follows. (1) TGR mutagenicity models and their use for the analysis of gene and chromosomal mutation are fully described. (2) The principles underlying current OECD tests for the assessment of genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, and also nontransgenic assays available for assessment of gene mutation, are described. (3) All available information pertaining to the conduct of TGR assays and important parameters of assay performance have been tabulated and analyzed. (4) The performance of TGR assays, both in isolation and as part of a battery of in vitro and in vivo short-term genotoxicity tests, in predicting carcinogenicity is described. (5) Recommendations are made regarding the experimental parameters for TGR assays, and the use of TGR assays in a regulatory context.

  3. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment that Utilizes a Glass Fiber Filter Assay to Determine the Steroid Specificity and Equilibrium Binding Properties of Glucocorticoid Receptors. (United States)

    John, Nancy J.; Firestone, Gary L.


    Describes two complementary laboratory exercises that use the glass fiber assay to assess receptor specificity and hormone binding affinity in rat liver cytoplasmic extracts. Details the methods, materials and protocol of the experiments. Discusses the basic concepts illustrated and the feasibility of using the experiments at the undergraduate…

  4. Salivary hormonal values from high-speed resistive exercise workouts. (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Lutz, Brant M; Davidson, Mark E; Wilson, Kyle; Crane, Chris S; Craig, Chrsity E; Nissen, Tim E; Mason, Melissa L; Coday, Michael A; Sheaff, Robert J; Potter, William T


    Our study purpose examined salivary hormonal responses to high-speed resistive exercise. Healthy subjects (n = 45) performed 2 elbow flexor workouts on a novel (inertial kinetic exercise; Oconomowoc, WI, USA) strength training device. Our methods included saliva sample collection at both preexercise and immediately postexercise; workouts entailed two 60-second sets separated by a 90-second rest period. The samples were analyzed in duplicate for their testosterone and cortisol concentrations ([T], [C]). Average and maximum elbow flexor torque were measured from each exercise bout; they were later analyzed with a 2(gender) × 2(workout) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures for workout. The [T] and [C] each underwent a 2(gender) × 2(time) ANOVA with repeated measures for time. A within-subject design was used to limit error variance. Average and maximum torque each had gender (men > women; p time, but women's values were unchanged. Yet multivariate regression revealed that 3 predictor variables (body mass and average and maximum torques) did not account for a significant amount of variance associated with the rise in male [T]. Changes in [C] were not significant. In conclusion, changes in [T] concur with the results from other studies that showed significant elevations in male [T], despite the brevity of current workouts and the rather modest volume of muscle mass engaged. Practical applications imply that salivary assays may be a viable alternative to blood draws from athletes, yet coaches and others who may administer this treatment should know that our results may have produced greater pre-post hormonal changes if postexercise sample collection had occurred at a later time point.

  5. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay. (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng


    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Gut Hormones in Appetite Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Suzuki


    Full Text Available Obesity has received much attention worldwide in association with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. At present, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for obesity in which long-term weight loss is achieved in patients. By contrast, pharmacological interventions for obesity are usually followed by weight regain. Although the exact mechanisms of long-term weight loss following bariatric surgery are yet to be fully elucidated, several gut hormones have been implicated. Gut hormones play a critical role in relaying signals of nutritional and energy status from the gut to the central nervous system, in order to regulate food intake. Cholecystokinin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin act through distinct yet synergistic mechanisms to suppress appetite, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake. Here, we discuss the role of gut hormones in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

  7. Thyroid Hormones, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini


    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS are closely related processes, as well exemplified in obesity and cardiovascular diseases. OS is also related to hormonal derangement in a reciprocal way. Among the various hormonal influences that operate on the antioxidant balance, thyroid hormones play particularly important roles, since both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been shown to be associated with OS in animals and humans. In this context, the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS that typically manifests as reduced conversion of thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 in different acute and chronic systemic conditions is still a debated topic. The pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome are reviewed, together with the roles of deiodinases, the enzymes responsible for the conversion of T4 to T3, in both physiological and pathological situations. The presence of OS indexes in NTIS supports the hypothesis that it represents a condition of hypothyroidism at the tissue level and not only an adaptive mechanism to diseases.

  8. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel


    and the Psychiatric Central Research Register in Denmark. All women and adolescents aged 15 to 34 years who were living in Denmark were followed up from January 1, 2000, to December 2013, if they had no prior depression diagnosis, redeemed prescription for antidepressants, other major psychiatric diagnosis, cancer...... rate ratios (RRs) were calculated for first use of an antidepressant and first diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Results: A total of 1 061 997 women (mean [SD] age, 24.4 [0.001] years; mean [SD] follow-up, 6.4 [0.004] years) were included in the analysis. Compared with nonusers, users......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...

  9. Preventing leaf identity theft with hormones. (United States)

    Lumba, Shelley; McCourt, Peter


    Genetic analysis of plant development has begun to demonstrate the importance of hormone synthesis and transport in regulating morphogenesis. In the case of leaf development, for example, auxin pooling determines where a primordium will emerge and leads to the activation of transcription factors, which determine leaf identities by modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations. Signal transduction studies suggest that negative regulation of transcription factors through protein turnover is commonly used as a mechanism of hormone action. Together, these findings suggest that auxin might degrade a repressor that allows the activation of genes that modulate ABA/GA ratios in emerging leaves. With our increased understanding of the molecular basis of hormone signaling, it is becoming possible to overlay important regulators onto signaling modules that determine morphological outputs.

  10. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude


    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  11. Potential Hormone Mechanisms of Bariatric Surgery. (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Randeva, Manpal S; Miras, Alexander D


    In recent years, the role of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in energy homeostasis through modulation of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and the production of incretin hormones is well recognized. Bariatric surgery for obesity has been a very effective method in substantially improving weight, and numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation after bariatric procedures. A number of structural and functional changes in the GI tract have been reported postsurgery, which could be responsible for the altered hormonal responses. Furthermore, the change in food absorption rate and the intestinal regions exposed to carbohydrates may affect blood glucose response. This review hopes to give new insights into the direct role of gut hormones, by summarising the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery.

  12. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C


    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies......-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity pdefinitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1·53, 95% CI 1·40-1·66; p

  13. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to a novel thyroid hormone receptor mutant in a patient with hypothyroidism secondary to lingual thyroid and functional characterization of the mutant receptor. (United States)

    Nakajima, Yasuyo; Yamada, Masanobu; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tetsurou; Hashimoto, Koshi; Tokuhiro, Etsuro; Onigata, Kazuhiko; Mori, Masatomo


    We describe a rare case of congenital hypothyroidism and an extremely high serum thyrotropin (TSH) level caused by a combination of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) and a lingual thyroid. As the RTH mutant, R316C, was new, the optimum dose of levothyroxine was unclear. To aid in assessment of the therapy, we characterized the mutant R316C thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and compared it with a common mutant, R316H, using in vitro studies. The patient was a newborn female having severe hypothyroidism with a free thyroxine level of 0.36 ng/dL and a serum TSH level of 177 microU/mL. A scintiscan showed ectopic lingual thyroid tissue without a normal thyroid gland. Supplementation with levothyroxine at a dose of >350 microg/day did not normalize the serum TSH level; however, the patient showed normal growth and intelligence at 14 years of age. Consistent with the results of a computer analysis, the binding of R316C to triiodothyronine (T3) was significantly decreased to 38% that of the wild type. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that like R316H, R316C did not form a homodimer, but formed a heterodimer with RXR. However, a glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assay showed reduced binding of R316C with NCoR in the absence of T3 and impaired release in the presence of T3. In addition, transient transfection experiments demonstrated that unlike R316H, R316C had severe impairment of transcriptional activity on genes both positively and negatively regulated by thyroid hormone. It also had a clear dominant negative effect on genes negatively, but not positively, regulated by thyroid hormone, including the TSH-releasing hormone and TSHbeta genes. This is the first reported case of a R316C TR mutation. The characteristics of the R316C mutant differed from those of the R316H mutant. Our findings suggest that R316C causes reduced association with and impaired release of NCoR, resulting in RTH predominantly at the pituitary level, and that slightly elevated serum

  14. Comparison of Intact PTH and Bio-Intact PTH Assays Among Non-Dialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease Patients. (United States)

    Einbinder, Yael; Benchetrit, Sydney; Golan, Eliezer; Zitman-Gal, Tali


    The third-generation bio-intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-84) assay was designed to overcome problems associated with the detection of C-terminal fragments by the second-generation intact PTH assay. The two assays have been compared primarily among dialysis populations. The present study evaluated the correlations and differences between these two PTH assays among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3 to 5 not yet on dialysis. Blood samples were collected from 98 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5. PTH concentrations were measured simultaneously by using the second-generation - PTH intact-STAT and third-generation bio-intact 1-84 PTH assays. Other serum biomarkers of bone mineral disorders were also assessed. CKD stage was calculated by using the CKD-Epidemiology Collaboration (EPI) formula. Serum bio-intact PTH concentrations were strongly correlated but significantly lower than the intact PTH concentrations (r=0.963, Pbio-intact PTH) positively correlated with urea (r=0.523, r=0.504; P=0.002, respectively), phosphorus (r=0.532, r=0.521; Pbio-intact PTH assay detected significantly lower PTH concentrations compared with intact PTH assay. Additional studies that correlate the diagnosis and management of CKD mineral and bone disorders with bone histomorphometric findings are needed to determine whether bio-intact PTH assay results are better surrogate markers in these early stages of CKD.

  15. Thyroid hormones upregulate apolipoprotein E gene expression in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Corina; Fuior, Elena V.; Trusca, Violeta G. [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest (Romania); Kardassis, Dimitris [University of Crete Medical School and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology of Hellas, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Simionescu, Maya [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest (Romania); Gafencu, Anca V., E-mail: [Institute of Cellular Biology and Pathology “Nicolae Simionescu”, Bucharest (Romania)


    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), a protein mainly involved in lipid metabolism, is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Despite numerous attempts to elucidate apoE gene regulation in the brain, the exact mechanism is still uncovered. The mechanism of apoE gene regulation in the brain involves the proximal promoter and multienhancers ME.1 and ME.2, which evolved by gene duplication. Herein we questioned whether thyroid hormones and their nuclear receptors have a role in apoE gene regulation in astrocytes. Our data showed that thyroid hormones increase apoE gene expression in HTB14 astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner. This effect can be intermediated by the thyroid receptor β (TRβ) which is expressed in these cells. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3) and 9-cis retinoic acid, in astrocytes transfected to overexpress TRβ and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), apoE promoter was indirectly activated through the interaction with ME.2. To determine the location of TRβ/RXRα binding site on ME.2, we performed DNA pull down assays and found that TRβ/RXRα complex bound to the region 341–488 of ME.2. This result was confirmed by transient transfection experiments in which a series of 5′- and 3′-deletion mutants of ME.2 were used. These data support the existence of a biologically active TRβ binding site starting at 409 in ME.2. In conclusion, our data revealed that ligand-activated TRβ/RXRα heterodimers bind with high efficiency on tissue-specific distal regulatory element ME.2 and thus modulate apoE gene expression in the brain. - Highlights: • T3 induce a dose-dependent increase of apoE expression in astrocytes. • Thyroid hormones activate apoE promoter in a cell specific manner. • Ligand activated TRβ/RXRα bind on the distal regulatory element ME.2 to modulate apoE. • The binding site of TRβ/RXRα heterodimer is located at 409 bp on ME.2.

  16. An ultrafiltration assay for lysyl oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackleton, D.R.; Hulmes, D.J. (Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School (England))


    A modification of the original microdistillation assay for lysyl oxidase is described in which Amicon C-10 microconcentrators are used to separate, by ultrafiltration, the 3H-labeled products released from a (4,5-3H)-lysine-labeled elastin substrate. Enzyme activity is determined by scintillation counting of the ultrafiltrate, after subtraction of radioactivity released in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, a specific inhibitor of the enzyme. Conditions are described which optimize both the sensitivity and the efficient use of substrate. The assay shows linear inhibition of activity in up to 1 M urea; hence, as the enzyme is normally diluted in the assay, samples in 6 M urea can be assayed directly, without prior dialysis, and corrected for partial inhibition. Comparable results are obtained when enzyme activity is assayed by ultrafiltration or microdistillation. The assay is simple and convenient and, by using disposable containers throughout, it eliminates the need for time-consuming decontamination of radioactive glassware.

  17. Development and application of assays for serotonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gow, I.F.


    In this thesis, two assays for serotonin were developed, validated, and used to investigate the relationship between platelet aggregation, serotonin levels and sodium status and serotonin levels and platelet function in patients with cardiovascular disease. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) using an (/sup 125/I)-labelled tracer was developed and validated for the measurement of serotonin in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and rat serum. Antisera were raised against N-succinamylserotonin conjugated to bovine albumin and, to improve assay sensitivity, the analyte was made chemically similar to the immunogen by conversion to N-acetylserotonin prior to assay, using the specific amino reagent N-acetoxysuccinimide. An assay for serotonin using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) was developed, and used to validate the RIA. The RIA can be used to assay up to 100 samples/day compared with 10-20/day by the HPLC-ECD assay.

  18. Multicentre comparison of a diagnostic assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waters, Patrick; Reindl, Markus; Saiz, Albert


    OBJECTIVE: Antibodies to cell surface central nervous system proteins help to diagnose conditions which often respond to immunotherapies. The assessment of antibody assays needs to reflect their clinical utility. We report the results of a multicentre study of aquaporin (AQP) 4 antibody (AQP4-Ab......) assays in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). METHODS: Coded samples from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or NMOSD (101) and controls (92) were tested at 15 European diagnostic centres using 21 assays including live (n=3) or fixed cell-based assays (n=10), flow cytometry (n=4...... with seronegative NMO/spectrum disorder (SD). On the basis of a combination of clinical phenotype and the highly specific assays, 66 AQP4-Ab seropositive samples were used to establish the sensitivities (51.5-100%) of all 21 assays. The specificities (85.8-100%) were based on 92 control samples and 35 seronegative...

  19. Effects of Growth Hormone on Hepatic Regeneration


    BAŞOĞLU, Mahmut


    The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effects of growth hormone on hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Thirty pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, each containing 10 rats. The animals were subjected to a sham operation in Group 1, and to left hepatic lobectomy in Groups 2 and 3. The animals in Groups 1 and 2 received saline solution (0.2 mg/kg/day), while growth hormone (Lilly Humotrope, Lilly France Usine de Fegersheim, ...

  20. Hormonal and nonhormonal treatment of vasomotor symptoms. (United States)

    Krause, Miriam S; Nakajima, Steven T


    This article focuses on the cause, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis of, and treatment options for vasomotor symptoms. In addition, it summarizes important points for health care providers caring for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with regard to health maintenance, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and vaginal atrophy. Treatment options for hot flashes with variable effectiveness include systemic hormone therapy (estrogen/progestogen), nonhormonal pharmacologic therapies (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, clonidine, gabapentin), and nonpharmacologic therapy options (behavioral changes, acupuncture). Risks and benefits as well as contraindications for hormone therapy are further discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception. (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard


    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex hormone replacement in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Hjerrild, Britta; Cleemann, Line Hartvig


    osteoporosis seen in Turner syndrome. But sex hormone insufficiency is also involved in the increased cardiovascular risk, state of physical fitness, insulin resistance, body composition, and may play a role in the increased incidence of autoimmunity. Severe morbidity and mortality affects females with Turner...... syndrome. Recent research emphasizes the need for proper sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during the entire lifespan of females with TS and new hypotheses concerning estrogen receptors, genetics and the timing of HRT offers valuable new information. In this review, we will discuss the effects...

  3. Contraception and Hormones within Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homewood, Sarah


    In 2018 a new contraceptive method will be made available to women in the form of a programmable microchip that is implanted under the skin. A small electric current melts a small dosage of the contraceptive hormone Levonorgestrel into the users bloodstream [3]. The contraceptive microchip works...... investigating the implications of the new form of contraception from an interaction design perspective before introducing my current research area; hormones within interaction design and describes how this research is relevant to the workshop Hacking Women’s Health. Finally, this paper describes my personal...

  4. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja


    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  5. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.


    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  6. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okinaga, Hiroko [Department of Internal Medicine, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Okazaki, Tomoki, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Teikyo University School of Medicine, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. {yields} Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. {yields} Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor {alpha}, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  7. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications. (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K


    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay


    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE


    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  9. Steroidogenic disruptive effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol in the H295R cell assay and in a recombinant CYP17 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Julie; Munkboel, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne


    The aim of this study was to determine the steroidogenic endocrine disrupting effect of the three most widely used serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol, using two in vitro models, the H295R assay and a recombinant CYP17 enzyme assay. Steroid hormones were...... quantified using LC-MS/MS. Duloxetine showed endocrine disrupting effects at 5-20μM with CYP17 being the main target. Venlafaxine also affected the steroidogenesis, mainly by affecting the CYP17 lyase reaction, although at much higher concentrations i.e. 100μM. Tramadol only exerted minor effects......-hydroxyprogesterone. Both duloxetine and venlafaxine inhibited CYP17 enzyme activity, but duloxetine was most potent. IC50-values were in the range 5.3-21μM for duloxetine and 1318-2750μM for venlafaxine. Overall, results from the recombinant CYP17 assay confirmed the results from the H295R cell assay. Using testosterone...

  10. Get the most out of blow hormones: validation of sampling materials, field storage and extraction techniques for whale respiratory vapour samples. (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Hunt, Kathleen E; Kraus, Scott D; Rolland, Rosalind M


    Studies are progressively showing that vital physiological data may be contained in the respiratory vapour (blow) of cetaceans. Nonetheless, fundamental methodological issues need to be addressed before hormone analysis of blow can become a reliable technique. In this study, we performed controlled experiments in a laboratory setting, using known doses of pure parent hormones, to validate several technical factors that may play a crucial role in hormone analyses. We evaluated the following factors: (i) practical field storage of samples on small boats during daylong trips; (ii) efficiency of hormone extraction methods; and (iii) assay interference of different sampler types (i.e. veil nylon, nitex nylon mesh and polystyrene dish). Sampling materials were dosed with mock blow samples of known mixed hormone concentrations (progesterone, 17β-estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, aldosterone and triiodothyronine), designed to mimic endocrine profiles characteristic of pregnant females, adult males, an adrenal glucocorticoid response or a zero-hormone control (distilled H 2 O). Results showed that storage of samples in a cooler on ice preserved hormone integrity for at least 6 h ( P  = 0.18). All sampling materials and extraction methods yielded the correct relative patterns for all six hormones. However, veil and nitex mesh produced detectable assay interference (mean 0.22 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.03 ng/ml, respectively), possibly caused by some nylon-based component affecting antibody binding. Polystyrene dishes were the most efficacious sampler for accuracy and precision ( P  blow.

  11. Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder. (United States)

    Mills, James L; Hediger, Mary L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Chrousos, George P; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Yu, Kai F; Brasington, Mark; England, Lucinda J


    Children with autism are known to have larger head circumferences; whether they are above average in height and weight is less clear. Moreover, little is known about growth-related hormone levels in children with autism. We investigated whether children with autism were taller and heavier, and whether they had higher levels of growth-related hormones than control children did. A case-control study design was employed. Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism (n = 71) and age-matched control boys (n = 59) were evaluated at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Height, weight and head circumference were measured. Blood samples were assayed for IGF-1 and 2, IGFBP-3, growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) and for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS). Subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.03) greater head circumferences (mean z-score 1.24, SD 1.35) than controls (mean z-score 0.78, SD 0.93). Subjects with autism also had significantly (P = 0.01) greater weights (mean z-score 0.91, SD 1.13) than controls (mean z-score 0.41, SD 1.11). Height did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.65); subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.003) higher body mass indices (BMI) (mean z-score 0.85, SD 1.19) than controls (mean z-score 0.24, SD 1.17). Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher (all P autism/ASD had significantly higher levels of many growth-related hormones: IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. These findings could help explain the significantly larger head circumferences and higher weights and BMIs seen in these subjects. Future studies should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism.

  12. Cross-species assay validation using the AOP “deiodinase ... (United States)

    High throughput screening assays able to detect chemical interactions with specific biological targets are increasingly being used to identify chemicals that could be hazardous to humans or wildlife. Most of these assays examine interaction with mammalian proteins. The present work demonstrates that mammalian-based assays designed to screen for interactions of chemicals with deiodinase, an enzyme important to thyroid hormone signaling provides results that are generally consistent with those obtained when a fish-specific deiodinase assay was employed. This gives confidence, that in most cases, a mammalian-based screening assay should detect chemicals that could act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (through this particular mode of action) in fish as well as mammals. Thus, this work helps support implementation of more efficient and cost effective approaches to chemical safety assessment.Abstract: The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept is increasingly being recognized as a promising conceptual framework for describing toxicity pathways, which contains information that is sufficient to predict an adverse outcome of regulatory importance. Previously, we assessed the feasibility of developing an alternative, mechanistically informative testing strategy to replace the chronic Fish Early-Life Stage test (FELS, OECD TG 210), using an AOP-based approach. We developed an AOP encompassing deiodinase (DIO) inhibition resulting in decreased T3 concentrations leading to im

  13. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.


    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...... measures of FSAP in postmenopausal women treated for I year with different HT formulations or no HT. Methods Six groups of postmenopausal women (n = 139) were allocated to five different HT modalities or no HT Samples were collected at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Prototype assays were used...... in younger postmenopausal women...

  14. RNAe in a transgenic growth hormone mouse model shows potential for use in gene therapy. (United States)

    Long, Haizhou; Yao, Yi; Jin, Shouhong; Yu, Yingting; Hu, Xiongbing; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Wu, Qiong


    RNAe is a new method that enhances protein expression at the post-transcriptional level. RNAe utility was further explored to improve endogenous protein expression. Transgenic mice were created by targeting RNAe to growth hormone gene into the C57/BL mouse genome by transposon mediated integration; the mice showed a heavier body weight and longer body length compared with normal mice. RNAe can also be used for gene therapy through the delivery of in vitro transcribed RNA. This study takes a further step towards applying RNAe in pharmaceutical approaches by transposon-based transgenic mice model construction and the use of in vitro transcribed RNA transfection assay.

  15. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eBlanco-Ulate


    Full Text Available Fruit-pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA, and abscisic acid (ABA, hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit-B. cinerea interaction.

  16. Ovarian Hormones and Transdermal Nicotine Administration Independently and Synergistically Suppress Tobacco Withdrawal Symptoms and Smoking Reinstatement in the Human Laboratory. (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Liautaud, Madalyn M; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Huh, Jimi; Monterosso, John; Leventhal, Adam M


    Modeling intra-individual fluctuations in estradiol and progesterone may provide unique insight into the effects of ovarian hormones on the etiology and treatment of nicotine dependence. This randomized placebo-controlled laboratory study tested the independent and interactive effects of intra-individual ovarian hormone variation and nicotine on suppression of tobacco withdrawal symptoms and smoking behavior. Female smokers randomized to 21 mg nicotine (TNP; n=37) or placebo (PBO; n=43) transdermal patch following overnight abstinence completed three sessions occurring during hormonally distinct menstrual cycle phases. At each session, participants provided saliva for hormone assays and completed repeated self-report measures (ie, tobacco withdrawal symptoms, smoking urge, and negative affect (NA)) followed by an analog smoking reinstatement task for which participants could earn money to delay smoking and subsequently purchase cigarettes to smoke. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels were associated with greater reductions in NA. Higher (vs lower) progesterone levels and progesterone to estradiol ratios were associated with reducing smoking urges over time to a greater extent with TNP compared to PBO. There was an interaction between Patch and estradiol on NA. With TNP, higher-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. However with PBO, lower-than-usual estradiol was associated with greater decreases in NA. These results suggest that the effects of TNP on mood- and smoking-related outcomes may vary depending on the ovarian hormone levels.

  17. Urinary Sex Steroids and Anthropometric Markers of Puberty - A Novel Approach to Characterising Within-Person Changes of Puberty Hormones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurmeet K S Singh

    Full Text Available The longitudinal relationships of within-individual hormone and anthropometric changes during puberty have not ever been fully described. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that 3 monthly urine collection was feasible in young adolescents and to utilise liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay methods for serum and urine testosterone (T, estradiol (E2 and luteinizing hormone (LH in adolescents by relating temporal changes in urine and serum hormones over 12 months to standard measures of pubertal development.A community sample of 104 adolescents (57 female was studied over 12 months with annual anthropometric assessment, blood sampling and self-rated Tanner staging and urine collected every 3 months. Serum and urine sex steroids (T, E2 were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and LH by immunoassay.A high proportion (92% of scheduled samples were obtained with low attrition rate of 6.7% over the 12 months. Urine hormone measurements correlated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with age, anthropometry and Tanner stage.We have developed a feasible and valid sampling methodology and measurements for puberty hormones in urine, which allows a sampling frequency by which individual pubertal progression in adolescents can be described in depth.

  18. Toxic effects of arsenic on semen and hormonal profile and their amelioration with vitamin E in Teddy goat bucks. (United States)

    Zubair, M; Ahmad, M; Jamil, H; Deeba, F


    The present environmental study has been planned to investigate the toxic effects of arsenic on reproductive functions of Teddy bucks as well as to examine whether these toxic effects are ameliorated by vitamin E. Sixteen adult Teddy bucks were divided randomly into four equal groups A, B, C and D with following treatment: A (control), B (sodium arsenite 5 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ), C (vit E 200 mg kg -1 BW day -1  + Arsenic 5 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ) and D (vit E 200 mg kg -1 BW day -1 ). This treatment was continued for 84 days. Semen quality parameters were evaluated weekly. Male testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and cortisol levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after every 2 weeks. The data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Duncan test for multiple comparisons. Semen evaluation parameters were reduced significantly (P animals. The serum hormonal profile of testosterone, LH and FSH was reduced significantly (P Vitamin E alleviated the toxic effects of arsenic on semen and hormonal parameters. It may be concluded from this study that sodium arsenite causes major toxicity changes in semen and hormonal profile in Teddy goat bucks and vitamin E has ameliorative effects on these toxic changes. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone. (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M


    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  20. Emerging hormonal treatments for menopausal symptoms. (United States)

    Genazzani, Andrea R; Komm, Barry S; Pickar, James H


    The majority of women experience bothersome symptoms postmenopause (e.g., hot flushes, vaginal symptoms). Estrogen receptor agonists remain the most effective options for ameliorating menopausal symptoms. However, use of hormonal therapies has declined in the wake of issues raised by the Women's Health Initiative trials. As a result, there is a need for new safe and effective alternatives to estrogen-progestogen hormone therapy. We review the efficacy and safety profile of hormonal menopausal therapies that are in Phase III clinical trials or recently approved. Investigational treatments discussed include two new vaginal estrogen products (TX-004HR, WC-3011); the first combination of estradiol and progesterone, and a novel combination of dehydroepiandrosterone and acolbifene. We also review a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), ospemifene, recently approved for treatment of dyspareunia related to menopause, and conjugated estrogens plus bazedoxifene, an estrogens/SERM combination, recently approved for moderate-to-severe vasomotor symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis. New and emerging hormonal treatments for managing menopausal symptoms may have improved safety and efficacy profiles compared with traditional estrogen-progestogen therapy; however, long-term safety data will be needed.

  1. Menopausal hormone therapy and menopausal symptoms. (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Santoro, Nanette


    A majority of women will experience bothersome symptoms related to declining and/or fluctuating levels of estrogen during their menopausal transition. Vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness, poor sleep, and depressed mood have all been found to worsen during the menopausal transition. While vasomotor symptoms gradually improve after menopause, the time course can be many years. Vaginal dryness does not improve without treatment, while the long-term course of sleep and mood deterioration is not clearly defined at this time. A small minority of women have vasomotor symptoms that persist throughout the remainder of their lives. These common menopausal symptoms all improve with estrogen treatment. Over the last 10 years, we have witnessed a dramatic reduction in enthusiasm for menopausal hormone therapy, despite its high efficacy relative to other treatments. We have also seen the emergence of sound, evidence-based clinical trials of non-hormonal alternatives that can control the common menopausal symptoms. Understanding the natural history of menopausal symptoms, and the risks and benefits of both hormonal and non-hormonal alternatives, helps the clinician individualize management plans to improve quality of life. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K


    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb...

  3. Longitudinal reproductive hormone profiles in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Toppari, J; Haavisto, A M


    influence male reproductive health in adulthood. The early postnatal activity of the Sertoli cell, a testicular cell type that is supposed to play a major role in sperm production in adulthood is largely unknown. Recently, the peptide hormone inhibin B was shown to be a marker of Sertoli cell function...

  4. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men (United States)

    ... over a period of many years and the consequences aren't necessarily clear. So what's the best way to refer to so-called male menopause? Many doctors use the term "andropause" to describe aging-related hormone changes in men. Other terms include ...

  5. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D


    /ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...

  6. Gut satiety hormones and hyperemesis gravidarum. (United States)

    Köşüş, Aydin; Köşüş, Nermin; Usluoğullari, Betül; Hizli, Deniz; Namuslu, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Abdullah


    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is described as unexplained excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Some gut hormones that regulate appetite may have important role in etiopathogenesis of HG and weight changes during pregnancy. In this study, levels of gut satiety hormones were evaluated in pregnant women with HG. This prospective case-control study was conducted in 30 women with HG and 30 healthy pregnant women without symptoms of HG. Fasting venous blood samples were taken from all subjects for measurement of plasma gut hormone levels; obestatin (pg/mL), peptide YY (PYY), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Plasma PYY and PP levels were significantly higher in HG group. The most important parameter in diagnosis of HG was plasma PP level. Simple use of PP level led to the diagnosis 91.1 % of HG cases correctly. The single most important parameter in the prediction of HG was also PP level. Anorexigenic gut hormones might have important role in etiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and weight changes during pregnancy.

  7. Thyroid hormone action in postnatal heart development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li


    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of cardiac growth and development, both in fetal life and postnatally. Here we review the role of thyroid hormone in postnatal cardiac development, given recent insights into its role in stimulating a burst of cardiomyocyte proliferation in the murine heart in preadolescence; a response required to meet the massive increase in circulatory demand predicated by an almost quadrupling of body weight during a period of about 21 days from birth to adolescence. Importantly, thyroid hormone metabolism is altered by chronic diseases, such as heart failure and ischemic heart disease, as well as in very sick children requiring surgery for congenital heart diseases, which results in low T3 syndrome that impairs cardiovascular function and is associated with a poor prognosis. Therapy with T3 or thyroid hormone analogs has been shown to improve cardiac contractility; however, the mechanism is as yet unknown. Given the postnatal cardiomyocyte mitogenic potential of T3, its ability to enhance cardiac function by promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation warrants further consideration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Sousa


    Full Text Available The ability to manage the constantly growing information in genetics availableon the internet is becoming crucial in biochemical education and medicalpractice. Therefore, developing students skills in working with bioinformaticstools is a challenge to undergraduate courses in the molecular life sciences.The regulation of gene transcription by hormones and vitamins is a complextopic that influences all body systems. We describe a student centered activityused in a multidisciplinary “Functional Organ System“ course on the EndocrineSystem. By receiving, as teams, a nucleotide sequence of a hormone orvitamin-response element, students navigate through internet databases to findthe gene to which it belongs. Subsequently, student’s search how thecorresponding hormone/vitamin influences the expression of that particulargene and how a dysfunctional interaction might cause disease. This activity,proposed for 4 consecutive years to cohorts of 50-60 students/year enrolled inthe 2nd year our undergraduate medical degree, revealed that 90% of thestudents developed a better understanding of the usefulness of bioinformaticsand that 98% intend to use them in the future. Since hormones and vitaminsregulate genes of all body organ systems, this web-based activity successfullyintegrates the whole body physiology of the medical curriculum and can be ofrelevance to other courses on molecular life sciences.

  9. [Hormone replacement therapy: curse or blessing?]. (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Fink, D; Lang, U; Kimmig, R


    There is a controversial discussion on the risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and many women and doctors have revised their opinions of HRT over the last few years. Complementary and alternative therapies can be considered an option to treat menopausal symptoms. The following issue summarizes the actual knowledge of treatment options of menopausal symptoms.

  10. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam


    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  11. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K


    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities for the tr......It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...... for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In contrast to other antidiabetic treatments, these agents have a positive outcome profile on body weight. Worldwide there are 500 million obese people, and 3 million are dying every year from obesity-related diseases. Recently, incretin-based therapy was proposed...... for the treatment of obesity. Currently two different incretin therapies are widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: 1) the GLP-1 receptor agonists which cause significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients, and 2) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors being weight neutral. These findings...

  12. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sze


    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C (CysC is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphenoidal surgery. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. Results: In all patients, surgical debulking resulted in decreased clinical disease activity and declining GH/IGF-1 levels. Postoperatively, biochemical cure was documented in 20 out of 24 patients. Creatinine levels (mean ± SEM increased from 72 ± 3 to 80 ± 3 µmol/l (p = 0.0004 and concurrently, estimated GFR decreased from 99 ± 3 to 91 ± 3 ml/min (p = 0.0008. In contrast to creatinine, CysC levels decreased from 0.72 ± 0.02 to 0.68 ± 0.02 mg/l (p = 0.0008. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence for discordant effects of GH on creatinine and CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery, thus identifying another hormone that influences CysC independent of renal function.

  13. Determination of hormonal combination for increased multiplication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In Uganda, the use of tissue culture is a new technique in seed potato production, therefore, appropriate media composition for rapid multiplication of potato tissue culture plantlets has not been optimised. Thus, the objective of this study was to optimize hormonal combinations for increased multiplication of tissue culture.

  14. Plant hormones and ecophysiology of conifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, W.J.


    Over the past 30 years, there have been very substantial fluctuations in the interests of plant scientists in the involvement of plant growth regulators in the control of physiology, growth, and development of plants. In the years following the identification of the five major classes of growth regulators and identification of other groups of compounds of somewhat more restricted interest, an enormous number of papers reported the effects of hormones applied externally to a very wide range of plants. During this period, it became very fashionable to compare effects of hormones with the effects of the environment on developmental and physiological phenomena and to suggest a regulatory role for the hormone(s) in the processes under consideration. Ross et al. (1983) have published a very comprehensive survey of the effects of growth regulators applied externally to conifers, and even 10 years later, it is difficult to improve on what they have done. Nevertheless, in the light of recent changes in our understanding of how growth regulators may work, it is necessary to reexamine this field and ask what we really know about the involvement of growth regulators in the ecophysiology of conifers.

  15. Hormones in pregnancy | Kumar | Nigerian Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this ...

  16. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M


    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  17. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain (United States)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  18. Molecular Medicine II: Hormone Dependent Cancers (United States)


    family, member 4 deiodinase, iodothyronine, -3.1 Dio2 thyroid hormone catabolism type II serne (cysteine) -4.3 Serpina3n proteinas inhibitor, clade A...ElO, and the anti- p44/42 teins and recruit various proteinases , including matrix metal- MAPK rabbit polyclonal antibody were from Cell Signaling Tech

  19. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth. A.L. Marais and J.G. van der Walt. Rumen Biochemistry, Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute,. Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. Six newly weaned karakul ewes, three with fat tails and three without tails, were used to investigate the metabolic and hor ...

  20. Modelling synergistic effects of appetite regulating hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Julie Berg; Ritz, Christian


    We briefly reviewed one definition of dose addition, which is applicable within the framework of generalized linear models. We established how this definition of dose addition corresponds to effect addition in case only two doses per compound are considered for evaluating synergistic effects. The....... The link between definitions was exemplified for an appetite study where two appetite hormones were studied....

  1. Relationship between Thyroid Hormone levels and Hyperthyroid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Assessment of thyrotoxic patients often involves laboratory and clinical evaluation. We have therefore investigated the relationship between the magnitude of hyperthyroid symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in a set of newly diagnosed thyrotoxic patients. Methods: Fifteen subjects with untreated, newly ...

  2. Sexual behavioural pattern of orchidectomised and hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The persistence or cessation of sexual behaviour after abrupt testosterone withdrawal i.e. castration depends among other things on the age of the animal at castration. The aim of this work is to ascertain the effect of early orchidectomy and subsequent hormone replacement to 24 weeks of age on restoration of sexual ...

  3. Interactions between hormonal contraception and antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Arne; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Sabers, Anne


    Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and hormonal contraceptives may affect each other's metabolism and clinical efficacy. Loss of seizure control and unplanned pregnancy may occur when these compounds are used concomitantly. Although a large number of available preparations yield a plethora of possible dr...

  4. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha


    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og...

  5. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development. (United States)

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M


    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women's underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression.

  6. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six newly weaned karakul ewes, three with fat tails and three without tails, were used to investigate the metabolic and hormonal changes during accelerated growth. Two lambs acted as controls, while the remaining four were SUbjected to a maintenance diet for two weeks. The subsequent resumption of ad lib feeding ...

  7. Reproductive hormones as psychotropic agents? | Berk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The female preponderance in unipolar mood and anxiety disorders is well documented, with a double to triple lifetime prevalence compared to males. Much of this increased vulnerability is in the childbearing years. Hormones are a tempting explanation, although other biochemical factors such as cytokines may also be ...

  8. Hormones and tendinopathies: the current evidence. (United States)

    Oliva, Francesco; Piccirilli, Eleonora; Berardi, Anna C; Frizziero, Antonio; Tarantino, Umberto; Maffulli, Nicola


    Tendinopathies negatively affect the quality of life of millions of people, but we still do not know the factors involved in the development of tendon conditions. Published articles in English in PubMed and Google Scholar up to June 2015 about hormonal influence on tendinopathies onset. One hundred and two papers were included following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In vitro and in vivo, tenocytes showed changes in their morphology and in their functional properties according to hormonal imbalances. Genetic pattern, sex, age and comorbidities can influence the hormonal effect on tendons. The increasing prevalence of metabolic disorders prompts to investigate the possible connection between metabolic problems and musculoskeletal diseases. The influence of hormones on tendon structure and metabolism needs to be further investigated. If found to be significant, multidisciplinary preventive and therapeutic strategies should then be developed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Highlights from the history of hormonal cytology. (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Androutsos, George


    In 1847 Felix-Archimede Pouchet effectively launched the study of the physiology of cytology. Now 160 years later, the authors briefly trace the development of hormonal cytology to our present knowledge and practice. In the course of the paper the contribution of George Papanicolaou is stressed because of his monumental contribution to a major segment of medical practice of great emotive import.

  10. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid? (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.


    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  11. Hormonal contraceptive congruency : Implications for relationship jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Research shows that women who use hormonal contraceptives (HCs) differ in their mate preferences from women who have regular cycles. It has been proposed that when a partnered woman either begins to use or ceases to use HCs, she may experience changes in her relationship since her preferences become

  12. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper


    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  13. Hormonal Regulation of Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian, Wa; Rosen, Jeffrey M


    Our laboratory is interested in studying the mechanisms by which lactogenic hormones regulate Beta-casein gene expression and how alterations in the levels of these hormones may function in the growth...

  14. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  15. In Silico characterization of growth hormone from freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensional (3D) structure prediction and evolutionary profile of growth hormone (GH) from 14 ornamental freshwater fishes. The analyses were performed using the sequence data of growth hormone gene (gh) and its encoded GH protein.

  16. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder (United States)

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth hormone...

  18. Homologous amino-terminal radioimmunoassay for rat parathyroid hormone. (United States)

    Calvo, M S; Gundberg, C M; Heath, H; Fox, J


    Existing radioimmunoassays for parathyroid hormone (PTH) in rat plasma are based on cross-reactivity of rat PTH (rPTH) with heterologous antisera. We used the synthetic NH2-terminal fragment of rPTH [rPTH-(1-34)] to develop a homologous radioimmunoassay for circulating PTH. An antiserum to rPTH-(1-34) was raised in a goat (G-813), and the same peptide was used as radioligand (125I) and standard. Purification of the label by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) increased specific binding greater than twofold and sensitivity by 50-100%. With a final antiserum dilution of 1:70,000, maximum specific binding of 30-33%, nonspecific binding of 1-5%, and 50-microliters sample additions, the assay detection limit was 1.8-2.5 pmol/l. A midregional fragment of human PTH did not displace 125I-labeled rPTH-(1-34). HPLC of extracts of rat parathyroid glands and hyperparathyroid plasma showed only a single peak of immunoreactivity that eluted 2 min after rPTH-(1-34). Dose dilution curves for rat parathyroid gland extracts, rPTH-(1-34) added to rat plasma, and endogenous rat plasma PTH all paralleled the standard curve. Immunoreactive PTH (irPTH) was detectable in greater than 90% of fasting normal rat plasma and changed appropriately in response to hyper- and hypocalcemia induced by low-calcium and vitamin D-deficient diets, injections of calcium and EDTA, and after thyroparathyroidectomy. The normal range for rat plasma irPTH was less than 2.0-12 pmol/l, in general agreement with bioassay results of others. Thus rPTH-(1-34) is an excellent immunogen for raising antisera to rPTH, and assays incorporating it may be of great value in studying rat parathyroid physiology.

  19. Suppression of androgen production by D-tryptophan-6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in man. (United States)

    Tolis, G; Mehta, A; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V


    Four male transsexual subjects were given a superactive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogue, D-tryptophan-6-LHRH at daily doses of 100 micrograms for 3--6 mo. A decrease in beard growth, acne, and erectile potency was noted; the latter was documented objectively with the recordings of nocturnal penile tumescence episodes. Plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels fell to castrate values; basal prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels showed a small decline, whereas the acutely releasable luteinizing hormone was significantly suppressed. A rise of plasma testosterone from castrate to normal levels was demonstrable with the use of human chorionic gonadotropin. Discontinuation of treatment led to a normalization of erectile potency and plasma testosterone. The suppression of Leydig cell function by D-tryptophan-6-LHRH might have wide application in reproductive biology and in endocrine-dependent neoplasia (where it could replace surgical castration). PMID:6456277


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Receptor assays occupy a particular position in the methods used in bioanalysis, as they do not exploit the physico-chemical properties of the analyte. These assays make use of the property of the analyte to bind to the specific binding site (receptor) and to competitively replace a labelled ligand

  1. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay. (United States)

    Lin, Robert; Skandarajah, Arunan; Gerver, Rachel E; Neira, Hector D; Fletcher, Daniel A; Herr, Amy E


    Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to selectively immobilize unmodified capture antigen along the microchannel in a barcode-like pattern. The channel-filling polyacrylamide hydrogel incorporates a photoactive moiety (benzophenone) to immobilize capture antigen to the hydrogel without a priori antigen modification. We report a heterogeneous sandwich assay using low-power electrophoresis to drive biospecimen through the capture antigen barcode. Fluorescence barcode readout is collected via a low-resource appropriate imaging system (CellScope). We characterize lateral e-flow assay performance and demonstrate a serum assay for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). In a pilot study, the lateral e-flow assay positively identifies HCV+ human sera in 60 min. The lateral e-flow assay provides a flexible format for conducting multiplexed immunoassays relevant to confirmatory diagnosis in near-patient settings.

  2. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.


    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  3. A Continuous, Fluorogenic Sirtuin 2 Deacylase Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galleano, Iacopo; Schiedel, Matthias; Jung, Manfred


    and kinetic insight regarding sirtuin inhibitors, it is important to have access to efficient assays. In this work, we report readily synthesized fluorogenic substrates enabling enzyme-economical evaluation of SIRT2 inhibitors in a continuous assay format as well as evaluation of the properties of SIRT2...

  4. Hormones and autoimmunity: animal models of arthritis. (United States)

    Wilder, R L


    Hormones, particularly those involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and -adrenal axes (HPG and HPA), play important roles in various animal models of autoimmunity such as systemic lupus erythematosus in mice and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and rats, and the streptococcal cell wall, adjuvant and avridine arthritis models in rats. Intimately linked to the subject of hormones and autoimmunity are gender, sex chromosomes and age. The importance of these factors in the various animal models is emphasized in this chapter. Several major themes are apparent. First, oestrogens promote B-cell dependent immune-complex mediated disease (e.g. lupus nephritis) but suppress T-cell dependent pathology (CIA in mice and rats), and vice versa. Second, testosterone's effects are complicated and depend on species and disease model. In rats, testosterone suppresses both T-cell and B-cell immunity. In mice, the effects are complex and difficult to interpret, e.g. they tend to enhance CIA arthritis and suppress lupus. Sex chromosome/sex hormone interactions are clearly involved in generating these complicated effects. Third, studies in Lewis and Fischer F344 rats exemplify the importance of corticosteroids, corticotrophin releasing hormone and the HPA axis in the regulation of inflammation and the predisposition to autoimmune diseases. Fourth, the HPA axis is intimately linked to the HPG axis and is sexually dimorphic. Oestrogens stimulate higher corticosteroid responses in females. The animal model data have major implications for understanding autoimmunity in humans. In particular, adrenal and gonadal hormone deficiency is likely to facilitate T-cell dependent diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, while high oestrogen levels or effects, relative to testosterone, are likely to promote B-cell dependent immune-complex-mediated diseases such as lupus nephritis.

  5. The impact of recombinant parathyroid hormone on malignancies and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, U C; Hyldstrup, L; Jensen, J E B


    We used Danish registers to identify patients with osteoporosis, who had been treated with parathyroid hormone and evaluated the probability of developing cancer. We did not find an increased risk of cancer among the patients treated with parathyroid hormone.......We used Danish registers to identify patients with osteoporosis, who had been treated with parathyroid hormone and evaluated the probability of developing cancer. We did not find an increased risk of cancer among the patients treated with parathyroid hormone....

  6. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian


    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  7. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones. (United States)

    Katayama, Hidekazu


    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  8. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J


    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH). (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M


    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  10. Towards a systematic assessment of assay interference: Identification of extensively tested compounds with high assay promiscuity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilberg Erik; Stumpfe Dagmar; Bajorath Jürgen


    A large-scale statistical analysis of hit rates of extensively assayed compounds is presented to provide a basis for a further assessment of assay interference potential and multi-target activities...

  11. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar


    for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009). The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity...... of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided...... with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014). An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster...

  12. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida


    Rare sequence variants in "high-risk" disease genes, often referred as unclassified variants (UVs), pose a serious challenge to genetic testing. However, UVs resulting in splicing alterations can be readily assessed by in vitro assays. Unfortunately, analytical and clinical interpretation...... of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...... International Agency for Research on Cancer guidelines), we performed qPCR and/or minigene assays. The latter were performed with a new splicing vector (pSAD) developed by authors of the present manuscript (patent #P201231427 CSIC). We have identified three clinically relevant Class-5 variants (c.682-2A>G, c...

  13. Monitoreo del Clima Espacial desde Colombia mediante Radio-receptores Butterworth de Orden Superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Jaramillo Alvarado


    Full Text Available Contexto: las fulguraciones solares y las eyecciones de masa coronal liberan al espacio grandes cantidades de radiación que, al alcanzar las capas exteriores de la atmósfera terrestre, alteran sus características eléctricas. El conjunto de fenómenos derivados de esta interacción se conoce como clima espacial y sus consecuencias incluyen fallas en los sistemas de geolocalización, las telecomunicaciones, las operaciones vía satélite, el seguimiento espacial, la radionavegación y la sobrecarga de redes eléctricas. Método: en este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un radio receptor que permite adelantar el monitoreo del clima espacial desde Colombia. Además, se describe una metodología novedosa para el diseño de filtros analógicos de orden superior de característica Butterworth, a partir de la interconexión en paralelo de bancos de filtros de primero y segundo orden, obteniéndose la función de transferencia deseada. Resultados: el radio receptor desarrollado se instaló en la estación de monitoreo del clima espacial del Observatorio Astronómico de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira (OAUTP, Colombia, entrando en operación en diciembre de 2015. Desde esa fecha, el sistema ha registrado la actividad solar de forma ininterrumpida, detectando cuatro potentes explosiones solares clase C presentadas los días 15, 16 y 17 del mes de abril de 2016. Las señales recibidas por el radio receptor son enviadas a la base de datos global del Stanford Solar Center, de Stanford University, con el código UTP 0383. Conclusiones: el radio telescopio desarrollado permite al Observatorio Astronómico OAUTP adelantar el monitoreo del clima espacial y de la actividad solar, enviando la información recibida a repositorios de acceso público a nivel mundial. No existen otros receptores de radio de este tipo operando en la actualidad en países ecuatoriales, una región de la Tierra donde los efectos de la actividad solar pueden conducir a nuevos conocimientos que aporten en la comprensión de este fenómeno. Además, los filtros de orden superior diseñados pueden tener aplicación en el campo de la instrumentación para la medición de señales eléctricas biomédicas.

  14. Structural Basis for Antibody Discrimination between Two Hormones That Recognize the Parathyroid Hormone Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinstry, William J.; Polekhina, Galina; Diefenbach-Jagger, Hannelore; Ho, Patricia W.M.; Sato, Koh; Onuma, Etsuro; Gillespie, Matthew T.; Martin, T. John; Parker, Michael W.; (SVIMR-A); (Chugai); (Melbourne)


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a vital role in the embryonic development of the skeleton and other tissues. When it is produced in excess by cancers it can cause hypercalcemia, and its local production by breast cancer cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis formation in that disease. Antibodies have been developed that neutralize the action of PTHrP through its receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1, without influencing parathyroid hormone action through the same receptor. Such neutralizing antibodies against PTHrP are therapeutically effective in animal models of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy and of bone metastasis formation. We have determined the crystal structure of the complex between PTHrP (residues 1-108) and a neutralizing monoclonal anti-PTHrP antibody that reveals the only point of contact is an {alpha}-helical structure extending from residues 14-29. Another striking feature is that the same residues that interact with the antibody also interact with parathyroid hormone receptor 1, showing that the antibody and the receptor binding site on the hormone closely overlap. The structure explains how the antibody discriminates between the two hormones and provides information that could be used in the development of novel agonists and antagonists of their common receptor.

  15. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eBarth


    Full Text Available Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo.

  16. Cognitive impairments and mood disturbances in growth hormone deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; de Boer, H.; Blok, G.J.; van der Veen, E.A.


    In order to establish whether reported psychological complaints in hypopituitary adults are related to growth hormone (GH) deficiency or other pituitary hormone deficiencies, emotional well-being and cognitive performance were evaluated in 31 men with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD)

  17. Combined effect of hormonal priming and salt treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 5, 2012 ... Hormonal priming is a pre-sowing treatment that improves seed germination performance and stress tolerance. To understand the physiology of hormonal priming and its association with post priming stress tolerance, we investigated the effect of hormonal priming with increasing gibberellic acid (GA3).

  18. The importance of thyroid hormone sulfation during fetal development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique)


    textabstractNormal fetal development requires the presence of thyroid hormone. Disruption of any of the processes regulating the bioavailability of thyroid hormone may contribute to congenital anomalies. This thesis is focussed a) on the importance of thyroid hormone sulfation during

  19. [Recent advances in the hormonal treatment of sterility (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Fanard, A; Picazo, J J


    The present trends in the utilization of hormones in the treatment of sterility are reviewed, special reference being made to the utilization of gonadotrophins, hypothalamic hormones and gonadal hormones as well as other substances (clomiphene, epimestrol, cyclophenyl) that are also utilized in this type of treatments.

  20. Hypothalamic regulation of metabolism : Role of thyroid hormone and estrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.


    Thyroid hormone and estrogen both play an essential role in energy metabolism. The current thesis investigated the possible central effects of these hormones in the control of energy metabolism by administrating triiodothyronine (T3), estradiol (E2) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in