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Sample records for hormone partially corrects

  1. Thyroid hormone partially corrects the effect of diabetes on mysoin heavy chain RNAs in the rat ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrieux, A.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The relative abundance of the 2 cardiac myosin heavy chains (MHH-α and MHC-β) and their corresponding RNAs is similarly affected by hypothyroidism and diabetes in the rat ventricle. Since circulating levels of thyroid hormone (T 3 ) are significantly decreased in diabetes the decreased RNA-α and increased RNA-β associated with diabetes may be related to T 3 deficiency. Chronically diabetic rats were injected with T 3 , insulin (I), or both and sacrificed between 1 and 12 hrs after injection, MHC RNA was quantified by hybridization of total RNA to a [ 32 P]-cDNA MHC-α probe. Total MHC RNA was measured by retention of S1-resistant label on DE-81 while RNA-α and RNA-β were quantified by separation of intact (α) and partially digested (β) probe by gel electrophoresis. Total MHC RNA was not changed by T 3 or I (.9-1.2 ng/μg of cellular RNA). T 3 and I elicited a very rapid increase in RNA-α (18% in untreated to 38% (I) and 47% (T 3 within 1 hr). I administered either 7 hr before or 1 hr after T 3 did not modify the RNA-α increase observed after T 3 alone. However, the response of diabetic rats to T 3 was markedly different from that of hypothyroid rats. Conclusions: 1) T 3 in diabetic rats does not mimick the effect of T 3 in hypothyroid rats; it may simply impose a hyperthyroid state on the existing diabetes and 2) since neither T 3 nor I are able to increase RNA-α to control levels within 12 hrs, neither hormone is sufficient to regulate the expression of MHC RNAs

  2. Partial correction of the dwarf phenotype by non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene in mice: Treatment age is critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Cláudia R; Oliveira, Nélio A J; Lima, Eliana R; Vieira, Daniel P; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2016-02-01

    Non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene to different muscles of immunodeficient dwarf (lit/scid) mice is under study with the objective of improving phenotypic correction via this particular gene therapy approach. Plasmid DNA was administered into the exposed quadriceps or non-exposed tibialis cranialis muscle of lit/scid mice followed by electroporation, monitoring several growth parameters. In a 6-month bioassay, 50μg DNA were injected three times into the quadriceps muscle of 80-day old mice. A 50% weight increase, with a catch-up growth of 21%, together with a 16% increase for nose-to-tail and tail lengths (catch-up=19-21%) and a 24-28% increase for femur length (catch-up=53-60%), were obtained. mIGF1 serum levels were ~7-fold higher than the basal levels for untreated mice, but still ~2-fold lower than in non-dwarf scid mice. Since treatment age was found to be particularly important in a second bioassay utilizing 40-day old mice, these pubertal mice were compared in a third bioassay with adult (80-day old) mice, all treated twice with 50μg DNA injected into each tibialis cranialis muscle, via a less invasive approach. mIGF1 concentrations at the same level as co-aged scid mice were obtained 15days after administration in pubertal mice. Catch-up growth, based on femur length (77%), nose-to-tail (36%) and tail length (39%) increases was 40 to 95% higher than those obtained upon treating adult mice. These data pave the way for the development of more effective pre-clinical assays in pubertal dwarf mice for the treatment of GH deficiency via plasmid-DNA muscular administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Partial Volume Effects correction in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pogam, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    Partial Volume Effects (PVE) designates the blur commonly found in nuclear medicine images and this PhD work is dedicated to their correction with the objectives of qualitative and quantitative improvement of such images. PVE arise from the limited spatial resolution of functional imaging with either Positron Emission Tomography (PET) or Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). They can be defined as a signal loss in tissues of size similar to the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF of the imaging device. In addition, PVE induce activity cross contamination between adjacent structures with different tracer uptakes. This can lead to under or over estimation of the real activity of such analyzed regions. Various methodologies currently exist to compensate or even correct for PVE and they may be classified depending on their place in the processing chain: either before, during or after the image reconstruction process, as well as their dependency on co-registered anatomical images with higher spatial resolution, for instance Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The voxel-based and post-reconstruction approach was chosen for this work to avoid regions of interest definition and dependency on proprietary reconstruction developed by each manufacturer, in order to improve the PVE correction. Two different contributions were carried out in this work: the first one is based on a multi-resolution methodology in the wavelet domain using the higher resolution details of a co-registered anatomical image associated to the functional dataset to correct. The second one is the improvement of iterative deconvolution based methodologies by using tools such as directional wavelets and curvelets extensions. These various developed approaches were applied and validated using synthetic, simulated and clinical images, for instance with neurology and oncology applications in mind. Finally, as currently available PET/CT scanners incorporate more

  4. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) usin...

  5. Semantics and correctness proofs for programs with partial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakhnis, A.; Yakhnis, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a portion of the work on specification, design, and implementation of safety-critical systems such as reactor control systems. A natural approach to this problem, once all the requirements are captured, would be to state the requirements formally and then either to prove (preferably via automated tools) that the system conforms to spec (program verification), or to try to simultaneously generate the system and a mathematical proof that the requirements are being met (program derivation). An obstacle to this is frequent presence of partially defined operations within the software and its specifications. Indeed, the usual proofs via first order logic presuppose everywhere defined operations. Recognizing this problem, David Gries, in ''The Science of Programming,'' 1981, introduced the concept of partial functions into the mainstream of program correctness and gave hints how his treatment of partial functions could be formalized. Still, however, existing theorem provers and software verifiers have difficulties in checking software with partial functions, because of absence of uniform first order treatment of partial functions within classical 2-valued logic. Several rigorous mechanisms that took partiality into account were introduced [Wirsing 1990, Breu 1991, VDM 1986, 1990, etc.]. However, they either did not discuss correctness proofs or departed from first order logic. To fill this gap, the authors provide a semantics for software correctness proofs with partial functions within classical 2-valued 1st order logic. They formalize the Gries treatment of partial functions and also cover computations of functions whose argument lists may be only partially available. An example is nuclear reactor control relying on sensors which may fail to deliver sense data. This approach is sufficiently general to cover correctness proofs in various implementation languages

  6. SPAM-assisted partial volume correction algorithm for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Il; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Soh, Kwang Sup; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probability Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM). It will be a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) according to statistical variability of human brain in many fields of brain images. We show that we can get more exact quantification of the counts in VOI by using SPAM in the correlation of partial volume effect for simulated PET image. The MRI of a patient with dementia was segmented into gray matter and white matter, and then they were smoothed to PET resolution. Simulated PET image was made by adding one third of the smoothed white matter to the smoothed gray matter. Spillover effect and partial volume effect were corrected for this simulated PET image with the aid of the segmented and smoothed MR images. The images were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI atlas of ICBM, and were multiplied by the probablities of 98 VOIs of SPAM images of Montreal Neurological Institute. After the correction of partial volume effect, the counts of frontal, partietal, temporal, and occipital lobes were increased by 38±6%, while those of hippocampus and amygdala by 4±3%. By calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in the simulated PET image, the counts increase and become closer to the true values. SPAM-assisted partial volume correction is useful for quantification of VOIs in PET images

  7. SPAM-assisted partial volume correction algorithm for PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Il; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Soh, Kwang Sup; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probability Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM). It will be a good frame for calculating volume of interest (VOI) according to statistical variability of human brain in many fields of brain images. We show that we can get more exact quantification of the counts in VOI by using SPAM in the correlation of partial volume effect for simulated PET image. The MRI of a patient with dementia was segmented into gray matter and white matter, and then they were smoothed to PET resolution. Simulated PET image was made by adding one third of the smoothed white matter to the smoothed gray matter. Spillover effect and partial volume effect were corrected for this simulated PET image with the aid of the segmented and smoothed MR images. The images were spatially normalized to the average brain MRI atlas of ICBM, and were multiplied by the probablities of 98 VOIs of SPAM images of Montreal Neurological Institute. After the correction of partial volume effect, the counts of frontal, partietal, temporal, and occipital lobes were increased by 38{+-}6%, while those of hippocampus and amygdala by 4{+-}3%. By calculating the counts in VOI using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in the simulated PET image, the counts increase and become closer to the true values. SPAM-assisted partial volume correction is useful for quantification of VOIs in PET images.

  8. Partial volume correction in SPECT reconstruction with OSEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandsson, Kjell, E-mail: k.erlandsson@ucl.ac.uk [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Thomas, Ben; Dickson, John; Hutton, Brian F. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London and University College London Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-21

    SPECT images suffer from poor spatial resolution, which leads to partial volume effects due to cross-talk between different anatomical regions. By utilising high-resolution structural images (CT or MRI) it is possible to compensate for these effects. Traditional partial volume correction (PVC) methods suffer from various limitations, such as correcting a single region only, returning only regional mean values, or assuming a stationary point spread function (PSF). We recently presented a novel method in which PVC was combined with the reconstruction process in order to take into account the distance dependent PSF in SPECT, which was based on filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction. We now present a new method based on the iterative OSEM algorithm, which has advantageous noise properties compared to FBP. We have applied this method to a series of 10 brain SPECT studies performed on healthy volunteers using the DATSCAN tracer. T1-weighted MRI images were co-registered to the SPECT data and segmented into 33 anatomical regions. The SPECT data were reconstructed using OSEM, and PVC was applied in the projection domain at each iteration. The correction factors were calculated by forward projection of a piece-wise constant image, generated from the segmented MRI. Images were also reconstructed using FBP and standard OSEM with and without resolution recovery (RR) for comparison. The images were evaluated in terms of striatal contrast and regional variability (CoV). The mean striatal contrast obtained with OSEM, OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC relative to FBP were 1.04, 1.42 and 1.53, respectively, and the mean striatal CoV values are 1.05, 1.53, 1.07. Both OSEM-RR and OSEM-PVC results in images with significantly higher contrast as compared to FBP or OSEM, but OSEM-PVC avoids the increased regional variability of OSEM-RR due to improved structural definition.

  9. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Partial volume correction (PVC) methods typically improve quantification at the expense of increased image noise and reduced reproducibility. In this study, the authors developed a novel voxel-based PVC method that incorporates anatomical knowledge to improve quantification while suppressing noise for cardiac SPECT/CT imaging. Methods: In the proposed method, the SPECT images were first reconstructed using anatomical-based maximum a posteriori (AMAP) with Bowsher’s prior to penalize noise while preserving boundaries. A sequential voxel-by-voxel PVC approach (Yang’s method) was then applied on the AMAP reconstruction using a template response. This template response was obtained by forward projecting a template derived from a contrast-enhanced CT image, and then reconstructed using AMAP to model the partial volume effects (PVEs) introduced by both the system resolution and the smoothing applied during reconstruction. To evaluate the proposed noise suppressed PVC (NS-PVC), the authors first simulated two types of cardiac SPECT studies: a {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scan and a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scan on a dedicated cardiac multiple pinhole SPECT/CT at both high and low count levels. The authors then applied the proposed method on a canine equilibrium blood pool study following injection with {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs at different count levels by rebinning the list-mode data into shorter acquisitions. The proposed method was compared to MLEM reconstruction without PVC, two conventional PVC methods, including Yang’s method and multitarget correction (MTC) applied on the MLEM reconstruction, and AMAP reconstruction without PVC. Results: The results showed that the Yang’s method improved quantification, however, yielded increased noise and reduced reproducibility in the regions with higher activity. MTC corrected for PVE on high count data with amplified noise, although yielded the worst performance among all the methods

  10. The gut hormone ghrelin partially reverses energy substrate metabolic alterations in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitacchione, Gianfranco; Powers, Jeffrey C; Grifoni, Gino; Woitek, Felix; Lam, Amy; Ly, Lien; Settanni, Fabio; Makarewich, Catherine A; McCormick, Ryan; Trovato, Letizia; Houser, Steven R; Granata, Riccarda; Recchia, Fabio A

    2014-07-01

    The gut-derived hormone ghrelin, especially its acylated form, plays a major role in the regulation of systemic metabolism and exerts also relevant cardioprotective effects; hence, it has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that ghrelin can directly modulate cardiac energy substrate metabolism. We used chronically instrumented dogs, 8 with pacing-induced HF and 6 normal controls. Human des-acyl ghrelin [1.2 nmol/kg per hour] was infused intravenously for 15 minutes, followed by washout (rebaseline) and infusion of acyl ghrelin at the same dose. (3)H-oleate and (14)C-glucose were coinfused and arterial and coronary sinus blood sampled to measure cardiac free fatty acid and glucose oxidation and lactate uptake. As expected, cardiac substrate metabolism was profoundly altered in HF because baseline oxidation levels of free fatty acids and glucose were, respectively, >70% lower and >160% higher compared with control. Neither des-acyl ghrelin nor acyl ghrelin significantly affected function and metabolism in normal hearts. However, in HF, des-acyl and acyl ghrelin enhanced myocardial oxygen consumption by 10.2±3.5% and 9.9±3.7%, respectively (Pmetabolism in normal dogs, whereas they enhance free fatty acid oxidation and reduce glucose oxidation in HF dogs, thus partially correcting metabolic alterations in HF. This novel mechanism might contribute to the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin in HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Detecting and correcting partial errors: Evidence for efficient control without conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, N; Spieser, L; Casini, L; Hasbroucq, T; Burle, B

    2014-09-01

    Appropriate reactions to erroneous actions are essential to keeping behavior adaptive. Erring, however, is not an all-or-none process: electromyographic (EMG) recordings of the responding muscles have revealed that covert incorrect response activations (termed "partial errors") occur on a proportion of overtly correct trials. The occurrence of such "partial errors" shows that incorrect response activations could be corrected online, before turning into overt errors. In the present study, we showed that, unlike overt errors, such "partial errors" are poorly consciously detected by participants, who could report only one third of their partial errors. Two parameters of the partial errors were found to predict detection: the surface of the incorrect EMG burst (larger for detected) and the correction time (between the incorrect and correct EMG onsets; longer for detected). These two parameters provided independent information. The correct(ive) responses associated with detected partial errors were larger than the "pure-correct" ones, and this increase was likely a consequence, rather than a cause, of the detection. The respective impacts of the two parameters predicting detection (incorrect surface and correction time), along with the underlying physiological processes subtending partial-error detection, are discussed.

  12. Anatomically guided voxel-based partial volume effect correction in brain PET : Impact of MRI segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Assal, Frederic; Allaoua, Mohamed; Ratib, Osman; Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Zaidi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Partial volume effect is still considered one of the main limitations in brain PET imaging given the limited spatial resolution of current generation PET scanners. The accuracy of anatomically guided partial volume effect correction (PVC) algorithms in brain PET is largely dependent on the

  13. Partial fourier and parallel MR image reconstruction with integrated gradient nonlinearity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shengzhen; Trzasko, Joshua D; Shu, Yunhong; Weavers, Paul T; Huston, John; Gray, Erin M; Bernstein, Matt A

    2016-06-01

    To describe how integrated gradient nonlinearity (GNL) correction can be used within noniterative partial Fourier (homodyne) and parallel (SENSE and GRAPPA) MR image reconstruction strategies, and demonstrate that performing GNL correction during, rather than after, these routines mitigates the image blurring and resolution loss caused by postreconstruction image domain based GNL correction. Starting from partial Fourier and parallel magnetic resonance imaging signal models that explicitly account for GNL, noniterative image reconstruction strategies for each accelerated acquisition technique are derived under the same core mathematical assumptions as their standard counterparts. A series of phantom and in vivo experiments on retrospectively undersampled data were performed to investigate the spatial resolution benefit of integrated GNL correction over conventional postreconstruction correction. Phantom and in vivo results demonstrate that the integrated GNL correction reduces the image blurring introduced by the conventional GNL correction, while still correcting GNL-induced coarse-scale geometrical distortion. Images generated from undersampled data using the proposed integrated GNL strategies offer superior depiction of fine image detail, for example, phantom resolution inserts and anatomical tissue boundaries. Noniterative partial Fourier and parallel imaging reconstruction methods with integrated GNL correction reduce the resolution loss that occurs during conventional postreconstruction GNL correction while preserving the computational efficiency of standard reconstruction techniques. Magn Reson Med 75:2534-2544, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hitchhiker'S Guide to Voxel Segmentation for Partial Volume Correction of in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Quadrelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial volume effects have the potential to cause inaccuracies when quantifying metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In order to correct for cerebrospinal fluid content, a spectroscopic voxel needs to be segmented according to different tissue contents. This article aims to detail how automated partial volume segmentation can be undertaken and provides a software framework for researchers to develop their own tools. While many studies have detailed the impact of partial volume correction on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification, there is a paucity of literature explaining how voxel segmentation can be achieved using freely available neuroimaging packages.

  15. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  16. Optimal transformation for correcting partial volume averaging effects in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltanian-Zadeh, H.; Windham, J.P.; Yagle, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Segmentation of a feature of interest while correcting for partial volume averaging effects is a major tool for identification of hidden abnormalities, fast and accurate volume calculation, and three-dimensional visualization in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The authors present the optimal transformation for simultaneous segmentation of a desired feature and correction of partial volume averaging effects, while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the desired feature. It is proved that correction of partial volume averaging effects requires the removal of the interfering features from the scene. It is also proved that correction of partial volume averaging effects can be achieved merely by a linear transformation. It is finally shown that the optimal transformation matrix is easily obtained using the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure, which is numerically stable. Applications of the technique to MRI simulation, phantom, and brain images are shown. They show that in all cases the desired feature is segmented from the interfering features and partial volume information is visualized in the resulting transformed images

  17. Growth hormone and prolactin responses during partial and whole body warm-water immersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koska, J; Rovensky, J; Zimanova, T; Vigas, M

    2003-05-01

    To elucidate the role of core and skin thermoreceptors in the release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL), a sequence of two experiments using whole-body (head-out) and partial (one forearm) hot water immersions was performed. Experiment 1: Nine healthy men were exposed to head-out and partial water immersions (25 min, 38-39 degrees C). Head-out immersion increased the core temperature (38.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C, P immersion the core temperature was slightly elevated (36.8 +/- 0.1 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1, P immersed one forearm once in 39 degrees C and once in 38 degrees C water. The measurements were performed in 5-min intervals. The GH concentration increased gradually from the beginning of the immersions (min 10; 39 degrees C: 1.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1), P Immersion in 38 degrees C water did not induce core temperature changes. Peripheral thermoreceptors are involved in GH release when the body is exposed to elevated environmental temperature while a substantial elevation of core temperature is a precondition of PRL release.

  18. A multiresolution image based approach for correction of partial volume effects in emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussion, N; Hatt, M; Lamare, F; Bizais, Y; Turzo, A; Rest, C Cheze-Le; Visvikis, D

    2006-01-01

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited spatial resolution in emission tomography. They lead to a loss of signal in tissues of size similar to the point spread function and induce activity spillover between regions. Although PVE can be corrected for by using algorithms that provide the correct radioactivity concentration in a series of regions of interest (ROIs), so far little attention has been given to the possibility of creating improved images as a result of PVE correction. Potential advantages of PVE-corrected images include the ability to accurately delineate functional volumes as well as improving tumour-to-background ratio, resulting in an associated improvement in the analysis of response to therapy studies and diagnostic examinations, respectively. The objective of our study was therefore to develop a methodology for PVE correction not only to enable the accurate recuperation of activity concentrations, but also to generate PVE-corrected images. In the multiresolution analysis that we define here, details of a high-resolution image H (MRI or CT) are extracted, transformed and integrated in a low-resolution image L (PET or SPECT). A discrete wavelet transform of both H and L images is performed by using the 'a trous' algorithm, which allows the spatial frequencies (details, edges, textures) to be obtained easily at a level of resolution common to H and L. A model is then inferred to build the lacking details of L from the high-frequency details in H. The process was successfully tested on synthetic and simulated data, proving the ability to obtain accurately corrected images. Quantitative PVE correction was found to be comparable with a method considered as a reference but limited to ROI analyses. Visual improvement and quantitative correction were also obtained in two examples of clinical images, the first using a combined PET/CT scanner with a lymphoma patient and the second using a FDG brain PET and corresponding T1-weighted MRI in

  19. Apparent CBF decrease with normal aging due to partial volume effects: MR-based partial volume correction on CBF SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    Several studies using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have shown changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age, which were associated with partial volume effects by some authors. Some studies have also demonstrated gender-related differences in CBF. The present study aimed to examine age and gender effects on CBF SPECT images obtained using the 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and a SPECT scanner, before and after partial volume correction (PVC) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-four healthy subjects (29 males and 15 females; age range, 27-64 y; mean age, 50.0 +/- 9.8 y) participated. Each MR image was segmented to yield grey and white matter images and coregistered to a corresponding SPECT image, followed by convolution to approximate the SPECT spatial resolution. PVC-SPECT images were produced using the convoluted grey matter MR (GM-MR) and white matter MR images. The age and gender effects were assessed using SPM99. Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. In the PVC-SPECT images, decreases in CBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex lost their statistical significance. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure. Our present study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.

  20. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  1. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, David [Athinoula A Martinos Centre, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Methner, Carmen [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Rob C [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ansorge, Richard E [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kreig, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Carpenter, T Adrian [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-29

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  2. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido; Izquierdo, David; Methner, Carmen; Hawkes, Rob C; Ansorge, Richard E; Kreig, Thomas; Carpenter, T Adrian; Sawiak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  3. On Neglecting Chemical Exchange Effects When Correcting in Vivo 31P MRS Data for Partial Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    Signal acquisition in most MRS experiments requires a correction for partial saturation that is commonly based on a single exponential model for T1 that ignores effects of chemical exchange. We evaluated the errors in 31P MRS measurements introduced by this approximation in two-, three-, and four-site chemical exchange models under a range of flip-angles and pulse sequence repetition times (TR) that provide near-optimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In two-site exchange, such as the creatine-kinase reaction involving phosphocreatine (PCr) and γ-ATP in human skeletal and cardiac muscle, errors in saturation factors were determined for the progressive saturation method and the dual-angle method of measuring T1. The analysis shows that these errors are negligible for the progressive saturation method if the observed T1 is derived from a three-parameter fit of the data. When T1 is measured with the dual-angle method, errors in saturation factors are less than 5% for all conceivable values of the chemical exchange rate and flip-angles that deliver useful SNR per unit time over the range T1/5 ≤ TR ≤ 2T1. Errors are also less than 5% for three- and four-site exchange when TR ≥ T1*/2, the so-called "intrinsic" T1's of the metabolites. The effect of changing metabolite concentrations and chemical exchange rates on observed T1's and saturation corrections was also examined with a three-site chemical exchange model involving ATP, PCr, and inorganic phosphate in skeletal muscle undergoing up to 95% PCr depletion. Although the observed T1's were dependent on metabolite concentrations, errors in saturation corrections for TR = 2 s could be kept within 5% for all exchanging metabolites using a simple interpolation of two dual-angle T1 measurements performed at the start and end of the experiment. Thus, the single-exponential model appears to be reasonably accurate for correcting 31P MRS data for partial saturation in the presence of chemical exchange. Even in systems where

  4. Partial volume effect correction in nuclear medicine: assessment with a mathematical phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Murilo Collete da; Pozzo, Lorena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: assessment of Van Cittert partial volume effect correction method in nuclear medicine images, with a mathematical phantom. Material and method: we simulated an image of four circular sources of different diameters and intensity of 255 per pixel. The iterative algorithm was applied with 20 iterations and α = 1. We obtained the maximum and average counts on the entire image and in regions of interest placed on each of the sources. We also extracted count profiles plotted along the diameter of each of the sources. Results: the local convergence depends on the size of the source studied: the smaller the source, the greater the number of iterations required. It also depends on the information extracted: the use of average counts provides more homogeneous results than the maximum count. There is a significant improvement in image contrast. Conclusion: this study showed the possibility of qualitative and quantitative improvement in applying the bidimensional iterative Van Cittert method to images of simple geometry. (author)

  5. Partial volume effect estimation and correction in the aortic vascular wall in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg, S; Le Guludec, D; Dupas, A; Stute, S; Dieudonné, A; Huet, P; Buvat, I

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of partial volume effect (PVE) in the assessment of arterial diseases with 18 FDG PET. An anthropomorphic digital phantom enabling the modeling of aorta related diseases like atherosclerosis and arteritis was used. Based on this phantom, we performed GATE Monte Carlo simulations to produce realistic PET images with a known organ segmentation and ground truth activity values. Images corresponding to 15 different activity-concentration ratios between the aortic wall and the blood and to 7 different wall thicknesses were generated. Using the PET images, we compared the theoretical wall-to-blood activity-concentration ratios (WBRs) with the measured WBRs obtained with five measurement methods: (1) measurement made by a physician (Expert), (2) automated measurement supposed to mimic the physician measurements (Max), (3) simple correction based on a recovery coefficient (Max-RC), (4) measurement based on an ideal VOI segmentation (Mean-VOI) and (5) measurement corrected for PVE using an ideal geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. We found that Mean-VOI WBRs values were strongly affected by PVE. WBRs obtained by the physician measurement, by the Max method and by the Max-RC method were more accurate than WBRs obtained with the Mean-VOI approach. However Expert, Max and Max-RC WBRs strongly depended on the wall thickness. Only the GTM corrected WBRs did not depend on the wall thickness. Using the GTM method, we obtained more reproducible ratio values that could be compared across wall thickness. Yet, the feasibility of the implementation of a GTM-like method on real data remains to be studied. (paper)

  6. Partial Tmem106b reduction does not correct abnormalities due to progranulin haploinsufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrant, Andrew E; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Zhou, Xiaolai; Rademakers, Rosa; Roberson, Erik D

    2018-06-22

    Loss of function mutations in progranulin (GRN) are a major cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin is a secreted glycoprotein that localizes to lysosomes and is critical for proper lysosomal function. Heterozygous GRN mutation carriers develop FTD with TDP-43 pathology and exhibit signs of lysosomal dysfunction in the brain, with increased levels of lysosomal proteins and lipofuscin accumulation. Homozygous GRN mutation carriers develop neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), an earlier-onset lysosomal storage disorder caused by severe lysosomal dysfunction. Multiple genome-wide association studies have shown that risk of FTD in GRN mutation carriers is modified by polymorphisms in TMEM106B, which encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. Risk alleles of TMEM106B may increase TMEM106B levels through a variety of mechanisms. Brains from FTD patients with GRN mutations exhibit increased TMEM106B expression, and protective TMEM106B polymorphisms are associated with decreased TMEM106B expression. Together, these data raise the possibility that reduction of TMEM106B levels may protect against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency. We crossed Tmem106b +/- mice with Grn +/- mice, which model the progranulin haploinsufficiency of GRN mutation carriers and develop age-dependent social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities in the brain. We tested whether partial Tmem106b reduction could normalize the social deficits and lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice. Partial reduction of Tmem106b levels did not correct the social deficits of Grn +/- mice. Tmem106b reduction also failed to normalize most lysosomal abnormalities of Grn +/- mice, except for β-glucuronidase activity, which was suppressed by Tmem106b reduction and increased by progranulin insufficiency. These data do not support the hypothesis that Tmem106b reduction protects against the pathogenic effects of progranulin haploinsufficiency, but do show that Tmem106b reduction normalizes some

  7. PETPVC: a toolbox for performing partial volume correction techniques in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin A.; Cuplov, Vesna; Bousse, Alexandre; Mendes, Adriana; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data. Eight core PVC techniques are available. These core methods can be combined to create a total of 22 different PVC techniques. Simulated brain PET data are used to demonstrate the utility of toolbox in idealised conditions, the effects of applying PVC with mismatched point-spread function (PSF) estimates and the potential of novel hybrid PVC methods to improve the quantification of lesions. All anatomy-based PVC techniques achieve complete recovery of the PET signal in cortical grey matter (GM) when performed in idealised conditions. Applying deconvolution-based approaches results in incomplete recovery due to premature termination of the iterative process. PVC techniques are sensitive to PSF mismatch, causing a bias of up to 16.7% in GM recovery when over-estimating the PSF by 3 mm. The recovery of both GM and a simulated lesion was improved by combining two PVC techniques together. The PETPVC toolbox has been written in C++, supports Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, is open-source and publicly available.

  8. A simple algorithm for subregional striatal uptake analysis with partial volume correction in dopaminergic PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue Kunhan; Lin Hsinhon; Chuang Kehshih; Kao Chihhao, K.; Hsieh Hungjen; Liu Shuhsin

    2014-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic system, quantitative measurements of nigrostriatal dopamine function are useful for differential diagnosis. A subregional analysis of striatal uptake enables the diagnostic performance to be more powerful. However, the partial volume effect (PVE) induces an underestimation of the true radioactivity concentration in small structures. This work proposes a simple algorithm for subregional analysis of striatal uptake with partial volume correction (PVC) in dopaminergic PET imaging. The PVC algorithm analyzes the separate striatal subregions and takes into account the PVE based on the recovery coefficient (RC). The RC is defined as the ratio of the PVE-uncorrected to PVE-corrected radioactivity concentration, and is derived from a combination of the traditional volume of interest (VOI) analysis and the large VOI technique. The clinical studies, comprising 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 6 healthy subjects, were used to assess the impact of PVC on the quantitative measurements. Simulations on a numerical phantom that mimicked realistic healthy and neurodegenerative situations were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed PVC algorithm. In both the clinical and the simulation studies, the striatal-to-occipital ratio (SOR) values for the entire striatum and its subregions were calculated with and without PVC. In the clinical studies, the SOR values in each structure (caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, putamen, and striatum) were significantly higher by using PVC in contrast to those without. Among the PD patients, the SOR values in each structure and quantitative disease severity ratings were shown to be significantly related only when PVC was used. For the simulation studies, the average absolute percentage error of the SOR estimates before and after PVC were 22.74% and 1.54% in the healthy situation, respectively; those in the neurodegenerative situation were 20.69% and 2

  9. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H.; Herscovitch, Peter; Carson, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR glu ) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR glu measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p glu in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR glu , but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of in vivo [corrected] biological activity of new agmatine analogs of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Zarandi, M; Schally, A V

    1990-01-01

    The effects of agmatine analogs of growth hormone releasing hormone (GH-RH) were compared to GH-RH(1-29)-NH2 after intravenous (iv) and subcutaneous (sc) administration to pentobarbital-anesthetized male rats. After the iv injection, the analogs [desNH2-Tyr1,Ala15,Nle27] GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-51); [desNH2-Tyr1,D-Lys12,Ala15,Nle27] GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-57); [desNH2-Tyr1,Ala15,D-Lys21,Nle27] GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-75) and [desNH2-Tyr1, D-Lys12,21, Ala15, Nle27] GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-2-87) showed a potency equivalent to 4.4, 1.9, 1.07 and 1.03 times that of GH-RH (1-29)-NH2, respectively, at 5 min and 5.6, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.8 times higher, respectively, at 15 min. After sc administration, analogs MZ-2-51, MZ-2-57 and MZ-2-75 showed to be 34.3, 14.3 and 10.5 times more potent than the parent hormone at 15 min and 179.1, 88.9 and 45.0 times more active, respectively, at 30 min. In addition, MZ-2-51 had prolonged GH-releasing activity as compared to the standard. We also compared the activity of MZ-2-51 and MZ-2-57 with their homologous L-Arg and D-Arg analogs [desNH2-Tyr1,Ala15,Nle27] GH-RH(1-29)-NH2 (MZ-2-117), [des-NH2Tyr1,D-Lys12, Ala15, Nle27] GH-RH(1-29)NH2 (MZ-2-123) and [desNH2-Tyr1,D-Lys12,Ala15, Nle27,D-Arg29] GH-RH(1-29)NH2 (MZ-2-135) after intramuscular (im) injection. MZ-2-51 induced a somewhat greater GH release than MZ-2-117 at 15 min, both responses being larger than the controls (p less than 0.01) at 15 and 30 min. MZ-2-57, MZ-2-123 and MZ-2-135 given i.m. were able to stimulate GH release only at 15 minutes (p less than 0.05). Animals injected i.m. with MZ-2-51, but not with MZ-2-117, showed GH levels significantly higher than the control group (p less than 0.05) at 60 min. GH-RH(1-29)NH2 had low activity intramuscularly when tested at a dose of 2.5 micrograms. No toxic effects were observed after the iv administration of 1 mg/kg of Agm GH-RH analogs. These results indicate that our Agm analogs are active iv, sc and im and that the substitutions made in these

  11. Nutritional and Hormonal Status of Premature Infants Born with Intrauterine Growth Restriction at the Term Corrected Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaeva, I A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Bombardirova, E P; Okuneva, M V

    Inadequate nutrition supply during the period of intrauterine growth and the first year of life leads to persistent metabolic changes and provokes development of various diseases. Тo compare physical development, body composition, and hormonal status (insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), somatotropic hormone (STH), C-Peptide, cortisol) indices in premature infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at the term corrected age with the same indices in mature infants with IUGR and premature infants with weight appropriate for their gestational age (GA). А crossover study of anthropometric measures, body composition and growth hormones changes assessment was carried out. It included 140 premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA, 58 premature infants with IUGR and 64 mature infants with IUGR. Anthropometric measures were assessed with Fenton and Anthro growth charts (WHO, 2009); body composition was studied with the air plethysmography method (РЕA POD, LMi, USA). Level of hormones in blood serum was assessed with biochemical methods. It is found that anthropometric measures in premature infants with weight appropriate for their GA and premature infants with IUGR at the term corrected age did not have any significant differences while premature infants with IUGR tended to have lower weight. Studying body composition we found that both groups of premature infants had slightly higher level of fat mass in comparison with mature infants. High concentration of insulin, cortisol, IGF-1, and C-peptide was found in premature and mature infants with IUGR. Instead, lower levels of STH was found in infants with IUGR. Formula fed premature infants (comparing to breastfed ones) had higher levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, and C-peptide. Mature infants with IUGR did not tend to have the correlation between levels of fat mass, insulin, IGF-1, C-peptide, and type of feeding. Not only insufficient intrauterine growth but also nutrition pattern

  12. Cerebral blood flow in temporal lobe epilepsy: a partial volume correction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero [University Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bonwetsch, Robert; Theodore, William H. [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Strokes, Clinical Epilepsy Section, Bethesda, MD (United States); Herscovitch, Peter [National Institutes of Health, PET Department, Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD (United States); Carson, Richard E. [Yale PET Center, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Previous studies in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have shown that, owing to brain atrophy, positron emission tomography (PET) can overestimate deficits in measures of cerebral function such as glucose metabolism (CMR{sub glu}) and neuroreceptor binding. The magnitude of this effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) is unexplored. The aim of this study was to assess CBF deficits in TLE before and after magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume correction (PVC). Absolute values of CBF for 21 TLE patients and nine controls were computed before and after PVC. In TLE patients, quantitative CMR{sub glu} measurements also were obtained. Before PVC, regional values of CBF were significantly (p<0.05) lower in TLE patients than in controls in all regions, except the fusiform gyrus contralateral to the epileptic focus. After PVC, statistical significance was maintained in only four regions: ipsilateral inferior temporal cortex, bilateral insula and contralateral amygdala. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in CBF asymmetry indices (AIs) in any region before or after PVC. In TLE patients, AIs for CBF were significantly smaller than for CMR{sub glu} in middle and inferior temporal cortex, fusiform gyrus and hippocampus both before and after PVC. A significant positive relationship between disease duration and AIs for CMR{sub glu}, but not CBF, was detected in hippocampus and amygdala, before but not after PVC. PVC should be used for PET CBF measurements in patients with TLE. Reduced blood flow, in contrast to glucose metabolism, is mainly due to structural changes. (orig.)

  13. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  14. Considerations and code for partial volume correcting [18F]-AV-1451 tau PET data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Baker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [18F]-AV-1451 is a leading tracer used with positron emission tomography (PET to quantify tau pathology. However, [18F]-AV-1451 shows “off target” or non-specific binding, which we define as binding of the tracer in unexpected areas unlikely to harbor aggregated tau based on autopsy literature [1]. Along with caudate, putamen, pallidum and thalamus non-specific binding [2,3], we have found binding in the superior portion of the cerebellar gray matter, leading us to use inferior cerebellar gray as the reference region. We also addressed binding in the posterior portion of the choroid plexus. PET signal unlikely to be associated with tau also occurs in skull, meninges and soft tissue (see e.g. [4]. We refer to [18F]-AV-1451 binding in the skull and meninges as extra-cortical hotspots (ECH and find them near lateral and medial orbitofrontal, lateral occipital, inferior and middle temporal, superior and inferior parietal, and inferior cerebellar gray matter. Lastly, the choroid plexus also shows non-specific binding that bleeds into hippocampus. We are providing the code (http://www.runmycode.org/companion/view/2798 used to create different regions of interest (ROIs that we then used to perform Partial Volume Correction (PVC using the Rousset geometric transfer matrix method (GTM, [5]. This method was used in the companion article, “Comparison of multiple tau-PET measures as biomarkers in aging and Alzheimer's Disease” ([6], DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.058.

  15. Fast Computation of Solvation Free Energies with Molecular Density Functional Theory: Thermodynamic-Ensemble Partial Molar Volume Corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergiievskyi, Volodymyr P; Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2014-06-05

    Molecular density functional theory (MDFT) offers an efficient implicit-solvent method to estimate molecule solvation free-energies, whereas conserving a fully molecular representation of the solvent. Even within a second-order approximation for the free-energy functional, the so-called homogeneous reference fluid approximation, we show that the hydration free-energies computed for a data set of 500 organic compounds are of similar quality as those obtained from molecular dynamics free-energy perturbation simulations, with a computer cost reduced by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This requires to introduce the proper partial volume correction to transform the results from the grand canonical to the isobaric-isotherm ensemble that is pertinent to experiments. We show that this correction can be extended to 3D-RISM calculations, giving a sound theoretical justification to empirical partial molar volume corrections that have been proposed recently.

  16. The influence of partial renal function impairment on thyroid hormones level in acute renal failure-ARF patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, S.; Vlajkovic, M.; Rajic, M.; Bogicevic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of thyroid hormone levels with glomerular and tubular renal function in ARF. In thirty one patients with different underlying diseases, glomerular filtration (GFR) was estimated by measuring 99mTc-DTPA clearance and tubular function by 131I-OIH clearance. The thyroid status was evaluated by radioimmunoassays of T4, FT4, T3, FT3, rT3 and TSH, while the cortisol level was used to indicate the stress role. All the measurements were performed within 7 days as well after 1,3,6 and 12 months from the ARF onset. The results obtained were compared with those of 30 healthy subjects. At the ARF beginning, the impairment of renal function was manifested by the fall of 99mTc-DTPA clearance to 21∫7ml/min and 131I-OIH clearance to 172±34ml/min, while end values were 77±19ml/min and 395±70ml/min, respectively. The hormone analysis within 7 days, showed T3 decrease to 1.21±0.16nmol/l and the increase rT3 to 38±7ng/1ooml, as well as cortisol to 350±71ng/ml, but at the end of the study these hormone levels were normalized. Other hormone levels didn't differ significantly from control values. Regression analysis established significant correlation of 99mTc-DTPA clearance with T3 (r=0.693, p 100, OIH>500), partial recovery (DTPA 51-100, OIH 250-500) and without any recovery (DTPA<50,OIH<250), showed hormone disturbances proportional to the degree of renal function damage. The most severe disorders were found in the third group, where both total and free T4 and T3 were lowered, while rT3 and cortisol elevated at 7th day from ARF onset. After 12 months all these values associated with that of TSH were observed as declined.This study suggests thyroid hormone levels to be dependent on the renal function in ARF. Greater impairment of glomerular related to tubular function appears to be more responsible for thyroid dysfunction, due to uremic toxins retention as well as stress induced by the extreme function failure

  17. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  18. Baseline correction combined partial least squares algorithm and its application in on-line Fourier transform infrared quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Xie, Qiong; Wei, Jiping

    2011-04-01

    In order to eliminate the lower order polynomial interferences, a new quantitative calibration algorithm "Baseline Correction Combined Partial Least Squares (BCC-PLS)", which combines baseline correction and conventional PLS, is proposed. By embedding baseline correction constraints into PLS weights selection, the proposed calibration algorithm overcomes the uncertainty in baseline correction and can meet the requirement of on-line attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) quantitative analysis. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by the analysis of glucose and marzipan ATR-FTIR spectra. BCC-PLS algorithm shows improved prediction performance over PLS. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) on marzipan spectra for the prediction of the moisture is found to be 0.53%, w/w (range 7-19%). The sugar content is predicted with a RMSECV of 2.04%, w/w (range 33-68%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  20. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Caldwell, Curtis; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  1. Simulation-based partial volume correction for dopaminergic PET imaging. Impact of segmentation accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Ye; Winz, Oliver H. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vernaleken, Ingo [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics; Goedicke, Andreas [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; High Tech Campus, Philips Research Lab., Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Rota Kops, Elena [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine-4

    2015-07-01

    Partial volume correction (PVC) is an essential step for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, PVELab, a freely available software, is evaluated for PVC in {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET, with a special focus on the accuracy degradation introduced by various MR-based segmentation approaches. Methods Four PVC algorithms (M-PVC; MG-PVC; mMG-PVC; and R-PVC) were analyzed on simulated {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET images. MR image segmentation was carried out using FSL (FMRIB Software Library) and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) packages, including additional adaptation for subcortical regions (SPM{sub L}). Different PVC and segmentation combinations were compared with respect to deviations in regional activity values and time-activity curves (TACs) of the occipital cortex (OCC), caudate nucleus (CN), and putamen (PUT). Additionally, the PVC impact on the determination of the influx constant (K{sub i}) was assessed. Results Main differences between tissue-maps returned by three segmentation algorithms were found in the subcortical region, especially at PUT. Average misclassification errors in combination with volume reduction was found to be lowest for SPM{sub L} (PUT < 30%) and highest for FSL (PUT > 70%). Accurate recovery of activity data at OCC is achieved by M-PVC (apparent recovery coefficient varies between 0.99 and 1.10). The other three evaluated PVC algorithms have demonstrated to be more suitable for subcortical regions with MG-PVC and mMG-PVC being less prone to the largest tissue misclassification error simulated in this study. Except for M-PVC, quantification accuracy of K{sub i} for CN and PUT was clearly improved by PVC. Conclusions The regional activity value of PUT was appreciably overcorrected by most of the PVC approaches employing FSL or SPM segmentation, revealing the importance of accurate MR image segmentation for the presented PVC framework. The selection of a PVC approach should be adapted to the anatomical

  2. Metabolic impact of partial volume correction of [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies on the assessment of tumor response to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, A; Gallivanone, F; Messa, C; Gilardi, M C; Gastiglioni, I

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the metabolic impact of Partial Volume Correction (PVC) on the measurement of the Standard Uptake Value (SUV) from [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies for treatment monitoring purpose. Twenty-nine breast cancer patients with bone lesions (42 lesions in total) underwent [18F]FDG PET-CT studies after surgical resection of breast cancer primitives, and before (PET-II) chemotherapy and hormone treatment. PVC of bone lesion uptake was performed on the two [18F]FDG PET-CT studies, using a method based on Recovery Coefficients (RC) and on an automatic measurement of lesion metabolic volume. Body-weight average SUV was calculated for each lesion, with and without PVC. The accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility and the metabolic impact on treatment response of the considered PVC method was evaluated. The PVC method was found clinically feasible in bone lesions, with an accuracy of 93% for lesion sphere-equivalent diameter >1 cm. Applying PVC, average SUV values increased, from 7% up to 154% considering both PET-I and PET-II studies, proving the need of the correction. As main finding, PVC modified the therapy response classification in 6 cases according to EORTC 1999 classification and in 5 cases according to PERCIST 1.0 classification. PVC has an important metabolic impact on the assessment of tumor response to treatment by [18F]FDG PET-CT oncological studies.

  3. Partial volume effect-corrected FDG PET and grey matter volume loss in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Yanase, Daisuke; Yamada, Masahito; Matsunari, Ichiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Fujikawa, Akihiko; Takeda, Nozomi; Nishimura, Shintaro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Although 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is an established imaging technique to assess brain glucose utilisation, accurate measurement of tracer concentration is confounded by the presence of partial volume effect (PVE) due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, which is particularly true in atrophic brains such as those encountered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the effects of PVE correction on FDG PET in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients with mild AD. Thirty-nine AD patients and 73 controls underwent FDG PET and MRI. The PVE-corrected grey matter PET images were obtained using an MRI-based three-compartment method. Additionally, the results of PET were compared with grey matter loss detected by VBM. Before PVE correction, reduced FDG uptake was observed in posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) and parieto-temporal lobes (PTL) in AD patients, which persisted after PVE correction. Notably, PVE correction revealed relatively preserved FDG uptake in hippocampal areas, despite the grey matter loss in medial temporal lobe (MTL) revealed by VBM. FDG uptake in PCG and PTL is reduced in AD regardless of whether or not PVE correction is applied, supporting the notion that the reduced FDG uptake in these areas is not the result of atrophy. Furthermore, FDG uptake by grey matter tissue in the MTL, including hippocampal areas, is relatively preserved, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms may play a role in patients with mild AD. (orig.)

  4. Wavelet-based partial volume effect correction for simultaneous MR/PET of the carotid arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, Jason; Eldib, Mootaz [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, NY, NY (United States); Robson, Philip M; Fayad, Zahi A [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-07-29

    Simultaneous MR/PET scanners allow for the exploration and development of novel PVE correction techniques without the challenges of coregistration of MR and PET. The development of a wavelet-based PVE correction method, to improve PET quantification, has proven successful in brain PET.{sup 2} We report here the first attempt to apply these methods to simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the carotid arteries.

  5. Wavelet-based partial volume effect correction for simultaneous MR/PET of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Jason; Eldib, Mootaz; Robson, Philip M; Fayad, Zahi A

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous MR/PET scanners allow for the exploration and development of novel PVE correction techniques without the challenges of coregistration of MR and PET. The development of a wavelet-based PVE correction method, to improve PET quantification, has proven successful in brain PET. 2 We report here the first attempt to apply these methods to simultaneous MR/PET imaging of the carotid arteries.

  6. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  7. Evaluation of a three-dimensional ultrasound localisation system incorporating probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E J; Symonds-Taylor, R; Treece, G M; Gee, A H; Prager, R W; Brabants, P; Evans, P M

    2009-10-01

    This work evaluates a three-dimensional (3D) freehand ultrasound-based localisation system with new probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation. Accuracy and precision of absolute position measurement was measured as a function of imaging depth (ID), object depth, scanning direction and time using a water phantom containing crossed wires. To quantify the improvement in accuracy due to pressure correction, 3D scans of a breast phantom containing ball bearings were obtained with and without pressure. Ball bearing displacements were then measured with and without pressure correction. Using a single scan direction (for all imaging depths), the mean error was <1.3 mm, with the exception of the wires at 68.5 mm imaged with an ID of 85 mm, which gave a mean error of -2.3 mm. Precision was greater than 1 mm for any single scan direction. For multiple scan directions, precision was within 1.7 mm. Probe pressure corrections of between 0 mm and 2.2 mm have been observed for pressure displacements of 1.1 mm to 4.2 mm. Overall, anteroposterior position measurement accuracy increased from 2.2 mm to 1.6 mm and to 1.4 mm for the two opposing scanning directions. Precision is comparable to that reported for other commercially available ultrasound localisation systems, provided that 3D image acquisition is performed in the same scan direction. The existing temporal calibration is imperfect and a "per installation" calibration would further improve the accuracy and precision. Probe pressure correction was shown to improve the accuracy and will be useful for the localisation of the excision cavity in partial breast radiotherapy.

  8. Partial-Interval Estimation of Count: Uncorrected and Poisson-Corrected Error Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Ledford, Jennifer R.; Harbison, Amy L.; Tapp, Jon T.

    2018-01-01

    A simulation study that used 3,000 computer-generated event streams with known behavior rates, interval durations, and session durations was conducted to test whether the main and interaction effects of true rate and interval duration affect the error level of uncorrected and Poisson-transformed (i.e., "corrected") count as estimated by…

  9. A Label Correcting Algorithm for Partial Disassembly Sequences in the Production Planning for End-of-Life Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Fang (Jennifer Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of used products has become a strategic issue for cost-sensitive businesses. Due to the nature of uncertain supply of end-of-life (EoL products, the reverse logistic can only be sustainable with a dynamic production planning for disassembly process. This research investigates the sequencing of disassembly operations as a single-period partial disassembly optimization (SPPDO problem to minimize total disassembly cost. AND/OR graph representation is used to include all disassembly sequences of a returned product. A label correcting algorithm is proposed to find an optimal partial disassembly plan if a specific reusable subpart is retrieved from the original return. Then, a heuristic procedure that utilizes this polynomial-time algorithm is presented to solve the SPPDO problem. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution procedure.

  10. Markov random field and Gaussian mixture for segmented MRI-based partial volume correction in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousse, Alexandre; Thomas, Benjamin A; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F; Pedemonte, Stefano; Ourselin, Sébastien; Arridge, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior-based maximum penalized likelihood deconvolution technique for positron emission tomography (PET) images. The model assumes the existence of activity classes that behave like a hidden Markov random field (MRF) driven by the segmented MRI. We utilize a mean field approximation to compute the likelihood of the MRF. We tested our method on both simulated and clinical data (brain PET) and compared our results with PET images corrected with the re-blurred Van Cittert (VC) algorithm, the simplified Guven (SG) algorithm and the region-based voxel-wise (RBV) technique. We demonstrated our algorithm outperforms the VC algorithm and outperforms SG and RBV corrections when the segmented MRI is inconsistent (e.g. mis-segmentation, lesions, etc) with the PET image. (paper)

  11. Statistical properties of single-mode fiber coupling of satellite-to-ground laser links partially corrected by adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuet, Lucien; Védrenne, Nicolas; Conan, Jean-Marc; Petit, Cyril; Artaud, Geraldine; Rissons, Angelique; Lacan, Jerome

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of satellite-to-ground laser downlinks, an analytical model describing the variations of the instantaneous coupled flux into a single-mode fiber after correction of the incoming wavefront by partial adaptive optics (AO) is presented. Expressions for the probability density function and the cumulative distribution function as well as for the average fading duration and fading duration distribution of the corrected coupled flux are given. These results are of prime interest for the computation of metrics related to coded transmissions over correlated channels, and they are confronted by end-to-end wave-optics simulations in the case of a geosynchronous satellite (GEO)-to-ground and a low earth orbit satellite (LEO)-to-ground scenario. Eventually, the impact of different AO performances on the aforementioned fading duration distribution is analytically investigated for both scenarios.

  12. A novel CLCN5 mutation in a boy with Bartter-like syndrome and partial growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Radovan; Draaken, Markus; Toromanović, Alma; Dordević, Maja; Stajić, Natasa; Ludwig, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Dent disease is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting the proximal tubule and is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria (LMWP), hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis/nephrolithiasis with a variable number of features of Fanconi syndrome. It is most often associated with mutations in CLCN5, which encodes the endosomal electrogenic chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5. Renal acidification abnormalities are only rarely seen in Dent disease, whereas the hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis associated with hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism (Bartter-like syndrome) has been reported in only one patient so far. We report on a 5-year-old boy with Dent disease caused by mutation in CLCN5 gene, c.1073G>A, who presented with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism persisting over the entire follow-up. No mutations were found in NKCC2, ROMK, NCCT, or ClC-Kb genes. In addition, the patient exhibited growth failure associated with partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Coexistence of Bartter-like syndrome features with LMWP should prompt a clinician to search for Dent disease. The Bartter syndrome phenotype seen in Dent disease patients may represent a distinct form of Bartter syndrome, the exact mechanism of which has yet to be fully elucidated. Growth delay that persists in spite of appropriate therapy should raise suspicion of other causes, such as GH deficiency.

  13. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  14. Partial correction of a severe molecular defect in hemophilia A, because of errors during expression of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Inaba, Hiroshi [Tokyo Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Although the molecular defect in patients in a Japanese family with mild to moderately severe hemophilia A was a deletion of a single nucleotide T within an A{sub 8}TA{sub 2} sequence of exon 14 of the factor VIII gene, the severity of the clinical phenotype did not correspond to that expected of a frameshift mutation. A small amount of functional factor VIII protein was detected in the patient`s plasma. Analysis of DNA and RNA molecules from normal and affected individuals and in vitro transcription/translation suggested a partial correction of the molecular defect, because of the following: (i) DNA replication/RNA transcription errors resulting in restoration of the reading frame and/or (ii) {open_quotes}ribosomal frameshifting{close_quotes} resulting in the production of normal factor VIII polypeptide and, thus, in a milder than expected hemophilia A. All of these mechanisms probably were promoted by the longer run of adenines, A{sub 10} instead of A{sub 8}TA{sub 2}, after the delT. Errors in the complex steps of gene expression therefore may partially correct a severe frameshift defect and ameliorate an expected severe phenotype. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Impact of partial-volume correction in oncological PET studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cysouw, Matthijs C.F.; Kramer, Gerbrand M.; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoonmade, Linda J. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Library, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Vet, Henrica C.W. de [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-11-15

    Positron-emission tomography can be useful in oncology for diagnosis, (re)staging, determining prognosis, and response assessment. However, partial-volume effects hamper accurate quantification of lesions <2-3 x the PET system's spatial resolution, and the clinical impact of this is not evident. This systematic review provides an up-to-date overview of studies investigating the impact of partial-volume correction (PVC) in oncological PET studies. We searched in PubMed and Embase databases according to the PRISMA statement, including studies from inception till May 9, 2016. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and eligible full-text articles and performed quality assessment according to QUADAS-2 and QUIPS criteria. For a set of similar diagnostic studies, we statistically pooled the results using bivariate meta-regression. Thirty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall, study quality was good. For diagnosis and nodal staging, PVC yielded a strong trend of increased sensitivity at expense of specificity. Meta-analysis of six studies investigating diagnosis of pulmonary nodules (679 lesions) showed no significant change in diagnostic accuracy after PVC (p = 0.222). Prognostication was not improved for non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal cancer, whereas it did improve for head and neck cancer. Response assessment was not improved by PVC for (locally advanced) breast cancer or rectal cancer, and it worsened in metastatic colorectal cancer. The accumulated evidence to date does not support routine application of PVC in standard clinical PET practice. Consensus on the preferred PVC methodology in oncological PET should be reached. Partial-volume-corrected data should be used as adjuncts to, but not yet replacement for, uncorrected data. (orig.)

  16. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  17. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions: An (18)F-FDG-PET study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A

    2016-05-15

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87years from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. The exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Different Partial Volume Correction Methods Lead to Different Conclusions: an 18F-FDG PET Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Douglas N.; Salat, David H.; Bowen, Spencer L.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Schultz, Aaron P.; Catana, Ciprian; Becker, J. Alex; Svarer, Claus; Knudsen, Gitte; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with 18F-FDG PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) using 99 subjects aged 65-87 from the Harvard Aging Brain study. Sensitivity to parameter selection was tested for MZ and MG. The various methods and parameter settings resulted in an extremely wide range of conclusions as to the effects of age on metabolism, from almost no changes to virtually all of cortical regions showing a decrease with age. Simulations showed that NoPVC had significant bias that made the age effect on metabolism appear to be much larger and more significant than it is. MZ was found to be the same as NoPVC for liberal brain masks; for conservative brain masks, MZ showed few areas correlated with age. MG and SGTM were found to be similar; however, MG was sensitive to a thresholding parameter that can result in data loss. CSF uptake was surprisingly high at about 15% of that in gray matter. Exclusion of CSF from SGTM and MG models, which is almost universally done, caused a substantial loss in the power to detect age-related changes. This diversity of results reflects the literature on the metabolism of aging and suggests that extreme care should be taken when applying PVC or interpreting results that have been corrected for partial volume effects. Using the SGTM, significant age-related changes of about 7% per decade were found in frontal and cingulate cortices as well as primary visual and insular cortices. PMID:26915497

  19. A consistent model for the equilibrium thermodynamic functions of partially ionized flibe plasma with Coulomb corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2003-01-01

    Flibe (2LiF-BeF2) is a molten salt that has been chosen as the coolant and breeding material in many design studies of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) chamber. Flibe plasmas are to be generated in the ICF chamber in a wide range of temperatures and densities. These plasmas are more complex than the plasma of any single chemical species. Nevertheless, the composition and thermodynamic properties of the resulting flibe plasmas are needed for the gas dynamics calculations and the determination of other design parameters in the ICF chamber. In this paper, a simple consistent model for determining the detailed plasma composition and thermodynamic functions of high-temperature, fully dissociated and partially ionized flibe gas is presented and used to calculate different thermodynamic properties of interest to fusion applications. The computed properties include the average ionization state; kinetic pressure; internal energy; specific heats; adiabatic exponent, as well as the sound speed. The presented results are computed under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and electro-neutrality. A criterion for the validity of the LTE assumption is presented and applied to the computed results. Other attempts in the literature are assessed with their implied inaccuracies pointed out and discussed

  20. Cardiac motion correction based on partial angle reconstructed images in x-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungeon; Chang, Yongjin; Ra, Jong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cardiac x-ray CT imaging is still challenging due to heart motion, which cannot be ignored even with the current rotation speed of the equipment. In response, many algorithms have been developed to compensate remaining motion artifacts by estimating the motion using projection data or reconstructed images. In these algorithms, accurate motion estimation is critical to the compensated image quality. In addition, since the scan range is directly related to the radiation dose, it is preferable to minimize the scan range in motion estimation. In this paper, the authors propose a novel motion estimation and compensation algorithm using a sinogram with a rotation angle of less than 360°. The algorithm estimates the motion of the whole heart area using two opposite 3D partial angle reconstructed (PAR) images and compensates the motion in the reconstruction process. Methods: A CT system scans the thoracic area including the heart over an angular range of 180° + α + β, where α and β denote the detector fan angle and an additional partial angle, respectively. The obtained cone-beam projection data are converted into cone-parallel geometry via row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning. Two conjugate 3D PAR images, whose center projection angles are separated by 180°, are then reconstructed with an angular range of β, which is considerably smaller than a short scan range of 180° + α. Although these images include limited view angle artifacts that disturb accurate motion estimation, they have considerably better temporal resolution than a short scan image. Hence, after preprocessing these artifacts, the authors estimate a motion model during a half rotation for a whole field of view via nonrigid registration between the images. Finally, motion-compensated image reconstruction is performed at a target phase by incorporating the estimated motion model. The target phase is selected as that corresponding to a view angle that is orthogonal to the center view angles of

  1. Cardiac motion correction based on partial angle reconstructed images in x-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungeon; Chang, Yongjin; Ra, Jong Beom, E-mail: jbra@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Cardiac x-ray CT imaging is still challenging due to heart motion, which cannot be ignored even with the current rotation speed of the equipment. In response, many algorithms have been developed to compensate remaining motion artifacts by estimating the motion using projection data or reconstructed images. In these algorithms, accurate motion estimation is critical to the compensated image quality. In addition, since the scan range is directly related to the radiation dose, it is preferable to minimize the scan range in motion estimation. In this paper, the authors propose a novel motion estimation and compensation algorithm using a sinogram with a rotation angle of less than 360°. The algorithm estimates the motion of the whole heart area using two opposite 3D partial angle reconstructed (PAR) images and compensates the motion in the reconstruction process. Methods: A CT system scans the thoracic area including the heart over an angular range of 180° + α + β, where α and β denote the detector fan angle and an additional partial angle, respectively. The obtained cone-beam projection data are converted into cone-parallel geometry via row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning. Two conjugate 3D PAR images, whose center projection angles are separated by 180°, are then reconstructed with an angular range of β, which is considerably smaller than a short scan range of 180° + α. Although these images include limited view angle artifacts that disturb accurate motion estimation, they have considerably better temporal resolution than a short scan image. Hence, after preprocessing these artifacts, the authors estimate a motion model during a half rotation for a whole field of view via nonrigid registration between the images. Finally, motion-compensated image reconstruction is performed at a target phase by incorporating the estimated motion model. The target phase is selected as that corresponding to a view angle that is orthogonal to the center view angles of

  2. Goldmann tonometry tear film error and partial correction with a shaped applanation surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Sean J; Enikov, Eniko T; Schwiegerling, Jim; Ashley, Sean M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the isolated tear film adhesion error in a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) prism and in a correcting applanation tonometry surface (CATS) prism. The separation force of a tonometer prism adhered by a tear film to a simulated cornea was measured to quantify an isolated tear film adhesion force. Acrylic hemispheres (7.8 mm radius) used as corneas were lathed over the apical 3.06 mm diameter to simulate full applanation contact with the prism surface for both GAT and CATS prisms. Tear film separation measurements were completed with both an artificial tear and fluorescein solutions as a fluid bridge. The applanation mire thicknesses were measured and correlated with the tear film separation measurements. Human cadaver eyes were used to validate simulated cornea tear film separation measurement differences between the GAT and CATS prisms. The CATS prism tear film adhesion error (2.74±0.21 mmHg) was significantly less than the GAT prism (4.57±0.18 mmHg, p film adhesion error was independent of applanation mire thickness ( R 2 =0.09, p =0.04). Fluorescein produces more tear film error than artificial tears (+0.51±0.04 mmHg; p film adhesion error (1.40±0.51 mmHg) was significantly less than that of the GAT prism (3.30±0.38 mmHg; p =0.002). Measured GAT tear film adhesion error is more than previously predicted. A CATS prism significantly reduced tear film adhesion error bŷ41%. Fluorescein solution increases the tear film adhesion compared to artificial tears, while mire thickness has a negligible effect.

  3. Goldmann tonometry tear film error and partial correction with a shaped applanation surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCafferty SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J McCafferty,1–4 Eniko T Enikov,5 Jim Schwiegerling,2,3 Sean M Ashley1,3 1Intuor Technologies, 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, 3University of Arizona College of Optical Science, 4Arizona Eye Consultants, 5Department of Mechanical and Aerospace, University of Arizona College of Engineering, Tucson, AZ, USA Purpose: The aim of the study was to quantify the isolated tear film adhesion error in a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT prism and in a correcting applanation tonometry surface (CATS prism.Methods: The separation force of a tonometer prism adhered by a tear film to a simulated cornea was measured to quantify an isolated tear film adhesion force. Acrylic hemispheres (7.8 mm radius used as corneas were lathed over the apical 3.06 mm diameter to simulate full applanation contact with the prism surface for both GAT and CATS prisms. Tear film separation measurements were completed with both an artificial tear and fluorescein solutions as a fluid bridge. The applanation mire thicknesses were measured and correlated with the tear film separation measurements. Human cadaver eyes were used to validate simulated cornea tear film separation measurement differences between the GAT and CATS prisms.Results: The CATS prism tear film adhesion error (2.74±0.21 mmHg was significantly less than the GAT prism (4.57±0.18 mmHg, p<0.001. Tear film adhesion error was independent of applanation mire thickness (R2=0.09, p=0.04. Fluorescein produces more tear film error than artificial tears (+0.51±0.04 mmHg; p<0.001. Cadaver eye validation indicated the CATS prism’s tear film adhesion error (1.40±0.51 mmHg was significantly less than that of the GAT prism (3.30±0.38 mmHg; p=0.002.Conclusion: Measured GAT tear film adhesion error is more than previously predicted. A CATS prism significantly reduced tear film adhesion error by ~41%. Fluorescein solution increases the tear film adhesion compared to

  4. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    IIda, H.; Law, I.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) can cause significant underestimation in the observed regional radioactivity concentration (so-called partial volume effect or PVE) resulting in systematic errors in estimating quantitative physiologic parameters. The authors have...... formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...

  5. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiao-Mao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cone beam CT (CBCT guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI. Methods Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guided APBI. The postoperative tumor bed was irradiated with 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 days. Two cone-beam CT data sets were obtained with one before and one after the treatment delivery. The CBCT images were registered online to the planning CT images using the automatic algorithm followed by a fine manual adjustment. An action level of 3 mm, meaning that corrections were performed for translations exceeding 3 mm, was implemented in clinical treatments. Based on the acquired data, different correction action levels were simulated, and random RAIF errors, systematic RAIF errors and related margins before and after the treatments were determined for varying correction action levels. Results A total of 75 pairs of CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic and random setup errors based on skin-mark setup prior to treatment delivery were 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm in the lateral (LR, 3.1 mm and 2.3 mm in the superior-inferior (SI, and 2.3 mm and 2.0 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP directions. With the 3 mm correction action level, the systematic and random RAIF errors were 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm in the LR direction, 2.3 mm and 2.3 mm in the SI direction, and 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm in the AP direction after treatments delivery. Accordingly, the margins for correction action levels of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6 mm and no correction were 7.9 mm, 8.0 mm, 8.0 mm, 7.9 mm and 8.0 mm in the LR direction; 6.4 mm, 7.1 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.2 mm and 10.5 mm in the SI direction; 7.6 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.4 mm, 10

  6. Impact of residual and intrafractional errors on strategy of correction for image-guided accelerated partial breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Gang; Hu, Wei-Gang; Chen, Jia-Yi; Yu, Xiao-Li; Pan, Zi-Qiang; Yang, Zhao-Zhi; Guo, Xiao-Mao; Shao, Zhi-Min; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2010-01-01

    The cone beam CT (CBCT) guided radiation can reduce the systematic and random setup errors as compared to the skin-mark setup. However, the residual and intrafractional (RAIF) errors are still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the magnitude of RAIF errors and correction action levels needed in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) guided accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Ten patients were enrolled in the prospective study of CBCT guided APBI. The postoperative tumor bed was irradiated with 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 days. Two cone-beam CT data sets were obtained with one before and one after the treatment delivery. The CBCT images were registered online to the planning CT images using the automatic algorithm followed by a fine manual adjustment. An action level of 3 mm, meaning that corrections were performed for translations exceeding 3 mm, was implemented in clinical treatments. Based on the acquired data, different correction action levels were simulated, and random RAIF errors, systematic RAIF errors and related margins before and after the treatments were determined for varying correction action levels. A total of 75 pairs of CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic and random setup errors based on skin-mark setup prior to treatment delivery were 2.1 mm and 1.8 mm in the lateral (LR), 3.1 mm and 2.3 mm in the superior-inferior (SI), and 2.3 mm and 2.0 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) directions. With the 3 mm correction action level, the systematic and random RAIF errors were 2.5 mm and 2.3 mm in the LR direction, 2.3 mm and 2.3 mm in the SI direction, and 2.3 mm and 2.2 mm in the AP direction after treatments delivery. Accordingly, the margins for correction action levels of 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, 6 mm and no correction were 7.9 mm, 8.0 mm, 8.0 mm, 7.9 mm and 8.0 mm in the LR direction; 6.4 mm, 7.1 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.2 mm and 10.5 mm in the SI direction; 7.6 mm, 7.9 mm, 9.4 mm, 10.1 mm and 12.7 mm in the AP direction

  7. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient from 3D-RISM-KH Molecular Theory of Solvation with Partial Molar Volume Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, WenJuan; Blinov, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-30

    The octanol-water partition coefficient is an important physical-chemical characteristic widely used to describe hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of chemical compounds. The partition coefficient is related to the transfer free energy of a compound from water to octanol. Here, we introduce a new protocol for prediction of the partition coefficient based on the statistical-mechanical, 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation. It was shown recently that with the compound-solvent correlation functions obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, the free energy functional supplemented with the correction linearly related to the partial molar volume obtained from the Kirkwood-Buff/3D-RISM theory, also called the "universal correction" (UC), provides accurate prediction of the hydration free energy of small compounds, compared to explicit solvent molecular dynamics [ Palmer , D. S. ; J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010 , 22 , 492101 ]. Here we report that with the UC reparametrized accordingly this theory also provides an excellent agreement with the experimental data for the solvation free energy in nonpolar solvent (1-octanol) and so accurately predicts the octanol-water partition coefficient. The performance of the Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) and Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functionals of the solvation free energy, with and without UC, is tested on a large library of small compounds with diverse functional groups. The best agreement with the experimental data for octanol-water partition coefficients is obtained with the KH-UC solvation free energy functional.

  8. Intraperitoneal implant of recombinant encapsulated cells overexpressing alpha-L-iduronidase partially corrects visceral pathology in mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Guilherme; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Martinelli, Barbara; Meyer, Fabiola Schons; Burin, Maira; Meurer, Luise; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Giugliani, Roberto; Matte, Ursula

    2012-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is characterized by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA) and storage of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in several tissues. Current available treatments present limitations, thus the search for new therapies. Encapsulation of recombinant cells within polymeric structures combines gene and cell therapy and is a promising approach for treating MPS I. We produced alginate microcapsules containing baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing IDUA and implanted these capsules in the peritoneum of MPS I mice. An increase in serum and tissue IDUA activity was observed at early time-points, as well as a reduction in GAG storage; however, correction in the long term was only partially achieved, with a drop in the IDUA activity being observed a few weeks after the implant. Analysis of the capsules obtained from the peritoneum revealed inflammation and a pericapsular fibrotic process, which could be responsible for the reduction in IDUA levels observed in the long term. In addition, treated mice developed antibodies against the enzyme. The results suggest that the encapsulation process is effective in the short term but improvements must be achieved in order to reduce the immune response and reach a stable correction.

  9. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  10. Partial volume effect correction in PET using regularized iterative deconvolution with variance control based on local topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, A S; Schmidtlein, C R; Piao, J Z

    2008-01-01

    Correcting positron emission tomography (PET) images for the partial volume effect (PVE) due to the limited resolution of PET has been a long-standing challenge. Various approaches including incorporation of the system response function in the reconstruction have been previously tested. We present a post-reconstruction PVE correction based on iterative deconvolution using a 3D maximum likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) algorithm. To achieve convergence we used a one step late (OSL) regularization procedure based on the assumption of local monotonic behavior of the PET signal following Alenius et al. This technique was further modified to selectively control variance depending on the local topology of the PET image. No prior 'anatomic' information is needed in this approach. An estimate of the noise properties of the image is used instead. The procedure was tested for symmetric and isotropic deconvolution functions with Gaussian shape and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 6.31 mm to infinity. The method was applied to simulated and experimental scans of the NEMA NU 2 image quality phantom with the GE Discovery LS PET/CT scanner. The phantom contained uniform activity spheres with diameters ranging from 1 cm to 3.7 cm within uniform background. The optimal sphere activity to variance ratio was obtained when the deconvolution function was replaced by a step function few voxels wide. In this case, the deconvolution method converged in ∼3-5 iterations for most points on both the simulated and experimental images. For the 1 cm diameter sphere, the contrast recovery improved from 12% to 36% in the simulated and from 21% to 55% in the experimental data. Recovery coefficients between 80% and 120% were obtained for all larger spheres, except for the 13 mm diameter sphere in the simulated scan (68%). No increase in variance was observed except for a few voxels neighboring strong activity gradients and inside the largest spheres. Testing the method for

  11. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  12. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  13. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  14. A 2 × 2 taxonomy of multilevel latent contextual models: accuracy-bias trade-offs in full and partial error correction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2011-12-01

    In multilevel modeling, group-level variables (L2) for assessing contextual effects are frequently generated by aggregating variables from a lower level (L1). A major problem of contextual analyses in the social sciences is that there is no error-free measurement of constructs. In the present article, 2 types of error occurring in multilevel data when estimating contextual effects are distinguished: unreliability that is due to measurement error and unreliability that is due to sampling error. The fact that studies may or may not correct for these 2 types of error can be translated into a 2 × 2 taxonomy of multilevel latent contextual models comprising 4 approaches: an uncorrected approach, partial correction approaches correcting for either measurement or sampling error (but not both), and a full correction approach that adjusts for both sources of error. It is shown mathematically and with simulated data that the uncorrected and partial correction approaches can result in substantially biased estimates of contextual effects, depending on the number of L1 individuals per group, the number of groups, the intraclass correlation, the number of indicators, and the size of the factor loadings. However, the simulation study also shows that partial correction approaches can outperform full correction approaches when the data provide only limited information in terms of the L2 construct (i.e., small number of groups, low intraclass correlation). A real-data application from educational psychology is used to illustrate the different approaches.

  15. Effects of partial volume correction on discrimination between very early Alzheimer's dementia and controls using brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetaka, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Takashi; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Tanaka, Fumiko; Asada, Takashi; Yamashita, Fumio; Nakano, Seigo; Takasaki, Masaru

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in discriminating between patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the very early stage and age-matched controls before and after partial volume correction (PVC). Three-dimensional MRI was used for PVC. We randomly divided the subjects into two groups. The first group, comprising 30 patients and 30 healthy volunteers, was used to identify the brain area with the most significant decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients compared with normal controls based on the voxel-based analysis of a group comparison. The second group, comprising 31 patients and 31 healthy volunteers, was used to study the improvement in diagnostic accuracy provided by PVC. A Z score map for a SPECT image of a subject was obtained by comparison with mean and standard deviation SPECT images of the healthy volunteers for each voxel after anatomical standardization and voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values using the following equation: Z score = ([control mean]-[individual value])/(control SD). Analysis of receiver operating characteristics curves for a Z score discriminating AD and controls in the posterior cingulate gyrus, where a significant decrease in rCBF was identified in the first group, showed that the PVC significantly enhanced the accuracy of the SPECT diagnosis of very early AD from 73.9% to 83.7% with global mean normalization. The PVC mildly enhanced the accuracy from 73.1% to 76.3% with cerebellar normalization. This result suggests that early diagnosis of AD requires PVC in a SPECT study. (orig.)

  16. Fabrication of a Customized Ball Abutment to Correct a Nonparallel Implant Abutment for a Mandibular Implant-Supported Removable Partial Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dasht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While using an implant-supported removable partial prosthesis, the implant abutments should be parallel to one another along the path of insertion. If the implants and their attachments are placed vertically on a similar occlusal plane, not only is the retention improved, the prosthesis will also be maintained for a longer period. Case Report: A 65-year-old male patient referred to the School of Dentistry in Mashhad, Iran with complaints of discomfort with the removable partial dentures for his lower mandible. Due to the lack of parallelism in the supporting implants, prefabricated ball abutment could not be used. As a result, a customized ball abutment was fabricated in order to correct the non-parallelism of the implants. Conclusion: Using UCLA abutments could be a cost-efficient approach for the correction of misaligned implant abutments in implant-supported overdentures.

  17. A method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged tumor heterogeneity using expectation maximization with a spatially varying point spread function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbee, David L; Holden, James E; Nickles, Robert J; Jeraj, Robert; Flynn, Ryan T

    2010-01-01

    Tumor heterogeneities observed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are frequently compromised by partial volume effects which may affect treatment prognosis, assessment or future implementations such as biologically optimized treatment planning (dose painting). This paper presents a method for partial volume correction of PET-imaged heterogeneous tumors. A point source was scanned on a GE Discovery LS at positions of increasing radii from the scanner's center to obtain the spatially varying point spread function (PSF). PSF images were fit in three dimensions to Gaussian distributions using least squares optimization. Continuous expressions were devised for each Gaussian width as a function of radial distance, allowing for generation of the system PSF at any position in space. A spatially varying partial volume correction (SV-PVC) technique was developed using expectation maximization (EM) and a stopping criterion based on the method's correction matrix generated for each iteration. The SV-PVC was validated using a standard tumor phantom and a tumor heterogeneity phantom and was applied to a heterogeneous patient tumor. SV-PVC results were compared to results obtained from spatially invariant partial volume correction (SINV-PVC), which used directionally uniform three-dimensional kernels. SV-PVC of the standard tumor phantom increased the maximum observed sphere activity by 55 and 40% for 10 and 13 mm diameter spheres, respectively. Tumor heterogeneity phantom results demonstrated that as net changes in the EM correction matrix decreased below 35%, further iterations improved overall quantitative accuracy by less than 1%. SV-PVC of clinically observed tumors frequently exhibited changes of ±30% in regions of heterogeneity. The SV-PVC method implemented spatially varying kernel widths and automatically determined the number of iterations for optimal restoration, parameters which are arbitrarily chosen in SINV-PVC. Comparing SV-PVC to SINV-PVC demonstrated

  18. Anti-Muellerian hormone, inhibin A, gonadotropins, and gonadotropin receptors in bull calves after partial scrotal resection, orchidectomy, and Burdizzo castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlet, Dragos; Aurich, Christine; Ille, Natascha; Walter, Ingrid; Weber, Corinna; Pieler, Dagmar; Peinhopf, Walter; Wohlsein, Peter; Aurich, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Eight-week-old calves were either castrated by partial scrotal resection (SR) without removing the testes (n = 10), Burdizzo (BZ) clamp (n = 10), orchidectomy (OR; n = 10), or were left gonad intact as controls (CO; n = 10). Concentrations of anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH), inhibin A, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were determined from 16 to 48 weeks of age. At 18 months, testes of SR, BZ, and CO bulls were obtained and the immunolocalization of LH and FSH receptors and AMH analyzed. Concentration of AMH in plasma of CO and SR bulls decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). A similar AMH profile in CO and SR indicates that SR did not induce a true cryptorchid state. In groups OR and BZ, AMH was undetectable. Plasma inhibin concentration was higher in groups CO and SR than BZ and OR (P < 0.001). Plasma LH and FSH concentrations decreased over time (P < 0.001) and were higher in groups BZ and OR than SR and CO (P < 0.001). In the testes, immunolabeling for AMH existed in Sertoli cells of CO and SR but not BZ bulls. FSH receptors were localized in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and the epididymis of CO and SR animals, whereas LH receptors were restricted to Leydig cells. In BZ animals, FSH and LH receptors and AMH were absent, indicating complete testicular degeneration. In conclusion, AMH is a more reliable marker for the presence of testicular tissue in bulls than inhibin. Scrotal resection did not induce a true inguinal cryptorchid state but affected testicular responsiveness to gonadotropic stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A partial differential equation model and its reduction to an ordinary differential equation model for prostate tumor growth under intermittent hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Youshan; Guo, Qian; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal therapy with androgen suppression is a common treatment for advanced prostate tumors. The emergence of androgen-independent cells, however, leads to a tumor relapse under a condition of long-term androgen deprivation. Clinical trials suggest that intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) with alternating on- and off-treatment periods can delay the relapse when compared with continuous androgen suppression (CAS). In this paper, we propose a mathematical model for prostate tumor growth under IAS therapy. The model elucidates initial hormone sensitivity, an eventual relapse of a tumor under CAS therapy, and a delay of a relapse under IAS therapy, which are due to the coexistence of androgen-dependent cells, androgen-independent cells resulting from reversible changes by adaptation, and androgen-independent cells resulting from irreversible changes by genetic mutations. The model is formulated as a free boundary problem of partial differential equations that describe the evolution of populations of the abovementioned three types of cells during on-treatment periods and off-treatment periods. Moreover, the model can be transformed into a piecewise linear ordinary differential equation model by introducing three new volume variables, and the study of the resulting model may help to devise optimal IAS schedules.

  20. A comparison of five partial volume correction methods for Tau and Amyloid PET imaging with [18F]THK5351 and [11C]PIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidahara, Miho; Thomas, Benjamin A; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Ibaraki, Masanobu; Matsubara, Keisuke; Oyama, Senri; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Watanuki, Shoichi; Iwata, Ren; Furumoto, Shozo; Tashiro, Manabu; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Gonda, Kohsuke; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    To suppress partial volume effect (PVE) in brain PET, there have been many algorithms proposed. However, each methodology has different property due to its assumption and algorithms. Our aim of this study was to investigate the difference among partial volume correction (PVC) method for tau and amyloid PET study. We investigated two of the most commonly used PVC methods, Müller-Gärtner (MG) and geometric transfer matrix (GTM) and also other three methods for clinical tau and amyloid PET imaging. One healthy control (HC) and one Alzheimer's disease (AD) PET studies of both [ 18 F]THK5351 and [ 11 C]PIB were performed using a Eminence STARGATE scanner (Shimadzu Inc., Kyoto, Japan). All PET images were corrected for PVE by MG, GTM, Labbé (LABBE), Regional voxel-based (RBV), and Iterative Yang (IY) methods, with segmented or parcellated anatomical information processed by FreeSurfer, derived from individual MR images. PVC results of 5 algorithms were compared with the uncorrected data. In regions of high uptake of [ 18 F]THK5351 and [ 11 C]PIB, different PVCs demonstrated different SUVRs. The degree of difference between PVE uncorrected and corrected depends on not only PVC algorithm but also type of tracer and subject condition. Presented PVC methods are straight-forward to implement but the corrected images require careful interpretation as different methods result in different levels of recovery.

  1. Optimized statistical parametric mapping for partial-volume-corrected amyloid positron emission tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Chae, Sun Young; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Seung Jun; Cha, Seung Nam; Chang, Ho-Jong; Lee, Chong Sik; Lee, Jae Hong

    2017-03-01

    We present an optimized voxelwise statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of partial-volume (PV)-corrected positron emission tomography (PET) of 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), incorporating the anatomical precision of magnetic resonance image (MRI) and amyloid β (A β) burden-specificity of PiB PET. First, we applied region-based partial-volume correction (PVC), termed the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method, to PiB PET, creating MRI-based lobar parcels filled with mean PiB uptakes. Then, we conducted a voxelwise PVC by multiplying the original PET by the ratio of a GTM-based PV-corrected PET to a 6-mm-smoothed PV-corrected PET. Finally, we conducted spatial normalizations of the PV-corrected PETs onto the study-specific template. As such, we increased the accuracy of the SPM normalization and the tissue specificity of SPM results. Moreover, lobar smoothing (instead of whole-brain smoothing) was applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the image without degrading the tissue specificity. Thereby, we could optimize a voxelwise group comparison between subjects with high and normal A β burdens (from 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 30 patients with Lewy body dementia, and 9 normal controls). Our SPM framework outperformed than the conventional one in terms of the accuracy of the spatial normalization (85% of maximum likelihood tissue classification volume) and the tissue specificity (larger gray matter, and smaller cerebrospinal fluid volume fraction from the SPM results). Our SPM framework optimized the SPM of a PV-corrected A β PET in terms of anatomical precision, normalization accuracy, and tissue specificity, resulting in better detection and localization of A β burdens in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia.

  2. Quantifying [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall: the effects of dual time-point imaging and partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Bashyam, Arjun; Ramachandran, Abhinay; Gholami, Saeid; Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Werner, Tom; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correction with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) assistance on quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at different imaging time-points. Ten subjects were assessed by CECT imaging and dual time-point PET/CT imaging at approximately 60 and 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration. For both time-points, uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG was determined in the aortic wall by calculating the blood pool-corrected maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub MAX}) and cSUV{sub MEAN}. The PVE-corrected SUV{sub MEAN} (pvcSUV{sub MEAN}) was also calculated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CECT images. Finally, corresponding target-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. At 60 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 3.1 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 8.5 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). At 180 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 2.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 6.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). This study demonstrated that CECT-assisted PVE correction significantly influences quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake with PET. (orig.)

  3. Classifying Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Severity: Correcting the Arterial Oxygen Partial Pressure to Fractional Inspired Oxygen at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Hernández-Cárdenas, Carmen Margarita; Lugo-Goytia, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In the well-known Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there is a recommended adjustment for arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FIO2) at altitude, but without a reference as to how it was derived.

  4. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  5. Effect of partial volume correction on muscarinic cholinergic receptor imaging with single-photon emission tomography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckesser, M.; Ziemons, K.; Griessmeier, M.; Sonnenberg, F.; Langen, K.J.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Hufnagel, A.; Elger, C.E.; Hacklaender, T.; Holschbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    Animal experiments and preliminary results in humans have indicated alterations of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) in temporal lobe epilepsy. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy often present with a reduction in hippocampal volume. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hippocampal atrophy on the quantification of mAChR with single photon emission tomography (SPET) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral uptake of the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist [ 123 I]4-iododexetimide (IDex) was investigated by SPET in patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy of unilateral (n=6) or predominantly unilateral (n=1) onset. Regions of interest were drawn on co-registered magnetic resonance images. Hippocampal volume was determined in these regions and was used to correct the SPET results for partial volume effects. A ratio of hippocampal IDex binding on the affected side to that on the unaffected side was used to detect changes in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density. Before partial volume correction a decrease in hippocampal IDex binding on the focus side was found in each patient. After partial volume no convincing differences remained. Our results indicate that the reduction in hippocampal IDex binding in patients with epilepsy is due to a decrease in hippocampal volume rather than to a decrease in receptor concentration. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Towards a universal method for calculating hydration free energies: a 3D reference interaction site model with partial molar volume correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David S; Frolov, Andrey I; Ratkova, Ekaterina L; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2010-12-15

    We report a simple universal method to systematically improve the accuracy of hydration free energies calculated using an integral equation theory of molecular liquids, the 3D reference interaction site model. A strong linear correlation is observed between the difference of the experimental and (uncorrected) calculated hydration free energies and the calculated partial molar volume for a data set of 185 neutral organic molecules from different chemical classes. By using the partial molar volume as a linear empirical correction to the calculated hydration free energy, we obtain predictions of hydration free energies in excellent agreement with experiment (R = 0.94, σ = 0.99 kcal mol (- 1) for a test set of 120 organic molecules).

  7. Towards a universal method for calculating hydration free energies: a 3D reference interaction site model with partial molar volume correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, David S; Frolov, Andrey I; Ratkova, Ekaterina L; Fedorov, Maxim V

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple universal method to systematically improve the accuracy of hydration free energies calculated using an integral equation theory of molecular liquids, the 3D reference interaction site model. A strong linear correlation is observed between the difference of the experimental and (uncorrected) calculated hydration free energies and the calculated partial molar volume for a data set of 185 neutral organic molecules from different chemical classes. By using the partial molar volume as a linear empirical correction to the calculated hydration free energy, we obtain predictions of hydration free energies in excellent agreement with experiment (R = 0.94, σ = 0.99 kcal mol -1 for a test set of 120 organic molecules). (fast track communication)

  8. Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect in dependence of the attenuation correction of a state-of-the-art small animal PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Judenhofer, Martin S; Schmid, Andreas; Pichler, Bernd J; Tillmanns, Julia; Stiller, Detlef; Sossi, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE) of the Siemens Inveon PET scanner were evaluated. The influence of transmission source activities (40 and 160 MBq) on the quantification accuracy and the PVE were determined. Dynamic range, object size and PVE for different sphere sizes, contrast ratios and positions in the field of view (FOV) were evaluated. The acquired data were reconstructed using different algorithms and correction methods. The activity level of the transmission source and the total emission activity in the FOV strongly influenced the attenuation maps. Reconstruction algorithms, correction methods, object size and location within the FOV had a strong influence on the PVE in all configurations. All evaluated parameters potentially influence the quantification accuracy. Hence, all protocols should be kept constant during a study to allow a comparison between different scans. (paper)

  9. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C; Joyce, Kevin P; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing ([Formula: see text] for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining [Formula: see text] compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to [Formula: see text]. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple [Formula: see text] correction improved agreement with experiment from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  10. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C.; Joyce, Kevin P.; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing (R=0.98 for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining R=0.73 compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to R=0.93. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple pK_{ {a}} correction improved agreement with experiment from R=0.54 to R=0.66, despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  11. Twisted finite-volume corrections to K{sub l3} decays with partially-quenched and rooted-staggered quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Claude [Department of Physics, Washington University,One Brookings Drive, Saint Louis (United States); Bijnens, Johan [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, SE 223-62 Lund (Sweden); Gámiz, Elvira [CAFPE and Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada,Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Relefors, Johan [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, SE 223-62 Lund (Sweden)

    2017-03-23

    The determination of |V{sub us}| from kaon semileptonic decays requires the value of the form factor f{sub +}(q{sup 2}=0) which can be calculated precisely on the lattice. We provide the one-loop partially quenched chiral perturbation theory expressions both with and without including the effects of staggered quarks for all form factors at finite volume and with partially twisted boundary conditions for both the vector current and scalar density matrix elements at all q{sup 2}. We point out that at finite volume there are more form factors than just f{sub +} and f{sub −} for the vector current matrix element but that the Ward identity is fully satisfied. The size of the finite-volume corrections at present lattice sizes is small. This will help improve the lattice determination of f{sub +}(q{sup 2}=0) since the finite-volume error is the dominant error source for some calculations. The size of the finite-volume corrections may be estimated on a single lattice ensemble by comparing results for various twist choices.

  12. Simultaneous determination of penicillin G salts by infrared spectroscopy: Evaluation of combining orthogonal signal correction with radial basis function-partial least squares regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebpour, Zahra; Tavallaie, Roya; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid; Abdollahpour, Assem

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a new method for the simultaneous determination of penicillin G salts in pharmaceutical mixture via FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was investigated. The mixture of penicillin G salts is a complex system due to similar analytical characteristics of components. Partial least squares (PLS) and radial basis function-partial least squares (RBF-PLS) were used to develop the linear and nonlinear relation between spectra and components, respectively. The orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing method was used to correct unexpected information, such as spectral overlapping and scattering effects. In order to compare the influence of OSC on PLS and RBF-PLS models, the optimal linear (PLS) and nonlinear (RBF-PLS) models based on conventional and OSC preprocessed spectra were established and compared. The obtained results demonstrated that OSC clearly enhanced the performance of both RBF-PLS and PLS calibration models. Also in the case of some nonlinear relation between spectra and component, OSC-RBF-PLS gave satisfactory results than OSC-PLS model which indicated that the OSC was helpful to remove extrinsic deviations from linearity without elimination of nonlinear information related to component. The chemometric models were tested on an external dataset and finally applied to the analysis commercialized injection product of penicillin G salts.

  13. [Efficacy and safety of hormonal therapy with androgens (androgel) in men with erectile dysfunction, partial androgen deficiency of aging male and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinchenko, S Iu; Vorslov, L O; Aglamazian, N L; Morgunov, L Iu

    2007-01-01

    Partial androgen deficiency of aging male (PADAM) manifests with sexual dysfunction and is associated with many diseases, primarily, cardiovascular. After the age of 30-40 a testosterone level falls 1-2% a year. The number of men with testosterone deficiency grows from 8% in 40-60-year-olds to 85% at the age over 80 years. Low testosterone correlates with such risk factors of cardiovascular diseases as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, low fibrinolysis, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Correction of androgenic deficiency can be conducted with the drug androgel which represents a new system of transdermal testosterone delivery. In contrast to vasoactive drugs, androgel affects pathogenetic mechanisms of erectile dysfunction and thus attenuates factors of cardiovascular risk. Androgel is used externally and is more effective than intramuscular and oral analogues. Also, the drug improves lipid spectrum. By activating lipolysis, testosterone reduces the amount of visceral fat thus lowering insulin resistance. A vasodilating effect of androgel positively influences cardiovascular system and penile vessels. The drug acts fast, is effective and safe. Therefore, it can be recommended for correction of erectile dysfunction in patients with old age androgen deficiency and concurrent cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Visual and semiquantitative analysis of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction to differentiate benign and malignant pulmonary nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skehan, S.J.; Coates, G.; Otero, C.; O'Donovan, N.; Pelling, M.; Nahmias, C.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have reported the use of attenuation-corrected positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET) with full-ring tomographs to differentiate between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. We sought to evaluate FDG PET using a partial-ring tomograph without attenuation correction. A retrospective review of PET images from 77 patients (range 38-84 years of age) with proven benign or malignant pulmonary nodules was undertaken. All images were obtained using a Siemens/CTI ECAT ART tomograph, without attenuation correction, after 185 MBq 18 F-FDG was injected. Images were visually graded on a 5-point scale from 'definitely malignant' to 'definitely benign,' and lesion-to-background (LB) ratios were calculated using region of interest analysis. Visual and semiquantitative analyses were compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Twenty lesions were benign and 57 were malignant. The mean LB ratio for benign lesions was 1.5 (range 1.0-5.7) and for malignant lesions 5.7 (range 1.2-14.1) (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for LB ratio analysis was 0.95, and for visual analysis 0.91 (p = 0.39). The optimal cut-off ratio with LB ratio analysis was 1.8, giving a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 85%. For lesions thought to be 'definitely malignant' on visual analysis, the sensitivity was 93% and the specificity 85%. Three proven infective lesions were rated as malignant by both techniques (LB ratio 2.6-5.7). FDG PET without attenuation correction is accurate for differentiating between benign and malignant lung nodules. Results using simple LB ratios without attenuation correction compare favourably with the published sensitivity and specificity for standard uptake ratios. Visual analysis is equally accurate. (author)

  15. Brain extraction in partial volumes T2*@7T by using a quasi-anatomic segmentation with bias field correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, João; Vieira, Pedro M; Couto, Carlos; Lima, Carlos S

    2018-02-01

    Poor brain extraction in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has negative consequences in several types of brain post-extraction such as tissue segmentation and related statistical measures or pattern recognition algorithms. Current state of the art algorithms for brain extraction work on weighted T1 and T2, being not adequate for non-whole brain images such as the case of T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. This paper proposes two new methods that work directly in T2*FLASH@7T partial volumes. The first is an improvement of the semi-automatic threshold-with-morphology approach adapted to incomplete volumes. The second method uses an improved version of a current implementation of the fuzzy c-means algorithm with bias correction for brain segmentation. Under high inhomogeneity conditions the performance of the first method degrades, requiring user intervention which is unacceptable. The second method performed well for all volumes, being entirely automatic. State of the art algorithms for brain extraction are mainly semi-automatic, requiring a correct initialization by the user and knowledge of the software. These methods can't deal with partial volumes and/or need information from atlas which is not available in T2*FLASH@7T. Also, combined volumes suffer from manipulations such as re-sampling which deteriorates significantly voxel intensity structures making segmentation tasks difficult. The proposed method can overcome all these difficulties, reaching good results for brain extraction using only T2*FLASH@7T volumes. The development of this work will lead to an improvement of automatic brain lesions segmentation in T2*FLASH@7T volumes, becoming more important when lesions such as cortical Multiple-Sclerosis need to be detected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  17. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Ana; Cuplov, Vesna; Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris; Drobnjak, Ivana; Dickson, John; Bert, Julien; Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  18. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) can cause significant underestimation in the observed regional radioactivity concentration (so-called partial volume effect or PVE) resulting in systematic errors in estimating quantitative physiologic parameters. The authors have...... formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...

  19. An improved optimization algorithm of the three-compartment model with spillover and partial volume corrections for dynamic FDG PET images of small animal hearts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2018-03-01

    The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the 18F-FDG influx constant K i . Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged  -1.4  ±  8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall K i error percentage, which was 0.4  ±  5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and K i percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic

  20. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  1. Association between partial-volume corrected SUVmax and Oncotype DX recurrence score in early-stage, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Ha, Seunggyun; An, Hyun Joon; Lee, Jae Sung; Han, Wonshik; Im, Seock-Ah; Ryu, Han Suk; Kim, Won Hwa; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Oncotype DX, a 21-gene expression assay, provides a recurrence score (RS) which predicts prognosis and the benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-negative) invasive breast cancer. However, Oncotype DX tests are expensive and not readily available in all institutions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether metabolic parameters on (18)F-FDG PET/CT are associated with the Oncotype DX RS and whether (18)F-FDG PET/CT can be used to predict the Oncotype DX RS. The study group comprised 38 women with stage I/II, ER-positive/HER2-negative invasive breast cancer who underwent pretreatment (18)F-FDG PET/CT and Oncotype DX testing. On PET/CT, maximum (SUVmax) and average standardized uptake values, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis were measured. Partial volume-corrected SUVmax (PVC-SUVmax) determined using the recovery coefficient method was also evaluated. Oncotype DX RS (0 - 100) was categorized as low (negative breast cancer.

  2. Impact of motion compensation and partial volume correction for 18F-NaF PET/CT imaging of coronary plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal-González, J.; Tsoumpas, C.; Lassen, M. L.; Rasul, S.; Koller, L.; Hacker, M.; Schäfers, K.; Beyer, T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that 18F-NaF-PET enables visualization and quantification of plaque micro-calcification in the coronary tree. However, PET imaging of plaque calcification in the coronary arteries is challenging because of the respiratory and cardiac motion as well as partial volume effects. The objective of this work is to implement an image reconstruction framework, which incorporates compensation for respiratory as well as cardiac motion (MoCo) and partial volume correction (PVC), for cardiac 18F-NaF PET imaging in PET/CT. We evaluated the effect of MoCo and PVC on the quantification of vulnerable plaques in the coronary arteries. Realistic simulations (Biograph TPTV, Biograph mCT) and phantom acquisitions (Biograph mCT) were used for these evaluations. Different uptake values in the calcified plaques were evaluated in the simulations, while three ‘plaque-type’ lesions of 36, 31 and 18 mm3 were included in the phantom experiments. After validation, the MoCo and PVC methods were applied in four pilot NaF-PET patient studies. In all cases, the MoCo-based image reconstruction was performed using the STIR software. The PVC was obtained from a local projection (LP) method, previously evaluated in preclinical and clinical PET. The results obtained show a significant increase of the measured lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) in the MoCo  +  PVC images. These ratios were further enhanced when using directly the tissue-activities from the LP method, making this approach more suitable for the quantitative evaluation of coronary plaques. When using the LP method on the MoCo images, LBR increased between 200% and 1119% in the simulated data, between 212% and 614% in the phantom experiments and between 46% and 373% in the plaques with positive uptake observed in the pilot patients. In conclusion, we have built and validated a STIR framework incorporating MoCo and PVC for 18F-NaF PET imaging of coronary plaques. First results indicate an improved

  3. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT: II. Quantification of I-123-IMP studies with ARG method and effects of partial volume correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Shidahara, Miho; Goto, Ryoi; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Taki, Yasuyuki; Okada, Ken; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2006-02-01

    The limited spatial resolution of SPECT causes a partial volume effect (PVE) and can lead to the significant underestimation of regional tracer concentration in the small structures surrounded by a low tracer concentration, such as the cortical gray matter of an atrophied brain. The aim of the present study was to determine, using 123I-IMP and SPECT, normal CBF of elderly subjects with and without PVE correction (PVC), and to determine regional differences in the effect of PVC and their association with the regional tissue fraction of the brain. Quantitative CBF SPECT using 123I-IMP was performed in 33 healthy elderly subjects (18 males, 15 females, 54-74 years old) using the autoradiographic method. We corrected CBF for PVE using segmented MR images, and analyzed quantitative CBF and regional differences in the effect of PVC using tissue fractions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the cortical and subcortical GM regions and deep WM regions. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs were 31.7 +/- 6.6 and 41.0 +/- 8.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, and in WM-ROIs, 18.2 +/- 0.7 and 22.9 +/- 0.8 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs after PVC were 50.9 +/- 12.8 and 65.8 +/- 16.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the effect of PVC among ROIs, but not between genders. The effect of PVC was small in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus, and it was large in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and precentral gyrus. Quantitative CBF in GM recovered significantly, but did not reach values as high as those obtained by invasive methods or in the H2(15)O PET study that used PVC. There were significant regional differences in the effect of PVC, which were considered to result from regional differences in GM tissue fraction, which is more reduced in the frontoparietal regions in the atrophied brain of the elderly.

  4. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT. II. Quantification of I-123-IMP studies with ARG method and effects of partial volume correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Shidahara, Miho

    2006-01-01

    The limited spatial resolution of SPECT causes a partial volume effect (PVE) and can lead to the significant underestimation of regional tracer concentration in the small structures surrounded by a low tracer concentration, such as the cortical gray matter of an atrophied brain. The aim of the present study was to determine, using 123 I-IMP and SPECT, normal cerebral blood flow (CBF) of elderly subjects with and without PVE correction (PVC), and to determine regional differences in the effect of PVC and their association with the regional tissue fraction of the brain. Quantitative CBF SPECT using 123 I-IMP was performed in 33 healthy elderly subjects (18 males, 15 females, 54-74 years old) using the autoradiographic method. We corrected CBF for PVE using segmented MR images, and analyzed quantitative CBF and regional differences in the effect of PVC using tissue fractions of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in regions of interest (ROIs) placed on the cortical and subcortical GM regions and deep WM regions. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs were 31.7±6.6 and 41.0±8.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, and in WM-ROIs, 18.2±0.7 and 22.9±0.8 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. The mean CBF in GM-ROIs after PVC were 50.9±12.8 and 65.8±16.1 ml/100 g/min for males and females, respectively. There were statistically significant differences in the effect of PVC among ROIs, but not between genders. The effect of PVC was small in the cerebellum and parahippocampal gyrus, and it was large in the superior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule and precentral gyrus. Quantitative CBF in GM recovered significantly, but did not reach values as high as those obtained by invasive methods or in the H 2 15 O PET study that used PVC. There were significant regional differences in the effect of PVC, which were considered to result from regional differences in GM tissue fraction, which is more reduced in the frontoparietal regions in the atrophied brain of the elderly

  5. Surgical correction of Peyronie's disease via tunica albuginea plication or partial plaque excision with pericardial graft: long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick L; Levine, Laurence A

    2008-09-01

    Limited publications exist regarding long-term outcomes of surgical correction for Peyronie's Disease (PD). To report on long-term postoperative parameters including rigidity, curvature, length, sensation, function, and patient satisfaction in men with PD treated surgically via Tunica Albuginea Plication (TAP) or Partial Plaque Excision with Tutoplast Human Pericardial Grafting (PEG). Objective and subjective data regarding patients who underwent either TAP or PEG. We report on 142 patients (61 TAP and 81 PEG) with both objective data and subjective patient reports on their postoperative experience. Patients underwent either TAP or PEG following our previously published algorithm. Data was collected via chart review and an internally generated survey, in which patients were asked about their rigidity, straightness, penile length, sensation, sexual function and satisfaction. Average follow up for TAP patients was 72 months (range 8-147) and 58 months (range 6-185) for PEG patients. At survey time, 93% of TAP and 91% of PEG patients reported curvatures of less than 30o. Rigidity was reportedly as good as or better than preoperative in 81% of TAP and 68% of PEG patients, and was adequate for coitus in 90% of TAP and 79% of PEG patients with or without the use of PDE5i. Objective flaccid stretched penile length measurements obtained pre and postoperatively show an average overall length gain of 0.6 cm (range -3.5-3.5) for TAP and 0.2 cm (range -1.5-2.0) for PEG patients. Sensation was reportedly as good as or better than preoperative in 69% of both TAP and PEG patients; 98% of TAP patients and 90% of PEG are able to achieve orgasm. 82% of TAP patients and 75% of PEG patients were either very satisfied or satisfied. Our long-term results support both TAP and PEG as durable surgical therapy for men with clinically significant PD.

  6. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  7. Influence of the partial volume correction method on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose brain kinetic modelling from dynamic PET images reconstructed with resolution model based OSEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Spencer L; Byars, Larry G; Michel, Christian J; Chonde, Daniel B; Catana, Ciprian

    2013-10-21

    Kinetic parameters estimated from dynamic (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET acquisitions have been used frequently to assess brain function in humans. Neglecting partial volume correction (PVC) for a dynamic series has been shown to produce significant bias in model estimates. Accurate PVC requires a space-variant model describing the reconstructed image spatial point spread function (PSF) that accounts for resolution limitations, including non-uniformities across the field of view due to the parallax effect. For ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), image resolution convergence is local and influenced significantly by the number of iterations, the count density, and background-to-target ratio. As both count density and background-to-target values for a brain structure can change during a dynamic scan, the local image resolution may also concurrently vary. When PVC is applied post-reconstruction the kinetic parameter estimates may be biased when neglecting the frame-dependent resolution. We explored the influence of the PVC method and implementation on kinetic parameters estimated by fitting (18)F-FDG dynamic data acquired on a dedicated brain PET scanner and reconstructed with and without PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm. The performance of several PVC algorithms was quantified with a phantom experiment, an anthropomorphic Monte Carlo simulation, and a patient scan. Using the last frame reconstructed image only for regional spread function (RSF) generation, as opposed to computing RSFs for each frame independently, and applying perturbation geometric transfer matrix PVC with PSF based OSEM produced the lowest magnitude bias kinetic parameter estimates in most instances, although at the cost of increased noise compared to the PVC methods utilizing conventional OSEM. Use of the last frame RSFs for PVC with no PSF modelling in the OSEM algorithm produced the lowest bias in cerebral metabolic rate of glucose estimates, although by less than 5% in

  8. Modifying Spearman's Attenuation Equation to Yield Partial Corrections for Measurement Error--With Application to Sample Size Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicewander, W. Alan

    2018-01-01

    Spearman's correction for attenuation (measurement error) corrects a correlation coefficient for measurement errors in either-or-both of two variables, and follows from the assumptions of classical test theory. Spearman's equation removes all measurement error from a correlation coefficient which translates into "increasing the reliability of…

  9. Fabrication of a Customized Ball Abutment to Correct a Nonparallel Implant Abutment for a Mandibular Implant-Supported Removable Partial Prosthesis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Dasht; Mohammadreza Nakhaei; Nafiseh teimouri

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: While using an implant-supported removable partial prosthesis, the implant abutments should be parallel to one another along the path of insertion. If the implants and their attachments are placed vertically on a similar occlusal plane, not only is the retention improved, the prosthesis will also be maintained for a longer period. Case Report: A 65-year-old male patient referred to the School of Dentistry in Mashhad, Iran with complaints of discomfort with the removable partial ...

  10. Genotype analysis of partial growth hormone gene (GH891│MspI in Pesisir cattle and Simmental-Pesisir crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hartatik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene that controls metabolism and body size of animals and polymorphism of the gene is known related to performance of livestock. Identification of gene polymorphisms was important to get early information to determine genetic markers associated with economically desirable traits. Genetic mapping is one of important characterizations in the selection process. Pesisir cattle is one of local cattle in Indonesia that are reared in West Sumatera and have become adaptive to local environment. The present study aimed to identify the genotype of Growth Hormone gene (GH891│MspI of the Pesisir cattle and crossbred Simmental-Pesisir cattle (designated as SimPes and relationship between growth performance (body weight and body size. The present study was conducted to 30 blood samples consisted of 15 Pesisir cattle and 15 SimPes cattle. Body weight and body size were measured at 12-18 months of age. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used in this research. The results showed that there exist three variant genotypes (MspI-/-, MspI+/-, MspI+/+ and that allele frequencies of MspI- and MspI+ were 53.3% and 46.7%, respectively. Non-significant effect has found between GH’s genotype and growth traits (Body measurement and body weight in both of breed cattle. In conclusion, three variant genotypes (GH891│MspI in Pesisir and SimPes (Simmental x Pesisir cattle population were found and no significant effect on growth trait performance.

  11. Correction for Partial Volume Effect Is a Must, Not a Luxury, to Fully Exploit the Potential of Quantitative PET Imaging in Clinical Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Abass; Werner, Thomas J; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2018-01-01

    The partial volume effect (PVE) is considered as one of the major degrading factors impacting image quality and hampering the accuracy of quantitative PET imaging in clinical oncology. This effect is the consequence of the limited spatial resolution of whole-body PET scanners, which results in bl...

  12. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  13. When structure affects function--the need for partial volume effect correction in functional and resting state magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukart, Juergen; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Both functional and also more recently resting state magnetic resonance imaging have become established tools to investigate functional brain networks. Most studies use these tools to compare different populations without controlling for potential differences in underlying brain structure which might affect the functional measurements of interest. Here, we adapt a simulation approach combined with evaluation of real resting state magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the potential impact of partial volume effects on established functional and resting state magnetic resonance imaging analyses. We demonstrate that differences in the underlying structure lead to a significant increase in detected functional differences in both types of analyses. Largest increases in functional differences are observed for highest signal-to-noise ratios and when signal with the lowest amount of partial volume effects is compared to any other partial volume effect constellation. In real data, structural information explains about 25% of within-subject variance observed in degree centrality--an established resting state connectivity measurement. Controlling this measurement for structural information can substantially alter correlational maps obtained in group analyses. Our results question current approaches of evaluating these measurements in diseased population with known structural changes without controlling for potential differences in these measurements.

  14. Feasibility and performance of novel software to quantify metabolically active volumes and 3D partial volume corrected SUV and metabolic volumetric products of spinal bone marrow metastases on 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigian, Drew A; Lopez, Rosa Fernandez; Alapati, Sridevi; Bodapati, Geetha; Hofheinz, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg; Saboury, Babak; Alavi, Abass

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to assess feasibility and performance of novel semi-automated image analysis software called ROVER to quantify metabolically active volume (MAV), maximum standardized uptake value-maximum (SUV(max)), 3D partial volume corrected mean SUV (cSUV(mean)), and 3D partial volume corrected mean MVP (cMVP(mean)) of spinal bone marrow metastases on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT). We retrospectively studied 16 subjects with 31 spinal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Manual and ROVER determinations of lesional MAV and SUV(max), and repeated ROVER measurements of MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean) and cMVP(mean) were made. Bland-Altman and correlation analyses were performed to assess reproducibility and agreement. Our results showed that analyses of repeated ROVER measurements revealed MAV mean difference (D)=-0.03±0.53cc (95% CI(-0.22, 0.16)), lower limit of agreement (LLOA)=-1.07cc, and upper limit of agreement (ULOA)=1.01cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00; cSUV(mean) D=-0.01±0.39 (95% CI(-0.15, 0.13)), LLOA=-0.76, and ULOA=0.75; cMVP(mean) D=-0.52±4.78cc (95% CI(-2.23, 1.23)), LLOA=-9.89cc, and ULOA=8.86cc. Comparisons between ROVER and manual measurements revealed volume D= -0.39±1.37cc (95% CI (-0.89, 0.11)), LLOA=-3.08cc, and ULOA=2.30cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00. Mean percent increase in lesional SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) following partial volume correction using ROVER was 84.25±36.00% and 84.45±35.94% , respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to estimate MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean), and cMVP(mean) of spinal bone marrow metastases from (18)F-FDG-PET/CT quickly and easily with good reproducibility via ROVER software. Partial volume correction is imperative, as uncorrected SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) are significantly underestimated, even for large lesions. This novel approach has great potential for practical, accurate, and precise combined structural-functional PET

  15. A single-chain fusion molecule consisting of peptide, major histocompatibility gene complex class I heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin can fold partially correctly, but binds peptide inefficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylvester-Hvid, C; Buus, S

    1999-01-01

    of a recombinant murine MHC-I molecule, which could be produced in large amounts in bacteria. The recombinant MHC-I protein was expressed as a single molecule (PepSc) consisting of the antigenic peptide linked to the MHC-I heavy chain and further linked to human beta2-microglobulin (hbeta2m). The PepSc molecule...... electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Serological analysis revealed the presence of some, but not all, MHC-I-specific epitopes. Biochemically, PepSc could bind peptide, however, rather ineffectively. We suggest that a partially correctly refolded MHC-I has been obtained....

  16. On Neglecting Chemical Exchange When Correcting in Vivo 31P MRS Data for Partial Saturation: Commentary on: ``Pitfalls in the Measurement of Metabolite Concentrations Using the One-Pulse Experiment in in Vivo NMR''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2001-04-01

    This article replies to Spencer et al. (J. Magn. Reson.149, 251-257, 2001) concerning the degree to which chemical exchange affects partial saturation corrections using saturation factors. Considering the important case of in vivo31P NMR, we employ differential analysis to demonstrate a broad range of experimental conditions over which chemical exchange minimally affects saturation factors, and near-optimum signal-to-noise ratio is preserved. The analysis contradicts Spencer et al.'s broad claim that chemical exchange results in a strong dependence of saturation factors upon M0's and T1 and exchange parameters. For Spencer et al.'s example of a dynamic 31P NMR experiment in which phosphocreatine varies 20-fold, we show that our strategy of measuring saturation factors at the start and end of the study reduces errors in saturation corrections to 2% for the high-energy phosphates.

  17. Attenuation corrections through energy spectra analysis of whole body and partial body measurements applying gamma spectroscopy; Schwaechungskorrektur bei gammaspektroskopischen Ganz- und Teilkoerpermessungen durch Analyse der Energiespektren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelper, L.F.; Lassmann, M.; Haenscheid, H.; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-12-01

    The study was carried out within the framework of activities for testing means of direct determination of radioactivity levels in the human body due to incorporated, inhomogenously distributed radionuclides. A major task was to derive the average depth of activity distributions, particularly from photon radiation at energies below 500 keV, for the purpose of making suitable attenuation corrections. The paper presents two applicable methods which yield information on the mean depths of activity distributions, obtained through additional analyses of the energy spectra. The analyses are based on measuring the dependence of intensity of the Compton radiation on the length of pathways of the photons penetrating the soft tissue, or on measuring the energy-dependent absorption effects with photons. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der direkten Aktivitaetsbestimmung bei inhomogener Radionukliddeposition im menschlichen Koerper mittels Ganz- oder Teilkoerpermessanlagen im klinischen Bereich oder im Strahlenschutz sollte besonders bei Photonenstrahlung mit Energien von weniger als 500 keV eine Ermittlung der mittleren Tiefe der Aktivitaetsverteilung zur Schwaechungskorrektur erfolgen. Im klinischen Umfeld ist es haeufig moeglich, zur Tiefenkorrektur die mittlere Organtiefe und damit die schwaechende Gewebsschicht mittels Ultraschall zu bestimmen. Ergaenzend hierzu werden im Folgenden zwei Methoden vorgestellt, welche Aussagen ueber die mittlere Tiefe von Aktivitaetsverteilungen durch Gewinnung von Zusatzinformationen aus dem Energiespektrum im Rahmen von gamma-spektroskopischen Personenmessungen ermoeglichen. Dazu werden einerseits die Abhaengigkeit der Intensitaet der Comptonstrahlung von der Laenge der Wegstrecke von Photonen durch Weichgewebe und andererseits energieabhaengige Absorptionseffekte bei Photonen als Grundlage herangezogen. (orig.)

  18. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  19. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Genetics, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India. *Corresponding author ... and LH, is of a single type or two types is still controversial .... Since sex regulation is an important aspect.

  20. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chengyu; Guo, Bingqi; Cheng, Chih-Yao; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2010-09-01

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent™ x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V100 reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as compared to 95

  1. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  2. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Cheng, Chih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V 100 reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as compared to 95

  3. Protein replacement therapy partially corrects the cholesterol-storage phenotype in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Krogh Nielsen

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2 disease is a fatal autosomal recessive neurovisceral degenerative disorder characterized by late endosomal-lysosomal sequestration of low-density lipoprotein derived cholesterol. The breach in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis is caused by deficiency of functional NPC2, a soluble sterol binding protein targeted to the lysosomes by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. As currently there is no effective treatment for the disorder, we have investigated the efficacy of NPC2 replacement therapy in a murine gene-trap model of NPC2-disease generated on the 129P2/OlaHsd genetic background. NPC2 was purified from bovine milk and its functional competence assured in NPC2-deficient fibroblasts using the specific cholesterol fluorescent probe filipin. For evaluation of phenotype correction in vivo, three-week-old NPC2(-/- mice received two weekly intravenous injections of 5 mg/kg NPC2 until trial termination 66 days later. Whereas the saline treated NPC2(-/- mice exhibited massive visceral cholesterol storage as compared to their wild-type littermates, administration of NPC2 caused a marked reduction in cholesterol build up. The histological findings, indicating an amelioration of the disease pathology in liver, spleen, and lungs, corroborated the biochemical results. Little or no difference in the overall cholesterol levels was observed in the kidneys, blood, cerebral cortex and hippocampus when comparing NPC2(-/- and wild type mice. However, cerebellum cholesterol was increased about two fold in NPC2(-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Weight gain performance was slightly improved as a result of the NPC2 treatment but significant motor coordination deficits were still observed. Accordingly, ultrastructural cerebellar abnormalities were detected in both saline treated and NPC2 treated NPC2(-/- animals 87 days post partum. Our data indicate that protein replacement may be a beneficial therapeutic approach in the

  4. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  5. Anatomy-based reconstruction of FDG-PET images with implicit partial volume correction improves detection of hypometabolic regions in patients with epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia diagnosed on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffin, Karolien; Baete, Kristof; Nuyts, Johan; Laere, Koen van; Van Paesschen, Wim; Dupont, Patrick; Palmini, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Detection of hypometabolic areas on interictal FDG-PET images for assessing the epileptogenic zone is hampered by partial volume effects. We evaluated the performance of an anatomy-based maximum a-posteriori (A-MAP) reconstruction algorithm which combined noise suppression with correction for the partial volume effect in the detection of hypometabolic areas in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). FDG-PET images from 14 patients with refractory partial epilepsy were reconstructed using A-MAP and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. In all patients, presurgical evaluation showed that FCD represented the epileptic lesion. Correspondence between the FCD location and regional metabolism on a predefined atlas was evaluated. An asymmetry index of FCD to normal cortex was calculated. Hypometabolism at the FCD location was detected in 9/14 patients (64%) using ML and in 10/14 patients (71%) using A-MAP reconstruction. Hypometabolic areas outside the FCD location were detected in 12/14 patients (86%) using ML and in 11/14 patients (79%) using A-MAP reconstruction. The asymmetry index was higher using A-MAP reconstruction (0.61, ML 0.49, p=0.03). The A-MAP reconstruction algorithm improved visual detection of epileptic FCD on brain FDG-PET images compared to ML reconstruction, due to higher contrast and better delineation of the lesion. This improvement failed to reach significance in our small sample. Hypometabolism outside the lesion is often present, consistent with the observation that the functional deficit zone tends to be larger than the epileptogenic zone. (orig.)

  6. Anatomy-based reconstruction of FDG-PET images with implicit partial volume correction improves detection of hypometabolic regions in patients with epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia diagnosed on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, Karolien; Baete, Kristof; Nuyts, Johan; Laere, Koen van [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); Van Paesschen, Wim [University Hospital Leuven, Neurology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Dupont, Patrick [University Hospital Leuven, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Center, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospital Leuven, Laboratory of Cognitive Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Palmini, Andre [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre Epilepsy Surgery Program, Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Detection of hypometabolic areas on interictal FDG-PET images for assessing the epileptogenic zone is hampered by partial volume effects. We evaluated the performance of an anatomy-based maximum a-posteriori (A-MAP) reconstruction algorithm which combined noise suppression with correction for the partial volume effect in the detection of hypometabolic areas in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). FDG-PET images from 14 patients with refractory partial epilepsy were reconstructed using A-MAP and maximum likelihood (ML) reconstruction. In all patients, presurgical evaluation showed that FCD represented the epileptic lesion. Correspondence between the FCD location and regional metabolism on a predefined atlas was evaluated. An asymmetry index of FCD to normal cortex was calculated. Hypometabolism at the FCD location was detected in 9/14 patients (64%) using ML and in 10/14 patients (71%) using A-MAP reconstruction. Hypometabolic areas outside the FCD location were detected in 12/14 patients (86%) using ML and in 11/14 patients (79%) using A-MAP reconstruction. The asymmetry index was higher using A-MAP reconstruction (0.61, ML 0.49, p=0.03). The A-MAP reconstruction algorithm improved visual detection of epileptic FCD on brain FDG-PET images compared to ML reconstruction, due to higher contrast and better delineation of the lesion. This improvement failed to reach significance in our small sample. Hypometabolism outside the lesion is often present, consistent with the observation that the functional deficit zone tends to be larger than the epileptogenic zone. (orig.)

  7. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  8. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  9. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  10. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  11. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  12. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  13. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  14. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  15. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  16. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcot, Valérie; Lu, Yingchang; Highland, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.......In the published version of this paper, the name of author Emanuele Di Angelantonio was misspelled. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article....

  17. Author Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundle, D S; Löscher, C R; Krahmann, G

    2018-01-01

    A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.......A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper....

  18. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  19. Partial hypopituitarism and Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguruswamy, S; Chattington, P D

    2011-01-01

    A case of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis with pituitary involvement nearly 20 years after initial presentation. A 48-year-old man had histiocytosis X 22 years ago initially involving the groin; subsequently his external auditory meatus, scalp, gum, mandibular bone, perineum and axilla were involved and treated. The pituitary gland was involved 4 years ago. A thyrotropin-releasing hormone test showed delayed response suggestive of hypothalamic disease. Prolactin levels were normal. A gonadotropin-releasing hormone test showed impaired testosterone and gonadotrophin response in keeping with pituitary disease. A glucagon stimulation test showed an impaired growth hormone response but a normal cortisol increase. MRI pituitary showed an empty sella. There was no evidence of diabetes insipidus. Bone mineral densitometry was normal. He has partial hypopituitarism needing thyroxine and testosterone replacement. He also developed type 2 diabetes mellitus 9 years ago. He is closely monitored for any development of diabetes insipidus and the need for growth hormone supplementation. PMID:22715201

  20. Covariate measurement error correction methods in mediation analysis with failure time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-12-01

    Mediation analysis is important for understanding the mechanisms whereby one variable causes changes in another. Measurement error could obscure the ability of the potential mediator to explain such changes. This article focuses on developing correction methods for measurement error in the mediator with failure time outcomes. We consider a broad definition of measurement error, including technical error, and error associated with temporal variation. The underlying model with the "true" mediator is assumed to be of the Cox proportional hazards model form. The induced hazard ratio for the observed mediator no longer has a simple form independent of the baseline hazard function, due to the conditioning event. We propose a mean-variance regression calibration approach and a follow-up time regression calibration approach, to approximate the partial likelihood for the induced hazard function. Both methods demonstrate value in assessing mediation effects in simulation studies. These methods are generalized to multiple biomarkers and to both case-cohort and nested case-control sampling designs. We apply these correction methods to the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials to understand the mediation effect of several serum sex hormone measures on the relationship between postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  2. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  3. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  4. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  5. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  6. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: II. Normal values and gray matter blood flow response to visual activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, I; Iida, H; Holm, S

    2000-01-01

    One of the most limiting factors for the accurate quantification of physiologic parameters with positron emission tomography (PET) is the partial volume effect (PVE). To assess the magnitude of this contribution to the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the authors have formulated...... or 3D). Furthermore, the authors wanted to measure the activation response in the occipital gray matter compartment, and in doing so test the stability of the PTF, during perturbations of rCBF induced by visual stimulation. Eight dynamic PET scans were acquired per subject (n = 8), each for a duration...... of 6 minutes after IV bolus injection of H2(15)O. Four of these scans were performed using 2D and four using 3D acquisition. Visual stimulation was presented in four scans, and four scans were during rest. Model C was found optimal based on Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC) and had the smallest...

  7. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Blaser, Martin J.; Thorsen, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    The originally published version of this Article contained an incorrect version of Figure 3 that was introduced following peer review and inadvertently not corrected during the production process. Both versions contain the same set of abundance data, but the incorrect version has the children...

  8. Publisher Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flachsbart, Friederike; Dose, Janina; Gentschew, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Robert Häsler, which was incorrectly given as Robert Häesler. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article....

  9. Correction to

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roehle, Robert; Wieske, Viktoria; Schuetz, Georg M

    2018-01-01

    The original version of this article, published on 19 March 2018, unfortunately contained a mistake. The following correction has therefore been made in the original: The names of the authors Philipp A. Kaufmann, Ronny Ralf Buechel and Bernhard A. Herzog were presented incorrectly....

  10. Correction: Mutsuzaki, H., et al. Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24366–24379.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the original version of the manuscript [1] there was an inadvertent error. The words “25 °C for 48 h” should be replaced with “25 °C for 24 h”. The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apatite coatings formed at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h were found to be identical in physicochemical nature, which was revealed by SEM, EDX, XRD and chemical analysis. Thus, in the animal experiments, the authors used apatite-coated Ti pins fabricated at 25 °C for 24 h. Several corrections are thus required in the abstract, the main text, the figure legends, and the figures (Table 1. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to readers of the journal. [...

  11. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  12. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ... out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws ...

  14. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status.

  15. The partial Siberian snake experiment at the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Caussyn, D.D.; Ellison, T.; Jones, B.; Lee, S.Y.; Schwandt, P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bleser, E.J.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.D.; Foelsche, H.W.; Gardner, C.J.; Geller, J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Mane, S.R.; Ratner, L.; Reece, K.; Roser, T.; Skelly, J.F.; Soukas, A.; Tepikian, S.; Thern, R.E.; van Asselt, W.; Spinka, H.; Teng, L.; Underwood, D.G.; Yokosawa, A.; Wienands, U.; Bharadwaj, V.; Hsueh, S.; Hiramatsu, S.; Mori, Y.; Sato, H.; Yokoya, K.

    1992-01-01

    We are building a 4.7 Tesla-meter room temperature solenoid to be installed in a 10-foot long AGS straight section. This experiment will test the idea of using a partial snake to correct all depolarizing imperfection resonances and also test the feasibility of betatron tune jump in correction intrinsic resonances in the presence of a partial snake

  16. Electroweak corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, W.J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The prospect of high accuracy measurements investigating the weak interactions, which are expected to take place at the electron-positron storage ring LEP at CERN and the linear collider SCL at SLAC, offers the possibility to study also the weak quantum effects. In order to distinguish if the measured weak quantum effects lie within the margins set by the standard model and those bearing traces of new physics one had to go beyond the lowest order and also include electroweak radiative corrections (EWRC) in theoretical calculations. These higher-order corrections also can offer the possibility of getting information about two particles present in the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model (GSW), but not discovered up till now, the top quark and the Higgs boson. In ch. 2 the GSW standard model of electroweak interactions is described. In ch. 3 some special techniques are described for determination of integrals which are responsible for numerical instabilities caused by large canceling terms encountered in the calculation of EWRC effects, and methods necessary to get hold of the extensive algebra typical for EWRC. In ch. 4 various aspects related to EWRC effects are discussed, in particular the dependence of the unknown model parameters which are the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson. The processes which are discussed are production of heavy fermions from electron-positron annihilation and those of the fermionic decay of the Z gauge boson. (H.W.). 106 refs.; 30 figs.; 6 tabs.; schemes

  17. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  18. Partial removal and post-operative irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takuro; Kamata, Tadashi; Suzuki, Keishiro; Kitahara, Toshihiro.

    1992-01-01

    From 1971 to 1990, sixteen patients with craniopharyngioma were treated by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Fourteen patients underwent partial removal and RT as primary treatment. In two patients, partial removal and RT were performed for treatment of recurrence after total removal. Total dose was between 40 Gy and 60 Gy. Five year survival and 5-year relapse free rates after RT were 100% and 71.7%, respectively. Computed tomography raised suspicion of radiation necrosis in two patients, each treated with two opposing lateral ports. The following hormonal replacements were needed: adrenal in 73% of the patients, thyroid in 66%, growth hormone in 50% of the children, and antidiuretic hormone in 21%. The amounts of thyroid and adrenal hormones for substitution have increased gradually with elapsed time after RT. To minimize these complications and to achieve tumor control, a multiport technique including radiosurgery, and a total dose of 50-55 Gy with 2 Gy per fraction is suggested to be optimal. (author)

  19. Partial removal and post-operative irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki (Obihiro Kousei Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)); Arimoto, Takuro; Kamata, Tadashi; Suzuki, Keishiro; Kitahara, Toshihiro

    1992-12-01

    From 1971 to 1990, sixteen patients with craniopharyngioma were treated by postoperative radiotherapy (RT). Fourteen patients underwent partial removal and RT as primary treatment. In two patients, partial removal and RT were performed for treatment of recurrence after total removal. Total dose was between 40 Gy and 60 Gy. Five year survival and 5-year relapse free rates after RT were 100% and 71.7%, respectively. Computed tomography raised suspicion of radiation necrosis in two patients, each treated with two opposing lateral ports. The following hormonal replacements were needed: adrenal in 73% of the patients, thyroid in 66%, growth hormone in 50% of the children, and antidiuretic hormone in 21%. The amounts of thyroid and adrenal hormones for substitution have increased gradually with elapsed time after RT. To minimize these complications and to achieve tumor control, a multiport technique including radiosurgery, and a total dose of 50-55 Gy with 2 Gy per fraction is suggested to be optimal. (author).

  20. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  1. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  2. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  3. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  4. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  5. Autosomal Dominant Growth Hormone Deficiency (Type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Kular, Dalvir; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-06-01

    Isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) is the commonest pituitary hormone deficiency resulting from congenital or acquired causes, although for most patients its etiology remains unknown. Among the known factors, heterozygous mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) lead to the autosomal dominant form of GHD, also known as type II GHD. In many cohorts this is the commonest form of congenital isolated GHD and is mainly caused by mutations that affect the correct splicing of GH-1. These mutations cause skipping of the third exon and lead to the production of a 17.5-kDa GH isoform that exerts a dominant negative effect on the secretion of the wild type GH. The identification of these mutations has clinical implications for the management of patients, as there is a well-documented correlation between the severity of the phenotype and the increased expression of the 17.5-kDa isoform. Patients with type II GHD have a variable height deficit and severity of GHD and may develop additional pituitary hormone defiencies over time, including ACTH, TSH and gonadotropin deficiencies. Therefore, their lifelong follow-up is recommended. Detailed studies on the effect of heterozygous GH1 mutations on the trafficking, secretion and action of growth hormone can elucidate their mechanism on a cellular level and may influence future treatment options for GHD type II.

  6. Hyperthyroidism and acromegaly due to a thyrotropin- and growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor. Lack of hormonal response to bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H E; Linfoot, J A; Braunstein, G D; Kovacs, K; Young, R T

    1983-05-01

    A 47-year-old woman with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism was found to have an inappropriately normal serum thyrotropin level (1.5 to 2.5 microU/ml) that responded poorly to thyrotropin-releasing hormone but showed partial responsiveness to changes in circulating thyroid hormones. Serum alpha-subunit levels were high-normal and showed a normal response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Growth hormone and thyrotropin hypersecretion persisted despite radiotherapy and bromocriptine treatment. Selective trans-sphenoidal removal of a pituitary adenoma led to normalization of both growth hormone and thyrotropin levels. Both thyrotropes and somatotropes were demonstrated in the adenoma by the immunoperoxidase technique and electron microscopy.

  7. The "multiple hormone deficiency" theory of aging: is human senescence caused mainly by multiple hormone deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertoghe, T

    2005-12-01

    reverse or even cure them. If hormone deficiencies and imbalances are the major causes of senescence, what then is the treatment? Crucial for the treatment of senescent persons is to make a correct diagnosis by making up an anamnesis of all symptoms related to hormone disturbances, conducting a thorough physical examination, and getting laboratory tests done such as serum and 24-hour urine analyses. The physician should look not only for hormone deficiencies, including the mildest ones, but also for any alterations in hormone circadian cycles, and for the presence of any factors--nutritional, dietary, behavioral, lifestyle, environmental (including illumination and indoor, outdoor, or dietary pollutants)--that cause or aggravate hormone deficiencies. After completion of the detailed diagnostic phase and obtaining and analyzing the results of the tests, treatment can start. In general, before supplying hormones, all other factors that contribute to senescence should be eliminated. After that, supplements of the missing hormones can then be administered, carefully respecting an appropriate timing of their intake, and eventually recommending measures such as lifestyle changes to restore circadian rhythmicity.

  8. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT® analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A.; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2017-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system...

  9. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  10. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  11. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  12. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  13. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  14. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  15. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  16. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  17. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  18. Thyroid hormone receptor binds to a site in the rat growth hormone promoter required for induction by thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.J.; Brent, G.A.; Warne, R.L.; Larsen, P.R.; Moore, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the rat growth hormone (rGH) gene in pituitary cells is increased by addition of thyroid hormone (T3). This induction is dependent on the presence of specific sequences just upstream of the rGH promoter. The authors have partially purified T3 receptor from rat liver and examined its interaction with these rGH sequences. They show here that T3 receptor binds specifically to a site just upstream of the basal rGH promoter. This binding site includes two copies of a 7-base-pair direct repeat, the centers of which are separated by 10 base pairs. Deletions that specifically remove the T3 receptor binding site drastically reduce response to T3 in transient transfection experiments. These results demonstrate that T3 receptor can recognize specific DNA sequences and suggest that it can act directly as a positive transcriptional regulatory factor

  19. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  20. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  1. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy

  2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle J; Erickson, Dana; Castro, M Regina; Atkinson, John L D

    2008-07-01

    , and 1 for follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. Eleven patients (61%) ultimately required thyroid hormone replacement therapy, and 5 (24%) required additional pituitary hormone replacement. Of these, 2 patients required treatment for new anterior pituitary dysfunction as a complication of surgery, and 2 patients with preoperative partial anterior pituitary dysfunction developed complete panhypopituitarism. One patient had transient diabetes insipidus. The remainder had no change in pituitary function from their preoperative state. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary lesions are often delayed in diagnosis, are frequently macroadenomas and plurihormonal in terms of their pathological characteristics, have a heterogeneous clinical picture, and are difficult to treat. An experienced team approach will optimize results in the management of these uncommon lesions.

  3. 76 FR 25177 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... projects that will create jobs and otherwise benefit the state's and the nation's economy. EPA has... from Steve Spaw, Deputy Executive Director, TACB, to William B. Hathaway, Director, Air, Pesticides and...

  4. 75 FR 82429 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... and residential care 6221, 6231, 6232, 6233, 6239. facilities. Personal and laundry services 8122..., 997 (6th Cir. 1993); Dun & Bradstreet Corp. v. United States Postal Service, 946 F.2d 189, 193 (2d Cir...

  5. 75 FR 82365 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .../nursing and 6221, 6231, 6232, 6233, 6239 residential care facilities. Personal and laundry services 8122... that is a government of a city, county, town, school district, or special district with a population of...

  6. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  7. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  8. Suspensions: to be continued: the consequences of the Appellate Body report in 'Hormones II'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, C.E.

    2009-01-01

    In October 2008, the WTO Appellate Body (AB) issued its report on Hormones II, marking the next stage in the long-running Hormones case. This comment discusses the AB’s findings on the matter. It outlines how the AB has shown the correct procedural avenue for cases involving compliance panels,

  9. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  10. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  11. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  12. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  13. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  14. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  15. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  16. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  17. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  18. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  19. Thyroid hormones states and brain development interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osama M; El-Gareib, A W; El-Bakry, A M; Abd El-Tawab, S M; Ahmed, R G

    2008-04-01

    The action of thyroid hormones (THs) in the brain is strictly regulated, since these hormones play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common endocrine maladies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify in broad terms the interactions between thyroid hormone states or actions and brain development. THs regulate the neuronal cytoarchitecture, neuronal growth and synaptogenesis, and their receptors are widely distributed in the CNS. Any deficiency or increase of them (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) during these periods may result in an irreversible impairment, morphological and cytoarchitecture abnormalities, disorganization, maldevelopment and physical retardation. This includes abnormal neuronal proliferation, migration, decreased dendritic densities and dendritic arborizations. This drastic effect may be responsible for the loss of neurons vital functions and may lead, in turn, to the biochemical dysfunctions. This could explain the physiological and behavioral changes observed in the animals or human during thyroid dysfunction. It can be hypothesized that the sensitive to the thyroid hormones is not only remarked in the neonatal period but also prior to birth, and THs change during the development may lead to the brain damage if not corrected shortly after the birth. Thus, the hypothesis that neurodevelopmental abnormalities might be related to the thyroid hormones is plausible. Taken together, the alterations of neurotransmitters and disturbance in the GABA, adenosine and pro/antioxidant systems in CNS due to the thyroid dysfunction may retard the neurogenesis and CNS growth and the reverse is true. In general, THs disorder during early life may lead to distortions rather than synchronized shifts in the relative development of several central transmitter systems that leads to a multitude of irreversible morphological and biochemical

  20. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  1. Compatriot partiality and cosmopolitan justice: Can we justify compatriot partiality within the cosmopolitan framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Bascara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an alternative way in which compatriot partiality could be justified within the framework of global distributive justice. Philosophers who argue that compatriot partiality is similar to racial partiality capture something correct about compatriot partiality. However, the analogy should not lead us to comprehensively reject compatriot partiality. We can justify compatriot partiality on the same grounds that liberation movements and affirmative action have been justified. Hence, given cosmopolitan demands of justice, special consideration for the economic well-being of your nation as a whole is justified if and only if the country it identifies is an oppressed developing nation in an unjust global order.This justification is incomplete. We also need to say why Person A, qua national of Country A, is justified in helping her compatriots in Country A over similarly or slightly more oppressed non-compatriots in Country B. I argue that Person A’s partiality towards her compatriots admits further vindication because it is part of an oppressed group’s project of self-emancipation, which is preferable to paternalistic emancipation.Finally, I identify three benefits in my justification for compatriot partiality. First, I do not offer a blanket justification for all forms of compatriot partiality. Partiality between members of oppressed groups is only a temporary effective measure designed to level an unlevel playing field. Second, because history attests that sovereign republics could arise as a collective response to colonial oppression, justifying compatriot partiality on the grounds that I have identified is conducive to the development of sovereignty and even democracy in poor countries, thereby avoiding problems of infringement that many humanitarian poverty alleviation efforts encounter. Finally, my justification for compatriot partiality complies with the implicit cosmopolitan commitment to the realizability of global justice

  2. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  3. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  4. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  5. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  7. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  8. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  9. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  10. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  11. Direct Regulation of Mitochondrial RNA Synthesis by Thyroid Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, José A.; Fernández-Silva, Patricio; Garrido-Pérez, Nuria; López-Pérez, Manuel J.; Pérez-Martos, Acisclo; Montoya, Julio

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the influence of in vivo treatment and in vitro addition of thyroid hormone on in organello mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription and, in parallel, on the in organello footprinting patterns at the mtDNA regions involved in the regulation of transcription. We found that thyroid hormone modulates mitochondrial RNA levels and the mRNA/rRNA ratio by influencing the transcriptional rate. In addition, we found conspicuous differences between the mtDNA dimethyl sulfate footprinting patterns of mitochondria derived from euthyroid and hypothyroid rats at the transcription initiation sites but not at the mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) binding region. Furthermore, direct addition of thyroid hormone to the incubation medium of mitochondria isolated from hypothyroid rats restored the mRNA/rRNA ratio found in euthyroid rats as well as the mtDNA footprinting patterns at the transcription initiation area. Therefore, we conclude that the regulatory effect of thyroid hormone on mitochondrial transcription is partially exerted by a direct influence of the hormone on the mitochondrial transcription machinery. Particularly, the influence on the mRNA/rRNA ratio is achieved by selective modulation of the alternative H-strand transcription initiation sites and does not require the previous activation of nuclear genes. These results provide the first functional demonstration that regulatory signals, such as thyroid hormone, that modify the expression of nuclear genes can also act as primary signals for the transcriptional apparatus of mitochondria. PMID:9858589

  12. THYROID HORMONE RECEPTOR BETA GENE MUTATION (P453A) IN A TURKISH FAMILY PRODUCING RESISTANCE TO THYROID HORMONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktaroglu, Taner; Noel, Janet; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Refetoff, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Two members of a Turkish family, a mother and son, had thyroid function tests suggestive of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH). The clinical presentation was, however, different. The mother (proposita) had palpitation, weakness, tiredness, nervousness, dry mouth and was misdiagnosed as having multinodular toxic goiter which was treated with antithyroid drugs and partial thyroidectomy. Her younger son had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and primary encopresis, but normal intellectual quotient. Both had elevated serum iodothyronine levels with nonsuppressed thyrotropin. A mutation in one allele of the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (P453A) was identified, providing a genetic confirmation for the diagnosis of RTH. PMID:18561095

  13. Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.

  14. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  15. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ... more surgeries depending on the extent of the repair needed. Click here to find out more. Corrective ...

  16. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Jaw Surgery Download Download the ebook for further information Corrective jaw, or orthognathic surgery is performed by ... your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  17. Why sex hormones matter for neuroscience: A very short review on sex, sex hormones, and functional brain asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus

    2017-01-02

    Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  20. Correct-by-design output feedback of LTI systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haesaert, S.; Abate, A.; van den Hof, P.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art correct-by-design controllers are designed for full-state measurable systems. This work extends the applicability of correct-by-design controllers to partially observable linear, time-invariant (LTI) models. Towards the certification of the synthesised controllers,

  1. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  2. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  3. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Electroweak corrections to H->ZZ/WW->4 leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredenstein, A.; Denner, A.; Dittmaier, S.; Weber, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    We provide predictions for the decays H->ZZ->4-bar and H->WW->4-bar including the complete electroweak O(α) corrections and improvements by higher-order final-state radiation and two-loop corrections proportional to G μ 2 M H 4 . The gauge-boson resonances are described in the complex-mass scheme. We find corrections at the level of 1-8% for the partial widths

  5. Self-consistency corrections in effective-interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkand, Y.; Kirson, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Large-matrix extended-shell-model calculations are used to compute self-consistency corrections to the effective interaction and to the linked-cluster effective interaction. The corrections are found to be numerically significant and to affect the rate of convergence of the corresponding perturbation series. The influence of various partial corrections is tested. It is concluded that self-consistency is an important effect in determining the effective interaction and improving the rate of convergence. (author)

  6. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  7. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  8. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  9. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  10. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  11. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  12. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  13. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  14. Corrections to primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Gleeson, A.M.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Teplitz, V.L.; Turner, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The changes in primordial nucleosynthesis resulting from small corrections to rates for weak processes that connect neutrons and protons are discussed. The weak rates are corrected by improved treatment of Coulomb and radiative corrections, and by inclusion of plasma effects. The calculations lead to a systematic decrease in the predicted 4 He abundance of about ΔY = 0.0025. The relative changes in other primoridal abundances are also 1 to 2%

  15. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  16. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  17. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  18. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  20. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  1. Hormone therapy in metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebelameli P

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Only orchiectomy is still commonly used today either as a single therapy or in combination regimens. Hypophysectomy & adrenalectomy showed such devastating effects on the endocrine equilibrium as to be inconsistent with an acceptable quality of life or even with survival. Chemical adrenalectomy was also tried with drugs (eg. aminoglutethmide, spironolactone leading to consequences superimposable to those of surgical adrenalectomy. Along with orchiectomy, three groups of substances are commonly used today for the hormonal therapy of prostate cancer: estrogens, LHRH agonists & anti androgens. Bilateral orchiectomy removes 90-95% of circulating testosterone. Clinical studies document 60-80% of positive responders to castration, on continued evaluation, relapse occurs usually within 6-24 months in responders, with a death rate of 50% within 6 months. The androgenic activity still remaining after castration may explain the partial & progressively decreasing effectiveness of this & other testosterone reducing therapies. Antiandrogens define substances that act directly at the target site, where interacting with steroid hormone receptors, they impede the binding of androgens. A trend towards the combination of testosterone-reducing & androgen-blocking treatment is developing in modern therapy of prostate cancer. This is due to the complementary characteristics of the two different pharmacological mechanisms that are involved. In this study castration+antiandrogen is compared to castration alone. The results demonstrate a significantly greater percentage of positive objective & subjective responses with antiandrogen than with placebo. In addition survival time was increased in patients treated with castration+antiandrogen than castration+placebo.

  2. Publisher Correction: Predicting unpredictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.

    2018-06-01

    In this News & Views article originally published, the wrong graph was used for panel b of Fig. 1, and the numbers on the y axes of panels a and c were incorrect; the original and corrected Fig. 1 is shown below. This has now been corrected in all versions of the News & Views.

  3. [Characteristics of polyamine biosynthesis regulation and tumor growth rate in hormone-dependant grafted breast tumors of mice and rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the inhibitors of polyamines biosynthesis on completely or partially hormone-dependant breast tumors (mouse Ca755 carcinoma and Walker W-256 carcinosarcoma) is essentially special: in contrary to hormone-dependant tumors, this effect may be not only breaking but stimulating as well. Change-over from one to another mode of reaction is conditioned, most probable, by hormonal status, which is determined by one or another estral cycle phase. Biochemical mechanisms of this change-over are closely connected with polyamines metabolism, namely the degree of polyamines (especially spermine) interconvertion and physiological reactivity level of the system controlling expression of ornithin-decarboxilase. At that, the first of these pathways is predominant for completely hormone-dependant Ca755 and the second one -for partially hormone-dependant W-256.

  4. Effects of night shift on the cognitive load of physicians and urinary steroid hormone profiles - a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterode, Wolf; Schranz, Sandra; Jordakieva, Galateja

    2018-03-21

    Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2). In both conditions, physicians collected a 24 h urine sample for steroid hormone concentration analysis and further completed psychological tests, including the sleep questionnaire (SF-A), the questionnaire for mental state (MDBF) and the computer-assisted visual memory test (FVW) before and at the end of their shifts, respectively. Although mean sleep deprivation during night shift was relatively small (~1.5 h) the impairment in participants' mental state was high in all three dimensions (mood, vigilance and agitation, p ≤ 0.001). Sleep quality (SQ), feeling of being recovered after sleep and mental balance decreased (p ≤ 0.001), whereas mental exhaustion increased (p night shift (p = 0.011), however, mostly in incorrectly identified items and not in correctly identified ones (FVW). SQ and false identified items were negatively correlated, whereas SQ and time of reaction were positively associated. It is assumed that after night shift, a tendency exists to make faster wrong decisions. SQ did not influence correctly identified items in FVW. In contrast to previous investigations, we found that only excretion rates for pregnanetriol and androsterone/etiocholanolone ratios (p night shift. A considerable stimulation of the

  5. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  6. Myopathy in hyperthyroidism as a consequence of rapid reduction of thyroid hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qianrui; Liu, Yuping; Zhang, Qianying; Tian, Haoming; Li, Jianwei; Li, Sheyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) are occasionally observed during the treatment of hyperthyroid patients. Relative hypothyroidism resulted from rapid thyroid hormone reduction had been promoted as a plausible cause of these myopathic changes, however rarely reported. Patient concerns: We hereby presented a 20-year-old female with Grave's disease, who developed myopathy and elevated CK during rapid correction of thyroid hormone. Diagnoses: Relative hypothyroidism-i...

  7. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  8. Partial transpose of two disjoint blocks in XY spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coser, Andrea; Tonni, Erik; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We consider the partial transpose of the spin reduced density matrix of two disjoint blocks in spin chains admitting a representation in terms of free fermions, such as XY chains. We exploit the solution of the model in terms of Majorana fermions and show that such partial transpose in the spin variables is a linear combination of four Gaussian fermionic operators. This representation allows to explicitly construct and evaluate the integer moments of the partial transpose. We numerically study critical XX and Ising chains and we show that the asymptotic results for large blocks agree with conformal field theory predictions if corrections to the scaling are properly taken into account. (paper)

  9. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  10. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  11. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  12. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  13. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  14. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  15. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  16. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  17. Baraitser and Winter syndrome with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentli, Farida; Zellagui, Hadjer

    2014-01-01

    Baraitser-Winter syndrome (BWS), first reported in 1988, is apparently due to genetic abnormalities that are still not well-defined, although many gene abnormalities are already discovered and de novo missense changes in the cytoplasmic actin-encoding genes (called ACTB and ACTG1) have been recently discovered. The syndrome combines facial and cerebral malformations. Facial malformations totally or partially present in the same patient are: Iris coloboma, bilateral ptosis, hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, and prominent epicanthic folds. The various brain malformations are probably responsible for growth and mental retardation. To the best of our knowledge, the syndrome is very rare as few cases have been reported so far. Our aim was to describe a child with a phenotype that looks like BWS with proved partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency which was not reported before. A girl aged 7-year-old of consanguineous parents was referred for short stature and mental retardation. Clinical examination showed dwarfism and a delay in her mental development. Other clinical features included: Strabismus, epicanthic folds, broad nasal bridge, and brain anomalies such as lissencephaly, bilateral hygroma, and cerebral atrophy. Hormonal assessment showed partial GH deficiency without other endocrine disorders. Our case looks exactly like BWS. However, apart from facial and cerebral abnormalities, there is a partial GH deficiency which can explain the harmonious short stature. This case seems worth to be reported as it adds GH deficiency to the very rare syndrome.

  18. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  19. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D.; Merino, M.; Delgado, A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs

  20. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  1. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  2. Growth hormone-releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, E; Arvat, E; Muccioli, G; Camanni, F

    1997-05-01

    Growth hormone-releasing peptides (GHRPs) are synthetic, non-natural peptides endowed with potent stimulatory effects on somatotrope secretion in animals and humans. They have no structural homology with GHRH and act via specific receptors present either at the pituitary or the hypothalamic level both in animals and in humans. The GHRP receptor has recently been cloned and, interestingly, it does not show sequence homology with other G-protein-coupled receptors known so far. This evidence strongly suggests the existence of a natural GHRP-like ligand which, however, has not yet been found. The mechanisms underlying the GHRP effect are still unclear. At present, several data favor the hypothesis that GHRPs could act by counteracting somatostatinergic activity both at the pituitary and the hypothalamic level and/or, at least partially, via a GHRH-mediated mechanism. However, the possibility that GHRPs act via an unknown hypothalamic factor (U factor) is still open. GHRP-6 was the first hexapeptide to be extensively studied in humans. More recently, a heptapeptide, GHRP-1, and two other hexapeptides, GHRP-2 and Hexarelin, have been synthesized and are now available for human studies. Moreover, non-peptidyl GHRP mimetics have been developed which act via GHRP receptors and their effects have been clearly demonstrated in animals and in humans in vivo. Among non-peptidyl GHRPs, MK-0677 seems the most interesting molecule. The GH-releasing activity of GHRPs is marked and dose-related after intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal and even oral administration. The effect of GHRPs is reproducible and undergoes partial desensitization, more during continuous infusion, less during intermittent administration: in fact, prolonged administration of GHRPs increases IGF-1 levels both in animals and in humans. The GH-releasing effect of GHRPs does not depend on sex but undergoes age-related variations. It increases from birth to puberty, persists at a similar level in adulthood and

  3. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  4. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  5. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  6. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  7. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults; Silla turca vacia asociada a disfuncion hormonal en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain); Merino, M. [Hospital General Yague (Spain); Delgado, A. [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  9. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  10. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... surgery. It is important to understand that your treatment, which will probably include orthodontics before and after ... to realistically estimate the time required for your treatment. Correction of Common Dentofacial Deformities ​ ​ The information provided ...

  11. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... misalignment of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may ... indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or ...

  12. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) to correct a wide range of minor and ... when sleeping, including snoring) Your dentist, orthodontist and OMS will work together to determine whether you are ...

  14. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  15. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  16. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  19. The role of central and peripheral hormones in sexual and violent recidivism in sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Drew A; Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, Adekunle G; Fedoroff, Paul; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal factors are important in multifactorial theories of sexual offending. The relationship between hormones and aggression in nonhumans is well established, but the putative effect in humans is more complex, and the direction of the effect is usually unclear. In this study, a large sample (N = 771) of adult male sex offenders was assessed between 1982 and 1996. Gonadotrophic (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and androgen hormone (total and free testosterone; T) levels were assessed at Time 1, along with indicators of sex drive and hostility. Individuals were observed up to 20 years in the community, with an average time at risk of 10.9 years (SD 4.6). Gonadotrophic hormones correlated positively with self-reported hostility and were better predictors of recidivism than was T (area under the curve (AUC), 0.58-0.63). Self-reported hostility emerged as a partial mediator of this relationship between gonadotrophic hormones and recidivism. These results point to a potentially new area of investigation for hormones and sexual aggression.

  20. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  1. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  2. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  3. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  4. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  5. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  6. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  7. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  8. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  9. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  10. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  11. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    using the learned statistics. A quantitative evaluation is performed on a data set of 10 laser scans of ear canal impressions with minimal noise and artificial holes. We also present a qualitative evaluation on authentic partial scans from an actual direct in ear scanner prototype. Compared to a state...

  12. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  13. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  14. Generalised Batho correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddon, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    There are various approximate algorithms available to calculate the radiation dose in the presence of a heterogeneous medium. The Webb and Fox product over layers formulation of the generalised Batho correction factor requires determination of the number of layers and the layer densities for each ray path. It has been shown that the Webb and Fox expression is inefficient for the heterogeneous medium which is expressed as regions of inhomogeneity rather than layers. The inefficiency of the layer formulation is identified as the repeated problem of determining for each ray path which inhomogeneity region corresponds to a particular layer. It has been shown that the formulation of the Batho correction factor as a product over inhomogeneity regions avoids that topological problem entirely. The formulation in terms of a product over regions simplifies the computer code and reduces the time required to calculate the Batho correction factor for the general heterogeneous medium. (U.K.)

  15. THE SECONDARY EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariasen, W. H.

    1963-03-15

    It is shown that Darwin's formula for the secondary extinction correction, which has been universally accepted and extensively used, contains an appreciable error in the x-ray diffraction case. The correct formula is derived. As a first order correction for secondary extinction, Darwin showed that one should use an effective absorption coefficient mu + gQ where an unpolarized incident beam is presumed. The new derivation shows that the effective absorption coefficient is mu + 2gQ(1 + cos/sup 4/2 theta )/(1 plus or minus cos/sup 2/2 theta )/s up 2/, which gives mu + gQ at theta =0 deg and theta = 90 deg , but mu + 2gQ at theta = 45 deg . Darwin's theory remains valid when applied to neutron diffraction. (auth)

  16. NLO corrections to the pair production of supersymmetric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obikhod, T.V.; Verbytskyy, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of recent experimental data received from LHC (CMS) restricts the range of MSSM parameters. Using computer programs SOFTSUSY, SDECAY the mass spectrum and partial width of superpartners are calculated. With the help of computer program PROSPINO the calculations of the next-to-leading order (NLO) corrections to the production cross sections of superpartners are made. With the help of computer program PYTHIA the NLO corrections on differential distributions of p T and η for squarks and gluino are represented.

  17. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  19. Bryant J. correction formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1990-03-01

    For the practical application of the method proposed by J. Bryant, the authors carried out a series of small corrections, related with the bottom, the dead time of the detectors and channels, with the resolution time of the coincidences, with the accidental coincidences, with the decay scheme and with the gamma efficiency of the beta detector beta and the beta efficiency beta of the gamma detector. The calculation of the correction formula is presented in the development of the present report, being presented 25 combinations of the probability of the first existent state at once of one disintegration and the second state at once of the following disintegration. (Author)

  20. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  1. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  2. Abnormal Bleeding during Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Freitas De Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman's characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT, it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies.

  3. A Child with Local Lipohypertrophy following Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan J. N. Koppen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Local lipohypertrophy due to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH administration is a rare phenomenon. Here, we report a case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a paraumbilical swelling, approximately one year after the start of rhGH treatment for short stature due to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity. Ultrasound imaging revealed an asymmetric distribution of subcutaneous fat tissue at the rhGH administration site, indicating local lipohypertrophy. After sparing her routine injection site and alternating other sites, the swelling disappeared within 6 months. Although the precise cause of local lipohypertrophy resulting from rhGH administration is still unclear, it might be related to the presumed diagnosis of partial growth hormone insensitivity.

  4. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  6. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  7. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  9. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  10. Correctness of concurrent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Olderog (Ernst-Rüdiger)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA new notion of correctness for concurrent processes is introduced and investigated. It is a relationship P sat S between process terms P built up from operators of CCS [Mi 80], CSP [Ho 85] and COSY [LTS 79] and logical formulas S specifying sets of finite communication sequences as in

  11. Error Correcting Codes -34 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    information and coding theory. A large scale relay computer had failed to deliver the expected results due to a hardware fault. Hamming, one of the active proponents of computer usage, was determined to find an efficient means by which computers could detect and correct their own faults. A mathematician by train-.

  12. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  13. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may ... front, or side Facial injury Birth defects Receding lower jaw and ...

  14. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    successful consumer products of all time - the Compact Disc. (CD) digital audio .... We can make ... only 2 t additional parity check symbols are required, to be able to correct t .... display information (contah'ling music related data and a table.

  15. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science and Automation at ... the Reed-Solomon code contained 223 bytes of data, (a byte ... then you have a data storage system with error correction, that ..... practical codes, storing such a table is infeasible, as it is generally too large.

  16. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  17. 10. Correctness of Programs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 4. Algorithms - Correctness of Programs. R K Shyamasundar. Series Article Volume 3 ... Author Affiliations. R K Shyamasundar1. Computer Science Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

  18. Effects of microgravity on growth hormone concentration and distribution in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Aga; Jensen, Philip; Desrosiers, Mark; Bandurski, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    On earth, gravity affects the distribution of the plant growth hormone, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a manner such that the plant grows into a normal vertical orientation (shoots up, roots down). How the plant controls the amount and distribution of IAA is only partially understood and is currently under investigation in this laboratory. The question to be answered in the flight experiment concerns the effect of gravity on the concentration, turn over, and distribution of the growth hormone. The answer to this question will aid in understanding the mechanism by which plants control the amount and distribution of growth hormone. Such knowledge of a plant's hormonal metabolism may aid in the growth of plants in space and will lead to agronomic advances.

  19. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  20. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  1. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  2. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  3. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  4. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  5. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  6. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  8. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone treated with frusemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C

    1982-07-10

    Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction.

  9. Hormonal regulation of lipid metabolism in developing coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in juvenile coho salmon is characterized, and adaptive changes in lipid mobilization are described in relation to development and hormonal influences. The rates of lipogenesis and lipolysis were determined in selected tissues of juvenile salmon during the period of seawater preadaptive development (smoltification). Neutral lipid (sterol) and fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat was measured by tritium incorporation. Fatty acid synthesis in the liver and mesenteric fat decreased by 88% and 81%, respectively, between late February (parr) and early June (smolt). To assess the role of hormones in smoltification-associated lipid depletion, growth hormone, prolactin, thyroxin and cortisol were administered in vivo early in development (parr) to determine if any of these factors could initiate the metabolic responses normally seen later in development (smolt). Growth hormone stimulated lipid mobilization from coho salmon parr. Prolactin strongly stimulated lipid mobilization in coho parr. Thyroxin and cortisol also stimulated lipid mobilization for coho salmon parr. The direct effect of hormones was studied by in vitro pH-stat incubation of liver slices. These data suggest that norepinephrine stimulates fatty acid release via β-adrenergic pathways. Somatostatin and its partial analogue from the fish caudal neurosecretory system, urotensin II, also affect lipid mobilization. These results establish the presence of hormone-sensitive lipase in salmon liver and suggest that the regulation of lipid metabolism in salmon involves both long-acting and short-acting hormonal agents

  10. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  11. On the electrodynamics of partial discharges in voids in solid dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that a correct interpretation of partial-discharge transients can be obtained only through the concept of induced charge. The application of this concept enables a partial-discharge theory to be developed by means of which the influence of relevant void parameters can be assessed ...

  12. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  13. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  14. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  15. Correction of refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Pfeifer

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectacles and contact lenses are the most frequently used, the safest and the cheapest way to correct refractive errors. The development of keratorefractive surgery has brought new opportunities for correction of refractive errors in patients who have the need to be less dependent of spectacles or contact lenses. Until recently, RK was the most commonly performed refractive procedure for nearsighted patients.Conclusions: The introduction of excimer laser in refractive surgery has given the new opportunities of remodelling the cornea. The laser energy can be delivered on the stromal surface like in PRK or deeper on the corneal stroma by means of lamellar surgery. In LASIK flap is created with microkeratome in LASEK with ethanol and in epi-LASIK the ultra thin flap is created mechanically.

  16. PS Booster Orbit Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Chanel, M; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the 2007 run, orbit measurements were carried out in the 4 rings of the PS Booster (PSB) for different working points and beam energies. The aim of these measurements was to provide the necessary input data for a PSB realignment campaign during the 2007/2008 shutdown. Currently, only very few corrector magnets can be operated reliably in the PSB; therefore the orbit correction has to be achieved by displacing (horizontally and vertically) and/or tilting some of the defocusing quadrupoles (QDs). In this report we first describe the orbit measurements, followed by a detailed explanation of the orbit correction strategy. Results and conclusions are presented in the last section.

  17. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  18. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  1. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  2. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  3. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  4. Hormones and the Autonomic Nervous System are Involved in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.; Buijs, R.M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore,

  5. Hormones and the autonomic nervous system are involved in suprachiasmatic nucleus modulation of glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Marieke; Buijs, Ruud M.; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore,

  6. Error-correction coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  7. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  8. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  10. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  12. The impact of mild hypercholesterolemia on glycemic and hormonal profiles, menstrual characteristics and the ovarian morphology of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Trakakis, Eftihios; Chrelias, Charalampos; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Hatziagelaki, Erifili

    2018-03-29

    Background The severity of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been clearly associated with insulin resistance, obesity and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study is to investigate whether mild hypercholesterolemia alters the biochemical and clinical profile of PCOS patients. Methods Our study is based on a prospectively collected population of women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with PCOS according to the definition of the Rotterdam European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology/American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM/ESHRE) criteria. For the correlation analysis we used the non-parametric Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Partial correlation was also performed to control for potential confounders observed in the univariate analysis. Results Overall, 235 patients were included. Their mean age ranged between 14 and 45 years old and the body mass index (BMI) between 17 and 54. Women with mild hypercholesterolemia had a higher BMI and their fasting insulin was increased as well as indices of insulin resistance [Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), Matsuda index] compared to women with PCOS with normal cholesterol levels. Correlation statistics suggested that the effect of serum lipids on the hormonal profile of patients was weak. Both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) exerted a significant mild negative correlation to glucose and insulin. However, after controlling the results for BMI and age (the two variables that were found significantly different in the univariate analysis) we observed that this effect was non-significant. Conclusion Mild hypercholesterolemia does not affect the hormonal profile of patients with PCOS; hence, to date, there is no evidence to suggest its treatment for the correction of menstrual and hormonal abnormalities in PCOS women.

  13. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  14. Partial Molar Volumes of Aqua Ions from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Bruneval, Fabien; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2017-08-08

    Partial molar volumes of ions in water solution are calculated through pressures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The correct definition of pressure in charged systems subject to periodic boundary conditions requires access to the variation of the electrostatic potential upon a change of volume. We develop a scheme for calculating such a variation in liquid systems by setting up an interface between regions of different density. This also allows us to determine the absolute deformation potentials for the band edges of liquid water. With the properly defined pressures, we obtain partial molar volumes of a series of aqua ions in very good agreement with experimental values.

  15. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  16. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  17. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  18. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  19. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  20. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  1. Adherence in children with growth hormone deficiency treated with r-hGH and the easypod™ device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loche, S; Salerno, M; Garofalo, P; Cardinale, G M; Licenziati, M R; Citro, G; Caruso Nicoletti, M; Cappa, M; Longobardi, S; Maghnie, M; Perrone, R

    2016-12-01

    Poor adherence to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) therapy is associated with reduced growth velocity in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This twelve-month observational study was to assess adherence in r-hGH patients treated with the easypod ™ , an electronic, fully automated injection device designed to track the time, date and dose administered. Ninety-seven prepubertal patients receiving r-hGH therapy were included in the study from ten Italian clinical sites and 88 completed the study. To avoid possible confounding effects, only GHD patients (79/88; 89.7 % of the overall study population) were considered in the final analysis. The primary endpoint-adherence to treatment-was calculated as the proportion of injections correctly administered during the observational period out of the expected total number of injections. The relevant information, tracked by the easypod ™ , was collected at months 6 (V1) and 12 (V2) after baseline (V0). At study termination, adherence data were partially available from 16 patients and fully available from 53 patients. As secondary endpoints, serum IGF-1 levels, fasting serum glucose and insulin levels and key anthropometric characteristics (height, waist circumference and BMI) were also determined. The easypod ™ data showed that 56.7 % of the patients were considered to be fully (≥92 %) adherent to their treatment throughout the period V0-V2. Treatment improved stature, significantly increased IGF-1 and produced a non-significant increase in blood glucose and insulin levels. The injection-recording system and other characteristics of easypod ™ could enhance the ability of physicians to monitor adherence to r-hGH treatment.

  2. DECEMBER JMBR 13 - 2 correction.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    J. E. ATAMAN, D. BAXTER-GRILLO, A.A.A. OSINUBI largely influenced by hormonal factor. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, which is released in pursatile manner, stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release from the anterior. 4 pituitary. They both ...

  3. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  4. Inverse problems for partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Isakov, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This third edition expands upon the earlier edition by adding nearly 40 pages of new material reflecting the analytical and numerical progress in inverse problems in last 10 years. As in the second edition, the emphasis is on new ideas and methods rather than technical improvements. These new ideas include use of the stationary phase method in the two-dimensional elliptic problems and of multi frequencies\\temporal data to improve stability and numerical resolution. There are also numerous corrections and improvements of the exposition throughout. This book is intended for mathematicians working with partial differential equations and their applications, physicists, geophysicists, and financial, electrical, and mechanical engineers involved with nondestructive evaluation, seismic exploration, remote sensing, and various kinds of tomography. Review of the second edition: "The first edition of this excellent book appeared in 1998 and became a standard reference for everyone interested in analysis and numerics of...

  5. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  6. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic

  7. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  8. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Sokolska, Violetta; Sozański, Tomasz; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna; Sąsiadek, Marek

    2010-01-01

    Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy.

  9. Comparison of post-surgical MRI presentation of the pituitary gland and its hormonal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, J.; Sokolska, V.; Sasiadek, M.; Sozanski, T.; Bednarek-Tupikowska, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Post-surgical evaluation of the pituitary gland in MRI is difficult because of a change of anatomical conditions. It depends also on numerous other factors, including: size and expansion of a tumour before surgery, type of surgical access, quality and volume of filling material used and time of its resorption.The aim of the study was to compare MR image of the pituitary gland after surgery with clinical findings and to establish a correlation between MRI presentation of spared pituitary and its hormonal function. Material/Methods: 124 patients after resection of pituitary adenomas - 409 MRI results in total - were studied. With a 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sagittal and coronal, enhanced and unenhanced images were obtained. Results: The pituitary gland seemed to be normal in MRI in 11 patients, 8 of them had completely regular pituitary function but in 3 of them we noticed a partial hypopituitarism. In 99 patients only a part of the pituitary gland was recognised, 53 of them had hypopituitarism but 46 of them were endocrinologically healthy. 14 patients seemed to have no persistent pituitary gland in MRI, in comparison to hormonal studies: there was panhypopituitarism in 6 and hypopituitarism in 8 cases. Conclusions: MRI presentation of post - surgical pituitary gland doesn't necessarily correlate with its hormonal function - there was a significant statistical difference. Some patients with partial pituitary seems normal hormonal function. In some cases the pituitary seem normal in MRI but these patients have hormonal disorders and need substitution therapy. (authors)

  10. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  11. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  12. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  13. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  14. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  15. Partially massless fields during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

    2018-04-01

    The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

  16. Sex Hormone-Related Functions in Regenerating Male Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRANCAVILLA, ANTONIO; EAGON, PATRICIA K.; DiLEO, ALFREDO; POLIMENO, LORENZO; PANELLA, CARMINE; AQUILINO, A. MARIA; INGROSSO, MARCELLO; Van THIEL, DAVID H.; STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormone receptors were quantitated in normal male rat liver and in regenerating liver at several different times after partial (70%) hepatectomy. Both estrogen and androgen receptor content were altered dramatically by partial hepatectomy. Total hepatic content and nuclear retention of estrogen receptors increased, with the zenith evident 2 days after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to the zenith of mitotic index. Serum estradiol increased after 1 day, and reached a maximum at 3 days after surgery. In contrast, total and nuclear androgen receptor content demonstrated a massive decline at 1, 2, and 3 days after resection. Serum testosterone displayed a parallel decline. In addition, hepatic content of two androgen-responsive proteins was reduced to 15% and 13% of normal values during this period. The activity of these various proteins during regeneration of male rat liver is comparable to that observed in the liver of normal female rats. Taken together, these results indicate that partial hepatectomy induces a feminization of certain sexually dimorphic aspects of liver function in male rats. Furthermore, these data provide evidence that estrogens, but not androgens, may have an important role in the process of liver regeneration. PMID:3758617

  17. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  18. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  20. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  1. Postprandial responses of incretin and pancreatic hormones in non-diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Thomas; Knop, Filip K; Jørgensen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    of the insulinotropic gut-derived incretin hormones and pancreatic hormones play a critical role in the maintenance of a normal postprandial glucose tolerance. METHODS: We studied patients with ESRD and either normal (n = 10) or impaired (n = 10) glucose tolerance, and control subjects (n = 11). Plasma concentrations...... glucose responses were comparable between groups (P > 0.082). Patients with ESRD exhibited higher fasting levels of GIP and glucagon compared with controls (P corrected GLP-1 and glucagon responses were enhanced (P corrected insulin responses and insulin excursions...... increased secretion of the insulinotropic incretin hormone GLP-1. Fasting levels and baseline-corrected responses of glucagon were elevated and gastric emptying was delayed in the ESRD patients. These perturbations seem to be caused by uraemia per se and may contribute to the disturbed glucose metabolism...

  2. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  3. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  7. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  9. Partial Treatment Requests and Underlying Motives of Applicants for Gender Affirming Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment). Currently, it is unclear what motives underlie a request for hormones only or surgery only or a combination of hormones and surgery (e.g., a mastectomy), but no genital surgery (partial treatment). The aims of this study were (i) to describe treatment requests of applicants at a specialized gender identity clinic in the Netherlands; and (ii) to explore the motives underlying a partial treatment request, including the role of (non-binary) gender identity. Information was collected on all 386 adults who applied for treatment at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in the year 2013. Treatment requests were available for 360 individuals: 233 natal men (64.7%) and 127 natal women (35.3%). Treatment requests were systematically collected during assessment. Individuals were classified as either desiring a full or partial treatment. The motives behind a partial treatment request were collected and categorized as well. The majority of applicants at our gender identity clinic requested full treatment. Among those who requested partial treatment, the most reported underlying motive was surgical risks/outcomes. Only a small number of applicants requested partial treatment to bring their body into alignment with their non-binary gender identity. It becomes clear that partial treatment is requested by a substantial number of applicants. This emphasizes the need for gender identity clinics to provide information about the medical possibilities and limitations, and careful introduction and evaluation of non-standard treatment options. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. We don't look at hormones the way we used to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Our concepts of hormone quantification or assessment have evolved through four different viewpoints during the past 25 years. Initially, we viewed hormones with monocular vision - via bioassay. As bioassay techniques became sophisticated, discrepancies in potencies arose; two or more different potencies existed for an unknown hormone or analyte and a reference preparation depending seemingly on different bioassays. No way to ascertain which was correct existed. Subsequently, binocular vision developed with the existence of immunoassay techniques. Initially, efforts were directed to validate immunoassays and show they gave potencies similar to bioassays. Later, striking discrepancies developed and it was recognized that the two techniques need not agree. Immunoassays recognized structure, bioassays recognized a biological function. A third viewpoint developed with the advent of receptor assays. These assays depended on binding to cellular receptors, but did not involve parameters of in-vivo distribution, degradation, etc. Examples of three or more different potencies appeared for the same substance; one with bioassays, one with immunoassays, and one with receptor assays; all three different answers could be correct. Currently, a fourth viewpoint exists - structure-function analysis. Here the many molecular forms of single hormones may be defined and quantified and often discrepancies in answers in the four viewpoints of hormone quantification can be explained. (author)

  11. RCRA corrective action and closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This information brief explains how RCRA corrective action and closure processes affect one another. It examines the similarities and differences between corrective action and closure, regulators' interests in RCRA facilities undergoing closure, and how the need to perform corrective action affects the closure of DOE's permitted facilities and interim status facilities

  12. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    Effects of partially hydrogenated oil on performance, loss of body weight and body condition score, and blood metabolite and hormone concentrations were evaluated in 37 multiparous Holstein cows in grazing conditions during the first 100 d of lactation. Six additional Holstein cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were allocated to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures based on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and received 5.4 kg/d of a basal concentrate to which 0, 0.5, or 1 kg/cow per day of partially hydrogenated oil (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C) containing 30.3, 34.9, 21.8, and 3.3% of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C182, respectively, was added. Feeding 1 kg/d of supplemental fat increased fat-corrected milk from 23.4 to 26.3 kg/d, milk fat content from 3.44 to 3.78%, and milk fat yield from 0.87 to 1.03 kg/d compared to control. Milk protein percentage and yield were not affected. Cows fed 1 kg/d of fat increased the content and yield of C16:0 and C18:0 in milk compared with cows fed no added oil. Dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture decreased from 17.8 kg/d for control cows to 13.6 kg/d for cows fed 1 kg of oil, whereas DMI from concentrate was higher for cows fed 1 kg/d of fat (6.0 kg/d) than for controls (5.2 kg/d). Supplemental fat did not affect total dry matter or estimated energy intake and did not change losses of body weight or body condition scores. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, somatotrophin, and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among treatments. Concentration of plasma triglycerides was lowered from 318.5 to 271.2 mg/dl, whereas plasma cholesterol was elevated from 185.0 to 235.8 mg/dl in cows receiving 1 kg/d of supplemental fat compared with controls. Responses to lipolytic or insulin challenges were not affected by feeding oil. Supplemental fat did not affect

  13. Rethinking political correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  14. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippone EJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Filippone,1 Shirley J Dopson,2 Denise M Rivers,3 Rebeca D Monk,4 Suneel M Udani,5 Golriz Jafari,6 Solomon C Huang,6 Arafat Melhem,7 Bassim Assioun,7 Paul G Schmitz7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, 2Division of Medicine, Washington Health System, Southwestern Nephrology, Inc, Washington, PA, 3Department of Medicine, University Nephrology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 5Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 6Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Olive View–University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USABackground: Adrenocorticotropic hormone is being increasingly studied for treatment of various glomerulopathies, most notably membranous nephropathy. Less data are available regarding its use in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS secondary to minimal change disease (MCD or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. We report here our experience with H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with INS.Methods: Data were taken from three patients with MCD and ten patients with FSGS from around the US, who were treated with Acthar Gel as initial or subsequent therapy. Treatment was solely at the discretion of the primary nephrologist without a specific protocol. A complete response (CR was defined as final urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <500 mg/g and a partial response (PR as 50% decrease without rise of serum creatinine. Side effects and tolerability were noted.Results: All three patients with MCD received Acthar Gel as second-line or later immunosuppressive (IS therapy and all responded (one CR and two PRs. Two of

  15. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  16. Approximate thermodynamic state relations in partially ionized gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshaw, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Thermodynamic state relations for mixtures of partially ionized nonideal gases are often approximated by artificially partitioning the mixture into compartments or subvolumes occupied by the pure partially ionized constituent gases, and requiring these subvolumes to be in temperature and pressure equilibrium. This intuitively reasonable procedure is easily shown to reproduce the correct thermal and caloric state equations for a mixture of neutral (nonionized) ideal gases. The purpose of this paper is to point out that (a) this procedure leads to incorrect state equations for a mixture of partially ionized ideal gases, whereas (b) the alternative procedure of requiring that the subvolumes all have the same temperature and free electron density reproduces the correct thermal and caloric state equations for such a mixture. These results readily generalize to the case of partially degenerate and/or relativistic electrons, to a common approximation used to represent pressure ionization effects, and to two-temperature plasmas. This suggests that equating the subvolume electron number densities or chemical potentials instead of pressures is likely to provide a more accurate approximation in nonideal plasma mixtures

  17. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  18. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  19. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  20. On using smoothing spline and residual correction to fuse rain gauge observations and remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Zheng, Xiaogu; Tait, Andrew; Dai, Yongjiu; Yang, Chi; Chen, Zhuoqi; Li, Tao; Wang, Zhonglei

    2014-01-01

    Partial thin-plate smoothing spline model is used to construct the trend surface.Correction of the spline estimated trend surface is often necessary in practice.Cressman weight is modified and applied in residual correction.The modified Cressman weight performs better than Cressman weight.A method for estimating the error covariance matrix of gridded field is provided.

  1. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  2. Interferences in estimation of free thyroid hormones with special reference to antiiodothyronine autoantibodies in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck-Peccoz, P; Romelli, P B; Cattaneo, M G; Medri, G; Persani, L; Piscitelli, G; Faglia, G

    1985-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the accuracy of the most commonly used 'new' techniques in some of the above circumstances. Particular emphasis will be placed on the possible interferences due to the presence of circulating antiiodothyronine autoantibodies (both anti-T/sub 4/ and anti-T/sub 3/), as, from a theoretical view point, the free thyroid hormone determination in this condition should be more appropriate than total thyroid hormone to correctly assess the thyroid state of the patient.

  3. Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2011-03-11

    To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.

  4. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  5. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Jun, Ren; Yong-Jian, Han; Yu-Chun, Wu; Guang-Can, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet. Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρ T (ρ's partial transposition) when ρ is a two-partite state. There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρ T is N(N − 1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space C N C N . For the special case, the 2 × 2 system, we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρ T | T ≥ 0. We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρ T or the negative entropy of ρ

  6. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  7. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...

  8. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  10. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  11. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  12. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  13. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  14. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  15. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  16. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  17. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  18. Correction to toporek (2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Pedagogy of the privileged: Review of Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom" by Rebecca L. Toporek (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 2014[Oct], Vol 20[4], 621-622). This article was originally published online incorrectly as a Brief Report. The article authored by Rebecca L. Toporek has been published correctly as a Book Review in the October 2014 print publication (Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 621-622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0036529). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-42484-006.) Reviews the book, Deconstructing Privilege: Teaching and Learning as Allies in the Classroom edited by Kim A. Case (2013). The purpose of this book is to provide a collection of resources for those teaching about privilege directly, much of this volume may be useful for expanding the context within which educators teach all aspects of psychology. Understanding the history and systems of psychology, clinical practice, research methods, assessment, and all the core areas of psychology could be enhanced by consideration of the structural framework through which psychology has developed and is maintained. The book presents a useful guide for educators, and in particular, those who teach about systems of oppression and privilege directly. For psychologists, this guide provides scholarship and concrete strategies for facilitating students' awareness of multiple dimensions of privilege across content areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Radiation protection: A correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    An error in translation inadvertently distorted the sense of a paragraph in the article entitled 'Ecological Aspects of Radiation Protection', by Dr. P. Recht, which appeared in the Bulletin, Volume 14, No. 2 earlier this year. In the English text the error appears on Page 28, second paragraph, which reads, as published: 'An instance familiar to radiation protection specialists, which has since come to be regarded as a classic illustration of this approach, is the accidental release at the Windscale nuclear centre in the north of England.' In the French original of this text no reference was made, or intended, to the accidental release which took place in 1957; the reference was to the study of the critical population group exposed to routine releases from the centre, as the footnote made clear. A more correct translation of the relevant sentence reads: 'A classic example of this approach, well-known to radiation protection specialists, is that of releases from the Windscale nuclear centre, in the north of England.' A second error appeared in the footnote already referred to. In all languages, the critical population group studied in respect of the Windscale releases is named as that of Cornwall; the reference should be, of course, to that part of the population of Wales who eat laver bread. (author)

  20. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  1. Cross plane scattering correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, L.; Karp, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous scattering correction techniques for PET are based on assumptions made for a single transaxial plane and are independent of axial variations. These techniques will incorrectly estimate the scattering fraction for volumetric PET imaging systems since they do not take the cross-plane scattering into account. In this paper, the authors propose a new point source scattering deconvolution method (2-D). The cross-plane scattering is incorporated into the algorithm by modeling a scattering point source function. In the model, the scattering dependence both on axial and transaxial directions is reflected in the exponential fitting parameters and these parameters are directly estimated from a limited number of measured point response functions. The authors' results comparing the standard in-plane point source deconvolution to the authors' cross-plane source deconvolution show that for a small source, the former technique overestimates the scatter fraction in the plane of the source and underestimate the scatter fraction in adjacent planes. In addition, the authors also propose a simple approximation technique for deconvolution

  2. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  5. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Edward J; Dopson, Shirley J; Rivers, Denise M; Monk, Rebeca D; Udani, Suneel M; Jafari, Golriz; Huang, Solomon C; Melhem, Arafat; Assioun, Bassim; Schmitz, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone is being increasingly studied for treatment of various glomerulopathies, most notably membranous nephropathy. Less data are available regarding its use in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We report here our experience with H.P. Acthar(®) Gel (repository corticotropin injection) as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with INS. Data were taken from three patients with MCD and ten patients with FSGS from around the US, who were treated with Acthar Gel as initial or subsequent therapy. Treatment was solely at the discretion of the primary nephrologist without a specific protocol. A complete response (CR) was defined as final urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <500 mg/g and a partial response (PR) as 50% decrease without rise of serum creatinine. Side effects and tolerability were noted. All three patients with MCD received Acthar Gel as second-line or later immunosuppressive (IS) therapy and all responded (one CR and two PRs). Two of the ten patients with FSGS received Acthar Gel as first-line IS therapy, while the other eight had failed multiple agents. Four of the ten patients with FSGS had responses, including two CRs and two PRs. The three patients with MCD tolerated therapy well without side effects. Five patients with FSGS tolerated therapy well, while five had various steroid-like side effects, resulting in therapy discontinuation in two patients. Acthar Gel is a viable alternative IS agent for treatment of INS in patients intolerant or resistant to conventional therapy. More data are needed to better define its appropriate place.

  7. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  9. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  10. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  11. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  13. Cognitive, Emotional, Physical and Social Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybye, C; Thoren, M.; Bohm, B.

    2005-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem genetic disorder characterized by short stature, muscular hypotonia, hyperphagia, obesity, maladaptive behaviour, hypogonadism and partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). Severe GHD of other aetiologies has been shown to affect mood and quality of life negatively, and there are reports of…

  14. DECEMBER JMBR 13 - 2 correction.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    , there is need to define the ... analysed using simple descriptive statistics. .... hormones in African-Americans compared to. 11 ... Our study showed three peak ... lesser mortality compared to ductal ... –positive or hormone receptor negative.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation and partial hepatectomy on messenger RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Newly synthesized messenger RNA, as measured by a 40 min uptake of the radioactive precursor (6- 14 C) orotic acid, was studied in the regenerating livers of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated (1800 rad) adrenal-intact and adrenalectomized rats 24 and 48 hours after partial hepatectomy. Two groups of rats, one with and one without adrenal glands were each divided into four subgroups: (1) control rats, (2) irradiated rats, (3) partially hepatectomized rats and (4) irradiated, partially hepatectomized rats. The radioactive profile of polyribosome formation and distribution was determined by sucrose density gradient centrifugation (10 to 40 per cent). The result of this study indicates that ionizing radiation decreases the synthesis of newly formed messenger RNA in regenerating livers of adrenal-intact rats. However, adrenalectomy largely abolished that inhibition. These data suggest that the decrease in messenger RNA synthesis may be explained by the disturbance of adrenal hormones induced by partial hepatectomy and ionizing radiation. (author)

  16. Correction factors for 13C-labelled substrate oxidation at whole-body and muscle level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit

    1999-01-01

    acid cycle. Changes in metabolic rate induced, for example, by feeding, hormonal changes and physical activity, as well as infusion time, have been shown to affect both correction factors. The present paper explains the theoretical and physiological basis of these correction factors and makes...... for the proportion of labelled CO2 that is produced via oxidation but not excreted. Furthermore, depending on the substrate and position of the C label(s), there may also be a need to correct for labelled C from the metabolized substrate that does not appear as CO2, but rather becomes temporarily fixed in other...

  17. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  18. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  19. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  20. Partially molten magma ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model

  1. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  2. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful...

  3. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  4. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  5. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  6. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  7. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  8. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  9. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  10. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  11. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  12. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  13. Effect of anticoagulant administration on blood clotting and some hormones related to rat-fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalek, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed using 30 mature male albino rats divided into 3 equal groups; control and two treated groups to assess the effect of anticoagulant (warfarin) administration on the level of some hormones related to fertility. The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally every other day with 1 ml (0.03 mg)and 2 ml (0.06 mg)warfarin/ 100 g body weight respectively where, two specimens were taken from each group after two and four weeks. Clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT), partial prothrombin time (PTT) platelets count, fasting blood sugar (F.B.S), calcium levels in addition to triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxin (T 4 ), insulin, corticosterone, and testosterone hormones were determined. The results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant increase in clotting time, prothrombin time , partial prothrombin time, platelets count and glucose level, while serum calcium level showed significant decrease. Intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant decrease of insulin and significant increase of corticosterone, T 3 showed significant decrease in high dose group while T 4 showed significant decrease in small dose group. The high dose was associated with the highest level of testosterone hormone. these results denoted that warfarin anticoagulant had no negative effect on gonadal sex hormone and hence on male fertility

  14. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  15. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  16. Hypothalamo-pituitary hormone insufficiency associated with cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, A; Laron, Z

    1978-01-01

    Two male patients with congenital cleft lip and palate first seen at ages 10.2 and 21.5 years presented with typical signs of hypothalamic-interior pituitary hormone deficiencies. They were found to lack GH, LH, and FSH and to be partially deficient in TSH and ACTH. Several congenital defects may explain this rare syndrome affecting midline structures in the proximity of the maldeveloped palate, including Rathke's pouch, which migrates distally to develop into the anterior pituitary. PMID:747400

  17. Correction of Depolarizing Resonances in ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steier, C.; Husmann, D.

    1997-05-01

    The 3.5 GeV electron stretcherring ELSA (ELectron Stretcher Accelerator) at Bonn University is operational since 1987, both as a continuous beam facility for external fixed target experiments and as a partially dedicated synchrotron light source. For the external experiments an upgrade to polarized electrons is under way. One source of polarized electrons (GaAs crystal, photoeffect using circular polarized laser light) is operational. The studies of minimizing the losses in polarization degree due to crossing of depolarizing resonances that necessarily exist in circular accelerators (storagerings) just started recently. Calculations concerning different correction schemes for the depolarizing resonances in ELSA are presented, and first results of measurements are shown (done by means of a Møller polarimeter in one of the external beamlines).

  18. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  19. An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, W. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Allton, C. R. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Leinweber, Derek B. [Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Thomas, Anthony W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Young, Ross D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, Mn, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. The leading one-loop corrections to the nucleon mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.

  20. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  1. 32 CFR 751.13 - Partial payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voucher and all other information related to the partial payment shall be placed in the claim file. Action... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial payments. 751.13 Section 751.13 National... Claims Against the United States § 751.13 Partial payments. (a) Partial payments when hardship exists...

  2. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  3. Triple-coincidence with automatic chance coincidence correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.L.

    1975-05-01

    The chance coincidences in a triple-coincidence circuit are of two types--partially correlated and entirely uncorrelated. Their relative importance depends on source strength and source and detector geometry so that the total chance correction cannot, in general, be calculated. The system described makes use of several delays and straightforward integrated circuit logic to provide independent evaluation of the two components of the chance coincidence rate. (auth)

  4. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  5. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  6. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  7. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  8. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  9. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  10. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  11. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  12. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  13. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  14. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  15. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  16. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  17. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  18. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  19. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  20. Removable partial dentures: clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, David M

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of the traditional clinical concepts for the design and fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs). Although classic theories and rules for RPD designs have been presented and should be followed, excellent clinical care for partially edentulous patients may also be achieved with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and unique blended designs. These nontraditional RPD designs and fabrication methods provide for improved fit, function, and esthetics by using computer-aided design software, composite resin for contours and morphology of abutment teeth, metal support structures for long edentulous spans and collapsed occlusal vertical dimensions, and flexible, nylon thermoplastic material for metal-supported clasp assemblies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  2. The marketing of partial hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, P; Brown, E; Kiser, L; Pruitt, D

    1987-09-01

    Health-care professionals are currently operating in the context of a rapidly changing health-care delivery system, including the move away from inpatient services to outpatient services in order to control costs. Those who practice in partial-hospital settings are in a position to offer effective, cost-efficient services; however, there continue to be obstacles which hinder appropriate utilization of the modality. The development and use of a well-designed marketing plan is one strategy for removing these obstacles. This paper presents a brief overview of the marketing process, ideas for developing a marketing plan, and several examples of specific marketing strategies as well as ways to monitor their effectiveness. Partial-hospital providers must take an active role in answering the calls for alternative sources of psychiatric care. A comprehensive, education-oriented marketing approach will increase the public's awareness of such alternatives and enable programs to survive in a competitive environment.

  3. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

  4. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  5. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  6. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  7. Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakare, U R; Ganatra, R D; Shah, D H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-04-01

    In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with /sup 125/I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  9. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  10. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  11. Atmospheric correction of satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmirko, Konstantin; Bobrikov, Alexey; Pavlov, Andrey

    2015-11-01

    Atmosphere responses for more than 90% of all radiation measured by satellite. Due to this, atmospheric correction plays an important role in separating water leaving radiance from the signal, evaluating concentration of various water pigments (chlorophyll-A, DOM, CDOM, etc). The elimination of atmospheric intrinsic radiance from remote sensing signal referred to as atmospheric correction.

  12. Stress Management in Correctional Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Jaclyn A.

    Current economic conditions have created additional sources of stress in the correctional setting. Often, recreation professionals employed in these settings also add to inmate stress. One of the major factors limiting stress management in correctional settings is a lack of understanding of the value, importance, and perceived freedom, of leisure.…

  13. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  14. Growth hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, A; Longobardi, S; Fazio, S; Saccà, L

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were considered essential only to the control of linear growth, glucose homeostasis, and for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. A large body of evidence recently coming from animal and human studies has unequivocally proven that the heart is a target organ for the GH/IGF-1 axis. Specifically GH exerts both direct and indirect cardiovascular actions. Among the direct effects, the ability of GH to trigger cardiac tissue growth plays a pivotal role. Another direct effect is to augment cardiac contractility, independent of myocardial growth. Direct effects of GH also include the improvement of myocardial energetics and mechanical efficiency. Indirect effects of GH on the heart include decreased peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), expansion of blood volume, increased glomerular filtration rate, enhanced respiratory activity, increased skeletal muscle performance, and psychological well-being. Among them, the most consistently found is the decrease of PVR. GH may also raise preload through its sodium-retaining action and its interference with the hormonal system that regulates water and electrolyte metabolism. Particularly important is the effect of GH on skeletal muscle mass and performance. Taking into account that heart failure is characterized by left ventricular dilation, reduced cardiac contractility, and increase of wall stress and peripheral vascular resistance, GH may be beneficial for treatment of heart failure. Animal studies and preliminary human trials have confirmed the validity of the GH approach to the treatment of heart failure. Larger placebo-controlled human studies represent the main focus of future investigations.

  15. Partial dependency parsing for Irish

    OpenAIRE

    Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; van Genabith, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a partial dependency parser for Irish, in which Constraint Grammar (CG) rules are used to annotate dependency relations and grammatical functions in unrestricted Irish text. Chunking is performed using a regular-expression grammar which operates on the dependency tagged sentences. As this is the first implementation of a parser for unrestricted Irish text (to our knowledge), there were no guidelines or precedents available. Therefore deciding what constitutes a syntac...

  16. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  17. Growth hormone deficiency in a Nigerian child with Turner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    Growth hormone treatment early in the course of management of a child with Turner syndrome may help achieve normal final height. Keywords: Turner's syndrome, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone ..... cognitive deficit.

  18. Hormone Replacement Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Estrogen overdose Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Menopause National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  19. Truncation correction for oblique filtering lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Lauritsch, Guenter; Dennerlein, Frank; Noo, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    State-of-the-art filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms often define the filtering operation to be performed along oblique filtering lines in the detector. A limited scan field of view leads to the truncation of those filtering lines, which causes artifacts in the final reconstructed volume. In contrast to the case where filtering is performed solely along the detector rows, no methods are available for the case of oblique filtering lines. In this work, the authors present two novel truncation correction methods which effectively handle data truncation in this case. Method 1 (basic approach) handles data truncation in two successive preprocessing steps by applying a hybrid data extrapolation method, which is a combination of a water cylinder extrapolation and a Gaussian extrapolation. It is independent of any specific reconstruction algorithm. Method 2 (kink approach) uses similar concepts for data extrapolation as the basic approach but needs to be integrated into the reconstruction algorithm. Experiments are presented from simulated data of the FORBILD head phantom, acquired along a partial-circle-plus-arc trajectory. The theoretically exact M-line algorithm is used for reconstruction. Although the discussion is focused on theoretically exact algorithms, the proposed truncation correction methods can be applied to any FBP algorithm that exposes oblique filtering lines.

  20. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian