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Sample records for hormone partially corrects

  1. Partial correction of the dwarf phenotype by non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene in mice: Treatment age is critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuti, Eliza; Cecchi, Cláudia R; Oliveira, Nélio A J; Lima, Eliana R; Vieira, Daniel P; Aagaard, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Jorge, Alexander A L; Bartolini, Paolo; Peroni, Cibele N

    2016-02-01

    Non-viral transfer of the growth hormone gene to different muscles of immunodeficient dwarf (lit/scid) mice is under study with the objective of improving phenotypic correction via this particular gene therapy approach. Plasmid DNA was administered into the exposed quadriceps or non-exposed tibialis cranialis muscle of lit/scid mice followed by electroporation, monitoring several growth parameters. In a 6-month bioassay, 50μg DNA were injected three times into the quadriceps muscle of 80-day old mice. A 50% weight increase, with a catch-up growth of 21%, together with a 16% increase for nose-to-tail and tail lengths (catch-up=19-21%) and a 24-28% increase for femur length (catch-up=53-60%), were obtained. mIGF1 serum levels were ~7-fold higher than the basal levels for untreated mice, but still ~2-fold lower than in non-dwarf scid mice. Since treatment age was found to be particularly important in a second bioassay utilizing 40-day old mice, these pubertal mice were compared in a third bioassay with adult (80-day old) mice, all treated twice with 50μg DNA injected into each tibialis cranialis muscle, via a less invasive approach. mIGF1 concentrations at the same level as co-aged scid mice were obtained 15days after administration in pubertal mice. Catch-up growth, based on femur length (77%), nose-to-tail (36%) and tail length (39%) increases was 40 to 95% higher than those obtained upon treating adult mice. These data pave the way for the development of more effective pre-clinical assays in pubertal dwarf mice for the treatment of GH deficiency via plasmid-DNA muscular administration.

  2. Partial Volume Correction in Quantitative Amyloid Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Raichle, Marcus E.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Ances, Beau M.; Bateman, Randall J.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Aldea, Patricia; Cash, Lisa; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Farrar, Angela M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Mayeux, Richard; Brickman, Adam M.; Klunk, William; Price, Julie C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Schofield, Peter R.; Buckles, Virginia; Morris, John C.; Benzinger, Tammie. LS.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in dementing disorders. As positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have limited spatial resolution, measured signals are distorted by partial volume effects. Various techniques have been proposed for correcting partial volume effects, but there is no consensus as to whether these techniques are necessary in amyloid imaging, and, if so, how they should be implemented. We evaluated a two-component partial volume correction technique and a regional spread function technique using both simulated and human Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) PET imaging data. Both correction techniques compensated for partial volume effects and yielded improved detection of subtle changes in PiB retention. However, the regional spread function technique was more accurate in application to simulated data. Because PiB retention estimates depend on the correction technique, standardization is necessary to compare results across groups. Partial volume correction has sometimes been avoided because it increases the sensitivity to inaccuracy in image registration and segmentation. However, our results indicate that appropriate PVC may enhance our ability to detect changes in amyloid deposition. PMID:25485714

  3. Partially Correct Constructs Illuminate Students' Inconsistent Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2010-01-01

    We present a view of knowledge construction processes, focusing on partially correct constructs. Motivated by unexpected and seemingly inconsistent quantitative data based on the written reports of students working on an elementary probability task, we analyze in detail the knowledge construction processes of a representative student. We show how…

  4. Cloning of partial putative gonadotropin hormone receptor sequence from fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Kumaresan; T Venugopal; A Vikas; T J Pandian; S M Athavan

    2000-03-01

    A search for the presence of mariner-like elements in the Labeo rohita genome by polymerase chain reaction led to the amplification of a partial DNA sequence coding for a putative transmembrane domain of gonadotropin hormone receptor. The amplified DNA sequence shows a high degree of homology to the available turkey and human luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormone receptor coding sequences. This is the first report on cloning such sequences of piscine origin.

  5. 76 FR 4601 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 RIN 2060-AQ66 Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval... Determination Concerning the Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval, and...

  6. Solving Fractional Partial Differential Equations with Corrected Fourier Series Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Hafizah Zainal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrected Fourier series (CFS is proposed for solving partial differential equations (PDEs with fractional time derivative on a finite domain. In the previous work, we have been solving partial differential equations by using corrected Fourier series. The fractional derivatives are described in Riemann sense. Some numerical examples are presented to show the solutions.

  7. Predictors for partial suppression of spermatogenesis of hormonal male contraception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Wen Li; Yi-Qun Gu

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To analyze factors influencing the efficacy of hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis for male contraception. Methods: A nested case-control study was conducted, involving 43 subjects, who did not achieve azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia when given monthly injections of 500 mg testosterone undecanoate (TU), defined as partial suppressors compared with 855 subjects who had suppressed spermatogenesis (complete suppressors). Sperm density, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations at the baseline and the suppression phase were compared between partial and complete suppressors. Polymorphisms of androgen receptor (AR) and three single nucleotide variants and their haplotypes of FSH receptor (FSHR) genes determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing technique were compared between 29 partial and 34 complete suppressors. Results: Baseline serum LH level was higher and serum LH as well as FSH level during the suppression phase was less suppressed in partial suppressors. Additionally, in a logistic regression analysis larger testis volume, higher serum FSH concentrations alone, or interaction of serum LH, FSH, testosterone and sperm concentrations were associated with degree of suppression. The distribution of polymorphisms of AR or FSH receptor genes did not differ between partial and complete suppressors. In cases with incomplete FSH suppression (FSH > 0.2 IU/L), the chances of reaching azoospermia were 1.5 times higher in the subjects with more than 22 CAG triplet repeats. Conclusion: Partial suppression of spermatogenesis induced by 500 mg TU monthly injections is weakly influenced by hormonal and clinical features but not polymorphism in AR and FSHR genes.

  8. Different partial volume correction methods lead to different conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Douglas N; Salat, David H; Bowen, Spencer L

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional group study of the effects of aging on brain metabolism as measured with (18)F-FDG-PET was performed using several different partial volume correction (PVC) methods: no correction (NoPVC), Meltzer (MZ), Müller-Gärtner (MG), and the symmetric geometric transfer matrix (SGTM) usin...

  9. Improved Quantification of Cerebral Vein Oxygenation Using Partial Volume Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip G D; Fan, Audrey P; Raniga, Parnesh; Barnes, David G; Dowe, David L; Ng, Amanda C L; Egan, Gary F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1.5 and 4 voxels. Materials and Methods: Simulated QSM maps were generated to assess the performance of the ICF method over a range of vein geometries with varying echo times and noise levels. The ICF method was also applied to in vivo human brain data to assess the feasibility and behavior of OEF measurements compared to the maximum intensity voxel (MIV) method. Results: Improved quantification of OEF measurements was achieved for vessels with contrast to noise greater than 3.0 and vein radii greater than 0.75 voxels. The ICF method produced improved quantitative accuracy of OEF measurement compared to the MIV approach (mean OEF error 7.7 vs. 12.4%). The ICF method provided estimates of vein radius (mean error partial volume maps (root mean-squared error partial volume estimates from the ICF method.

  10. Clinical, hormonal and radiological features of partial Sheehan's syndrome: an Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laway, Bashir; Misgar, Raiz; Mir, Shahnaz; Wani, Arshad

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe clinical presentation, hormonal profile and imaging characteristics of 21 patients with partial Sheehan's syndrome. Subjects and methods This prospective study was carried out over a period of six years (2008-2013). The evaluation of patients included clinical assessment, hormone estimations and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pituitary. Results We documented preservation of gonadotroph, corticotroph and lactotroph function in 71.4, 61.9, and 9.5% of patients respectively. Conclusion To conclude some of the pituitary functions can be preserved in Sheehan's syndrome and this has important implications from the treatment and long term morbidity point of view.

  11. The gut hormone ghrelin partially reverses energy substrate metabolic alterations in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitacchione, Gianfranco; Powers, Jeffrey C; Grifoni, Gino; Woitek, Felix; Lam, Amy; Ly, Lien; Settanni, Fabio; Makarewich, Catherine A; McCormick, Ryan; Trovato, Letizia; Houser, Steven R; Granata, Riccarda; Recchia, Fabio A

    2014-07-01

    The gut-derived hormone ghrelin, especially its acylated form, plays a major role in the regulation of systemic metabolism and exerts also relevant cardioprotective effects; hence, it has been proposed for the treatment of heart failure (HF). We tested the hypothesis that ghrelin can directly modulate cardiac energy substrate metabolism. We used chronically instrumented dogs, 8 with pacing-induced HF and 6 normal controls. Human des-acyl ghrelin [1.2 nmol/kg per hour] was infused intravenously for 15 minutes, followed by washout (rebaseline) and infusion of acyl ghrelin at the same dose. (3)H-oleate and (14)C-glucose were coinfused and arterial and coronary sinus blood sampled to measure cardiac free fatty acid and glucose oxidation and lactate uptake. As expected, cardiac substrate metabolism was profoundly altered in HF because baseline oxidation levels of free fatty acids and glucose were, respectively, >70% lower and >160% higher compared with control. Neither des-acyl ghrelin nor acyl ghrelin significantly affected function and metabolism in normal hearts. However, in HF, des-acyl and acyl ghrelin enhanced myocardial oxygen consumption by 10.2±3.5% and 9.9±3.7%, respectively (P<0.05), and cardiac mechanical efficiency was not significantly altered. This was associated, respectively, with a 41.3±6.7% and 32.5±10.9% increase in free fatty acid oxidation and a 31.3±9.2% and 41.4±8.9% decrease in glucose oxidation (all P<0.05). Acute increases in des-acyl or acyl ghrelin do not interfere with cardiac metabolism in normal dogs, whereas they enhance free fatty acid oxidation and reduce glucose oxidation in HF dogs, thus partially correcting metabolic alterations in HF. This novel mechanism might contribute to the cardioprotective effects of ghrelin in HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. 76 FR 25177 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) pollutants, among them greenhouse gases (GHGs). The partial... Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Final Rule. 75 FR 31,514 (June 3, 2010... Approval of Prevention of Significant Deterioration Provisions Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting...

  13. Anatomical-based Partial Volume Correction for Low-dose Dedicated Cardiac SPECT/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hui; Chan, Chung; Grobshtein, Yariv; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the limited spatial resolution, partial volume effect (PVE) has been a major degrading factor on quantitative accuracy in emission tomography systems. This study aims to investigate the performance of several anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) methods for a dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT system (GE Discovery NM/CT 570c) with focused field-of-view (FOV) over a clinically relevant range of high and low count levels for two different radiotracer distributions. These PVC methods ...

  14. ISOLATION OF JUVENILE HORMONES ESTERASE AND ITS PARTIAL CDNA CLONE FROM THE BEETLE, TENEBRIO MOLITOR. (R825433)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an essential role in insect development. It is partially responsible for the clearance of juvenile hormone (JH) which regulates various aspects of insect development and reproduction. Because of its role in regulating JH titer, this enzyme...

  15. A multiresolution image based approach for correction of partial volume effects in emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussion, N; Hatt, M; Lamare, F; Bizais, Y; Turzo, A; Rest, C Cheze-Le; Visvikis, D [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), CHU Morvan, Brest (France)

    2006-04-07

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited spatial resolution in emission tomography. They lead to a loss of signal in tissues of size similar to the point spread function and induce activity spillover between regions. Although PVE can be corrected for by using algorithms that provide the correct radioactivity concentration in a series of regions of interest (ROIs), so far little attention has been given to the possibility of creating improved images as a result of PVE correction. Potential advantages of PVE-corrected images include the ability to accurately delineate functional volumes as well as improving tumour-to-background ratio, resulting in an associated improvement in the analysis of response to therapy studies and diagnostic examinations, respectively. The objective of our study was therefore to develop a methodology for PVE correction not only to enable the accurate recuperation of activity concentrations, but also to generate PVE-corrected images. In the multiresolution analysis that we define here, details of a high-resolution image H (MRI or CT) are extracted, transformed and integrated in a low-resolution image L (PET or SPECT). A discrete wavelet transform of both H and L images is performed by using the 'a trous' algorithm, which allows the spatial frequencies (details, edges, textures) to be obtained easily at a level of resolution common to H and L. A model is then inferred to build the lacking details of L from the high-frequency details in H. The process was successfully tested on synthetic and simulated data, proving the ability to obtain accurately corrected images. Quantitative PVE correction was found to be comparable with a method considered as a reference but limited to ROI analyses. Visual improvement and quantitative correction were also obtained in two examples of clinical images, the first using a combined PET/CT scanner with a lymphoma patient and the second using a FDG brain PET and corresponding T1

  16. Effects of partial sleep deprivation on proinflammatory cytokines, growth hormone, and steroid hormone concentrations during repeated brief sprint interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Souissi, Nizar; Chtourou, Hamdi; Denguezli, Meriam; Aouichaoui, Chirine; Ajina, Monia; Aloui, Asma; Dogui, Mohamed; Haddouk, Samy; Tabka, Zouhair

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on circulating concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in relation to the secretory profiles of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and testosterone during a repeated brief sprint interval exercise. Thirty healthy football players (mean age: 21.1 [range: 18-24] years; body mass index [BMI]: 22.6 [range: 18.47-24.46] Kg/m(2)) completed two test sessions at 08:00 h, one scheduled after a baseline night (bedtime: from 22:30 to 07:00 h) and the other after a PSD night caused by an early awakening (bedtime: from 22:30 to 03:00 h). During each session, participants performed 4 × 250-m run on a treadmill at a constant intensity of 80% of the personal maximal speed with a 3-min recovery in between. Tests session were performed at 08:00 h. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after the first and the fourth 250-m run, and 60 min after the exercise. The results showed that cortisol concentrations were not affected by the PSD. However, GH and testosterone concentrations were higher (p exercise during PSD in comparison with baseline. Likewise, plasma concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were higher (p exercise (i.e., the first and the fourth run) and remained elevated during the recovery period (i.e., 60 min after the exercise). In conclusion, these results showed that sleep restriction increases the proinflammatory cytokine, GH, and testosterone concentrations after physical exercise but did not affect the cortisol responses.

  17. In vivo gene transfer strategies to achieve partial correction of von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; De, Bishnu P; Ferris, Barbara; Wang, Rui; Rivella, Stefano; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Crystal, Ronald G

    2012-06-01

    von Willebrand disease (VWD), the most common hereditary coagulation disorder, results from mutations in the 52-exon gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF), which encodes an 8.4-kB cDNA. Studies with VWF cDNA plasmids have demonstrated that in vivo gene transfer to the liver will correct the coagulation dysfunction in VWF(-/-) mice, but the correction is transient. To develop gene therapy for VWF that would mediate long-term expression of the VWF cDNA in liver, we first evaluated segmental pre-mRNA trans-splicing (SPTS) with two adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 vectors, each delivering one-half of the VWF cDNA. However, although the two vectors functioned well to generate VWF multimers after infection of cells in vitro, the efficiency of SPTS was insufficient to correct the VWF(-/-) mouse in vivo. As an alternative, we assessed the ability of a lentiviral vector to transfer the intact murine VWF cDNA in vivo directly to the neonatal liver of VWF(-/-) mice, using generation of VWF multimers, bleeding time, and bleeding volume as efficacy parameters. The VWF lentivirus generated VWF multimers and partially or completely corrected the coagulation defect on a persistent basis in 33% of the treated VWF-deficient mice. On the basis of the concept that partial persistent correction with gene transfer could be beneficial in VWD patients, these observations suggest that lentiviral delivery of VWF cDNA should be explored as a candidate for gene therapy in patients with a severe form of VWD.

  18. Partial volume correction using structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery: comparison with geometric transfer matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Euitae; Shidahara, Miho; Tsoumpas, Charalampos; McGinnity, Colm J; Kwon, Jun Soo; Howes, Oliver D; Turkheimer, Federico E

    2013-06-01

    We validated the use of a novel image-based method for partial volume correction (PVC), structural-functional synergistic resolution recovery (SFS-RR) for the accurate quantification of dopamine synthesis capacity measured using [(18)F]DOPA positron emission tomography. The bias and reliability of SFS-RR were compared with the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method. Both methodologies were applied to the parametric maps of [(18)F]DOPA utilization rates (ki(cer)). Validation was first performed by measuring repeatability on test-retest scans. The precision of the methodologies instead was quantified using simulated [(18)F]DOPA images. The sensitivity to the misspecification of the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanner point-spread-function on both approaches was also assessed. In the in-vivo data, the ki(cer) was significantly increased by application of both PVC procedures while the reliability remained high (intraclass correlation coefficients >0.85). The variability was not significantly affected by either PVC approach (<10% variability in both cases). The corrected ki(cer) was significantly influenced by the FWHM applied in both the acquired and simulated data. This study shows that SFS-RR can effectively correct for partial volume effects to a comparable degree to GTM but with the added advantage that it enables voxelwise analyses, and that the FWHM used can affect the PVC result indicating the importance of accurately calibrating the FWHM used in the recovery model.

  19. Correction for partial reflection in ultrasonic attenuation measurements using contact transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Martin; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J; Qu, Jianmin

    2009-05-01

    This research investigates the influence of partial reflection on the measurement of the absolute ultrasonic attenuation coefficient using contact transducers. The partial, frequency-dependent reflection arises from the thin fluid-layer interface formed between the transducer and specimen surface. It is experimentally shown that neglecting this reflection effect leads to a significant overestimation in the measured attenuation coefficient. A systematic measurement procedure is proposed that simultaneously obtains the ultrasonic signals needed to calculate both the reflection coefficient of the interface and the attenuation coefficient, without disturbing the existing coupling conditions. The true attenuation coefficient includes a correction based on the measured reflection coefficient--this is called the reflection correction. It is shown that including the reflection correction also reduces the variation (random error) in the measured attenuation coefficient. The accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for a material with a known attenuation coefficient. The proposed method is then used to measure the high attenuation coefficient of a cement-based material.

  20. Combining MRI with PET for partial volume correction improves image-derived input functions in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Eleanor; Buonincontri, Guido [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Izquierdo, David [Athinoula A Martinos Centre, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Methner, Carmen [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Rob C [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ansorge, Richard E [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kreig, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Carpenter, T Adrian [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neurosciences Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-29

    Kinetic modelling in PET requires the arterial input function (AIF), defined as the time-activity curve (TAC) in plasma. This measure is challenging to obtain in mice due to low blood volumes, resulting in a reliance on image-based methods for AIF derivation. We present a comparison of PET- and MR-based region-of-interest (ROI) analysis to obtain image-derived AIFs from the left ventricle (LV) of a mouse model. ROI-based partial volume correction (PVC) was performed to improve quantification.

  1. Sleep architecture and homeostasis in mice with partial ablation of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varin, Christophe; Arthaud, Sébastien; Salvert, Denise; Gay, Nadine; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Léger, Lucienne; Fort, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    Recent reports support a key role of tuberal hypothalamic neurons secreting melanin concentrating-hormone (MCH) in the promotion of Paradoxical Sleep (PS). Controversies remain concerning their concomitant involvement in Slow-Wave Sleep (SWS). We studied the effects of their selective loss achieved by an Ataxin 3-mediated ablation strategy to decipher the contribution of MCH neurons to SWS and/or PS. Polysomnographic recordings were performed on male adult transgenic mice expressing Ataxin-3 transgene within MCH neurons (MCH(Atax)) and their wild-type littermates (MCH(WT)) bred on two genetic backgrounds (FVB/N and C57BL/6). Compared to MCH(WT) mice, MCH(Atax) mice were characterized by a significant drop in MCH mRNAs (-70%), a partial loss of MCH-immunoreactive neurons (-30%) and a marked reduction in brain density of MCH-immunoreactive fibers. Under basal condition, such MCH(Atax) mice exhibited higher PS amounts during the light period and a pronounced SWS fragmentation without any modification of SWS quantities. Moreover, SWS and PS rebounds following 4-h total sleep deprivation were quantitatively similar in MCH(Atax)vs. MCH(WT) mice. Additionally, MCH(Atax) mice were unable to consolidate SWS and increase slow-wave activity (SWA) in response to this homeostatic challenge as observed in MCH(WT) littermates. Here, we show that the partial loss of MCH neurons is sufficient to disturb the fine-tuning of sleep. Our data provided new insights into their contribution to subtle process managing SWS quality and its efficiency rather than SWS quantities, as evidenced by the deleterious impact on two powerful markers of sleep depth, i.e., SWS consolidation/fragmentation and SWA intensity under basal condition and under high sleep pressure.

  2. Partial correction of defective Cl(-) secretion in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells by an analog of squalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C; Lee, E R; Lane, M B; Xiao, Y F; Harris, D J; Cheng, S H

    2001-11-01

    Defective cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) transport across the apical membrane of airway epithelial cells is implicated in the pathophysiology of CF lungs. A strategy to compensate for this loss is to augment Cl(-) transport through alternative pathways. We report here that partial correction of this defect could be attained through the incorporation of artificial anion channels into the CF cells. Introduction of GL-172, a synthetic analog of squalamine, into CFT1 cells increased cell membrane halide permeability. Furthermore, when a Cl(-) gradient was generated across polarized monolayers of primary human airway or Fischer rat thyroid cells in an Ussing chamber, addition of GL-172 caused an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current. The magnitude of this change in short-circuit current was ~30% of that attained when CFTR was maximally stimulated with cAMP agonists. Patch-clamp studies showed that addition of GL-172 to CFT1 cells also increased whole cell Cl(-) currents. These currents displayed a linear current-voltage relationship and no time dependence. Additionally, administration of GL-172 to the nasal epithelium of transgenic CF mice induced a hyperpolarization response to perfusion with a low-Cl(-) solution, indicating restoration of Cl(-) secretion. Together, these results demonstrate that in CF airway epithelial cells, administration of GL-172 is capable of partially correcting the defective Cl(-) secretion.

  3. [Partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and disproportionate polydipsia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, J; Botey, A; Revert, L

    1980-01-10

    A 20-year-old patient was evaluated because of polydipsia and polyuria; by means of the dehydration test a partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was demonstrated, since the urinary osmolality after the administration of exogenous vasopressin was superior by 25 percent to the maximum spontaneous urinary osmolality reached after a period of fluid restriction. Nevertheless, there was also a component of psychogenic polydipsia because the daily basal fluid intake was superior to 15 liters, and in view of the fact that the urinary osmolality could reach 600 mOsm/kg, the endocrine defect cannot totally be responsible for the enormous volume of fluid intake. This is the first case in the world literature in which the association between potomania and deficiency in the secretion of ADH is reported. Since ADH is one of the factors which regulate the behaviour of various animal species it is possible that its deficiency may be directly responsible for the psychic disorder which led to the potomania. It is also possible that an anatomical hypothalamic lesion, too small to be demonstrated, might have a simultaneous effect on the centers regulating thirst and the neurons producing vasopressin.

  4. The importance of appropriate partial volume correction for PET quantification in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Benjamin A.; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Modat, Marc [University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom); Thurfjell, Lennart [GE Healthcare, Amersham (United Kingdom); Vandenberghe, Rik [Catholic University Leuven, Laboratory for Cognitive Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Neurology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Ourselin, Sebastien [University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Dementia Research Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Clinically, it is characterized by progressive cognitive and functional impairment with structural hallmarks of cortical atrophy and ventricular expansion. Amyloid plaque aggregation is also known to occur in AD subjects. In-vivo imaging of amyloid plaques is now possible with positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands. PET imaging suffers from a degrading phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). The quantitative accuracy of PET images is reduced by PVEs primarily due to the limited spatial resolution of the scanner. The degree of PVE is influenced by structure size, with smaller structures tending to suffer from more severe PVEs such as atrophied grey matter regions. The aims of this paper were to investigate the effect of partial volume correction (PVC) on the quantification of amyloid PET and to highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate PVC technique. An improved PVC technique, region-based voxel-wise (RBV) correction, was compared against existing Van-Cittert (VC) and Mueller-Gaertner (MG) methods using amyloid PET imaging data. Digital phantom data were produced using segmented MRI scans from a control subject and an AD subject. Typical tracer distributions were generated for each of the phantom anatomies. Also examined were 70 clinical PET scans acquired using [{sup 18}F]flutemetamol. Volume of interest (VOI) analysis was performed for corrected and uncorrected images. PVC was shown to improve the quantitative accuracy of regional analysis performed on amyloid PET images. Of the corrections applied, VC deconvolution demonstrated the worst recovery of grey matter values. MG PVC was shown to induce biases in some grey matter regions due to grey matter variability. In addition, white matter variability was shown to influence the accuracy of MG PVC in cortical grey matter and also cerebellar grey matter, a typical reference region for amyloid PET normalization in

  5. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  6. Partial ablation of uropygial gland effects on growth hormone concentration and digestive system histometrical aspect of akar putra chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Hasan S A; Lokman, I H; Zuki, A B Z; Kassim, A B

    2016-04-01

    Partial ablation of the uropygial gland is being used in the poultry industry as a new way to enhance body performance of chickens. However, limited data are available estimating the efficacy of partial uropygialectomy (PU) to improve body organ activity. The present study evaluated the effect of partial ablation of the uropygial gland on the serum growth hormone concentration level and digestive system histology of 120 Akar Putra chickens in 5 trials with 3 replicates per trial. The experimental treatments consisted of a control treatment T1; partial ablation of the uropygial gland was applied in the T2, T3, T4, and T5 treatments at 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk of age, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. All treatment groups were provided the same diet. Venous blood samples were collected on wk 7, 10, and 12 to assay the levels of growth hormone concentration. On the last d of the experiment, 4 birds per replicate were randomly isolated and euthanized to perform the necropsy. Digestive system organs' cross sections were measured by a computerized image analyzer after being stained with haematoxylin and eosin. In comparison with the control group, surgical removal of the uropygial gland, especially at wk 3, had a greater (Pgrowth hormone concentration level at wk 7 and (P<0.01) effects at wk 12 in both sexes. This study provides a novel and economic alternative to enhance the body performance of poultry in general and Akar Putra chickens particularly.

  7. Anatomical-based partial volume correction for low-dose dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chan, Chung; Grobshtein, Yariv; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2015-09-01

    Due to the limited spatial resolution, partial volume effect has been a major degrading factor on quantitative accuracy in emission tomography systems. This study aims to investigate the performance of several anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) methods for a dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT system (GE Discovery NM/CT 570c) with focused field-of-view over a clinically relevant range of high and low count levels for two different radiotracer distributions. These PVC methods include perturbation geometry transfer matrix (pGTM), pGTM followed by multi-target correction (MTC), pGTM with known concentration in blood pool, the former followed by MTC and our newly proposed methods, which perform the MTC method iteratively, where the mean values in all regions are estimated and updated by the MTC-corrected images each time in the iterative process. The NCAT phantom was simulated for cardiovascular imaging with 99mTc-tetrofosmin, a myocardial perfusion agent, and 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC), a pure intravascular imaging agent. Images were acquired at six different count levels to investigate the performance of PVC methods in both high and low count levels for low-dose applications. We performed two large animal in vivo cardiac imaging experiments following injection of 99mTc-RBC for evaluation of intramyocardial blood volume (IMBV). The simulation results showed our proposed iterative methods provide superior performance than other existing PVC methods in terms of image quality, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility (standard deviation), particularly for low-count data. The iterative approaches are robust for both 99mTc-tetrofosmin perfusion imaging and 99mTc-RBC imaging of IMBV and blood pool activity even at low count levels. The animal study results indicated the effectiveness of PVC to correct the overestimation of IMBV due to blood pool contamination. In conclusion, the iterative PVC methods can achieve more accurate quantification, particularly for low

  8. Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding partial putative molt-inhibiting hormone from Penaeus chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zai-Zhao; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  9. MOLECULAR CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF A cDNA ENCODING PARTIAL PUTATIVE MOLT-INHIBITING HORMONE FROM PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王在照; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeus chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymer ase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A s pecific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 ba se pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  10. MOLECULAR CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF A cDNA ENCODING PARTIAL PUTATIVE MOLT-INHIBITING HORMONE FROM PENAEUS CHINENSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王在照; 相建海

    2002-01-01

    Total RNA was extracted from eyestalks of shrimp Penaeue chinensis. Eyestalk cDNA was obtained from total RNA by reverse transcription. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was initiated using eyestalk cDNA and degenerate primers designed from the amino acid sequence of molt-inhibiting hormone from shrimp Penaeus japonicus. A specific cDNA was obtained and cloned into a T vector for sequencing. The cDNA consisted of 201 base pairs and encoding for a peptide of 67 amino acid residues. The peptide of P. chinensis had the highest identity with molt-inhibiting hormones of P. japonicus. The cDNA could be a partial gene of molt-inhibiting hormones from P. chinensis. This paper reports for the first time cDNA encoding for neuropeptide of P. chinensis.

  11. PETPVC: a toolbox for performing partial volume correction techniques in positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Benjamin A.; Cuplov, Vesna; Bousse, Alexandre; Mendes, Adriana; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Erlandsson, Kjell

    2016-11-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data. Eight core PVC techniques are available. These core methods can be combined to create a total of 22 different PVC techniques. Simulated brain PET data are used to demonstrate the utility of toolbox in idealised conditions, the effects of applying PVC with mismatched point-spread function (PSF) estimates and the potential of novel hybrid PVC methods to improve the quantification of lesions. All anatomy-based PVC techniques achieve complete recovery of the PET signal in cortical grey matter (GM) when performed in idealised conditions. Applying deconvolution-based approaches results in incomplete recovery due to premature termination of the iterative process. PVC techniques are sensitive to PSF mismatch, causing a bias of up to 16.7% in GM recovery when over-estimating the PSF by 3 mm. The recovery of both GM and a simulated lesion was improved by combining two PVC techniques together. The PETPVC toolbox has been written in C++, supports Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems, is open-source and publicly available.

  12. MRI-guided brain PET image filtering and partial volume correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianhua; Chu-Shern Lim, Jason; Townsend, David W.

    2015-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) image quantification is a challenging problem due to limited spatial resolution of acquired data and the resulting partial volume effects (PVE), which depend on the size of the structure studied in relation to the spatial resolution and which may lead to over or underestimation of the true tissue tracer concentration. In addition, it is usually necessary to perform image smoothing either during image reconstruction or afterwards to achieve a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. Typically, an isotropic Gaussian filtering (GF) is used for this purpose. However, the noise suppression is at the cost of deteriorating spatial resolution. As hybrid imaging devices such as PET/MRI have become available, the complementary information derived from high definition morphologic images could be used to improve the quality of PET images. In this study, first of all, we propose an MRI-guided PET filtering method by adapting a recently proposed local linear model and then incorporate PVE into the model to get a new partial volume correction (PVC) method without parcellation of MRI. In addition, both the new filtering and PVC are voxel-wise non-iterative methods. The performance of the proposed methods were investigated with simulated dynamic FDG brain dataset and 18F-FDG brain data of a cervical cancer patient acquired with a simultaneous hybrid PET/MR scanner. The initial simulation results demonstrated that MRI-guided PET image filtering can produce less noisy images than traditional GF and bias and coefficient of variation can be further reduced by MRI-guided PET PVC. Moreover, structures can be much better delineated in MRI-guided PET PVC for real brain data.

  13. Using corrected Cone-Beam CT image for accelerated partial breast irradiation treatment dose verification: the preliminary experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiazhou; Hu, Weigang; Cai, Gang; Peng, Jiayuan; Pan, Ziqiang; Guo, Xiaomao; Chen, Jiayi

    2013-01-01

    Background Accurate target localization is mandatory in the accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) delivery. Dosimetric verification for positional error will further guarantee the accuracy of treatment delivery. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical feasibility of a cone beam computer tomographic (CBCT) image correction method in APBI. Methods A CBCT image correction method was developed. First, rigid image registration was proceeded for CTs and CBCTs; second, these im...

  14. Region-Based Partial Volume Correction Techniques for PET Imaging: Sinogram Implementation and Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Sattarivand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET requires partial volume correction (PVC. Region-based PVC methods are based on geometric transfer matrix implemented either in image-space (GTM or sinogram-space (GTMo, both with similar performance. Although GTMo is slower, it more closely simulates the 3D PET image acquisition, accounts for local variations of point spread function, and can be implemented for iterative reconstructions. A recent image-based symmetric GTM (sGTM has shown improvement in noise characteristics and robustness to misregistration over GTM. This study implements the sGTM method in sinogram space (sGTMo, validates it, and evaluates its performance. Methods. Two 3D sphere and brain digital phantoms and a physical sphere phantom were used. All four region-based PVC methods (GTM, GTMo, sGTM, and sGTMo were implemented and their performance was evaluated. Results. All four PVC methods had similar accuracies. Both noise propagation and robustness of the sGTMo method were similar to those of sGTM method while they were better than those of GTMo method especially for smaller objects. Conclusion. The sGTMo was implemented and validated. The performance of the sGTMo in terms of noise characteristics and robustness to misregistration is similar to that of the sGTM method and improved compared to the GTMo method.

  15. Spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium using partial least squares regression and orthogonal signal correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, Ali [Azad University of Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: ali.niazi@gmail.com

    2006-09-15

    A simple, novel and sensitive spectrophotometric method was described for simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium. The method is based on the complex formation of uranium and thorium with Arsenazo III at pH 3.0. All factors affecting the sensitivity were optimized and the linear dynamic range for determination of uranium and thorium found. The simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium mixtures by using spectrophotometric methods is a difficult problem, due to spectral interferences. By multivariate calibration methods such as partial least squares (PLS), it is possible to obtain a model adjusted to the concentration values of the mixtures used in the calibration range. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is a preprocessing technique used for removing the information unrelated to the target variables based on constrained principal component analysis. OSC is a suitable preprocessing method for PLS calibration of mixtures without loss of prediction capacity using spectrophotometric method. In this study, the calibration model is based on absorption spectra in the 600-760 nm range for 25 different mixtures of uranium and thorium. Calibration matrices contained 0.10- 21.00 and 0.25-18.50 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of uranium and thorium, respectively. The RMSEP for uranium and thorium with OSC and without OSC were 0.4362, 0.4183 and 1.5710, 1.0775, respectively. This procedure allows the simultaneous determination of uranium and thorium in synthetic and real matrix samples with good reliability of the determination. (author)

  16. Molecular cloning and analysis of the partial sequence of Rhinopithecus roxellanae growth hormone gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐来祥; 孔繁华; 华育平

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone gene (GH) of Rhinopithecus roxellanae was amplified by PCR based on the sequences of the reported mammalian growth hormone gene for the first time. The amplified fragment was about 1.8 kb. It was cloned and its upper stream was sequenced. This sequencing region consists of a 5¢ flanking regulatory region, exon I and part of exon II, intron I of growth hormone gene. Comparing the corresponding sequences of growth hormone gene between Rhinopithecus roxellanae and the porcine, we concluded that the homology reached 81% in the region, and there was high conservation in the 5¢ flanking sequence. The kinds of amino acids of exon I and exon II for about 90% were the same to those in pig. Many mutations occurred in the degenerate site of the triplet code. In the nucleotides of intron I, there were only 72% homologies with those in pig. It means that introns and 3¢ flanking sequence maybe play an important part in growth hormone gene regulation of the different animals.

  17. Application of Partial Volume Effect Correction and 4D PET in the Quantification of FDG Avid Lung Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salavati, Ali; Borofsky, Samuel; Boon-Keng, Teo K.; Houshmand, Sina; Khiewvan, Benjapa; Saboury, Babak; Codreanu, Ion; Torigian, Drew A.; Zaidi, Habib; Alavi, Abass

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess a software-based method with semiautomated correction for partial volume effect (PVE) to quantify the metabolic activity of pulmonary malignancies in patients who underwent non-gated and respiratory-gated 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emi

  18. Partial volume correction of brain PET studies using iterative deconvolution in combination with HYPR denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Sandeep S V; Lubberink, Mark; van Berckel, Bart N M; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Boellaard, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    Accurate quantification of PET studies depends on the spatial resolution of the PET data. The commonly limited PET resolution results in partial volume effects (PVE). Iterative deconvolution methods (IDM) have been proposed as a means to correct for PVE. IDM improves spatial resolution of PET studies without the need for structural information (e.g. MR scans). On the other hand, deconvolution also increases noise, which results in lower signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The aim of this study was to implement IDM in combination with HighlY constrained back-PRojection (HYPR) denoising to mitigate poor SNR properties of conventional IDM. An anthropomorphic Hoffman brain phantom was filled with an [(18)F]FDG solution of ~25 kBq mL(-1) and scanned for 30 min on a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/CT scanner (Philips, Cleveland, USA) using a dynamic brain protocol with various frame durations ranging from 10 to 300 s. Van Cittert IDM was used for PVC of the scans. In addition, HYPR was used to improve SNR of the dynamic PET images, applying it both before and/or after IDM. The Hoffman phantom dataset was used to optimise IDM parameters (number of iterations, type of algorithm, with/without HYPR) and the order of HYPR implementation based on the best average agreement of measured and actual activity concentrations in the regions. Next, dynamic [(11)C]flumazenil (five healthy subjects) and [(11)C]PIB (four healthy subjects and four patients with Alzheimer's disease) scans were used to assess the impact of IDM with and without HYPR on plasma input-derived distribution volumes (V T) across various regions of the brain. In the case of [(11)C]flumazenil scans, Hypr-IDM-Hypr showed an increase of 5 to 20% in the regional V T whereas a 0 to 10% increase or decrease was seen in the case of [(11)C]PIB depending on the volume of interest or type of subject (healthy or patient). References for these comparisons were the V Ts from the PVE-uncorrected scans. IDM improved quantitative accuracy

  19. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Lin, Sheng-Ting; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J; Hartman Iv, John L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-05-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  20. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Veit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most common cystic fibrosis (CF causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del, results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR at the apical plasma membrane (PM of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670 in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect.

  1. Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Cromer, Deborah; Tolstrup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.].......[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005000.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005740.][This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005679.]....

  2. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  3. Simulation-based partial volume correction for dopaminergic PET imaging. Impact of segmentation accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Ye; Winz, Oliver H. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vernaleken, Ingo [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics; Goedicke, Andreas [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; High Tech Campus, Philips Research Lab., Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Maastricht University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Rota Kops, Elena [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine-4

    2015-07-01

    Partial volume correction (PVC) is an essential step for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, PVELab, a freely available software, is evaluated for PVC in {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET, with a special focus on the accuracy degradation introduced by various MR-based segmentation approaches. Methods Four PVC algorithms (M-PVC; MG-PVC; mMG-PVC; and R-PVC) were analyzed on simulated {sup 18}F-FDOPA brain-PET images. MR image segmentation was carried out using FSL (FMRIB Software Library) and SPM (Statistical Parametric Mapping) packages, including additional adaptation for subcortical regions (SPM{sub L}). Different PVC and segmentation combinations were compared with respect to deviations in regional activity values and time-activity curves (TACs) of the occipital cortex (OCC), caudate nucleus (CN), and putamen (PUT). Additionally, the PVC impact on the determination of the influx constant (K{sub i}) was assessed. Results Main differences between tissue-maps returned by three segmentation algorithms were found in the subcortical region, especially at PUT. Average misclassification errors in combination with volume reduction was found to be lowest for SPM{sub L} (PUT < 30%) and highest for FSL (PUT > 70%). Accurate recovery of activity data at OCC is achieved by M-PVC (apparent recovery coefficient varies between 0.99 and 1.10). The other three evaluated PVC algorithms have demonstrated to be more suitable for subcortical regions with MG-PVC and mMG-PVC being less prone to the largest tissue misclassification error simulated in this study. Except for M-PVC, quantification accuracy of K{sub i} for CN and PUT was clearly improved by PVC. Conclusions The regional activity value of PUT was appreciably overcorrected by most of the PVC approaches employing FSL or SPM segmentation, revealing the importance of accurate MR image segmentation for the presented PVC framework. The selection of a PVC approach should be adapted to the anatomical

  4. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  5. A three-dimensional model-based partial volume correction strategy for gated cardiac mouse PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumouchel, Tyler; Thorn, Stephanie; Kordos, Myra; DaSilva, Jean; Beanlands, Rob S. B.; deKemp, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    Quantification in cardiac mouse positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is limited by the imaging spatial resolution. Spillover of left ventricle (LV) myocardial activity into adjacent organs results in partial volume (PV) losses leading to underestimation of myocardial activity. A PV correction method was developed to restore accuracy of the activity distribution for FDG mouse imaging. The PV correction model was based on convolving an LV image estimate with a 3D point spread function. The LV model was described regionally by a five-parameter profile including myocardial, background and blood activities which were separated into three compartments by the endocardial radius and myocardium wall thickness. The PV correction was tested with digital simulations and a physical 3D mouse LV phantom. In vivo cardiac FDG mouse PET imaging was also performed. Following imaging, the mice were sacrificed and the tracer biodistribution in the LV and liver tissue was measured using a gamma-counter. The PV correction algorithm improved recovery from 50% to within 5% of the truth for the simulated and measured phantom data and image uniformity by 5-13%. The PV correction algorithm improved the mean myocardial LV recovery from 0.56 (0.54) to 1.13 (1.10) without (with) scatter and attenuation corrections. The mean image uniformity was improved from 26% (26%) to 17% (16%) without (with) scatter and attenuation corrections applied. Scatter and attenuation corrections were not observed to significantly impact PV-corrected myocardial recovery or image uniformity. Image-based PV correction algorithm can increase the accuracy of PET image activity and improve the uniformity of the activity distribution in normal mice. The algorithm may be applied using different tracers, in transgenic models that affect myocardial uptake, or in different species provided there is sufficient image quality and similar contrast between the myocardium and surrounding structures.

  6. Use of triple-convergence polypropylene thread for the aesthetic correction of partial facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citarella, Enzo Rivera; Sterodimas, Aris; Green, Alexandra Conde; Sinder, Ramil; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2008-07-01

    Rehabilitation and reanimation of the paralyzed face remains a challenge. A variety of autografts and allografts have been used for static facial suspension. We report two cases of long-standing partial facial paralysis treated with 3C triple-convergence polypropylene thread. A 39-year-old woman with right-sided partial facial paralysis underwent an endoscopy-assisted facial suspension using the 3C threads and a 60-year-old woman with right-sided partial facial paralysis underwent a round face-lifting combined with endoscopic brow lift and placement of 3C triple-convergence polypropylene threads. Its use for partial facial paralysis has not been previously described. The 1-year follow-up shows effective preservation of the surgical result and patient satisfaction.

  7. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Kha Truong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact. Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2*-weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact. These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  8. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  9. Analytic image reconstruction from partial data for a single-scan cone-beam CT with scatter correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jonghwan; Pua, Rizza; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insoo; Han, Bumsoo [EB Tech, Co., Ltd., 550 Yongsan-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: A beam-blocker composed of multiple strips is a useful gadget for scatter correction and/or for dose reduction in cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, the use of such a beam-blocker would yield cone-beam data that can be challenging for accurate image reconstruction from a single scan in the filtered-backprojection framework. The focus of the work was to develop an analytic image reconstruction method for CBCT that can be directly applied to partially blocked cone-beam data in conjunction with the scatter correction. Methods: The authors developed a rebinned backprojection-filteration (BPF) algorithm for reconstructing images from the partially blocked cone-beam data in a circular scan. The authors also proposed a beam-blocking geometry considering data redundancy such that an efficient scatter estimate can be acquired and sufficient data for BPF image reconstruction can be secured at the same time from a single scan without using any blocker motion. Additionally, scatter correction method and noise reduction scheme have been developed. The authors have performed both simulation and experimental studies to validate the rebinned BPF algorithm for image reconstruction from partially blocked cone-beam data. Quantitative evaluations of the reconstructed image quality were performed in the experimental studies. Results: The simulation study revealed that the developed reconstruction algorithm successfully reconstructs the images from the partial cone-beam data. In the experimental study, the proposed method effectively corrected for the scatter in each projection and reconstructed scatter-corrected images from a single scan. Reduction of cupping artifacts and an enhancement of the image contrast have been demonstrated. The image contrast has increased by a factor of about 2, and the image accuracy in terms of root-mean-square-error with respect to the fan-beam CT image has increased by more than 30%. Conclusions: The authors have successfully demonstrated that the

  10. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Partial Cumulative Milk Yields of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Misrianti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene (GH gene plays an important role in regulating body growth and in developing mammary gland, similar with its interaction to specific receptors. The GH gene has been considered as one of candidate gene associated with selection on lactation trait and milk production. This study was aimed to determine genetic polymorphism of the GH-AluI gene and to associate its genotype variants on various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields in Holstein Friesian (HF dairy cows. A number of 370 blood samples were collected from six HF populations, respectively from small dairy farmer under the supervision of the North Bandung Milk Cooperation (NBMC in Cilumber (98 and Pasir Kemis village (96, Dairy Cattle Breeding and Improvement Station (Cikole DCBIS Cikole (88, Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (Lembang AIC (17, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center (Singosari AIC (32, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (Cipelang LEC (40. A polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to identify variant genotypes of the GH gene using AluI restriction enzyme. Genotyping results produced only two genotypes, i.e. LL and LV genotypes, without VV genotype. Frequency of the former was dominant, whilst that was low for the latter (89% vs. 11%; leading to the frequency of L allele was very high (94% compared to that of V allele (6%. No significant association between variant genotypes (LL and LV and various 15-d partial cumulative milk yields.

  11. [Evaluation of synthetic antidiuretic hormone as a corrective substance following head-down tilt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vasil'eva, G Iu

    2010-01-01

    Effects of synthesized desmopressin, analog of antidiuretic hormone, and water-salt supplement on the renal function and orthostatic stability were studied in 6 normal male subjects after 12-hr. head-down tilt (12 degrees). The combination of water-salt homeostasis normalizing methods was effective in retaining excessive liquid and salts. Moreover, tolerance of the standard 20-min. passive standing test improved significantly. Hence, it was demonstrated that intake of synthetic vasopressin analog combined with WSS counteracted hypohydration of organism due to HDT and improved orthostatic tolerance.

  12. A Label Correcting Algorithm for Partial Disassembly Sequences in the Production Planning for End-of-Life Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Fang (Jennifer Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing of used products has become a strategic issue for cost-sensitive businesses. Due to the nature of uncertain supply of end-of-life (EoL products, the reverse logistic can only be sustainable with a dynamic production planning for disassembly process. This research investigates the sequencing of disassembly operations as a single-period partial disassembly optimization (SPPDO problem to minimize total disassembly cost. AND/OR graph representation is used to include all disassembly sequences of a returned product. A label correcting algorithm is proposed to find an optimal partial disassembly plan if a specific reusable subpart is retrieved from the original return. Then, a heuristic procedure that utilizes this polynomial-time algorithm is presented to solve the SPPDO problem. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of this solution procedure.

  13. Dixon imaging-based partial volume correction improves quantification of choline detected by breast 3D-MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Bogner, Wolfgang; Trattnig, Siegfried; Chmelik, Marek [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Center of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-14

    Our aim was to develop a partial volume (PV) correction method of choline (Cho) signals detected by breast 3D-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI), using information from water/fat-Dixon MRI. Following institutional review board approval, five breast cancer patients were measured at 3 T. 3D-MRSI (1 cm{sup 3} resolution, duration ∝11 min) and Dixon MRI (1 mm{sup 3}, ∝2 min) were measured in vivo and in phantoms. Glandular/lesion tissue was segmented from water/fat-Dixon MRI and transformed to match the resolution of 3D-MRSI. The resulting PV values were used to correct Cho signals. Our method was validated on a two-compartment phantom (choline/water and oil). PV values were correlated with the spectroscopic water signal. Cho signal variability, caused by partial-water/fat content, was tested in 3D-MRSI voxels located in/near malignant lesions. Phantom measurements showed good correlation (r = 0.99) with quantified 3D-MRSI water signals, and better homogeneity after correction. The dependence of the quantified Cho signal on the water/fat voxel composition was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced using Dixon MRI-based PV correction, compared to the original uncorrected data (1.60-fold to 3.12-fold) in patients. The proposed method allows quantification of the Cho signal in glandular/lesion tissue independent of water/fat composition in breast 3D-MRSI. This can improve the reproducibility of breast 3D-MRSI, particularly important for therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  14. Partial correction of a severe molecular defect in hemophilia A, because of errors during expression of the factor VIII gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Inaba, Hiroshi [Tokyo Medical College (Japan)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Although the molecular defect in patients in a Japanese family with mild to moderately severe hemophilia A was a deletion of a single nucleotide T within an A{sub 8}TA{sub 2} sequence of exon 14 of the factor VIII gene, the severity of the clinical phenotype did not correspond to that expected of a frameshift mutation. A small amount of functional factor VIII protein was detected in the patient`s plasma. Analysis of DNA and RNA molecules from normal and affected individuals and in vitro transcription/translation suggested a partial correction of the molecular defect, because of the following: (i) DNA replication/RNA transcription errors resulting in restoration of the reading frame and/or (ii) {open_quotes}ribosomal frameshifting{close_quotes} resulting in the production of normal factor VIII polypeptide and, thus, in a milder than expected hemophilia A. All of these mechanisms probably were promoted by the longer run of adenines, A{sub 10} instead of A{sub 8}TA{sub 2}, after the delT. Errors in the complex steps of gene expression therefore may partially correct a severe frameshift defect and ameliorate an expected severe phenotype. 36 refs., 6 figs.

  15. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  16. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  17. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  18. Cardiac motion correction based on partial angle reconstructed images in x-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seungeon; Chang, Yongjin; Ra, Jong Beom, E-mail: jbra@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Cardiac x-ray CT imaging is still challenging due to heart motion, which cannot be ignored even with the current rotation speed of the equipment. In response, many algorithms have been developed to compensate remaining motion artifacts by estimating the motion using projection data or reconstructed images. In these algorithms, accurate motion estimation is critical to the compensated image quality. In addition, since the scan range is directly related to the radiation dose, it is preferable to minimize the scan range in motion estimation. In this paper, the authors propose a novel motion estimation and compensation algorithm using a sinogram with a rotation angle of less than 360°. The algorithm estimates the motion of the whole heart area using two opposite 3D partial angle reconstructed (PAR) images and compensates the motion in the reconstruction process. Methods: A CT system scans the thoracic area including the heart over an angular range of 180° + α + β, where α and β denote the detector fan angle and an additional partial angle, respectively. The obtained cone-beam projection data are converted into cone-parallel geometry via row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning. Two conjugate 3D PAR images, whose center projection angles are separated by 180°, are then reconstructed with an angular range of β, which is considerably smaller than a short scan range of 180° + α. Although these images include limited view angle artifacts that disturb accurate motion estimation, they have considerably better temporal resolution than a short scan image. Hence, after preprocessing these artifacts, the authors estimate a motion model during a half rotation for a whole field of view via nonrigid registration between the images. Finally, motion-compensated image reconstruction is performed at a target phase by incorporating the estimated motion model. The target phase is selected as that corresponding to a view angle that is orthogonal to the center view angles of

  19. MRI data driven partial volume effects correction in PET imaging using 3D local multi-resolution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pogam, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.lepogam@univ-brest.fr [INSERM UMR 1101, LaTIM, Brest (France); Lamare, Frederic [Academic Nuclear Medicine Department, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Hatt, Mathieu [INSERM UMR 1101, LaTIM, Brest (France); Fernandez, Philippe [Academic Nuclear Medicine Department, CHU Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Le Rest, Catherine Cheze [INSERM UMR 1101, LaTIM, Brest (France); Academic Nuclear Medicine Department, CHU Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM UMR 1101, LaTIM, Brest (France)

    2013-02-21

    PET partial volume effects (PVE) resulting from the limited resolution of PET scanners is still a quantitative issue that PET/MRI scanners do not solve by themselves. A recently proposed voxel-based locally adaptive 3D multi-resolution PVE correction based on the mutual analysis of wavelet decompositions was applied on 12 clinical {sup 18}F-FLT PET/T1 MRI images of glial tumors, and compared to a PET only voxel-wise iterative deconvolution approach. Quantitative and qualitative results demonstrated the interest of exploiting PET/MRI information with higher uptake increases (19±8% vs. 11±7%, p=0.02), as well as more convincing visual restoration of details within tumors with respect to deconvolution of the PET uptake only. Further studies are now required to demonstrate the accuracy of this restoration with histopathological validation of the uptake in tumors.

  20. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Sukcharanjit S, Tan AS, Loo AV, Chan XL, Wang CY. The effect of a forced-air warming blanket on patients’ end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressures during eye surgery under local anaesthesia: a single-blind, randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia 2015; 70: 1390–4. In the article [1] by Sukcharanjit et al., data in the ‘Systolic blood pressure; mmHg’ row in Table 1 is listed incorrectly. It should be: 158.0 (14.3) in the Forced air warmer column and 160.9 (15.6) in the Heated Overblanket column.

  1. Mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor Beta show enhanced apoptosis and delayed liver commitment for proliferation after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontal, Raquel; Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G; Gómez-Ferrería, Mariana; Aranda, Ana; Sáez, Guillermo T; Cerdá, Concha; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Boscá, Lisardo

    2010-01-14

    The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR) during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. Mice lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting approximately 30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRbeta- or TRalpha1/TRbeta-deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRbeta in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRbeta that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRbeta contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of hepatocyte proliferation following PH, and improves the survival of the regenerating

  2. Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptor β Show Enhanced Apoptosis and Delayed Liver Commitment for Proliferation after Partial Hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fontal, Raquel; Zeini, Miriam; Través, Paqui G.; Gómez-Ferrería, Mariana; Aranda, Ana; Sáez, Guillermo T.; Cerdá, Concha; Martín-Sanz, Paloma; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Boscá, Lisardo

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR) during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice lacking TRα1/TRβ or TRβ alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting ∼30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRα1/TRβ or TRβ. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. Conclusions/Significance We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRβ– or TRα1/TRβ–deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRβ in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRβ that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRβ contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of hepatocyte proliferation following PH, and improves the

  3. Mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor Beta show enhanced apoptosis and delayed liver commitment for proliferation after partial hepatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel López-Fontal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of thyroid hormones and their receptors (TR during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH was studied using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. Roles in liver regeneration have been suggested for T3, but there is no clear evidence distinguishing the contribution of increased amounts of T3 from the modulation by unoccupied TRs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta alone fully regenerated liver mass after PH, but showed delayed commitment to the initial round of hepatocyte proliferation and transient but intense apoptosis at 48h post-PH, affecting approximately 30% of the remaining hepatocytes. Pharmacologically induced hypothyroidism yielded similar results. Loss of TR activity was associated with enhanced nitrosative stress in the liver remnant, due to an increase in the activity of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS 2 and 3, caused by a transient decrease in the concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a potent NOS inhibitor. This decrease in the ADMA levels was due to the presence of a higher activity of dimethylarginineaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1 in the regenerating liver of animals lacking TRalpha1/TRbeta or TRbeta. DDAH-1 expression and activity was paralleled by the activity of FXR, a transcription factor involved in liver regeneration and up-regulated in the absence of TR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report that TRs are not required for liver regeneration; however, hypothyroid mice and TRbeta- or TRalpha1/TRbeta-deficient mice exhibit a delay in the restoration of liver mass, suggesting a specific role for TRbeta in liver regeneration. Altered regenerative responses are related with a delay in the expression of cyclins D1 and E, and the occurrence of liver apoptosis in the absence of activated TRbeta that can be prevented by administration of NOS inhibitors. Taken together, these results indicate that TRbeta contributes significantly to the rapid initial round of

  4. Parathyroid hormone administration improves bone marrow microenvironment and partially rescues haematopoietic defects in Bmi1-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruinan Lu

    Full Text Available The epigenetic regulator Bmi1 is key in haematopoietic stem cells, and its inactivation leads to defects in haematopoiesis. Parathyroid hormone (PTH, an important modulator of bone homeostasis, also regulates haematopoiesis, so we asked whether PTH administration improves bone marrow microenvironment and rescues the haematopoietic defects in Bmi1-null mice. The mice were treated with PTH1-34 (containing the first 34 residues of mature PTH, an anabolic drug currently used for treating osteoporosis, and compared with the vehicle-treated Bmi1-/- and wild-type littermates in terms of skeletal and haematopoietic phenotypes. We found that the administration significantly increased all parameters related to osteoblastic bone formation and significantly reduced the adipocyte number and PPARγ expression. The bone marrow cellularity, numbers of haematopoietic progenitors and stem cells in the femur, and numbers of lymphocytes and other white blood cells in the peripheral blood all increased significantly when compared to vehicle-treated Bmi1-/- mice. Moreover, the number of Jagged1-positive cells and percentage of Notch intracellular domain-positive bone marrow cells and protein expression levels of Jagged1 and NICD in bone tissue were also increased in Bmi1-/- mice upon PTH1-34 administration,whereas the up-regulation of PTH on both Notch1 and Jagged1 gene expression was blocked by the Notch inhibitor DAPT administration. These results thus indicate that PTH administration activates the notch pathway and partially rescues haematopoietic defects in Bmi1-null mice, further suggesting that haematopoietic defects in the animals are not only a result of reduced self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells but also due to impaired bone marrow microenvironment.

  5. Correction

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tile Calorimeter modules stored at CERN. The larger modules belong to the Barrel, whereas the smaller ones are for the two Extended Barrels. (The article was about the completion of the 64 modules for one of the latter.) The photo on the first page of the Bulletin n°26/2002, from 24 July 2002, illustrating the article «The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter gets into shape» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.

  6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient from 3D-RISM-KH Molecular Theory of Solvation with Partial Molar Volume Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, WenJuan; Blinov, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-30

    The octanol-water partition coefficient is an important physical-chemical characteristic widely used to describe hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of chemical compounds. The partition coefficient is related to the transfer free energy of a compound from water to octanol. Here, we introduce a new protocol for prediction of the partition coefficient based on the statistical-mechanical, 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation. It was shown recently that with the compound-solvent correlation functions obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, the free energy functional supplemented with the correction linearly related to the partial molar volume obtained from the Kirkwood-Buff/3D-RISM theory, also called the "universal correction" (UC), provides accurate prediction of the hydration free energy of small compounds, compared to explicit solvent molecular dynamics [ Palmer , D. S. ; J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010 , 22 , 492101 ]. Here we report that with the UC reparametrized accordingly this theory also provides an excellent agreement with the experimental data for the solvation free energy in nonpolar solvent (1-octanol) and so accurately predicts the octanol-water partition coefficient. The performance of the Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) and Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functionals of the solvation free energy, with and without UC, is tested on a large library of small compounds with diverse functional groups. The best agreement with the experimental data for octanol-water partition coefficients is obtained with the KH-UC solvation free energy functional.

  7. A novel partial volume effects correction technique integrating deconvolution associated with denoising within an iterative PET image reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, Thibaut, E-mail: thibaut.merlin@telecom-bretagne.eu [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux , Bordeaux 33 33076 (France); Visvikis, Dimitris [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29 29609 (France); Fernandez, Philippe; Lamare, Frederic [Université Bordeaux INCIA, CNRS UMR 5287, Hôpital de Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33 33076 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Partial volume effect (PVE) plays an important role in both qualitative and quantitative PET image accuracy, especially for small structures. A previously proposed voxelwise PVE correction method applied on PET reconstructed images involves the use of Lucy–Richardson deconvolution incorporating wavelet-based denoising to limit the associated propagation of noise. The aim of this study is to incorporate the deconvolution, coupled with the denoising step, directly inside the iterative reconstruction process to further improve PVE correction. Methods: The list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm has been modified accordingly with the application of the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution algorithm to the current estimation of the image, at each reconstruction iteration. Acquisitions of the NEMA NU2-2001 IQ phantom were performed on a GE DRX PET/CT system to study the impact of incorporating the deconvolution inside the reconstruction [with and without the point spread function (PSF) model] in comparison to its application postreconstruction and to standard iterative reconstruction incorporating the PSF model. The impact of the denoising step was also evaluated. Images were semiquantitatively assessed by studying the trade-off between the intensity recovery and the noise level in the background estimated as relative standard deviation. Qualitative assessments of the developed methods were additionally performed on clinical cases. Results: Incorporating the deconvolution without denoising within the reconstruction achieved superior intensity recovery in comparison to both standard OSEM reconstruction integrating a PSF model and application of the deconvolution algorithm in a postreconstruction process. The addition of the denoising step permitted to limit the SNR degradation while preserving the intensity recovery. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating the Lucy–Richardson deconvolution associated with a

  8. Correction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The photo on the second page of the Bulletin n°48/2002, from 25 November 2002, illustrating the article «Spanish Visit to CERN» was published with a wrong caption. We would like to apologise for this mistake and so publish it again with the correct caption.   The Spanish delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology), Juan Antonio Rubio, ETT Division Leader at CERN, Manuel Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish Delegate to Council, Manuel Delfino, IT Division Leader at CERN, and Gonzalo León, Secretary-General of Scientific Policy to the Minister.

  9. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Gorelik, G., & Shackelford, T.K. (2011. Human sexual conflict from molecules to culture. Evolutionary Psychology, 9, 564–587: The authors wish to correct an omission in citation to the existing literature. In the final paragraph on p. 570, we neglected to cite Burch and Gallup (2006 [Burch, R. L., & Gallup, G. G., Jr. (2006. The psychobiology of human semen. In S. M. Platek & T. K. Shackelford (Eds., Female infidelity and paternal uncertainty (pp. 141–172. New York: Cambridge University Press.]. Burch and Gallup (2006 reviewed the relevant literature on FSH and LH discussed in this paragraph, and should have been cited accordingly. In addition, Burch and Gallup (2006 should have been cited as the originators of the hypothesis regarding the role of FSH and LH in the semen of rapists. The authors apologize for this oversight.

  10. Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regarding Tagler, M. J., and Jeffers, H. M. (2013. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity. Evolutionary Psychology, 11, 821–832: The authors wish to correct values in the originally published manuscript. Specifically, incorrect 95% confidence intervals around the Cohen's d values were reported on page 826 of the manuscript where we reported the within-sex simple effects for the significant Participant Sex × Infidelity Type interaction (first paragraph, and for attitudes toward partner infidelity (second paragraph. Corrected values are presented in bold below. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bernard Beins at Ithaca College for bringing these errors to our attention. Men rated sexual infidelity significantly more distressing (M = 4.69, SD = 0.74 than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 4.32, SD = 0.92, F(1, 322 = 23.96, p < .001, d = 0.44, 95% CI [0.23, 0.65], but there was little difference between women's ratings of sexual (M = 4.80, SD = 0.48 and emotional infidelity (M = 4.76, SD = 0.57, F(1, 322 = 0.48, p = .29, d = 0.08, 95% CI [−0.10, 0.26]. As expected, men rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.44, SD = 0.70 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.66, SD = 1.37, F(1, 322 = 120.00, p < .001, d = 1.12, 95% CI [0.85, 1.39]. Although women also rated sexual infidelity (M = 1.40, SD = 0.62 more negatively than they rated emotional infidelity (M = 2.09, SD = 1.10, this difference was not as large and thus in the evolutionary theory supportive direction, F(1, 322 = 72.03, p < .001, d = 0.77, 95% CI [0.60, 0.94].

  11. Impact of motion and partial volume effects correction on PET myocardial perfusion imaging using simultaneous PET-MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petibon, Yoann; Guehl, Nicolas J.; Reese, Timothy G.; Ebrahimi, Behzad; Normandin, Marc D.; Shoup, Timothy M.; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    PET is an established modality for myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) which enables quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) using dynamic imaging and kinetic modeling. However, heart motion and partial volume effects (PVE) significantly limit the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of PET MPI. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a solution to the motion problem in PET by enabling MR-based motion correction of PET data. The aim of this study was to develop a motion and PVE correction methodology for PET MPI using simultaneous PET-MR, and to assess its impact on both static and dynamic PET MPI using 18F-Flurpiridaz, a novel 18F-labeled perfusion tracer. Two dynamic 18F-Flurpiridaz MPI scans were performed on healthy pigs using a PET-MR scanner. Cardiac motion was tracked using a dedicated tagged-MRI (tMR) sequence. Motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of tMR images and used to calculate motion-dependent attenuation maps. Motion correction of PET data was achieved by incorporating tMR-based motion fields and motion-dependent attenuation coefficients into image reconstruction. Dynamic and static PET datasets were created for each scan. Each dataset was reconstructed as (i) Ungated, (ii) Gated (end-diastolic phase), and (iii) Motion-Corrected (MoCo), each without and with point spread function (PSF) modeling for PVE correction. Myocardium-to-blood concentration ratios (MBR) and apparent wall thickness were calculated to assess image quality for static MPI. For dynamic MPI, segment- and voxel-wise MBF values were estimated by non-linear fitting of a 2-tissue compartment model to tissue time-activity-curves. MoCo and Gating respectively decreased mean apparent wall thickness by 15.1% and 14.4% and increased MBR by 20.3% and 13.6% compared to Ungated images (P  <  0.01). Combined motion and PSF correction (MoCo-PSF) yielded 30.9% (15.7%) lower wall thickness and 82.2% (20.5%) higher MBR compared to Ungated data reconstructed

  12. Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In the article by Quintavalle et al (Quintavalle C, Anselmi CV, De Micco F, Roscigno G, Visconti G, Golia B, Focaccio A, Ricciardelli B, Perna E, Papa L, Donnarumma E, Condorelli G, Briguori C. Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin and contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2015;8:e002673. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.115.002673.), which published online September 2, 2015, and appears in the September 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed. On page 1, the institutional affiliation for Elvira Donnarumma, PhD, “SDN Foundation,” has been changed to read, “IRCCS SDN, Naples, Italy.” The institutional affiliation for Laura Papa, PhD, “Institute for Endocrinology and Experimental Oncology, National Research Council, Naples, Italy,” has been changed to read, “Institute of Genetics and Biomedical Research, Milan Unit, Milan, Italy” and “Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano, Italy.” The authors regret this error.

  13. Fully automatic multi-atlas segmentation of CTA for partial volume correction in cardiac SPECT/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyi; Mohy-ud-Din, Hassan; Boutagy, Nabil E.; Jiang, Mingyan; Ren, Silin; Stendahl, John C.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2017-05-01

    Anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) has been shown to improve image quality and quantitative accuracy in cardiac SPECT/CT. However, this method requires manual segmentation of various organs from contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA) data. In order to achieve fully automatic CTA segmentation for clinical translation, we investigated the most common multi-atlas segmentation methods. We also modified the multi-atlas segmentation method by introducing a novel label fusion algorithm for multiple organ segmentation to eliminate overlap and gap voxels. To evaluate our proposed automatic segmentation, eight canine 99mTc-labeled red blood cell SPECT/CT datasets that incorporated PVC were analyzed, using the leave-one-out approach. The Dice similarity coefficient of each organ was computed. Compared to the conventional label fusion method, our proposed label fusion method effectively eliminated gaps and overlaps and improved the CTA segmentation accuracy. The anatomical-based PVC of cardiac SPECT images with automatic multi-atlas segmentation provided consistent image quality and quantitative estimation of intramyocardial blood volume, as compared to those derived using manual segmentation. In conclusion, our proposed automatic multi-atlas segmentation method of CTAs is feasible, practical, and facilitates anatomical-based PVC of cardiac SPECT/CT images.

  14. Incorporation of wavelet-based denoising in iterative deconvolution for partial volume correction in whole-body PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussion, N.; Cheze Le Rest, C.; Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, U650, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM) CHU MORVAN, Brest (France)

    2009-07-15

    Partial volume effects (PVEs) are consequences of the limited resolution of emission tomography. The aim of the present study was to compare two new voxel-wise PVE correction algorithms based on deconvolution and wavelet-based denoising. Deconvolution was performed using the Lucy-Richardson and the Van-Cittert algorithms. Both of these methods were tested using simulated and real FDG PET images. Wavelet-based denoising was incorporated into the process in order to eliminate the noise observed in classical deconvolution methods. Both deconvolution approaches led to significant intensity recovery, but the Van-Cittert algorithm provided images of inferior qualitative appearance. Furthermore, this method added massive levels of noise, even with the associated use of wavelet-denoising. On the other hand, the Lucy-Richardson algorithm combined with the same denoising process gave the best compromise between intensity recovery, noise attenuation and qualitative aspect of the images. The appropriate combination of deconvolution and wavelet-based denoising is an efficient method for reducing PVEs in emission tomography. (orig.)

  15. Estimation of an image derived input function with MR-defined carotid arteries in FDG-PET human studies using a novel partial volume correction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Hasan; Erlandsson, Kjell; Law, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography data requires an accurate knowledge the arterial input function. The gold standard method to measure the arterial input function requires collection of arterial blood samples and is an invasive method. Measuring an image...... segmentation of the carotid arteries from MR images. The simulation study results showed that at least 92% of the true intensity could be recovered after the partial volume correction. Results from 19 subjects showed that the mean cerebral metabolic rate of glucose calculated using arterial samples and partial...... volume corrected image derived input function were 26.9 and 25.4 mg/min/100 g, respectively, for the grey matter and 7.2 and 6.7 mg/min/100 g for the white matter. No significant difference in the estimated cerebral metabolic rate of glucose values was observed between arterial samples and corrected...

  16. Anti-Muellerian hormone, inhibin A, gonadotropins, and gonadotropin receptors in bull calves after partial scrotal resection, orchidectomy, and Burdizzo castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlet, Dragos; Aurich, Christine; Ille, Natascha; Walter, Ingrid; Weber, Corinna; Pieler, Dagmar; Peinhopf, Walter; Wohlsein, Peter; Aurich, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Eight-week-old calves were either castrated by partial scrotal resection (SR) without removing the testes (n = 10), Burdizzo (BZ) clamp (n = 10), orchidectomy (OR; n = 10), or were left gonad intact as controls (CO; n = 10). Concentrations of anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH), inhibin A, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in plasma were determined from 16 to 48 weeks of age. At 18 months, testes of SR, BZ, and CO bulls were obtained and the immunolocalization of LH and FSH receptors and AMH analyzed. Concentration of AMH in plasma of CO and SR bulls decreased with increasing age (P BZ, AMH was undetectable. Plasma inhibin concentration was higher in groups CO and SR than BZ and OR (P BZ and OR than SR and CO (P BZ bulls. FSH receptors were localized in Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, spermatocytes, and the epididymis of CO and SR animals, whereas LH receptors were restricted to Leydig cells. In BZ animals, FSH and LH receptors and AMH were absent, indicating complete testicular degeneration. In conclusion, AMH is a more reliable marker for the presence of testicular tissue in bulls than inhibin. Scrotal resection did not induce a true inguinal cryptorchid state but affected testicular responsiveness to gonadotropic stimulation.

  17. Partial purification and characterization of a peptide with growth hormone-releasing activity from extrapituitary tumors in patients with acromegaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Frohman, L A; Szabo, M; Berelowitz, M.; Stachura, M E

    1980-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity has been detected in extracts of carcinoid and pancreatic islet tumors from three patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumors and acromegaly. Bioactivity was demonstrated in 2 N acetic acid extracts of the tumors using dispersed rat adenohypophyseal cells in primary monolayer culture and a rat anterior pituitary perifusion system. The GH-releasing effect was dose responsive and the greatest activity was present in the pancreatic islet tumor. Small amount...

  18. Partial volume effect-corrected FDG PET and grey matter volume loss in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Yanase, Daisuke; Yamada, Masahito [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa (Japan); Matsunari, Ichiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Fujikawa, Akihiko; Takeda, Nozomi; Nishimura, Shintaro [The Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui-City, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Although{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is an established imaging technique to assess brain glucose utilisation, accurate measurement of tracer concentration is confounded by the presence of partial volume effect (PVE) due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, which is particularly true in atrophic brains such as those encountered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the effects of PVE correction on FDG PET in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients with mild AD. Thirty-nine AD patients and 73 controls underwent FDG PET and MRI. The PVE-corrected grey matter PET images were obtained using an MRI-based three-compartment method. Additionally, the results of PET were compared with grey matter loss detected by VBM. Before PVE correction, reduced FDG uptake was observed in posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) and parieto-temporal lobes (PTL) in AD patients, which persisted after PVE correction. Notably, PVE correction revealed relatively preserved FDG uptake in hippocampal areas, despite the grey matter loss in medial temporal lobe (MTL) revealed by VBM. FDG uptake in PCG and PTL is reduced in AD regardless of whether or not PVE correction is applied, supporting the notion that the reduced FDG uptake in these areas is not the result of atrophy. Furthermore, FDG uptake by grey matter tissue in the MTL, including hippocampal areas, is relatively preserved, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms may play a role in patients with mild AD. (orig.)

  19. [Changes in the expression of receptors of steroid hormones in the development of partial androgen deficiency of aging men (PADAM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecherskiĭ, A V; Semiglazov, V F; Komiakov, B K; Guliev, B G; Gorelov, A I; Novikov, A I; Pecherskiĭ, V I; Simonov, N N; Guliaev, A V; Samusenko, I A; Vonskiĭ, M S; Muttenberg, A G; Loran, O B

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to the vital topic of the influence of partial androgen deficiency of aging men (PADAM) on the development of cells with androgen receptors. The results obtained in this study suggest a conclusion that the production of testosterone by some tumors and tissues of the peritumorous zone, which is accompanied by increased proliferative activity and disturbance of the regulation of the cell cycle, is caused by PADAM. The given changes are directed at compensating for testicular deficiency (in particular at overcoming the androgen-dependent stage of development of androgen-sensitive cells). These changes are a partial manifestation of metabolic syndrome (X-syndrome). The atypical cells, which unavoidably develop during metabolic syndrome, are dealt with by means of the immune system, whose capabilities become less and less adequate in the given circumstances.

  20. Optimized statistical parametric mapping for partial-volume-corrected amyloid positron emission tomography in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung; Chae, Sun Young; Oh, Minyoung; Oh, Seung Jun; Cha, Seung Nam; Chang, Ho-Jong; Lee, Chong Sik; Lee, Jae Hong

    2017-03-01

    We present an optimized voxelwise statistical parametric mapping (SPM) of partial-volume (PV)-corrected positron emission tomography (PET) of 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), incorporating the anatomical precision of magnetic resonance image (MRI) and amyloid β (A β) burden-specificity of PiB PET. First, we applied region-based partial-volume correction (PVC), termed the geometric transfer matrix (GTM) method, to PiB PET, creating MRI-based lobar parcels filled with mean PiB uptakes. Then, we conducted a voxelwise PVC by multiplying the original PET by the ratio of a GTM-based PV-corrected PET to a 6-mm-smoothed PV-corrected PET. Finally, we conducted spatial normalizations of the PV-corrected PETs onto the study-specific template. As such, we increased the accuracy of the SPM normalization and the tissue specificity of SPM results. Moreover, lobar smoothing (instead of whole-brain smoothing) was applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the image without degrading the tissue specificity. Thereby, we could optimize a voxelwise group comparison between subjects with high and normal A β burdens (from 10 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 30 patients with Lewy body dementia, and 9 normal controls). Our SPM framework outperformed than the conventional one in terms of the accuracy of the spatial normalization (85% of maximum likelihood tissue classification volume) and the tissue specificity (larger gray matter, and smaller cerebrospinal fluid volume fraction from the SPM results). Our SPM framework optimized the SPM of a PV-corrected A β PET in terms of anatomical precision, normalization accuracy, and tissue specificity, resulting in better detection and localization of A β burdens in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body dementia.

  1. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, M S; Vieno, N M; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K; Zeeman, G; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (μg/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormones) and pharmaceuticals (paracetamol, metoprolol, propranolol, cetirizine, doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and diclofenac) in the anaerobic treatment of vacuum collected black water followed by nitrogen removal by partial nitritation-anammox was investigated. A new analytical method was developed to detect the presence of several compounds in the complex matrix of concentrated black water. Detected concentrations in black water ranged from 1.1 μg/L for carbamazepine to >1000 μg/L for paracetamol. Anaerobic treatment was only suitable to remove the majority of paracetamol (>90%). Metoprolol was partly removed (67%) during aerobic treatment. Deconjugation could have affected the removal efficiency of ibuprofen as concentrations even increased during anaerobic treatment and only after the anammox treatment 77% of ibuprofen was removed. The presence of persistent micro-pollutants (diclofenac, carbamazepine and cetirizine), which are not susceptible for biodegradation, makes the application of advanced physical and chemical treatment unavoidable. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantifying [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the arterial wall: the effects of dual time-point imaging and partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark); Bashyam, Arjun; Ramachandran, Abhinay; Gholami, Saeid; Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Werner, Tom; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zaidi, Habib [Geneva University Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    The human arterial wall is smaller than the spatial resolution of current positron emission tomographs. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. We evaluated the impact of a novel method for partial volume effect (PVE) correction with contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) assistance on quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at different imaging time-points. Ten subjects were assessed by CECT imaging and dual time-point PET/CT imaging at approximately 60 and 180 min after {sup 18}F-FDG administration. For both time-points, uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG was determined in the aortic wall by calculating the blood pool-corrected maximum standardized uptake value (cSUV{sub MAX}) and cSUV{sub MEAN}. The PVE-corrected SUV{sub MEAN} (pvcSUV{sub MEAN}) was also calculated using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and CECT images. Finally, corresponding target-to-background ratios (TBR) were calculated. At 60 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 3.1 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 8.5 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). At 180 min, pvcSUV{sub MEAN} was on average 2.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MAX} (P <.0001) and 6.6 times greater than cSUV{sub MEAN} (P <.0001). This study demonstrated that CECT-assisted PVE correction significantly influences quantification of arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, partial volume effects should be considered when quantifying arterial wall {sup 18}F-FDG uptake with PET. (orig.)

  3. Healthy brain ageing assessed with 18F-FDG PET and age-dependent recovery factors after partial volume effect correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonte, Stijn [IBiTech, Ghent, (Belgium); Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Deblaere, Karel; Goethals, Ingeborg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Verleden, Stijn; Audenaert, Kurt [University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Ghent (Belgium); Holen, Roel van [Ghent University, iMinds - Medical Image and Signal Processing (MEDISIP), Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    The mechanisms of ageing of the healthy brain are not entirely clarified to date. In recent years several authors have tried to elucidate this topic by using {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography. However, when correcting for partial volume effects (PVE), divergent results were reported. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate these methods in the presence of atrophy due to ageing. In this paper we first evaluate the performance of two PVE correction techniques with a phantom study: the Rousset method and iterative deconvolution. We show that the ability of the latter method to recover the true activity in a small region decreases with increasing age due to brain atrophy. Next, we have calculated age-dependent recovery factors to correct for this incomplete recovery. These factors were applied to PVE-corrected {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans of healthy subjects for mapping the agedependent metabolism in the brain. Many regions in the brain show a reduced metabolism with ageing, especially in grey matter in the frontal and temporal lobe. An increased metabolism is found in grey matter of the cerebellum and thalamus. Our study resulted in age-dependent recovery factors which can be applied following standard PVE correction methods. Cancelling the effect of atrophy, we found regional changes in {sup 18}F-FDG metabolism with ageing. A decreasing trend is found in the frontal and temporal lobe, whereas an increasing metabolism with ageing is observed in the thalamus and cerebellum.

  4. Application of Chang's attenuation correction technique for single-photon emission computed tomography partial angle acquisition of Jaszczak phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnendu Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and processing of the Jaszczak phantom is a recommended test by the American College of Radiology for evaluation of gamma camera system performance. To produce the reconstructed phantom image for quality evaluation, attenuation correction is applied. The attenuation of counts originating from the center of the phantom is greater than that originating from the periphery of the phantom causing an artifactual appearance of inhomogeneity in the reconstructed image and complicating phantom evaluation. Chang's mathematical formulation is a common method of attenuation correction applied on most gamma cameras that do not require an external transmission source such as computed tomography, radionuclide sources installed within the gantry of the camera or a flood source. Tomographic acquisition can be obtained in two different acquisition modes for dual-detector gamma camera; one where the two detectors are at 180° configuration and acquire projection images for a full 360°, and the other where the two detectors are positioned at a 90° configuration and acquire projections for only 180°. Though Chang's attenuation correction method has been used for 360° angle acquisition, its applicability for 180° angle acquisition remains a question with one vendor's camera software producing artifacts in the images. This work investigates whether Chang's attenuation correction technique can be applied to both acquisition modes by the development of a Chang's formulation-based algorithm that is applicable to both modes. Assessment of attenuation correction performance by phantom uniformity analysis illustrates improved uniformity with the proposed algorithm (22.6% compared to the camera software (57.6%.

  5. Partial and complete expulsion of the Multiload 375 IUD and the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD after correct insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Merki-Feld, G.S.; Schwarz, D.; Imthurn, B.; Keller, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The contraceptive efficacy of intrauterine devices (IUD) is thought to relate to the position of the IUD in the uterine cavity. Several trials examined the number of copper IUD expulsions, but none evaluated the partial and complete expulsion rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing device (LNG-IUD). STUDY DESIGN: This retrospective cohort study compares the dislocation rate of the Multiload 375 IUD (ML 375) and the LNG-IUD in 214 women (107 subjects with each IUD). Transvaginal ultras...

  6. The SOOF lift: its role in correcting midfacial and lower facial asymmetry in patients with partial facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlock, Nigel; Sanders, Roy; Harrison, Douglas H

    2002-03-01

    Subperiosteal face lifting has gained wide acceptance in aesthetic surgical practice. It may also have a role to play in patients with partial facial palsy. These patients demonstrate poor static position of the mouth but maintain some degree of facial movement. This study examined the role of subperiosteal facial suspension as an alternative treatment modality in this patient group. In this series, five patients with varying degrees of partial facial palsy underwent subperiosteal face lifting, including sub-orbicularis oculi fat elevation via a temporal, lower lid, and buccal approach, thereby mobilizing and elevating and suspending the zygomaticus major and levator labii superioris muscles on the facial skeleton. An attempt was made to categorize the patients according to overall House-Brackmann score. It was not possible to precisely classify the patients by this method, although the approximate scores were two patients scoring 3, two patients scoring 4, and one patient scoring 5. To overcome inconsistencies with this method, the degree of static and dynamic asymmetry of the mouth and also the excursion of the mouth were graded separately. Four patients with mild to moderate dynamic and static asymmetry (House-Brackmann score of approximately 3 and 4) who maintained excellent or good excursion of the mouth achieved excellent or good results. One patient with poor excursion and severe partial facial palsy (House-Brackmann score of 5) was improved but remained markedly asymmetric (follow-up, 4 months to 1 year). Subperiosteal face lifting is a useful therapeutic modality for management of selected patients with mild partial facial palsy. These patients demonstrate asymmetric static position but maintain some degree of muscle excursion. Patients with severe facial palsies with poor muscle excursion continue to require muscle transfer or sling procedures. The authors hope that long-term follow-up will confirm the sustained effect of midfacial suspension in this

  7. Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect in dependence of the attenuation correction of a state-of-the-art small animal PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Julia G; Judenhofer, Martin S; Schmid, Andreas; Tillmanns, Julia; Stiller, Detlef; Sossi, Vesna; Pichler, Bernd J

    2012-06-21

    Quantification accuracy and partial volume effect (PVE) of the Siemens Inveon PET scanner were evaluated. The influence of transmission source activities (40 and 160 MBq) on the quantification accuracy and the PVE were determined. Dynamic range, object size and PVE for different sphere sizes, contrast ratios and positions in the field of view (FOV) were evaluated. The acquired data were reconstructed using different algorithms and correction methods. The activity level of the transmission source and the total emission activity in the FOV strongly influenced the attenuation maps. Reconstruction algorithms, correction methods, object size and location within the FOV had a strong influence on the PVE in all configurations. All evaluated parameters potentially influence the quantification accuracy. Hence, all protocols should be kept constant during a study to allow a comparison between different scans.

  8. Partially Deglycosylated Equine LH Preferentially Activates β-Arrestin-Dependent Signaling at the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y.; Bousfield, George R.; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Gαs coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHβ (Δ121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHα (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nm, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to β-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nm. The depletion of endogenous β-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in β-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate β-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors. PMID:20107152

  9. Partially deglycosylated equine LH preferentially activates beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbi, Vanessa; Tranchant, Thibaud; Durand, Guillaume; Musnier, Astrid; Decourtye, Jérémy; Piketty, Vincent; Butnev, Vladimir Y; Bousfield, George R; Crépieux, Pascale; Maurel, Marie-Christine; Reiter, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Deglycosylated FSH is known to trigger poor Galphas coupling while efficiently binding its receptor. In the present study, we tested the possibility that a deglycosylated equine LH (eLHdg) might be able to selectively activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling. We compared native eLH to an eLH derivative [i.e. truncated eLHbeta (Delta121-149) combined with asparagine56-deglycosylated eLHalpha (eLHdg)] previously reported as an antagonist of cAMP accumulation at the FSH receptor (FSH-R). We confirmed that, when used in conjunction with FSH, eLHdg acted as an antagonist for cAMP accumulation in HEK-293 cells stably expressing the FSH-R. Furthermore, when used alone at concentrations up to 1 nM, eLHdg had no detectable agonistic activity on cAMP accumulation, protein kinase A activity or cAMP-responsive element-dependent transcriptional activity. At higher concentrations, however, a weak agonistic action was observed with eLHdg, whereas eLH led to robust responses whatever the concentration. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered receptor internalization and led to beta-arrestin recruitment. Both eLH and eLHdg triggered ERK and ribosomal protein (rp) S6 phosphorylation at 1 nM. The depletion of endogenous beta-arrestins had only a partial effect on eLH-induced ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation. In contrast, ERK and rpS6 phosphorylation was completely abolished at all time points in beta-arrestin-depleted cells. Together, these results show that eLHdg has the ability to preferentially activate beta-arrestin-dependent signaling at the FSH-R. This finding provides a new conceptual and experimental framework to revisit the physiological meaning of gonadotropin structural heterogeneity. Importantly, it also opens a field of possibilities for the development of selective modulators of gonadotropin receptors.

  10. SAMPL5: 3D-RISM partition coefficient calculations with partial molar volume corrections and solute conformational sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchko, Tyler; Blinov, Nikolay; Limon, Garrett C.; Joyce, Kevin P.; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-11-01

    Implicit solvent methods for classical molecular modeling are frequently used to provide fast, physics-based hydration free energies of macromolecules. Less commonly considered is the transferability of these methods to other solvents. The Statistical Assessment of Modeling of Proteins and Ligands 5 (SAMPL5) distribution coefficient dataset and the accompanying explicit solvent partition coefficient reference calculations provide a direct test of solvent model transferability. Here we use the 3D reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) statistical-mechanical solvation theory, with a well tested water model and a new united atom cyclohexane model, to calculate partition coefficients for the SAMPL5 dataset. The cyclohexane model performed well in training and testing (R=0.98 for amino acid neutral side chain analogues) but only if a parameterized solvation free energy correction was used. In contrast, the same protocol, using single solute conformations, performed poorly on the SAMPL5 dataset, obtaining R=0.73 compared to the reference partition coefficients, likely due to the much larger solute sizes. Including solute conformational sampling through molecular dynamics coupled with 3D-RISM (MD/3D-RISM) improved agreement with the reference calculation to R=0.93. Since our initial calculations only considered partition coefficients and not distribution coefficients, solute sampling provided little benefit comparing against experiment, where ionized and tautomer states are more important. Applying a simple pK_{ {a}} correction improved agreement with experiment from R=0.54 to R=0.66, despite a small number of outliers. Better agreement is possible by accounting for tautomers and improving the ionization correction.

  11. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  12. Establishment of an open database of realistic simulated data for evaluation of partial volume correction techniques in brain PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Ana [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Cuplov, Vesna [Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia Biomédica, FC-UL, Lisboa (Portugal); Schott, Jonathan; Hutton, Brian; Thielemans, Kris [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Drobnjak, Ivana [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Dickson, John [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Bert, Julien [INSERM UMR1101, LaTIM, CHRU de Brest, Brest (France); Burgos, Ninon; Cardoso, Jorge; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Erlandsson, Kjell [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCL, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    The Partial Volume (PV) effect in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging leads to loss in quantification accuracy, which manifests in PV effects (small objects occupy partially the sensitive volume of the imaging instrument, resulting in blurred images). Simultaneous acquisition of PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produces concurrent metabolic and anatomical information. The latter has proved to be very helpful for the correction of PV effects. Currently, there are several techniques used for PV correction. They can be applied directly during the reconstruction process or as a post-processing step after image reconstruction. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the different PV correction techniques in brain- PET, we are constructing a database of simulated data. Here we present the framework and steps involved in constructing this database. Static 18F-FDG epilepsy and 18F-Florbetapir amyloid dementia PET/MR were selected because of their very different characteristics. The methodology followed was based on four main steps: Image pre-processing, Ground Truth (GT) generation, MRI and PET data simulation and reconstruction. All steps used Open Source software and can therefore be repeated at any centre. The framework as well as the database will be freely accessible. Tools used included GIF, FSL, POSSUM, GATE and STIR. The final data obtained after simulation, involving raw or reconstructed PET data together with corresponding MRI datasets, were close to the original patient data. Besides, there is the advantage that data can be compared with the GT. We indicate several parameters that can be improved and optimized.

  13. Human hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): expression in white fat corrects the white adipose phenotype of HSL-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Mélanie; Soni, Krishnakant; Laurin, Nancy; Wang, Shu Pei; Mauriège, Pascale; Jirik, Frank R; Mitchell, Grant A

    2005-09-01

    In white adipose tissue (WAT), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) can mediate lipolysis, a central pathway in obesity and diabetes. Gene-targeted HSL-deficient (HSL-/-) mice with no detectable HSL peptide or activity (measured as cholesteryl esterase) have WAT abnormalities, including low mass, marked heterogeneity of cell diameter, increased diacylglycerol content, and low beta-adrenergic stimulation of adipocyte lipolysis. Three transgenic mouse strains preferentially expressing human HSL in WAT were bred to a HSL-/- background. One, HSL-/- N, expresses normal human HSL (41.3 +/- 9.1% of normal activity); two express a serine-to-alanine mutant (S554A) initially hypothesized to be constitutively active: HSL-/- ML, 50.3 +/- 12.3% of normal, and HSL-/- MH, 69.8 +/- 15.8% of normal. In WAT, HSL-/- N mice resembled HSL+/+ controls in WAT mass, histology, diacylglyceride content, and lipolytic response to beta-adrenergic agents. In contrast, HSL-/- ML and HSL-/- MH mice resembled nontransgenic HSL-/- mice, except that diacylglycerol content and perirenal and inguinal WAT masses approached normal in HSL-/- MH mice. Therefore, 1) WAT expression of normal human HSL markedly improves HSL-/- WAT biochemically, physiologically, and morphologically; 2) similar levels of S554A HSL have a low physiological effect despite being active in vitro; and 3) diacylglycerol accumulation is not essential for the development of the characteristic WAT pathology of HSL-/- mice.

  14. Correction of partial volume effect in PET studies using deconvolution with the PSF of the system; Correccion del efecto de volumen parcial en estudios PET mediante la deconvolucion con la PSF del sistema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Chamorro, P.; Hernandez Prodriguez, J.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Vacquez Galinanes, A.; Diaz Pascual, V.; Lopo casqueiro, N.; Gonzalez de la Puente, M.; Alonso Casares, J.; Sanz Freire, C. J.

    2011-07-01

    The system capacity of positron emission tomography (PET) to determine the values of local concentration of a given radiopharmaceutical is limited by the so-called partial volume effect.The objective of this study is to analyze the correctness of the partial volume effect.

  15. Effects of long-term hormone replacement therapy on QT and corrected QT dispersion during resting and peak exercise electrocardiography in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkeser, Bülent B; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Içli, Abdullah; Celik, Cetin; Akyürek, Cemalettin; Gök, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the QT interval is longer in women than men. Estrogen is reported to account for the QT interval prolongation in several studies conducted with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. Along with this, there are conflicting data as regards the effects of HRT on QT interval and dispersion. Moreover, there is no evidence about the effect of HRT on exercise QT parameters. We compared QT parameters obtained from surface electrocardiograms during resting and peak exercise before and after 6 months of HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone in healthy postmenopausal women. Twenty-four healthy postmenopausal women were given 0.625 mg/day conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate for 6 months. Exercise stress testing using the Bruce protocol was performed before and after HRT. QT maximum, minimum, dispersion and corrected QT maximum, minimum and dispersion were calculated during resting and peak exercise. HRT resulted in a significant increase in estradiol plasma levels from 24+/-10 pg/mL to 117+/-66 pg/mL (Pexercise (20+/-7 versus 25+/-10 ms; Pexercise QT parameters were unchanged. The resting QT parameters are not affected by long term HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone, which leads to an increase in QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion during peak exercise.

  16. Over-exposure correction in knee cone-beam CT imaging with automatic exposure control using a partial low dose scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Hwan; Muller, Kerstin; Hsieh, Scott; Maier, Andreas; Gold, Garry; Levenston, Marc; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    C-arm-based cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems with flat-panel detectors are suitable for diagnostic knee imaging due to their potentially flexible selection of CT trajectories and wide volumetric beam coverage. In knee CT imaging, over-exposure artifacts can occur because of limitations in the dynamic range of the flat panel detectors present on most CBCT systems. We developed a straightforward but effective method for correction and detection of over-exposure for an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC)-enabled standard knee scan incorporating a prior low dose scan. The radiation dose associated with the low dose scan was negligible (0.0042mSv, 2.8% increase) which was enabled by partially sampling the projection images considering the geometry of the knees and lowering the dose further to be able to just see the skin-air interface. We combined the line integrals from the AEC and low dose scans after detecting over-exposed regions by comparing the line profiles of the two scans detector row-wise. The combined line integrals were reconstructed into a volumetric image using filtered back projection. We evaluated our method using in vivo human subject knee data. The proposed method effectively corrected and detected over-exposure, and thus recovered the visibility of exterior tissues (e.g., the shape and density of the patella, and the patellar tendon), incorporating a prior low dose scan with a negligible increase in radiation exposure.

  17. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.; Vieno, N.M.; Kujawa, K.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical hormon

  18. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders.

  19. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J

    1946-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (1-36 Enhances Beta Cell Regeneration and Increases Beta Cell Mass in a Mouse Model of Partial Pancreatectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Mozar

    Full Text Available Finding ways to stimulate the regeneration of endogenous pancreatic beta cells is an important goal in the treatment of diabetes. Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP, the full-length (1-139 and amino-terminal (1-36 peptides, enhance beta cell function, proliferation, and survival. Therefore, we hypothesize that PTHrP(1-36 has the potential to regenerate endogenous beta cells.The partial pancreatectomy (PPx mouse model of beta cell injury was used to test this hypothesis. Male Balb/c mice underwent either sham-operation or PPx, and were subsequently injected with PTHrP(1-36 (160μg/kg or vehicle (veh, for 7, 30, or 90 days. The four groups of mice, sham-veh, sham-PTHrP, PPx-veh, and PPx-PTHrP were assessed for PTHrP and receptor expression, and glucose and beta cell homeostasis.PTHrP-receptor, but not the ligand, was significantly up-regulated in islets from mice that underwent PPx compared to sham-operated mice. This suggests that exogenous PTHrP could further enhance beta cell regeneration after PPx. PTHrP did not significantly affect body weight, blood glucose, plasma insulin, or insulin sensitivity, in either sham or PPx mice. Glucose tolerance improved in the PPx-PTHrP versus PPx-veh mice only in the early stages of treatment. As hypothesized, there was a significant increase in beta cell proliferation in PPx-PTHrP mice at days 7 and 30; however, this was normalized by day 90, compared to PPx-veh mice. Enhanced beta cell proliferation translated to a marked increase in beta cell mass at day 90, in PPx-PTHrP versus PPx-veh mice.PTHrP(1-36 significantly enhances beta cell regeneration through increased beta cell proliferation and beta cell mass after PPx. Future studies will determine the potential of PTHrP to enhance functional beta cell mass in the setting of diabetes.

  1. Correcting human heart 31P NMR spectra for partial saturation. Evidence that saturation factors for PCr/ATP are homogeneous in normal and disease states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.; Weiss, Robert G.

    Heart PCr/ATP ratios measured from spatially localized 31P NMR spectra can be corrected for partial saturation effects using saturation factors derived from unlocalized chest surface-coil spectra acquired at the heart rate and approximate Ernst angle for phosphor creatine (PCr) and again under fully relaxed conditions during each 31P exam. To validate this approach in studies of normal and disease states where the possibility of heterogeneity in metabolite T1 values between both chest muscle and heart and normal and disease states exists, the properties of saturation factors for metabolite ratios were investigated theoretically under conditions applicable in typical cardiac spectroscopy exams and empirically using data from 82 cardiac 31P exams in six study groups comprising normal controls ( n = 19) and patients with dilated ( n = 20) and hypertrophic ( n = 5) cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease ( n = 16), heart transplants ( n = 19), and valvular heart disease ( n = 3). When TR ≪ T1,(PCr), with T1(PCr) ⩾ T1(ATP), the saturation factor for PCr/ATP lies in the range 1.5 ± 0.5, regardless of the T1 values. The precise value depends on the ratio of metabolite T1 values rather than their absolute values and is insensitive to modest changes in TR. Published data suggest that the metabolite T1 ratio is the same in heart and muscle. Our empirical data reveal that the saturation factors do not vary significantly with disease state, nor with the relative fractions of muscle and heart contributing to the chest surface-coil spectra. Also, the corrected myocardial PCr/ATP ratios in each normal or disease state bear no correlation with the corresponding saturation factors nor the fraction of muscle in the unlocalized chest spectra. However, application of the saturation correction (mean value, 1.36 ± 0.03 SE) significantly reduced scatter in myocardial PCr/ATP data by 14 ± 11% (SD) ( p ⩽ 0.05). The findings suggest that the relative T1 values of PCr and ATP are

  2. Integration of 3D scale-based pseudo-enhancement correction and partial volume image segmentation for improving electronic colon cleansing in CT colonograpy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Lihong; Zhu, Hongbin; Han, Hao; Song, Bowen; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Orally administered tagging agents are usually used in CT colonography (CTC) to differentiate residual bowel content from native colonic structures. However, the high-density contrast agents tend to introduce pseudo-enhancement (PE) effect on neighboring soft tissues and elevate their observed CT attenuation value toward that of the tagged materials (TMs), which may result in an excessive electronic colon cleansing (ECC) since the pseudo-enhanced soft tissues are incorrectly identified as TMs. To address this issue, we integrated a 3D scale-based PE correction into our previous ECC pipeline based on the maximum a posteriori expectation-maximization partial volume (PV) segmentation. The newly proposed ECC scheme takes into account both the PE and PV effects that commonly appear in CTC images. We evaluated the new scheme on 40 patient CTC scans, both qualitatively through display of segmentation results, and quantitatively through radiologists' blind scoring (human observer) and computer-aided detection (CAD) of colon polyps (computer observer). Performance of the presented algorithm has shown consistent improvements over our previous ECC pipeline, especially for the detection of small polyps submerged in the contrast agents. The CAD results of polyp detection showed that 4 more submerged polyps were detected for our new ECC scheme over the previous one.

  3. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle Johannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glutamine synthetase (GS is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition. Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia. In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  4. Glutamine supplementation in a child with inherited GS deficiency improves the clinical status and partially corrects the peripheral and central amino acid imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häberle, Johannes; Shahbeck, Noora; Ibrahim, Khalid; Schmitt, Bernhard; Scheer, Ianina; O'Gorman, Ruth; Chaudhry, Farrukh A; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg

    2012-07-25

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian organisms and is a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism. It is the only known enzyme capable of synthesising glutamine, an amino acid with many critical roles in the human organism. A defect in GLUL, encoding for GS, leads to congenital systemic glutamine deficiency and has been described in three patients with epileptic encephalopathy. There is no established treatment for this condition.Here, we describe a therapeutic trial consisting of enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in a four year old patient with GS deficiency. The patient received increasing doses of glutamine up to 1020 mg/kg/day. The effect of this glutamine supplementation was monitored clinically, biochemically, and by studies of the electroencephalogram (EEG) as well as by brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.Treatment was well tolerated and clinical monitoring showed improved alertness. Concentrations of plasma glutamine normalized while levels in cerebrospinal fluid increased but remained below the lower reference range. The EEG showed clear improvement and spectroscopy revealed increasing concentrations of glutamine and glutamate in brain tissue. Concomitantly, there was no worsening of pre-existing chronic hyperammonemia.In conclusion, supplementation of glutamine is a safe therapeutic option for inherited GS deficiency since it corrects the peripheral biochemical phenotype and partially also improves the central biochemical phenotype. There was some clinical improvement but the patient had a long standing severe encephalopathy. Earlier supplementation with glutamine might have prevented some of the neuronal damage.

  5. Evaluation of stacking faults and associated partial dislocations in AlSb/GaAs (001 interface by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The stacking faults (SFs in an AlSb/GaAs (001 interface were investigated using a 300 kV spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM. The structure and strain distribution of the single and intersecting (V-shaped SFs associated with partial dislocations (PDs were characterized by the [110] HRTEM images and geometric phase analysis, respectively. In the biaxial strain maps εxx and εyy, a SF can be divided into several sections under different strain states (positive or negative strain values. Furthermore, the strain state for the same section of a SF is in contrast to each other in εxx and εyy strain maps. The modification in the strain states was attributed to the variation in the local atomic displacements for the SF in the AlSb film on the GaAs substrate recorded in the lattice image. Finally, the single SF was found to be bounded by two 30° PDs. A pair of 30° PDs near the heteroepitaxial interface reacted to form a Lomer-Cottrell sessile dislocation located at the vertices of V-shaped SFs with opposite screw components. The roles of misfit dislocations, such as the PDs, in strain relaxation were also discussed.

  6. Fate of hormones and pharmaceuticals during combined anaerobic treatment and nitrogen romoval by partial nitritation-anammox in vacuum collected black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.; Vieno, N.M.; Kujawa, K.; Zeeman, G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum collected black (toilet) water contains hormones and pharmaceuticals in relatively high concentrations (mu g/L to mg/L range) and separate specific treatment has the potential of minimizing their discharge to surface waters. In this study, the fate of estrogens (natural and synthetical

  7. Flavour Singlet ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2 m_b^2/m_t^2)$ Corrections to the Partial Decay Rate $\\Gamma(Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b})$

    CERN Document Server

    Chetyrkin, K G

    1993-01-01

    We analytically compute the flavour singlet ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2 m_b^2/m_t^2)$ radiative corrections to the partial decay rate $\\Gamma(Z\\rightarrow b\\bar{b})$. These corrections arise from anomalous ``double traingle'' diagrams containing a single $\\gamma_5$ matrix inside each of two closed fermion loops. They represent the next-to-leading term of the asymptotic expansion in the inverse large top mass. As a byproduct of the calculcation we confirm the results of B.Kniehl and J.H.K\\"uhn for the flavour singlet massless corrections \\cite{KniKue90} as well as our previous ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^2 m_b^2/M_Z^2)$ result \\cite{CheKwi93}.

  8. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth ...

  9. [Correction by natural adaptogens of hormonal-metabolic status disorders in rats during the development of adaptation syndrome using functional tests with dexamethasone and ACTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udintsev, S N; Krylova, S G; Konovalova, O N

    1991-12-01

    Rats exposed to stress by fixation develop a complex of hormonal metabolic homeostasis disturbances (as evidenced by changed levels of ACTH, insulin, 11-HOCS, urea, glucose). One of the major mechanisms of these disorders in reduced hypothalamus sensitivity to regulatory signals and exhausted adrenocortical functional activity, developing at the stages of anxiety and exhaustion of the adaptation syndrome, respectively, and detectable by functional tests with dexamethasone and ACTH. Administration of natural adaptogens (Scutellaria baicalensis extract and its active principle, baikalin flavonoid) was conducive to normalization of the majority of the examined parameters whatever the direction of changes.

  10. When structure affects function--the need for partial volume effect correction in functional and resting state magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukart, Juergen; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Both functional and also more recently resting state magnetic resonance imaging have become established tools to investigate functional brain networks. Most studies use these tools to compare different populations without controlling for potential differences in underlying brain structure which might affect the functional measurements of interest. Here, we adapt a simulation approach combined with evaluation of real resting state magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the potential impact of partial volume effects on established functional and resting state magnetic resonance imaging analyses. We demonstrate that differences in the underlying structure lead to a significant increase in detected functional differences in both types of analyses. Largest increases in functional differences are observed for highest signal-to-noise ratios and when signal with the lowest amount of partial volume effects is compared to any other partial volume effect constellation. In real data, structural information explains about 25% of within-subject variance observed in degree centrality--an established resting state connectivity measurement. Controlling this measurement for structural information can substantially alter correlational maps obtained in group analyses. Our results question current approaches of evaluating these measurements in diseased population with known structural changes without controlling for potential differences in these measurements.

  11. Partial biochemical and biological characterization of purified chicken growth hormone (cGH). Isolation of cGH charge variants and evidence that cGH is phosphorylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámburo, C; Carranza, M; Sanchez, R; Perera, G

    1989-11-01

    Chicken growth hormone (cGH) was purified from frozen pituitary glands obtained from recently sacrificed broilers. Glands were homogenized in a protease inhibitor solution (0.5 mM PMSF, 50 KIU/ml aprotinin, pH 7.2); extract was taken to pH 9.0 with calcium hydroxide and the supernatant was differentially precipitated with 20% (fraction A) and 50% (fraction B) ammonium sulfate. cGH (fraction B-DE-1) was obtained in pure form from fraction B after DEAE-cellulose chromatography at pH 8.6, with a yield of 2.9 mg/g tissue. Three charge variants of cGH (Rf = 0.23, 0.30, and 0.35) could be isolated by electroelution after semipreparative nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of fraction B-DE-1. These charge variants showed the same apparent molecular weight (26,300 Da) by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Isoelectric focusing of fraction B-DE-1 revealed two major components (pI = 7.2 and 7.4) and four minor bands (pI = 6.2, 6.7, 7.1, and 7.5). It was found that fraction B-DE-1 contained a significant amount of esterified phosphate (1 nmol PO4/3.5 nmol protein) similar to that reported previously for ovine GH. The functional integrity of the cGH obtained here was characterized by two heterologous and one homologous bioassays. High activity was shown by fraction B-DE-1 in the tibia assay (1.76 UI/mg) and in the liver ornithine decarboxylase assay (sixfold over control), both made in hypophysectomized rats; and it also stimulated lipolysis (138 and 215% at 10 and 100 ng/ml, respectively) on chicken abdominal adipose tissue explants.

  12. 中外剧场性概念的偏失与辩正%On Partial Def'mition and Correction of Theatricality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家思

    2011-01-01

    中外学术界关于剧场性的概念主要有十种,本文对各自的得失进行了分析和辩正,在此基础上提出自己的看法。%There have been ten definitions of the concept "theatricality" put forward in China and foreign academic field, which are all analyzed and corrected in this paper.

  13. 基于直方图匹配的虹膜偏色图像校正方法研究%Study on correction method of partial color iris image based on histogram matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志佳; 邢泽全; 宋辉

    2015-01-01

    人体器官的健康状况可以在虹膜颜色上体现,针对虹膜拍摄过程中设备差异造成的颜色偏差问题,采用直方图匹配的方法来校正颜色。以同一人的一副虹膜图像为标准,将其它认为存在颜色偏差的图像分别在R、G、B通道进行直方图匹配,得到颜色校正后的图像。通过实验证明了该方法适用于不同设备间采集颜色效果存在差异的情况,匹配效果达到了89%。%The health status of human organs can reflect on the color of iris. In connection with partial color that made by the difference between devices in taking iris pictures, use a method of histogram matching to correct color. Consider one iris image of the same person as the standard, use other partial color iris image to conduct histogram matching through R、G、B channel, to get the image after color correction. The experiment prove this method suit for color difference between different devices, the matching effect reach 89%.

  14. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...... onto the PET images in which regional CBF values and the water perfusable tissue fraction for the cortical gray matter tissue (hence the volume of gray matter) were estimated. After the PET study, the animals were killed and stereologic analysis was performed to assess the gray matter mass...

  15. Partial correction of sensitivity to oxidant stress in Friedreich ataxia patient fibroblasts by frataxin-encoding adeno-associated virus and lentivirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jane; Spinoulas, Afroditi; Zheng, Maolin; Cunningham, Sharon C; Ginn, Samantha L; McQuilty, Robert C; Rowe, Peter B; Alexander, Ian E

    2005-08-01

    Peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory neurons are directly involved in the pathophysiology of a number of debilitating inherited and acquired neurological conditions. The lack of effective treatments for many such conditions provides a strong rationale for exploring novel therapeutic approaches, including gene therapy. Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), a sensory neuropathy, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with a loss of large sensory neurons from the dorsal root ganglia. Because a mouse model for this well-characterized disease has been generated, we elected to use FRDA as a model disease. In previous studies we achieved efficient and sustained delivery of a reporter gene to PNS sensory neurons, using recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors. In the current study, AAV and LV vectors encoding the human frataxin cDNA were constructed and assessed for frataxin expression and function in primary FRDA patient fibroblast cell lines. FRDA fibroblasts have been shown to exhibit subtle biochemical changes, including increased mitochondrial iron and sensitivity to oxidant stress. Despite the inherent difficulty in working with primary cells, transduction of patient fibroblasts with either vector resulted in the expression of appropriately localized frataxin and partial reversal of phenotype.

  16. Do FSH/LH ratio and gonadal hormone levels predict clinical improvement in postmenopausal schizophrenia women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Bernardo, Miquel; Penadés, Rafael; Arias, Bárbara; Ruiz Cortés, Victoria; Seeman, Mary V; Catalán, Rosa

    2017-07-12

    Menopause is a process characterized by a decline in estrogen levels and is therefore a period of biological vulnerability for psychotic relapse in women with schizophrenia. Our goal was to correlate not only gonadal hormone levels but also follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels with improvement in specific clinical symptoms. Thirty-seven acutely ill postmenopausal schizophrenia women with a newly initiated, clinically determined change in antipsychotic medication participated in a 12-week prospective observational outcome study. Scales used were the PANSS scale for psychotic symptoms, the PSP for functioning, and CGI for global clinical impression. Circulating FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone serum levels were determined by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Partial correlational analyses were performed along with a Bonferroni significance correction (p schizophrenia symptom domains, we recommend further investigation of pituitary, adrenal, and gonadal hormone ratios as potential markers of clinical improvement in this population.

  17. Applications of tissue heterogeneity corrections and biologically effective dose volume histograms in assessing the doses for accelerated partial breast irradiation using an electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Chengyu; Guo Bingqi; Eng, Tony; Papanikolaou, Nikos [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Cheng, Chih-Yao, E-mail: shic@uthscsa.ed [Radiation Oncology Department, Oklahoma University Health Science Center, Oklahoma, OK 73104 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    A low-energy electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the model S700 Axxent(TM) x-ray device developed by Xoft Inc., has been used in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) as an alternative to an Ir-192 source. The prescription dose and delivery schema of the electronic brachytherapy APBI plan are the same as the Ir-192 plan. However, due to its lower mean energy than the Ir-192 source, an EBS plan has dosimetric and biological features different from an Ir-192 source plan. Current brachytherapy treatment planning methods may have large errors in treatment outcome prediction for an EBS plan. Two main factors contribute to the errors: the dosimetric influence of tissue heterogeneities and the enhancement of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of electronic brachytherapy. This study quantified the effects of these two factors and revisited the plan quality of electronic brachytherapy APBI. The influence of tissue heterogeneities is studied by a Monte Carlo method and heterogeneous 'virtual patient' phantoms created from CT images and structure contours; the effect of RBE enhancement in the treatment outcome was estimated by biologically effective dose (BED) distribution. Ten electronic brachytherapy APBI cases were studied. The results showed that, for electronic brachytherapy cases, tissue heterogeneities and patient boundary effect decreased dose to the target and skin but increased dose to the bones. On average, the target dose coverage PTV V{sub 100} reduced from 95.0% in water phantoms (planned) to only 66.7% in virtual patient phantoms (actual). The actual maximum dose to the ribs is 3.3 times higher than the planned dose; the actual mean dose to the ipsilateral breast and maximum dose to the skin were reduced by 22% and 17%, respectively. Combining the effect of tissue heterogeneities and RBE enhancement, BED coverage of the target was 89.9% in virtual patient phantoms with RBE enhancement (actual BED) as

  18. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Griffiths

    that prenatal vitamin D supplementation from 27 weeks gestation to delivery, at doses which failed to completely correct maternal vitamin D deficiency, influence overall healthcare utilisation in children in the first 3 years.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.

  19. Protein replacement therapy partially corrects the cholesterol-storage phenotype in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Krogh Nielsen

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2 disease is a fatal autosomal recessive neurovisceral degenerative disorder characterized by late endosomal-lysosomal sequestration of low-density lipoprotein derived cholesterol. The breach in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis is caused by deficiency of functional NPC2, a soluble sterol binding protein targeted to the lysosomes by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor. As currently there is no effective treatment for the disorder, we have investigated the efficacy of NPC2 replacement therapy in a murine gene-trap model of NPC2-disease generated on the 129P2/OlaHsd genetic background. NPC2 was purified from bovine milk and its functional competence assured in NPC2-deficient fibroblasts using the specific cholesterol fluorescent probe filipin. For evaluation of phenotype correction in vivo, three-week-old NPC2(-/- mice received two weekly intravenous injections of 5 mg/kg NPC2 until trial termination 66 days later. Whereas the saline treated NPC2(-/- mice exhibited massive visceral cholesterol storage as compared to their wild-type littermates, administration of NPC2 caused a marked reduction in cholesterol build up. The histological findings, indicating an amelioration of the disease pathology in liver, spleen, and lungs, corroborated the biochemical results. Little or no difference in the overall cholesterol levels was observed in the kidneys, blood, cerebral cortex and hippocampus when comparing NPC2(-/- and wild type mice. However, cerebellum cholesterol was increased about two fold in NPC2(-/- mice compared with wild-type littermates. Weight gain performance was slightly improved as a result of the NPC2 treatment but significant motor coordination deficits were still observed. Accordingly, ultrastructural cerebellar abnormalities were detected in both saline treated and NPC2 treated NPC2(-/- animals 87 days post partum. Our data indicate that protein replacement may be a beneficial therapeutic approach in the

  20. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Shiho; Akishita, Masahiro

    2009-07-01

    The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.

  1. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  2. 利用像素工厂系统对SPOT-5影像镶嵌图进行局部修正%Partial Correction of SPOT -5 Image Mosaic Map Using Pixel Factory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐莹; 王永峰; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    A large size remote sensing image mapping project is to produce mosaic map with 23 pairs of SPOT - 5 images rapidly using pixel factory system. A serious problem is that there are some distorted pixels in mosaic map due to low registration precision between 2 pairs of synchronous images, the reason is that a mistake was made by someone dur- ing aerial triangulation process. To solve this problem and submit product to customer on time, this paper adopts a partial correction to mosaic map method and finally it success.%利用像素工厂系统对一个包含23对SPOT-5影俸镶嵌图项目进行快速制作,但由于空三处理失误导致其中2景影像配准精度差而出现像素错位。为避免返工、有效弥补镶嵌影像图的局部几何问题,本文采用了局部修正方法,最终实现及时向客户提交质量合格的产品。

  3. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  4. Partial priapism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerup, Peter; Dahl, Claus; Azawi, Nessn Htum

    2014-01-01

    Partial priapism, also called partial segmental thrombosis of the corpus cavernosum, is a rare urological condition. Factors such as bicycle riding, drug usage, penile trauma and haematological diseases have been associated with the condition. Medical treatment with low molecular weight heparin (...... (LMWH) or acetylsalicylic acid is first choice treatment, and surgery is preserved for patients unresponsive to analgesics. In this report we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with partial priapism after blood transfusions treated successfully with LMWH....

  5. GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE (GNRH) PARTIALLY REVERSES THE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN ON OVULATION IN THE IMMATURE GONADOTROPIN-TREATED RAT. (R826132)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractSeveral studies have shown that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has inhibitory effects on ovulation. This action may be the result of either direct effect(s) of TCDD on ovarian function or via altered secretion of pituitary luteinizing hormon...

  6. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  7. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  8. Partial correction of the CNS lysosomal storage defect in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis by neonatal CNS administration of an adeno-associated virus serotype rh.10 vector expressing the human CLN3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhi, Dolan; Scott, Emma C; Chen, Alvin; Hackett, Neil R; Wong, Andrew M S; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Nelvagal, Hemanth R; Pearse, Yewande; Cotman, Susan L; Cooper, Jonathan D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or CLN3 disease) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from mutations in the CLN3 gene that encodes a lysosomal membrane protein. The disease primarily affects the brain with widespread intralysosomal accumulation of autofluorescent material and fibrillary gliosis, as well as the loss of specific neuronal populations. As an experimental treatment for the CNS manifestations of JNCL, we have developed a serotype rh.10 adeno-associated virus vector expressing the human CLN3 cDNA (AAVrh.10hCLN3). We hypothesized that administration of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the Cln3(Δex7/8) knock-in mouse model of JNCL would reverse the lysosomal storage defect, as well as have a therapeutic effect on gliosis and neuron loss. Newborn Cln3(Δex7/8) mice were administered 3 × 10(10) genome copies of AAVrh.10hCLN3 to the brain, with control groups including untreated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice and wild-type littermate mice. After 18 months, CLN3 transgene expression was detected in various locations throughout the brain, particularly in the hippocampus and deep anterior cortical regions. Changes in the CNS neuronal lysosomal accumulation of storage material were assessed by immunodetection of subunit C of ATP synthase, luxol fast blue staining, and periodic acid-Schiff staining. For all parameters, Cln3(Δex7/8) mice exhibited abnormal lysosomal accumulation, but AAVrh.10hCLN3 administration resulted in significant reductions in storage material burden. There was also a significant decrease in gliosis in AAVrh.10hCLN3-treated Cln3(Δex7/8) mice, and a trend toward improved neuron counts, compared with their untreated counterparts. These data demonstrate that AAVrh.10 delivery of a wild-type cDNA to the CNS is not harmful and instead provides a partial correction of the neurological lysosomal storage defect of a disease caused by a lysosomal membrane protein, indicating that this may be an effective therapeutic strategy for JNCL and

  9. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production ...

  10. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone ...

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  12. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  13. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Budziszewska, B.; Tolmacheva, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime, es

  14. Covariate measurement error correction methods in mediation analysis with failure time data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Prentice, Ross L

    2014-12-01

    Mediation analysis is important for understanding the mechanisms whereby one variable causes changes in another. Measurement error could obscure the ability of the potential mediator to explain such changes. This article focuses on developing correction methods for measurement error in the mediator with failure time outcomes. We consider a broad definition of measurement error, including technical error, and error associated with temporal variation. The underlying model with the "true" mediator is assumed to be of the Cox proportional hazards model form. The induced hazard ratio for the observed mediator no longer has a simple form independent of the baseline hazard function, due to the conditioning event. We propose a mean-variance regression calibration approach and a follow-up time regression calibration approach, to approximate the partial likelihood for the induced hazard function. Both methods demonstrate value in assessing mediation effects in simulation studies. These methods are generalized to multiple biomarkers and to both case-cohort and nested case-control sampling designs. We apply these correction methods to the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials to understand the mediation effect of several serum sex hormone measures on the relationship between postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk.

  15. Anabolic steroids and growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    1993-01-01

    Athletes are generally well educated regarding substances that they may use as ergogenic aids. This includes anabolic steroids and growth hormone. Fortunately, the abuse of growth hormone is limited by its cost and the fact that anabolic steroids are simply more enticing to the athlete. There are, however, significant potential adverse effects regarding its use that can be best understood by studying known growth hormone excess, as demonstrated in the acromegalic syndrome. Many athletes are unfamiliar with this syndrome and education of the potential consequences of growth hormone excess is important in counseling athletes considering its use. While athletes contemplating the use of anabolic steroids may correctly perceive their risks for significant physiologic effects to be small if they use the steroids for brief periods of time, many of these same athletes are unaware of the potential for habituation to the use of anabolic steroids. The result may be incessant use of steroids by an athlete who previously considered only short-term use. As we see athletes taking anabolic steroids for more prolonged periods, we are likely to see more severe medical consequences. Those who eventually do discontinue the steroids are dismayed to find that the improvements made with the steroids generally disappear and they have little to show for hours or even years of intense training beyond the psychological scars inherent with steroid use. Counseling of these athletes should focus on the potential adverse psychological consequences of anabolic steroid use and the significant risk for habituation.

  16. Does numerical modelling of apparent partial loss Ar/Ar age spectra of hornblende give the correct thermal history of terranes? Insights from the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola orogen (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, K.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the validity of numerical modelling of hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age spectra obtained from the same sample by step-heating with: 1) a defocused laser on 1.5 mm diameter discs micro-sampled from polished petrographic thin sections with a microscope-mounted drill, and 2) a resistance-heated furnace using handpicked mineral separate. Micro-sampling enables to obtain parts of mineral grains without zoning or included phases from targeted sites. Three samples were analysed: a tonalitic gneiss and a biotite-bearing amphibolite, from the same outcrop-1, and a biotite-free amphibolite from neighbouring outcrop-2. The material is from the Neoarchaean Murmansk terrane in the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. Hornblendes from the biotite-bearing gneiss and amphibolite (outcrop-1) yielded 40Ar/39Ar age spectra with progressively increasing step ages, whereas the biotite-free amphibole (outcrop-2) gave flat age spectra for both drilled disc and separate. These so-called staircase-type age spectra have been classically interpreted by partial loss of radiogenic argon by diffusion processes during younger thermal reworking. We applied numerical modelling tools (Double-Pulse, MacArgon) based on diffusion theory and that assume thermally activated loss of radiogenic Ar from so-called lower retentive lattice sites by solid-state volume diffusion. Modelling results suggest that staircase-shaped age spectra of our Neoarchaean hornblende are due to argon losses of 40-50% during reheating to 450 ± 25° C in Palaeoproterozoic time, and that flat spectra imply a thermally undisturbed Neoarchaean isotope system. These results would imply that neighbouring samples would have experienced sharply contrasting thermal histories. Hornblende with apparent partial loss age spectra is exclusively obtained from samples in which

  17. Correction: Mutsuzaki, H., et al. Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24366–24379.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the original version of the manuscript [1] there was an inadvertent error. The words “25 °C for 48 h” should be replaced with “25 °C for 24 h”. The authors carried out the coating experiments at 25 °C for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apatite coatings formed at 25 °C for 24 and 48 h were found to be identical in physicochemical nature, which was revealed by SEM, EDX, XRD and chemical analysis. Thus, in the animal experiments, the authors used apatite-coated Ti pins fabricated at 25 °C for 24 h. Several corrections are thus required in the abstract, the main text, the figure legends, and the figures (Table 1. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience this may have caused to readers of the journal. [...

  18. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  19. Standardization of hormone determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan

    2013-12-01

    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization.

  20. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: II. Normal values and gray matter blood flow response to visual activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, I; Iida, H; Holm, S;

    2000-01-01

    or 3D). Furthermore, the authors wanted to measure the activation response in the occipital gray matter compartment, and in doing so test the stability of the PTF, during perturbations of rCBF induced by visual stimulation. Eight dynamic PET scans were acquired per subject (n = 8), each for a duration...... matter flow. Furthermore, rCBF based on the autoradiographic method was measured. The goals of the study were to determine the following in normal humans: (1) the optimal model, (2) the optimal length of fit, (3) the model parameters and their reproducibility, and (4) the effects of data acquisition (2D...... coefficient of variance after a 6-minute length of fit. Using this model the average PVE corrected rCBF during rest in gray matter was 1.07 mL x min(-1) x g(-1) (0.11 SD), with an average coefficient of variance of 6%. Acquisition mode did not affect the estimated parameters, with the exception...

  1. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Menopause Fact Sheet Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause January, 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD Richard Santen, MD What is menopause? Menopause is the time of life when monthly ...

  2. Growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dosage of the medicine. Serious side effects of growth hormone treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid ... years. The rate of growth then slowly decreases. Growth hormone therapy does not work for all children. Left untreated, ...

  3. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  4. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  5. CONTENTS BASAL LEVELS of SEX HORMONES and PITUITARY HORMONES IN PATIENTS DEMODECOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnya K. I.; Revenko Zh. A.

    2014-01-01

    The regularities of changes in the nature and dynamics of clinical – hormonal parameters are revealed in this research that are not being specific they expand knowledge of the pathogenesis of demodicosis and create certain conditions for the directed correction of compensatory and adaptive capabilities of the host and open up prospect for improvement – pathogenetic treatment of demodicosis and its complications.

  6. Gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Rasika Ravindra; Deshpande, Gaurav Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial hypertrophy is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by unilateral enlargement of facial tissues. The hemifacial hyperplasia is classified as true hemifacial hypertrophy and partial hemifacial hypertrophy. It is unilateral enlargement of viscerocranial condition in which not all structures are enlarged. We present a rare case of gingival enlargement in partial hemifacial hyperplasia highlighting the clinical and radiological findings with the corrective treatment offered for...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  8. Spectral Deferred Corrections for Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    z) is the amplification factor and the definitions for A-stability, A(α)-stability, and L-stability are identical . In particular, the numerical...1 ) ≤ 1. (4.21) The stability analysis in R3 is identical . As a direct consequence of the definition of stability in (2.18) and L-stability in (2.10...samples on [0, 1], then (5.4) can be restated as f(xj) = n−1 2∑ `=−n−1 2 f̂`e 2πi`tj , j = 0, . . . , n− 1. (5.5) The corresponding trigonometric

  9. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  10. Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tarım

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone deficiency is the most promising entity in terms of response to therapy among the treatable causes of growth retardation. It may be due to genetic or acquired causes. It may be isolated or a part of multiple hormone deficiencies. Diagnostic criteria and therefore treatment indications are still disputed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 36-8

  11. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Austin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  12. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Juliana

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger and satiety. Mutations in these hormones or their receptors can cause substantial pathology leading to obesity or anorexia. Identification of individuals with specific genetic mutations may ultimately lead to more appropriate therapies targeted at the underlying disease process. Thus far, these hormones have mainly been studied in adults and animal models. This article is aimed at reviewing the hormones involved in hunger and satiety, with a focus on pediatrics.

  13. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  14. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Hormones and female sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelica Artur L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but without differences in sexual orientation. However, it has been observed that the frequency of bisexual and lesbian women is higher in women with congenital adrenogenital syndrome. Hormones sexual desire and sexuality during menstrual cycle It has been established that sexual desire, autoeroticism and sexual fantasies in women depend on androgen levels. There are a lot of reports claiming that sexual desire varies during the menstrual cycle. Hormonal contraception and sexuality Most patients using birth control pills present with decreased libido. But, there are reports that progestagens with antiandrogenic effect in contraceptive pills do not affect sexual desire. Hormonal changes in peri- and postmenopausal period and sexuality Decreased levels of estrogen and testosterone in older women are associated with decreased libido, sensitivity and erotic stimuli. Sexuality and hormone replacement therapy Hormonal therapy with estrogen is efficient in reference to genital atrophy, but not to sexual desire. Really increased libido is achieved using androgens. Also, therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and tibolone have positive effects on female libido. Conclusion Effect of sexual steroids on sexual sphere of women is very complex. The association between hormones and sexuality is multidimensional, as several hormones are important in regulation of sexual behaviour. Still, it should be pointed out that sexuality is in the domain of hormonal, emotional

  17. Androgenic Hormone Profile of Adult Women with Acne

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga da; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado Filho, Carlos D'apparecida Santos

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. in this study 835 women abo...

  18. Erratum to Ordered Partial Combinatory Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, P.; Oosten, J. van

    2003-01-01

    To our regret the paper Ordered Partial Combinatory Algebras contains a mistake which we correct here The flaw concerns the definition of compu tational density definition 3.5 which appeared in section 3.3 page 451 This definition is too rigid and as a consequence Lemma 3.6 on page 452

  19. Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Özden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with renal tumors <7 cm and those at risk for a significant loss of renal function should be managed with a partial nephrectomy if it is technically feasible. Partial nephrectomy (PN results in similar oncologic outcomes with radical nephrectomy. With advent of the technology and increase utilization of laparoscopic surgery, laparoscopic approach is considered as one of the option for partial nephrectomy. However laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is technically very difficult procedure and should be performed only by physicians with extensive experience using this approach. In this section, we aimed to present the technical steps of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy

  20. Migraine and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalnis, Ann

    2016-02-01

    This article discusses the role that hormones play in adolescent girls and young women with headaches, which are very common in adolescent girls, in particular, migraine. In many cases, migraine onset may occur shortly around the time of menarche, prevalence of recurrent migraine in this population approaches 15%, and typically the symptoms continue through adulthood. Hormonal changes associated with puberty and the menstrual cycle may significantly influence migraine in young women. This article reviews the following topics: management of menstrually related headaches, changes in ovarian hormones and their relationship to migraine, and oral contraceptives and pregnancy effects on migraine.

  1. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment of jaws and ... Implant Surgery Dental Implant Surgery Dental implant surgery is, of course, surgery, and is best performed by ...

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  3. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  4. LH (Luteinizing Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop gonads (gonadal agenesis) Chromosomal abnormality, such as Klinefelter syndrome Testicular failure: Viral infection ( mumps ) Trauma Exposure to ... the ovaries or testicles Hormone deficiency Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Chronic infections Cancer Eating disorder (anorexia nervosa) ^ Back ...

  5. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need a different dose of thyroid hormone include birth control pills, estrogen, testosterone, some anti-seizure medications (for ... is no evidence that desiccated thyroid has any advantage over synthetic T4. WHAT ABOUT T3? While most ...

  6. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk for endometrial cancer. Taking progestin with estrogen seems to protect against this cancer. So if you have a ... menopause without taking hormones. They can also help protect your bones, improve your heart health , and help you stay ...

  7. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the participating organizations that have assisted in its reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  8. Multicenter study on adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-min; Gu, Jian-wen; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Xia, Xun; Yang, Tao; Lu, Min; He, Wei-qi; Sun, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Yan-chao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.

  9. Hormones and female sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Introduction In contrast to animal species in which linear relationships exist between hormonal status and sexual behaviour sexuality in human population is not determined so simply by the level of sexual steroids. The article analyses female sexuality in the light of hormonal status. Administration of sexual steroids during pregnancy and sexual differentiation High doses of gestagens, especially those with high androgen activity, widely used against miscarriages may lead to tomboys, but with...

  10. Hormonal Regulators of Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Austin Juliana; Marks Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There has been a significant worsening of the obesity epidemic mainly due to alterations in dietary intake and energy expenditure. Alternatively, cachexia, or pathologic weight loss, is a significant problem for individuals with chronic disease. Despite their obvious differences, both processes involve hormones that regulate appetite. These hormones act on specific centers in the brain that affect the sensations of hunger a...

  11. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  12. 75 FR 82429 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ..., including non-National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) pollutants, among them greenhouse gases (GHGs... Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Final Rule. 75 FR 31514 (June 3, 2010...\\ Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring Rule; Proposed Rule.'' 74 FR...

  13. 75 FR 82365 - Determinations Concerning Need for Error Correction, Partial Approval and Partial Disapproval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .../nursing and 6221, 6231, 6232, 6233, 6239 residential care facilities. Personal and laundry services 8122... Concerning Regulations that Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use I. National Technology... This action does not impose any new information collection burden. The OMB has previously approved the...

  14. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  15. Quadratic electroweak corrections for polarized Moller scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Aleksejevs, S. Barkanova, Y. Kolomensky, E. Kuraev, V. Zykunov

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the two-loop (NNLO) electroweak radiative corrections to the parity violating electron-electron scattering asymmetry induced by squaring one-loop diagrams. The calculations are relevant for the ultra-precise 11 GeV MOLLER experiment planned at Jefferson Laboratory and experiments at high-energy future electron colliders. The imaginary parts of the amplitudes are taken into consideration consistently in both the infrared-finite and divergent terms. The size of the obtained partial correction is significant, which indicates a need for a complete study of the two-loop electroweak radiative corrections in order to meet the precision goals of future experiments.

  16. CONTENTS BASAL LEVELS of SEX HORMONES and PITUITARY HORMONES IN PATIENTS DEMODECOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnya K. I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of changes in the nature and dynamics of clinical – hormonal parameters are revealed in this research that are not being specific they expand knowledge of the pathogenesis of demodicosis and create certain conditions for the directed correction of compensatory and adaptive capabilities of the host and open up prospect for improvement – pathogenetic treatment of demodicosis and its complications.

  17. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increase

  18. The Partial Fuzzy Set

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Pranita Goswami

    2011-01-01

    The Partial Fuzzy Set is a portion of the Fuzzy Set which is again a Fuzzy Set. In the Partial Fuzzy Set the baseline is shifted from 0 to 1 to any of its α cuts . In this paper we have fuzzified a portion of the Fuzzy Set by transformation

  19. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    OpenAIRE

    PERONI, CIBELE N.; Cesar Y. Hayashida; Nancy Nascimento; LONGUINI, VIVIANE C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Paolo Bartolini; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo,Sergio P. A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/litmice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising frommutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those ...

  20. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  1. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  2. Hormone therapy in hypospadias surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Jose Murillo B; Ferrarez, Carlos Eduardo P F; Schindler Leal, Anucha Andrade; Tucci, Silvio; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Barroso, Ubirajara

    2013-12-01

    Surgical correction of hypospadias is proposed to improve the aesthetic and functional quality of the penis. Hormone therapy preceding surgical correction is indicated to obtain better surgical conditions. However, there is divergence in the literature regarding the hormone therapy of choice, time of its use before surgery, appropriate dose, and route of application. To try to elucidate this matter, an electronic survey of the databases PubMed and Cochrane Central Library was conducted, limited to articles in English published since 1980. Search strategy identified 14 clinical trials that matched the inclusion criteria. Analysis was made in terms of study design, classification of hypospadias, association with chordee and cryptorchidism, type of hormone, route of application, dose and duration of treatment, penile length before and after hormone therapy, glans circumference before and after hormone therapy, adverse effects, and surgical complications. From the trials evaluated it was not possible to determine the ideal neoadjuvant treatment. A preference for use of testosterone was observed. Intramuscular administration seems to have fewer adverse effects than topical treatment. Side effects were seldom described, and treated patients were not followed on a long-term basis. The scarcity of randomized and controlled clinical trials regarding the topic impairs the establishment of a protocol. In conclusion, although preoperative hormone therapy is currently used before hypospadias surgery, its real benefit in terms of improvement of the penis and surgical results has not been defined.

  3. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu Sharma, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Dhar*,Yudhvir Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) present at several differentiation from genetic defects to endorgan resistance thereby producing gender dilema dispelled by sex hormones signature.It is quite traumaticfor the patients and family of the affected baby. Extreme sensitivity and awareness on the part of thecaring doctor is necessary for early diagnosis of case of AIS &for successful outcome.

  4. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Sharma, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Dhar*,Yudhvir Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS present at several differentiation from genetic defects to endorgan resistance thereby producing gender dilema dispelled by sex hormones signature.It is quite traumaticfor the patients and family of the affected baby. Extreme sensitivity and awareness on the part of thecaring doctor is necessary for early diagnosis of case of AIS &for successful outcome.

  5. Compatriot partiality and cosmopolitan justice: Can we justify compatriot partiality within the cosmopolitan framework?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachelle Bascara

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an alternative way in which compatriot partiality could be justified within the framework of global distributive justice. Philosophers who argue that compatriot partiality is similar to racial partiality capture something correct about compatriot partiality. However, the analogy should not lead us to comprehensively reject compatriot partiality. We can justify compatriot partiality on the same grounds that liberation movements and affirmative action have been justified. Hence, given cosmopolitan demands of justice, special consideration for the economic well-being of your nation as a whole is justified if and only if the country it identifies is an oppressed developing nation in an unjust global order.This justification is incomplete. We also need to say why Person A, qua national of Country A, is justified in helping her compatriots in Country A over similarly or slightly more oppressed non-compatriots in Country B. I argue that Person A’s partiality towards her compatriots admits further vindication because it is part of an oppressed group’s project of self-emancipation, which is preferable to paternalistic emancipation.Finally, I identify three benefits in my justification for compatriot partiality. First, I do not offer a blanket justification for all forms of compatriot partiality. Partiality between members of oppressed groups is only a temporary effective measure designed to level an unlevel playing field. Second, because history attests that sovereign republics could arise as a collective response to colonial oppression, justifying compatriot partiality on the grounds that I have identified is conducive to the development of sovereignty and even democracy in poor countries, thereby avoiding problems of infringement that many humanitarian poverty alleviation efforts encounter. Finally, my justification for compatriot partiality complies with the implicit cosmopolitan commitment to the realizability of global justice

  6. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  7. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  8. Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging: Fountain of Youth or Pool of Tantalus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Hersch

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth C Hersch, George R MerriamVA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington School of Medicine, Tacoma and Seattle, Washington USAAbstract: Although growth hormone (GH is primarily associated with linear growth in childhood, it continues to have important metabolic functions in adult life. Adult GH deficiency (AGHD is a distinct clinical entity, and GH replacement in AGHD can improve body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, and mood, and may reduce vascular disease risk. While there are some hormone-related side effects, the balance of benefits and risks is generally favorable, and several countries have approved GH for clinical use in AGHD. GH secretion declines progressively and markedly with aging, and many age-related changes resemble those of partial AGHD. This suggests that replacing GH, or stimulating GH with GH-releasing hormone or a GH secretagogue could confer benefits in normal aging similar to those observed in AGHD – in particular, could reduce the loss of muscle mass, strength, and exercise capacity leading to frailty, thereby prolonging the ability to live independently. However, while most GH studies have shown body composition effects similar to those in AGHD, functional changes have been much less inconsistent, and older adults are more sensitive to GH side effects. Preliminary reports of improved cognition are encouraging, but the overall balance of benefits and risks of GH supplementation in normal aging remains uncertain.Keywords: growth hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, growth hormone secretagogues, aging, sarcopenia, frailty

  9. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  10. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  12. Developmental Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Duteil, Nastassia Pouradier; Rossi, Francesco; Boscain, Ugo; Piccoli, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of Developmental Partial Differential Equation (DPDE), which consists of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) on a time-varying manifold with complete coupling between the PDE and the manifold's evolution. In other words, the manifold's evolution depends on the solution to the PDE, and vice versa the differential operator of the PDE depends on the manifold's geometry. DPDE is used to study a diffusion equation with source on a growing surface whose gro...

  13. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  14. Hormonal influences on osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, M J; Frame, B

    1987-01-26

    Osteoporosis has recently received increased attention in both the medical and lay literature. It is estimated that there are more than one million osteoporosis-related fractures yearly in the United States, which are responsible for between three and four billion dollars in health care expenditures. A discussion of osteoporosis requires consideration of both the physiology and pathophysiology of bone tissue. In a structural sense, bone exists in two forms, the outer compact cortex accounting for 80 percent of total bone volume, and the more porous inner trabecular bone. Bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts are responsible for the ongoing, life-long process of formation and resorption of bone. Sex hormone deficiency, as well as chronic illness, malnutrition, and childhood immobilization, has deleterious effects on growth and modeling, ultimately reducing peak bone mass and setting the stage for osteoporosis in later life. Estrogen is known to have a protective effect on the female skeleton. The mechanisms of this effect are unknown, although estrogen may protect against parathyroid hormone-mediated bone loss. There may be a particular subset of postmenopausal women who are particularly susceptible to estrogen deficiency. Calcitonin levels, which decrease postmenopausally, return to normal with estrogen; other hormones may also play important roles. Osteoporosis is not the result of a single hormonal deficiency or excess; it must be considered in relation to other pathogenetic and risk factors.

  15. [Adipose tissue hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, M; Trachta, P; Haluzíková, D

    2010-10-01

    Adipose tissue had been traditionally considered a passive energy storage site without direct influence on energy homeostasis regulation. This view has been principally changed during early nineties by the discovery of hormonal production of adipose tissue. At present, the list of hormonally active substances of adipose tissue includes more than one hundred factors with paracrine or endocrine activity that play an important role in metabolic, food intake a inflammatory regulations and many other processes. Only minority of adipose tissue-derived hormones is produced exclusively in fat. Most of these factors is primarily put out by other tissues and organs. Adipose tissue-derived hormones are produced not only by adipocytes but also by preadipocytes, immunocompetent and endothelial cells and other cell types residing in fat. This paper summarizes current knowledge about endocrine function of adipose tissue with special respect to its changes in obesity. It also describes its possible role in the ethiopathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and other obesity-related pathologies.

  16. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of

  17. Thyroid hormone deiodination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Visser (Theo)

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe enzymatic deiodination of thyroid hormone is an important process since it concerns- among other things- the regulation of thyromimetic activity at the site of the target organ. To understand the mechanism of this regulation it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the mode of

  18. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as: Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin; TeBG Formal name: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Related tests: Testosterone , Free Testosterone, ... I should know? How is it used? The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) test may be used ...

  19. Hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Milsom, Ian; Geirsson, Reynir Tomas;

    2012-01-01

    New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published.......New studies about the influence of hormonal contraception on the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have been published....

  20. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mass and strength Mild bone loss Thinning skin Sleep problems Decreased exercise performance Decreased energy Decreased well-being, mild depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) ...

  1. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  2. Patterns of age related changes for phosphodiesterase type-10A in comparison with dopamine D2/3 receptors and sub-cortical volumes in the human basal ganglia: A PET study with (18)F-MNI-659 and (11)C-raclopride with correction for partial volume effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Patrik; Schain, Martin; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Nag, Sangram; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Cristina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-05-15

    Phosphodiesterase 10A enzyme (PDE10A) is an important striatal target that has been shown to be affected in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Huntington´s disease (HD). PDE10A is expressed on striatal neurones in basal ganglia where other known molecular targets are enriched such as dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R). The aim of this study was to examine the availability of PDE10A enzyme in relation with age and gender and to compare those changes with those related to D2/3 R and volumes in different regions of the basal ganglia. As a secondary objective we examined the relative distribution of D2/3 R and PDE10A enzyme in the striatum and globus pallidus. Forty control subjects (20F/20M; age: 44±11y, age range 27-69) from an ongoing positron emission tomography (PET) study in HD gene expansion carriers were included. Subjects were examined with PET using the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) and with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The PDE10A radioligand (18)F-MNI-659 and D2/3 R radioligand (11)C-raclopride were used. The outcome measure was the binding potential (BPND) estimated with the two-tissue compartment model ((18)F-MNI-659) and the simplified reference tissue model ((11)C-raclopride) using the cerebellum as reference region. The PET data were corrected for partial volume effects. In the striatum, PDE10A availability showed a significant age-related decline that was larger compared to the age-related decline of D2/3 R availability and to the age-related decline of volumes measured with MRI. In the globus pallidus, a less pronounced decline of PDE10A availability was observed, whereas D2/3 R availability and volumes seemed to be rather stable with aging. The distribution of the PDE10A enzyme was different from the distribution of D2/3 R, with higher availability in the globus pallidus. These results indicate that aging is associated with a considerable physiological reduction of the availability of PDE10A enzyme in the

  3. NWS Corrections to Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Form B-14 is the National Weather Service form entitled 'Notice of Corrections to Weather Records.' The forms are used to make corrections to observations on forms...

  4. Partially massless graviton on beyond Einstein spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Hinterbichler, Kurt; von Strauss, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    We show that a partially massless graviton can propagate on a large set of spacetimes which are not Einstein spacetimes. Starting from a recently constructed theory for a massive graviton that propagates the correct number of degrees of freedom on an arbitrary spacetime, we first give the full explicit form of the scalar constraint responsible for the absence of a sixth degree of freedom. We then spell out generic conditions for the constraint to be identically satisfied, so that there is a scalar gauge symmetry which makes the graviton partially massless. These simplify if one assumes that spacetime is Ricci symmetric. Under this assumption, we find explicit non-Einstein spacetimes (some, but not all, with vanishing Bach tensors) allowing for the propagation of a partially massless graviton. These include in particular the Einstein static Universe.

  5. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Growth Defici H e o n r c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary ...

  6. Hormonal Control of Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Paul S.; Nicoll, Charles S.

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on hormonal control of fetal growth, presenting data obtained using a new method for studying the area. Effects of endocrine ablations and congenital deficiencies, studies of hormone/receptor levels, in-vitro techniques, hormones implicated in promoting fetal growth, problems with existing methodologies, and growth of…

  7. Error Correction in Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr. Grace Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Error correction is an important issue in foreign language acquisition. This paper investigates how students feel about the way in which error correction should take place in a Chinese-as-a foreign-language classroom, based on empirical data of a large scale. The study shows that there is a general consensus that error correction is necessary. In terms of correction strategy, the students preferred a combination of direct and indirect corrections, or a direct only correction. The former choice indicates that students would be happy to take either so long as the correction gets done.Most students didn't mind peer correcting provided it is conducted in a constructive way. More than halfofthe students would feel uncomfortable ifthe same error they make in class is corrected consecutively more than three times. Taking these findings into consideration, we may want to cncourage peer correcting, use a combination of correction strategies (direct only if suitable) and do it in a non-threatening and sensitive way. It is hoped that this study would contribute to the effectiveness of error correction in a Chinese language classroom and it may also have a wider implication on other languages.

  8. Hormonal correlates of acne and hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, A W

    1995-01-16

    Acne is a multifactorial disorder reflecting the role of infection, abnormal keratinization and immunologic reaction, as well as hormonal influences, on the pilosebaceous unit. Clinical studies have correlated elevated levels of androgens, originating in both the adrenal glands and ovaries, with acne. These include total and free testosterone, delta 4-androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, and low levels of sex hormone binding globulin. The pathogenesis of acne initiation in childhood has been linked to rising serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Hirsutism has been more directly correlated with increased levels of serum androgens, notably free testosterone. Underlying causes of elevated androgens in both disorders include very rare tumors, partial or late-onset forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, developmental adrenal abnormalities and, most commonly, polycystic ovary syndrome. Early acne treatment may include topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and tretinoin. More severe disease can be treated systemically (with antibiotics and/or isotretinoin). Very-low-dose corticosteroids can be used to eliminate the adrenal component of hyperandrogenism. Oral contraceptives, especially those that contain low-androgenic progestins, can reduce excessive androgens from any source and specifically suppress the ovary in polycystic ovary syndrome. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, with or without estrogen supplementation, and systemic or topical antiandrogens may play a more important role in the future.

  9. Unsulfated cholecystokinin: An overlooked hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Agersnap, Mikkel

    2012-01-10

    Tyrosyl O-sulfation is a common posttranslational derivatization of proteins that may also modify regulatory peptides. Among these are members of the cholecystokinin (CCK)/gastrin family. While sulfation of gastrin peptides is without effect on the bioactivity, O-sulfation is crucial for the cholecystokinetic activity (i.e. gallbladder emptying) of CCK peptides. Accordingly, the purification of CCK as a sulfated peptide was originally monitored by its gallbladder emptying effect. Since then, the dogma has prevailed that CCK peptides are always sulfated. The dogma is correct in a semantic context since the gallbladder expresses only the CCK-A receptor that requires sulfation of the ligand. CCK peptides, however, are also ligands for the CCK-B receptors that do not require ligand sulfation. Consequently, unsulfated CCK peptides may act via CCK-B receptors. Since in vivo occurrence of unsulfated products of proCCK with an intact α-amidated C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (-Trp-Met-Asp-PheNH(2)) has been reported, it is likely that unsulfated CCK peptides constitute a separate hormone system that acts via CCK-B receptors. This review discusses the occurrence, molecular forms, and possible physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of unsulfated CCK peptides.

  10. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  11. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  12. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  13. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  14. Biosimilar growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As the first wave of biopharmaceuticals is expiring, biosimilars or follow-on -protein products (FOPP's) have emerged. Biosimilar drugs are cheaper than the originator/comparator drug. The regulatory foundation for these products is more advanced and better codified in Europe than in the US. Biosimilar soamtropin has been approved in both the US and Europe. The scientific viability of biosimilar drugs and especially growth hormone has been proven by several rigorously conducted clinical trials. Efficacy and safety data (growth rates, IGF-1 generation) for up to 7 y for pediatric indications measure up favorably to previously approved growth hormones which served as reference comparators. The Obama Administration appears to be committed to establish innovative pathways for the approval of biologics and biosimilars in the US. The cost savings in health care expenditures will be substantial as the global sales of biologics have reached $ 93 billion in 2009.

  15. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  16. The wound hormone jasmonate

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Abraham J. K.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2009-01-01

    Plant tissues are highly vulnerable to injury by herbivores, pathogens, mechanical stress, and other environmental insults. Optimal plant fitness in the face of these threats relies on complex signal transduction networks that link damage-associated signals to appropriate changes in metabolism, growth, and development. Many of these wound-induced adaptive responses are triggered by de novo synthesis of the plant hormone jasmonate (JA). Recent studies provide evidence that JA mediates systemic...

  17. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    thru ADP010582 UNCLASSIFIED 23-1 GROWTH HORMONE AND AGING J.A.F. Tresguerres , Perez Romero, N. de las Heras, S. Vazquez, C. Ariznavarreta Complutense... Tresguerres 1996). GHRH is were treated as children with GH, a significant secreted in peaks as well as somatostatin, both number of problems were detected...of GH ( Tresguerres 1996) reduction in muscular and bone mass together IGFI is a peptide of 70 aminoacids that shows with an increase in body fat

  18. [Acne and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines.

  20. Concomitant occurrence of Turner syndrome and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jung; Shin, Ha Young; Lee, Chong Guk; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic disorder in phenotypic females that has characteristic physical features and presents as partial or complete absence of the second sex chromosome. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a condition caused by insufficient release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. The concomitant occurrence of TS and GHD is rare and has not yet been reported in Korea. Here we report 2 cases of TS and GHD. In case 1, GHD was initially diagnosed. Karyotyping was performed because of the presence of the typical phenotype and poor response to growth hormone therapy, which revealed 45,X/45,X+mar. The patient showed increased growth velocity after the growth hormone dose was increased. In case 2, a growth hormone provocation test and chromosomal analysis were performed simultaneously because of decreased growth velocity and the typical TS phenotype, which showed GHD and a mosaic karyotype of 45,X/46,XX. The patient showed spontaneous pubertal development. In female patients with short stature, it is important to perform a throughout physical examination and test for hormonal and chromosomal abnormalities because diagnostic accuracy is important for treatment and prognosis.

  1. Purification of human parathyroid hormone: recent studies and further observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutmann, H T; Hendy, G N; Boehnert, M; O'Riordan, J L; Potts, J T

    1978-07-01

    During the isolation of human parathyroid hormone there is an extensive loss of immuno-assayble hormone over the successive extraction steps, due in part to the presence of fragments that are soluble in 4% trichloroacetic acid. These fragments are derived from both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of the hormone. The hormonal fractions precipitated with trichloroacetic acid were further purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. At the final ion-exchange purification step, some preparations of the hormone eluted in multiple fractions. When the various components were characterized separately by immunoassay, amino acid composition, enzymic cleavage and partial sequence analysis, they were found to be closely comparable, although the most acidic fraction contained a blocked terminal amino group. Extraction of a number of batches of tissue permitted revision of the amino acid composition of human parathyroid hormone. Biosynthetic studies with labelled amino acids confirmed the absence of tyrosine and the presence of phenylalanine and threonine and localized these residues to definite regions of the molecule.

  2. ISOLASI FRAGMEN TERTENTU GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN MAS MAJALAYA DAN NILA GIFT DENGAN METODE CTAB–PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormon pertumbuhan (Growth Hormone/GH pada ikan berperan untuk memacu pertumbuhan, di samping terlibat juga dalam fungsi osmoregulasi, pengaturan keseimbangan cairan elektrolit, dan proses-proses metabolisme. Metode CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide digunakan untuk mengisolasi DNA sel ikan (DNA genomik dari sirip ekor ikan mas Majalaya dan nila GIFT. Isolasi gen hormon pertumbuhan dari DNA genomik kedua jenis ikan dapat disintesis dengan primer cGH (carp Growth Hormone dan TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone menggunakan metode PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Hasil elektroforegram produk amplifikasi PCR untuk sebagian gen hormon pertumbuhan ikan mas Majalaya dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran fragmen DNA sebesar 615 bp dan 349 bp. Fragmen DNA hormon pertumbuhan ikan nila GIFT dapat dideteksi dengan ukuran 597 bp. The roles of growth hormones in fish are for growth promotion. They are also involved in osmoregulation function, balance regulation of liquid electrolite, and correlated with metabolism processes. CTAB (Cetyl Trymethyl Ammonium Bromide methods was used to isolate fish cell DNA (genomic DNA from caudal fin of Majalaya carp and GIFT nile. Growth hormone gene isolates from two kinds of genomic DNA can be synthesized with primers cGH (carp Growth Hormone and TiGH (Tilapia Growth Hormone using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction method. Electroforegram product of the PCR amplification for partial growth hormone gene of Majalaya carp fish can be detected with DNA fragment size of 615 bp and 349 bp. DNA fragment of growth hormone of GIFT nile tilapia can be detected with size of 597 bp.

  3. EPU correction scheme study at the CLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertwistle, Drew, E-mail: drew.bertwistle@lightsource.ca; Baribeau, C.; Dallin, L.; Chen, S.; Vogt, J.; Wurtz, W. [Canadian Light Source Inc. 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Canadian Light Source (CLS) Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Center (QMSC) beamline will employ a novel double period (55 mm, 180 mm) elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU) to produce photons of arbitrary polarization in the soft X-ray regime. The long period and high field of the 180 mm period EPU will have a strong dynamic focusing effect on the storage ring electron beam. We have considered two partial correction schemes, a 4 m long planar array of BESSY-II style current strips, and soft iron L-shims. In this paper we briefly consider the implementation of these correction schemes.

  4. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression wher...

  5. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  6. Partial Ileal Bypass Undone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Schouten, J.A.; Hoitsma, H.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    Partial ileal bypass (PIB) for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia was introduced 20 years ago. About 110 cases have been described. We know of only 1 case of restoration of intestinal continuity; no details were given. We report here the second case of PIB in the Netherlands; the operation was r

  7. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  8. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Determination of Rutin Content in Tobacco Based on Orthogonal Signal Correction Comnbined with Wavelet Transform and Partial Least Square Method%基于OSC-WT-PLS近红外光谱法测定烟草中芸香苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武士杰; 侯英; 李伟; 王家俊; 吴丽君; 王保兴

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco spectrum was preprocessed by using orthogonal signal correction (OSC) with combinations wavelet transform (WT),then a model was established by this tobacco spectrum combined with partial least squares (PLS) to forecast rutin in tobacco. Spectral information unrelated to the content of rutin was filtered by OSC,the optimum number of component by OSC extracted determined was 7,the best wavelet basis function bior1.1 in WT was chosen to compress and further filter the noise in OSC preprocessed spectrum,then a model was established by using PLS. The OSC–WT –PLS model had a determination coefficient (r2) of 0.874,Root Mean Standard Error of Calibration(RMSEC) was 0.85, Root Mean Standard Error of prediction(RMSEP) was 0.743,and interaction coefficient of validation(Qext2) was 0.887. It shows by the result that OSC–WT–PLS can filter the information unrelated to sample content in spectral data to reducing spectral data and the complexity of models building, it can improve the speed of models building,theability and accuracy prediction.%采用正交信号校正(OSC)结合小波变换(WT)对烟草光谱进行光谱预处理,将预处理后的烟草光谱结合偏最小二乘法(PLS)建立了烟草光谱对芸香苷的预测模型。利用OSC滤除光谱中与芸香苷含量无关的光谱信息,确定OSC提取的最佳主成分数为7,再选择WT中的最佳小波基函数bior1.1对OSC预处理后的光谱进行压缩及进一步滤噪,然后进行PLS建模,OSC–WT–PLS所建模型决定系数r2=0.874,校正标准偏差RMSEC=0.85,预测均方根误差RMSEP=0.743,交互验证系数Qext2=0.887。结果表明,用OSC–WT–PLS可滤除光谱信息中与待测样品含量无关的信息、减少光谱数据量,降低建立模型的复杂度、提高建模速度及模型的预测能力、准确度。

  9. 种植体支抗结合片段弓矫治成人下颌牙列拥挤的临床应用研究%Correcting crowding of mandibular teeth by implant anchorage and partial arch wire for adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军; 杨永进; 蔡兴伟; 李广; 黄长城

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical effects and the characters by micro-implant anchorage and partial arch ware correcting crowding of mandibular teeth in Class I malocclusal patients. Methods 24 Micro-implants were embedded buccal bone of mandibular first molar and mandibular second premolar of 12 Angle I malocclusal patients Ni-Ti coil spring was connected to implant and hook of distalization of mandibular lateral incisor so as to close space by contracting mandibular preteeth.Measuring buccolingual position changes of mandibular central incisors.compaction, angle of mesiodistal inclination.and moving velocity.root obsorbsion and periodontal membrane change.Evaluating anchorage by the change of mandibular first molar. Results Mandibular central incisorlingual movement and lingual inclination was 1.6mm,4.5 degree.compaction was 0.5mm,no mesiodistal inclination.course of treatment was 3.2 months, velocity of mandibular central incisor.No root obsorbsion and periodontal membrane change.Location of mandibular first molar was no changetable. Conclusion The problem of teeth crowding was resolved successfully.location of mandibualr molar and occlusion of posterion tooth was no changeable.%目的:研究安氏Ⅰ类错(牙合)患者中,采用种植体支抗结合片段弓技术,矫治成人下颌牙列 拥挤的临床效果及其作用特点.方法:选择12例成人患者,将24枚微型种植体植于下颌第一磨牙与下颌第二前磨牙之间的颊侧牙槽骨内,Ni-Ti螺旋 弹簧拉长后分别连接于种植体与下颌侧切牙远中的牵引钩,来内收下前牙关闭间隙.测量下颌中切牙的颊舌向的位置变化 、压低量、近远中倾斜度以及移动的速度,并通过治疗前后的X线片对比以观察切牙牙根有无吸收,牙周膜腔的变化情况.通过 测量下颌第一磨牙的位置变化来衡量支抗强弱.结果:下颌中切牙向舌侧移动1.6mm,舌侧倾斜4.5°,平均压低0.5mm,无近 远中倾斜,疗程3.2个

  10. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek [Math Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A{sub 5} sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E{sub 8}.

  11. Diophantine Correct Open Induction

    CERN Document Server

    Raffer, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    We give an induction-free axiom system for diophantine correct open induction. We relate the problem of whether a finitely generated ring of Puiseux polynomials is diophantine correct to a problem about the value-distribution of a tuple of semialgebraic functions with integer arguments. We use this result, and a theorem of Bergelson and Leibman on generalized polynomials, to identify a class of diophantine correct subrings of the field of descending Puiseux series with real coefficients.

  12. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  13. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  14. Hierarchical partial order ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritization of polluted sites is given.

  15. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Couprie, M-E

    2015-03-06

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  16. Partially predictable chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Wernecke, Hendrik; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    For a chaotic system pairs of initially close-by trajectories become eventually fully uncorrelated on the attracting set. This process of decorrelation is split into an initial decrease characterized by the maximal Lyapunov exponent and a subsequent diffusive process on the chaotic attractor causing the final loss of predictability. The time scales of both processes can be either of the same or of very different orders of magnitude. In the latter case the two trajectories linger within a finite but small distance (with respect to the overall size of the attractor) for exceedingly long times and therefore remain partially predictable. We introduce a 0-1 indicator for chaos capable of describing this scenario, arguing, in addition, that the chaotic closed braids found close to a period-doubling transition are generically partially predictable.

  17. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L). RESULTS: PR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months......OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  18. CORRECTING WRITTEN WORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction During the teaching and learning process, teachers often check how much students have understood through written assignments. In this article I’d like to describe one method of correcting students’ written work by using a variety of symbols to indicate where students have gone wrong, then asking students to correct their work themselves.

  19. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  20. Unanticipated Partial Behavioral Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Roethlisberger, David; Denker, Marcus; Tanter, Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Dynamic, unanticipated adaptation of running systems is of interest in a variety of situations, ranging from functional upgrades to on-the-fly debugging or monitoring of critical applications. In this paper we study a particular form of computational reflection, called unanticipated partial behavioral reflection, which is particularly well-suited for unanticipated adaptation of real-world systems. Our proposal combines the dynamicity of unanticipated reflection, i.e., ...

  1. Renormalizing Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Bricmont, J.; Kupiainen, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this review paper, we explain how to apply Renormalization Group ideas to the analysis of the long-time asymptotics of solutions of partial differential equations. We illustrate the method on several examples of nonlinear parabolic equations. We discuss many applications, including the stability of profiles and fronts in the Ginzburg-Landau equation, anomalous scaling laws in reaction-diffusion equations, and the shape of a solution near a blow-up point.

  2. Arithmetic partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Buium, Alexandru; Simanca, Santiago R.

    2006-01-01

    We develop an arithmetic analogue of linear partial differential equations in two independent ``space-time'' variables. The spatial derivative is a Fermat quotient operator, while the time derivative is the usual derivation. This allows us to ``flow'' integers or, more generally, points on algebraic groups with coordinates in rings with arithmetic flavor. In particular, we show that elliptic curves have certain canonical ``flows'' on them that are the arithmetic analogues of the heat and wave...

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of solid recombinant bovine growth hormone and related growth hormone analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamann, Thomas J.; Chao, Robert S.

    1999-09-01

    Infrared and Raman spectra have been obtained for lyophilized recombinant bovine growth hormone (r-bGH), partially reduced, and completely reduced r-bGH, plus a tryptic digest fragment of r-bGH. Amide I and II data indicate r-bGH to have substantial helical character. Partially reduced r-bGH, in which the carboxyl terminal disulfide bridge (residues 181, 189) has been cleaved, has slightly less helical content than r-bGH. The spectral data indicate that breaking the carboxyl terminal cystine link produces only localized structural alterations. The additional cleavage of the second disulfide bridge (residues 53 164) leads to a further decrease in helix content, accompanied by increases in β-sheet and disordered structures. A tryptic digest r-bGH fragment (residues 96-133), which contains a small amount of biological activity (≈10%), has predominantly helical structure.

  4. Corrections to Quark Asymmetries at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, A

    2004-01-01

    The most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle sin^2(theta) at LEP is from the forward-backward asymmetry e+e- --> bbbar at the Z-pole. In this note the QED and electroweak radiative corrections to obtain the pole asymmetry from the measured asymmetry for b- and c-quarks have been calculated using ZFITTER, which has been amended to allow a consistent treatment of partial two-loop corrections for the b-quark final asymmetries. A total correction of dAfbb=0.0019+/-0.0002 and dAfbc=0.0064+/-0.0001 has been found, where the remaining theoretical uncertainty is much too small to explain the apparent discrepancy between sin^2(theta) obtained from Afbb and from the left-right asymmetry at SLD.

  5. Probabilistic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Fern, J; Fern, Jesse; Terilla, John

    2002-01-01

    There are well known necessary and sufficient conditions for a quantum code to correct a set of errors. We study weaker conditions under which a quantum code may correct errors with probabilities that may be less than one. We work with stabilizer codes and as an application study how the nine qubit code, the seven qubit code, and the five qubit code perform when there are errors on more than one qubit. As a second application, we discuss the concept of syndrome quality and use it to suggest a way that quantum error correction can be practically improved.

  6. Algorithm refinement for stochastic partial differential equations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, F. J. (Francis J.); Garcia, Alejandro L.,; Tartakovsky, D. M. (Daniel M.)

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. A variety of numerical experiments were performed for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a non-stochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except within the particle region, far from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.

  7. Partial Splenic Artery Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Shadmani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Hypersplenism often accompanies chronic liver disease and splenomegaly is one of the four cardinal signs of hypersplenism, the other three being cytopenia, normal or hyperplastic bone marrow and response splenectomy. Surgical splenectomy is the traditional treatment."nIn the recent years, partial splenic embolization has been widely used in patients with hypersplenism and cirrhosis.This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of partial splenic embolization using PVA (poly vinyl alcohol and steel coil in the management of hypersplenism."nPatients and Methods: Between Aban 1387 and Aban 1388, ten patients with hypersplenism related hematologic abnormalities (leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, variceal hemorrhage or other sequels underwent partial splenic embolization with PVA and coil. A comparison between pre-procedure and post-procedure lab data, endoscopy and splenic volumetery was done."nResults: All patients showed dramatic improvement in platelet and leukocyte counts. Platelet and leukocyte counts remained at an appropriate level during the follow up period. In one patient after one year progressive decline in the platelet count was noted, however the values remained significantly higher than before PSE (70000 vs 15000."nAlmost all patients had problems related to post embolization syndrome. In one patient severe pain was noted that lasted nearly ten days, in the other patients, pain was less severe. No significant complication (splenic abscess, pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis developed in this study."nConclusion: The efficacy of PSE observed in our study confirms the results of previous studies in pa-tients with hypersplenism. This safe, fast method can be used bridging therapy for cirrhotic patients waiting for liver transplantation. Hematological response is related to the extension of embolization.

  8. Minimally invasive partial fasciectomy for Dupuytren contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Scott E; Schlenker, Robert; Jacoby, Sidney M; Shin, Eon K; Culp, Randall W

    2012-12-01

    Treatment options for the Dupuytren contractures vary from percutaneous needle aponeurotomy, open fasciotomy or fasciectomy, dermofasciectomy, and more recently, injectable collagenase. Although utilization of injectable collagenase avoids a formal surgical procedure, not all patients are eligible and some patients do not feel comfortable with an enzyme injection or the associated risks, which may include hematoma, wound dehiscence, or tendon rupture. This study describes the technique and early results of partial fasciectomy through a mini-incision approach as an additional treatment option for Dupuytren contractures. We found that this procedure results in contracture correction with a low rate of complications and thus provides the surgeon with an alternative treatment option to offer patients.

  9. Cognitive effects of hormonal therapy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiades, Nicholas; Correa, Denise; Gross, Cary P; Hurria, Arti; Slovin, Susan F

    2008-12-01

    There is ample preclinical evidence that gonadal steroids (estrogens and androgens) play an important role in central nervous system development and function. The abrupt decline of estrogen levels in women after menopause, and the slower, subtler decline in total and bioavailable testosterone serum levels that occurs in aging men ("andropause," "male menopause," partial androgen deficiency in ageing males [PADAM]), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction prevalent in elderly adults. However, the current clinical evidence supporting hormonal replacement as a neuroprotective therapy is at best inconclusive. Anti-estrogen and anti-androgen hormonal therapies are used in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas, respectively. Although generally considered less toxic than conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, these hormonal manipulations have side effects that are not trivial. This review will summarize the available evidence regarding the impact of these hormonal therapies on cognitive function in older adults. Additional clinical research in this field is needed to confirm the existence and severity of such a possible cognitive impact, which may then need to be considered prior to initiating hormonal therapies in the elderly, as many patients may be in the prodromal phase or early stages of a neurodegenerative disorder, such as Alzheimer's disease, and this information may influence treatment decision-making and subsequent management.

  10. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  11. Partial Dynamical Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2010-01-01

    This overview focuses on the notion of partial dynamical symmetry (PDS), for which a prescribed symmetry is obeyed by a subset of solvable eigenstates, but is not shared by the Hamiltonian. General algorithms are presented to identify interactions, of a given order, with such intermediate-symmetry structure. Explicit bosonic and fermionic Hamiltonians with PDS are constructed in the framework of models based on spectrum generating algebras. PDSs of various types are shown to be relevant to nuclear spectroscopy, quantum phase transitions and systems with mixed chaotic and regular dynamics.

  12. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2008-01-01

    This three-part treatment of partial differential equations focuses on elliptic and evolution equations. Largely self-contained, it concludes with a series of independent topics directly related to the methods and results of the preceding sections that helps introduce readers to advanced topics for further study. Geared toward graduate and postgraduate students of mathematics, this volume also constitutes a valuable reference for mathematicians and mathematical theorists.Starting with the theory of elliptic equations and the solution of the Dirichlet problem, the text develops the theory of we

  13. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  14. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  15. Paschen is Partially Back

    CERN Document Server

    Stift, M J

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  16. Paschen is Partially Back

    OpenAIRE

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB reg...

  17. Paschen is partially Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-04-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden "ghost lines" appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeI λ6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  18. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  19. Thyroid hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolman, J A

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone has important cardiovascular effects, and abnormalities of its production cause cardiovascular morbidity. The role of both excessive and insufficient thyroid hormone production in the pathogenesis of clinical cardiac diseases can be deduced from thyroid hormone-induced molecular changes. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of myocardial genes regulating the handling of calcium, which affects both systolic and diastolic myocardial function. Thyroid hormone also has indirect and direct effects on peripheral vascular smooth muscle tone, and alters the coupling of the left ventricle and arterial system. Excessive production of thyroid hormone results in an increased cardiac output as well as increased cardiac work efficiency, but reduced cardiac reserve. Amiodarone therapy for cardiac rhythm can cause both hyper- and hypothyroidism. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) can be due to either excessive thyroid hormone production (type I AIT) or thyroid hormone release due to an inflammatory condition (type II AIT). Classification of AIT is helpful in guiding therapy. Amiodarone causes changes in the thyroid function tests of euthyroid patients on therapy--it inhibits the conversion of T(4) and T(3), which results in decreased T(3) and slightly increased T(4) serum levels in euthyroid patients. Baseline thyroid functions should therefore be determined before starting amiodarone therapy, and at 6-monthly intervals thereafter.

  20. Hormonal Programming Across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobet, Stuart A; Lara, Hernan E; Lucion, Aldo B; Wilson, Melinda E; Recabarren, Sergio E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2013-01-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across the lifespan, and during developmental sensitive periods hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous critical periods in development wherein different targets are affected. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be a mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. During development of the ovary, exposure to excess gonadal hormones leads to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased sympathetic nerve activity and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function. PMID:22700441

  1. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  2. Towards Bridging the Gap Programming Language and Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Consel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    to guide the choice of both the code to specialize and the invariants to exploit during the specialization process. To ease the use of partial evaluation, the syntax of this language is similar to the declaration syntax of the target language of the partial evaluator. To provide feedback to the programmer......, declarations are checked throughout the analyses performed by partial evaluation. The language has been successfully used by a signal-processing expert in the design of a specializable Forward Error Correction component.......Partial evaluation is a program-transformation technique that automatically specializes a program with respect to user-supplied invariants. Despite successful applications in areas such as graphics, operating systems, and software engineering, partial evaluators have yet to achieve widespread use...

  3. Experts' Understanding of Partial Derivatives Using the Partial Derivative Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, David; Weber, Eric; Dray, Tevian; Bajracharya, Rabindra R.; Dorko, Allison; Smith, Emily M.; Manogue, Corinne A.

    2015-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Thermodynamics, in particular, uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find especially confusing. We are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, with a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of…

  4. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Corrective Jaw ...

  5. Correction of Neonatal Hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moskalev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of hydroxyethyl starch solution (6% refortane, Berlin-Chemie versus fresh frozen plasma used to correct neonatal hypovolemia.Materials and methods. In 12 neonatal infants with hypoco-agulation, hypovolemia was corrected with fresh frozen plasma (10 ml/kg body weight. In 13 neonates, it was corrected with 6% refortane infusion in a dose of 10 ml/kg. Doppler echocardiography was used to study central hemodynamic parameters and Doppler study was employed to examine regional blood flow in the anterior cerebral and renal arteries.Results. Infusion of 6% refortane and fresh frozen plasma at a rate of 10 ml/hour during an hour was found to normalize the parameters of central hemodynamics and regional blood flow.Conclusion. Comparative analysis of the findings suggests that 6% refortane is the drug of choice in correcting neonatal hypovolemia. Fresh frozen plasma should be infused in hemostatic disorders. 

  6. Corrected Age for Preemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Corrected Age For Preemies Page Content Article Body If your ...

  7. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  8. Leptin: a multifunctional hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is the protein product encoded by the obese (ob)gene. It is a circulating hormone produced primarily by the adipose tissue. ob/ob mice with mutations of the gene encoding leptin become morbidly obese, infertile, hyperphagic, hypothermic,and diabetic. Since the cloning of leptin in 1994, our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially. We now know that leptin signals through its receptor, OB-R, which is a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin also plays important roles in angiogenesis, immune function, fertility, and bone formation. Humans with mutations in the gene encoding leptin are also morbidly obese and respond to leptin treatment,demonstrating that enhancing or inhibiting leptin's activities in vivo may have potential therapeutic benefits.

  9. Types of Cancer Treatment: Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes how hormone therapy slows or stops the growth of breast and prostate cancers that use hormones to grow. Includes information about the types of hormone therapy and side effects that may happen.

  10. Correctness is not enough

    CERN Document Server

    Pryor, Louise

    2008-01-01

    The usual aim of spreadsheet audit is to verify correctness. There are two problems with this: first, it is often difficult to tell whether the spreadsheets in question are correct, and second, even if they are, they may still give the wrong results. These problems are explained in this paper, which presents the key criteria for judging a spreadsheet and discusses how those criteria can be achieved

  11. Adaptable DC offset correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  12. Multiple exportins influence thyroid hormone receptor localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kelly S; Dziedzic, Rose C; Nelson, Hallie N; Stern, Mary E; Roggero, Vincent R; Bondzi, Cornelius; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2015-08-15

    The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) undergoes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates target genes involved in metabolism and development. Previously, we showed that TR follows a CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway. However, two lines of evidence suggest TR also follows another pathway: export is only partially blocked by leptomycin B (LMB), a CRM1-specific inhibitor; and we identified nuclear export signals in TR that are LMB-resistant. To determine whether other exportins are involved in TR shuttling, we used RNA interference and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shuttling assays in transfected cells. Knockdown of exportins 4, 5, and 7 altered TR shuttling dynamics, and when exportins 5 and 7 were overexpressed, TR distribution shifted toward the cytosol. To further assess the effects of exportin overexpression, we examined transactivation of a TR-responsive reporter gene. Our data indicate that multiple exportins influence TR localization, highlighting a fine balance of nuclear import, retention, and export that modulates TR function.

  13. Is Titan Partially Differentiated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, G.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent measurement of the gravity coefficients from the Radio Doppler data of the Cassini spacecraft has improved our knowledge of the interior structure of Titan (Rappaport et al. 2008 AGU, P21A-1343). The measured gravity field of Titan is dominated by near hydrostatic quadrupole components. We have used the measured gravitational coefficients, thermal models and the hydrostatic equilibrium theory to derive Titan's interior structure. The axial moment of inertia gives us an indication of the degree of the interior differentiation. The inferred axial moment of inertia, calculated using the quadrupole gravitational coefficients and the Radau-Darwin approximation, indicates that Titan is partially differentiated. If Titan is partially differentiated then the interior must avoid melting of the ice during its evolution. This suggests a relatively late formation of Titan to avoid the presence of short-lived radioisotopes (Al-26). This also suggests the onset of convection after accretion to efficiently remove the heat from the interior. The outer layer is likely composed mainly of water in solid phase. Thermal modeling indicates that water could be present also in liquid phase forming a subsurface ocean between an outer ice I shell and a high pressure ice layer. Acknowledgments: This work was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  15. Hormonal programming across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, B M; Tobet, S A; Lara, H E; Lucion, A B; Wilson, M E; Recabarren, S E; Paredes, A H

    2012-07-01

    Hormones influence countless biological processes across an animal's lifespan. Many hormone-mediated events occur within developmental sensitive periods, during which hormones have the potential to cause permanent tissue-specific alterations in anatomy and physiology. There are numerous selective critical periods in development with different targets being affected during different periods. This review outlines the proceedings of the Hormonal Programming in Development session at the US-South American Workshop in Neuroendocrinology in August 2011. Here we discuss how gonadal steroid hormones impact various biological processes within the brain and gonads during early development and describe the changes that take place in the aging female ovary. At the cellular level, hormonal targets in the brain include neurons, glia, or vasculature. On a genomic/epigenomic level, transcription factor signaling and epigenetic changes alter the expression of critical hormone receptor genes across development and following ischemic brain insult. In addition, organizational hormone exposure alters epigenetic processes in specific brain nuclei and may be an important mediator of sexual differentiation of the neonatal brain. Brain targets of hormonal programming, such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, may be critical in influencing the development of peripheral targets, such as the ovary. Exposure to excess hormones can cause abnormalities in the ovary during development leading to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Exposure to excess androgens during fetal development also has a profound effect on the development of the male reproductive system. In addition, increased activity of the sympathetic nerve and stress during early life have been linked to PCOS symptomology in adulthood. Finally, we describe how age-related decreases in fertility are linked to high levels of nerve growth factor (NGF), which enhances sympathetic nerve activity and alters ovarian function.

  16. [Characteristics of polyamine biosynthesis regulation and tumor growth rate in hormone-dependant grafted breast tumors of mice and rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlovskiĭ, A A

    2007-01-01

    Effect of the inhibitors of polyamines biosynthesis on completely or partially hormone-dependant breast tumors (mouse Ca755 carcinoma and Walker W-256 carcinosarcoma) is essentially special: in contrary to hormone-dependant tumors, this effect may be not only breaking but stimulating as well. Change-over from one to another mode of reaction is conditioned, most probable, by hormonal status, which is determined by one or another estral cycle phase. Biochemical mechanisms of this change-over are closely connected with polyamines metabolism, namely the degree of polyamines (especially spermine) interconvertion and physiological reactivity level of the system controlling expression of ornithin-decarboxilase. At that, the first of these pathways is predominant for completely hormone-dependant Ca755 and the second one -for partially hormone-dependant W-256.

  17. Androgenic hormone profile of adult women with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marisa Gonzaga; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Machado, Carlos D Aparecida S

    2013-01-01

    Acne in adult women is a hard-to-manage frequent disease with many relapse cases. It mostly interferes with quality of life and causes major social and metabolic losses for patients. This is a transversal retrospective study and the aim was to standardize the research on circulating androgenic hormone levels and to detect hyperandrogenic states early, showing the frequency and the pattern of the altered hormones, useful resources to correctly evaluate each patient. In this study 835 women above 15 years of age, with acne or aggravation cases, were analyzed. The aim was to verify the percentage of androgen examinations with levels above normal. The levels of the hormones dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydrotestosterone, androstenedione and total testosterone were measured in all patients. The evaluation of the hormone profile showed that 54.56% of the patients had hyperandrogenism, and the levels of DHEA were most frequently elevated. Therefore, in the face of the importance of hyperandrogenism in the pathogenesis of acne, standardizing the research of the hormone profile is paramount for the treatment and control of relapses in case of a surge of acne breakouts during a woman's adult life.

  18. Hormonal approach in Hirsutism

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Nusratuddin

    2015-01-01

    Hinsutism is a clinical sign that primarily indicate androgen excess and open caused hy relatively benign junctional conditions. Hirsutism requires a careful and systematic clinical evaluation coztoleal with a rational approach to treatment. Initiate therapy only in patients who give informed consent after a complete explanation of the potential benejits and risks of a particular treatment and alternative approaches. The goals ofthe correct management of hirsutism are to ame...

  19. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  20. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, William R; 10.4204/EPTCS.66.8

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  1. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  2. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  3. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  4. Anatomically Correct Surface Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    using the learned statistics. A quantitative evaluation is performed on a data set of 10 laser scans of ear canal impressions with minimal noise and artificial holes. We also present a qualitative evaluation on authentic partial scans from an actual direct in ear scanner prototype. Compared to a state......We present a method for 3D surface recovery in partial surface scans. The method is based on an Active Shape Model, which is used to predict missing data. The model is constructed using a bootstrap framework, where an initially small collection of hand-annotated samples is used to fit...... to and register unknown samples, resulting in an extensive statistical model. The statistical recovery uses a multivariate point prediction, where the distribution of the points is given by the Active Shape Model. We show how missing data in a partial scan, once point correspondence is achieved, can be predicted...

  5. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  6. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  7. Partial model checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1995-01-01

    A major obstacle in applying finite-state model checking to the verification of large systems is the combinatorial explosion of the state space arising when many loosely coupled parallel processes are considered. The problem also known as the state-explosion problem has been attacked from various...... sides. This paper presents a new approach based on partial model checking where parts of the concurrent system are gradually removed while transforming the specification accordingly. When the intermediate specifications constructed in this manner can be kept small, the state-explosion problem is avoided....... Experimental results with a prototype implemented in Standard ML, shows that for Milner's Scheduler-an often used benchmark-this approach improves on the published results on binary decision diagrams and is comparable to results obtained using generalized decision diagrams. Specifications are expressed...

  8. Centrally Applied Somatostatin Inhibits the Estrogen-Induced Luteinizing Hormone Surge via Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Cell Activation in Female Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Heijning, van de H.J.M.; Beek, van der E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) as well as GH-deficiency dramatically impairs reproductive function. Decreased reproductive function as a result of altered GH release is, at least partially, due to changes at the hypothalamic-pituitary level. We hypothesize that hypothalamic somatostatin (SOM)

  9. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Avais; Pingitore, Alessandro; Pearce, Simon H S; Zaman, Azfar; Iervasi, Giorgio; Razvi, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial and vascular endothelial tissues have receptors for thyroid hormones and are sensitive to changes in the concentrations of circulating thyroid hormones. The importance of thyroid hormones in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis can be deduced from clinical and experimental data showing that even subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations - such as those observed in subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, and low triiodothyronine syndrome - adversely influence the cardiovascular system. Some potential mechanisms linking the two conditions are dyslipidaemia, endothelial dysfunction, blood pressure changes, and direct effects of thyroid hormones on the myocardium. Several interventional trials showed that treatment of subclinical thyroid diseases improves cardiovascular risk factors, which implies potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular events. Over the past 2 decades, accumulating evidence supports the association between abnormal thyroid function at the time of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that thyroid hormones can have an important therapeutic role in reducing infarct size and improving myocardial function after acute MI. In this Review, we summarize the literature on thyroid function in cardiovascular diseases, both as a risk factor as well as in the setting of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure or acute MI, and outline the effect of thyroid hormone replacement therapy for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Biological effects of thyroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Saatov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the findings from the study on multifunctional effects of thyroid hormones in relation to normal and malignantly transformed tissues and cells. Both “rapid” and «slow» effects of thyroid hormones including calorigenic effects and effects over adenylate cyclase – cAMP system have been described. Thyroxin (Т4 has been established capable to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of cells carrying Т4 receptors on their membranes as well as to change course of metabolic processes under its effect. Spectrum of Т4 targets is quite broad to include not only cells of hormone-producing organs, to name those of the breast and the colon, but also other types of cells to name melanin-containing ones; Т4 effects resulting in reconstruction of presentation of regulatory proteins on the cell membrane surface to ultimately activate the process of cell apoptosis. Our findings help determine alternative paths for hormonal regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis of cells of hormone-dependent tumors, breast cancer, in particular, upon impossibility to regulate the processes by conventional methods. This facilitates understanding mechanisms for activation of signal system of the breast cancer’s cells by hormones upon changes in expression of receptors on the cells’ surface, making possible development of novel strategy for replacement therapy of hormone-dependent tumors upon low efficacy of drug therapy.

  11. Target Uncertainty Mediates Sensorimotor Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    Human movements are prone to errors that arise from inaccuracies in both our perceptual processing and execution of motor commands. We can reduce such errors by both improving our estimates of the state of the world and through online error correction of the ongoing action. Two prominent frameworks that explain how humans solve these problems are Bayesian estimation and stochastic optimal feedback control. Here we examine the interaction between estimation and control by asking if uncertainty in estimates affects how subjects correct for errors that may arise during the movement. Unbeknownst to participants, we randomly shifted the visual feedback of their finger position as they reached to indicate the center of mass of an object. Even though participants were given ample time to compensate for this perturbation, they only fully corrected for the induced error on trials with low uncertainty about center of mass, with correction only partial in trials involving more uncertainty. The analysis of subjects' scores revealed that participants corrected for errors just enough to avoid significant decrease in their overall scores, in agreement with the minimal intervention principle of optimal feedback control. We explain this behavior with a term in the loss function that accounts for the additional effort of adjusting one's response. By suggesting that subjects' decision uncertainty, as reflected in their posterior distribution, is a major factor in determining how their sensorimotor system responds to error, our findings support theoretical models in which the decision making and control processes are fully integrated.

  12. Target Uncertainty Mediates Sensorimotor Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Human movements are prone to errors that arise from inaccuracies in both our perceptual processing and execution of motor commands. We can reduce such errors by both improving our estimates of the state of the world and through online error correction of the ongoing action. Two prominent frameworks that explain how humans solve these problems are Bayesian estimation and stochastic optimal feedback control. Here we examine the interaction between estimation and control by asking if uncertainty in estimates affects how subjects correct for errors that may arise during the movement. Unbeknownst to participants, we randomly shifted the visual feedback of their finger position as they reached to indicate the center of mass of an object. Even though participants were given ample time to compensate for this perturbation, they only fully corrected for the induced error on trials with low uncertainty about center of mass, with correction only partial in trials involving more uncertainty. The analysis of subjects’ scores revealed that participants corrected for errors just enough to avoid significant decrease in their overall scores, in agreement with the minimal intervention principle of optimal feedback control. We explain this behavior with a term in the loss function that accounts for the additional effort of adjusting one’s response. By suggesting that subjects’ decision uncertainty, as reflected in their posterior distribution, is a major factor in determining how their sensorimotor system responds to error, our findings support theoretical models in which the decision making and control processes are fully integrated. PMID:28129323

  13. Genotoxic potential of nonsteroidal hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormones are cellular products involved in the regulation of a large number of processes in living systems, and which by their actions affect the growth, function and metabolism of cells. Considering that hormones are compounds normally present in the organism, it is important to determine if they can, under certain circumstances, lead to genetic changes in the hereditary material. Numerous experimental studies in vitro and in vivo in different systems, from bacteria to mammals, dealt with the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of hormones. This work presents an overview of the research on genotoxic effects of non­steroidal hormones, although possible changes of genetic material under their influence have not still been known enough, and moreover, investigations on their genotoxic influence have given conflicting results. The study results show that mechanisms of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones are manifested through the increase of oxidative stress by arising reactive oxygen species. A common mechanism of ROS occurence in thyroid hormones and catecholamines is through metabolic oxidation of their phenolic groups. Manifestation of insulin genotoxic effect is based on production of ROS by activation of NADPH isophorms, while testing oxytocin showed absence of genotoxic effect. Considering that the investigations on genotoxicity of nonsteroidal hormones demonstrated both positive and negative results, the explanation of this discordance involve limitations of test systems themselves, different cell types or biological species used in the experiments, different level of reactivity in vitro and in vivo, as well as possible variations in a tissue-specific expression. Integrated, the provided data contribute to better understanding of genotoxic effect of nonsteroidal hormones and point out to the role and mode of action of these hormones in the process of occurring of effects caused by oxidative stress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  14. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone (GHRH) and increased somatostatin secretion to this phenomenon. ... negative feedback effects of IGF-1 or combinations of these factors. Studies to ..... increase in lean body mass and reduction in adipose tissue.6. Reduced GH ...

  15. Hormonal signaling in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Clémence D; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Duca, Frank A; Lam, Tony K T

    2014-04-25

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes.

  16. Hormonal Signaling in the Gut*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Clémence D.; Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Rasmussen, Brittany A.; Duca, Frank A.; Lam, Tony K. T.

    2014-01-01

    The gut is anatomically positioned to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis, providing negative feedback via nutrient sensing and local hormonal signaling. Gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are released following a meal and act on local receptors to regulate glycemia via a neuronal gut-brain axis. Additionally, jejunal nutrient sensing and leptin action are demonstrated to suppress glucose production, and both are required for the rapid antidiabetic effect of duodenal jejunal bypass surgery. Strategies aimed at targeting local gut hormonal signaling pathways may prove to be efficacious therapeutic options to improve glucose control in diabetes. PMID:24577102

  17. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  18. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  19. CORRECTING STUDENTS’ HOMEWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionI have been teaching English for ten years and like many other teachers in middle schools.I teach threebig classes each year.Before I had the opportunity to further my study in the SMSTT project run jointlyby the British Council and the State Education Commission of China at Southwest China TeachersUniversity.I found it somewhat difficult to correct students homework since I had so many students.Now I still have three big classes.but I have found it casier to correct students homework since I havebeen combining the techniques learned in the project with my own successful experience.In this article.I attempt to discuss my approach to correcting students homework.I hope that it will be of some use tothose who have not vet had the opportunity to further their training.

  20. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... statebased on an idealized mechanical model to be adapted to the original limit state by the model correction factor. Reliable approximations are obtained by iterative use of gradient information on the original limit state function analogously to previous response surface approaches. However, the strength...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  1. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults; Silla turca vacia asociada a disfuncion hormonal en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain); Merino, M. [Hospital General Yague (Spain); Delgado, A. [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs.

  2. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, I P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  3. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  4. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding of partial derivatives across three disciplines: physics, engineering and mathematics. Our interviews made use of the Partial Derivative Machine (PDM), which is a mechanical system featuring four observable and controllable properties, of which any two are independent. Using the PDM, we probed expert understanding of partial derivatives in an experimental context in which there is not a known functional form. Through these three interviews, we found that the mathematicians exhibited a striking difference in their underst...

  5. Growth hormone and somatostatin in glomerular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, L; Fouqueray, B; Bellocq, A; Doublier, S; Dumoulin, A

    1999-01-01

    Among other neuropeptides and neurohormones, growth hormone (GH) and somatostatin (SRIF) have been shown to modulate the development of glomerular injury in various renal diseases. In particular, GH is implicated in the induction of glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis in partial nephrectomy and diabetic nephropathy. While GH effects on glomerular hypertrophy are likely mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), GH effects on glomerular sclerosis are independent of IGF-I. Those effects rather require multiple signaling pathways functioning in series, e.g. angiotensin II binding preceding transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) release, or pro-inflammatory factor release preceding repair/scarring processes. In contrast with GH, SRIF administration prevents the development of glomerular lesions in experimental diabetes, partial nephrectomy and immune glomerulonephritis. Inhibitory effects of SRIF on glomerular hypotrophy may be through a decrease in GH secretion and/or IGF-I expression or through a direct blockade of glomerular cell proliferation. The mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of SRIF are most likely a deactivation of inflammatory cells related in part to an upregulated response of these cells to glucocorticoids. Additional studies will be required to further define the role of GH and SRIF in the development of glomerular injury and, hence, to identify new targets for a therapeutic approach in glomerular diseases.

  6. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  7. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  8. Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer ... Myths and Misconceptions Diet Hormones Immunosuppression Infectious Agents Obesity Radiation Sunlight Tobacco Genetics NCI Cancer Genetics Services ...

  9. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  10. Organizational Actions of Metabolic Hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Bouret, Sebastien G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain development is a complex and dynamic process, and many environmental factors have been found to influence the normal development of neural pathways. Cumulative evidence suggests that metabolic hormones that regulate the hypothalamic circuits that control energy homeostasis function in much the same way that sex steroids act on sexually dimorphic circuits. For example, although the effects of the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin were originally thought to be limited to the neural control...

  11. Does growth hormone cause cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, P.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Shalet, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;Acromegaly;Adult;Animals;cancer epidemiology;complications;Child;Child Development;Colorectal Neoplasms;deficiency;epidemiology;etiology;Evaluation;Growth Hormone;Human Growth Hormone;Humans;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Neoplasm Recurrence,Local;Neoplasms;Neoplasms,Multiple Primary;physiology;physiopathology;Risk Factors;secretion;therapy. The ability of GH, via its mediator peptide IGF-1, to influence regulation of ce...

  12. Simple hormones but complex signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Hannes; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2003-02-01

    It has not been easy to make sense of the pleiotropic effects of plant hormones, especially of auxins; but now, it has become possible to study these effects within the framework of what we know about signal transduction in general. Changes in local auxin concentrations, perhaps even actively maintained auxin gradients, signal to networks of transcription factors, which in turn signal to downstream effectors. Transcription factors can also signal back to hormone biosynthetic pathways.

  13. Removable partial denture occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, John R; Plummer, Kevin D

    2004-07-01

    No single occlusal morphology, scheme, or material will successfully treat all patients. Many patients have been treated, both successfully and unsuccessfully, using widely varying theories of occlusion, choices of posterior tooth form, and restorative materials. Therefore, experience has demonstrated that there is no one righ r way to restore the occlusion of all patients. Partially edentulous patients have many and varied needs. Clinicians must understand the healthy physiologic gnathostomatic system and properly diagnose what is or may become pathologic. Henderson [3] stated that the occlusion of the successfully treated patient allows the masticating mechanism to carry out its physiologic functions while the temporomandibular joints, the neuromuscular mechanism, the teeth and their supporting structures remain in a good state of health. Skills in diagnosis and treatment planning are of utmost importance in treating these patients, for whom the clinician's goals are not only an esthetic and functional restoration but also a lasting harmonious state. Perhaps this was best state by DeVan [55] more than 60 years ago in his often-quoted objective. "The patient's fundamental need is the continued meticulous restoration of what is missing, since what is lost is in a sense irretrievably lost." Because it is clear that there is no one method, no one occlusal scheme, or one material that guarantees success for all patients, recommendations for consideration when establishing or reestablishing occlusal schemes have been presented. These recommendations must be used in conjunction with other diagnostic and technical skills.

  14. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  15. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  16. Refraction corrections for surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  17. Renormalons and Power Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Even for short-distance dominated observables the QCD perturbation expansion is never complete. The divergence of the expansion through infrared renormalons provides formal evidence of this fact. In this article we review how this apparent failure can be turned into a useful tool to investigate power corrections to hard processes in QCD.

  18. Radiative Corrections and Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Radiative corrections to parity violating deep inelastic electron scattering are reviewed including a discussion of the renormalization group evolution of the weak mixing angle. Recently obtained results on hypothetical Z' bosons - for which parity violating observables play an important role - are also presented.

  19. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  20. ERRORS AND CORRECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    To err is human . Since the 1960s, most second language teachers or language theorists have regarded errors as natural and inevitable in the language learning process . Instead of regarding them as terrible and disappointing, teachers have come to realize their value. This paper will consider these values, analyze some errors and propose some effective correction techniques.

  1. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of jaws and teeth. Surgery can improve chewing, speaking and breathing. While the patient's appearance may be dramatically enhanced as a result of their surgery, orthognathic surgery is performed to correct functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on ...

  2. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... functional problems. Jaw Surgery can have a dramatic effect on many aspects of life. Following are some of the conditions that may indicate the need for corrective jaw surgery: Difficulty chewing, or biting food Difficulty swallowing Chronic jaw or jaw joint (TMJ) ...

  3. Corrections for collaborators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1953-01-01

    In the ”Directions and Hints” for collaborators in Flora Malesiana, which has been forwarded to all collaborators, two corrections should be made, viz: 1) p. 12; Omit the explanatory notes under Jamaica Plain, Mass., and Cambridge, Mass. 2) p. 13; Add as number 12a; Stockholm, Paleobotaniska Avdelni

  4. General forecasting correcting formula

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A general forecasting correcting formula, as a framework for long-use and standardized forecasts, is created. The formula provides new forecasting resources and new possibilities for expansion of forecasting including economic forecasting into the areas of municipal needs, middle-size and small-size business and, even, to individual forecasting.

  5. The evolution of peptide hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niall, H D

    1982-01-01

    Despite limitations in our present knowledge it is already possible to discern the main features of peptide hormone evolution, since the same mechanisms (and indeed the same hormone molecules) function in many different ways. This underlying unity of organization has its basis in the tendency of biochemical networks, once established, to survive and diversify. The most surprising recent findings in endocrinology have been the discovery of vertebrate peptide hormones in multiple sites within the same organism, and the reports, persuasive but requiring confirmation, of vertebrate hormones in primitive unicellular organisms (20, 20a). Perhaps the major challenge for the future is to define the roles and interactions of the many peptide hormones identified in brain (18). The most primitive bacteria and the human brain, though an enormous evolutionary distance apart, may have more in common than we have recognized until now. As Axelrod & Hamilton have pointed out in a recent provocative article, "The Evolution of Cooperation" (1), bacteria, though lacking a brain, are capable of adaptive behavior that can be analysed in terms of game theory. It is clear that we can learn a great deal about the whole evolutionary process from a study of the versatile and durable peptide hormones molecules.

  6. Steroid hormones and sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán-Pérez, G; Arana-Lechuga, Y; Esqueda-León, E; Santana-Miranda, R; Rojas-Zamorano, J Á; Velázquez Moctezuma, J

    2012-10-01

    In the search of the sleep substance, many studies have been addressed for different hormones, responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. In this article we mentioned the participation of steroid hormones, besides its role regulating sexual behavior, they influence importantly in the sleep process. One of the clearest relationships are that estrogen and progesterone have, that causing changes in sleep patterns associated with the hormonal cycles of women throughout life, from puberty to menopause and specific periods such as pregnancy and the menstrual cycle, including being responsible for some sleep disorders such as hypersomnia and insomnia. Another studied hormone is cortisol, a hormone released in stressful situations, when an individual must react to an extraordinary demand that threatens their survival, but also known as the hormone of awakening because the release peak occurs in the morning, although this may be altered in some sleep disorders like insomnia and mood disorders. Furthermore neurosteroids such as pregnanolone, allopregnanolone and pregnenolone are involved in the generation of slow wave sleep, the effect has been demonstrated in experimental animal studies. Thus we see that the sleep and the endocrine system saved a bidirectional relationship in which depends on each other to regulate different physiological processes including sleep.

  7. Natriuretic hormones in brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLichtstein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natriuretic hormones include three groups of compounds: the natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP, the gastrointestinal peptides (guanylin and uroguanylin, and endogenous cardiac steroids. These substances induce the kidney to excrete sodium and therefore participate in the regulation of sodium and water homeostasis, blood volume and blood pressure. In addition to their peripheral functions, these hormones act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain. In this review, the established information on the biosynthesis, release and function of natriuretic hormones is discussed, with particular focus on their role in brain function. The available literature on the expression patterns of each of the natriuretic hormones and their receptors in the brain will be summarized, followed by the evidence for their roles in modulating brain function. Although numerous open questions exist regarding this issue, the available data support the notion that natriuretic hormones participate in the central regulation of blood pressure, neuroprotection, satiety, and various psychiatric conditions, including: anxiety, addiction and depressive disorders. In addition, the interactions between the different natriuretic hormones in the periphery and the brain are discussed.

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  10. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  11. Effects of the antithyroid agent propylthiouracil in a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, Leo T M van der; Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den; Vos, José H; Power, Deborah M; Wester, Piet W

    2006-01-01

    Some ubiquitous pollutants of the aquatic environment, such as PCBs or other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, may disrupt the thyroid hormone system. In a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio), we studied the effects of the reference compound propylthiouracil (PTU) on reproduct

  12. Effects of the antithyroid agent propylthiouracil in a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, Leo T M van der; Brandhof, Evert-Jan van den; Vos, José H; Power, Deborah M; Wester, Piet W

    2006-01-01

    Some ubiquitous pollutants of the aquatic environment, such as PCBs or other polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, may disrupt the thyroid hormone system. In a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish (Danio rerio), we studied the effects of the reference compound propylthiouracil (PTU) on

  13. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  14. Removable partial dentures without rests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinig, D A

    1994-04-01

    Ever since Bonwill recommended the use of rests on removable partial dentures in 1899, rests have been universally considered inviolate and have gone unchallenged and untested. The author claims that removable partial dentures without rests may not cause the adverse conditions usually predicted, such as gingival stripping, gingival inflammation, mutilated residual ridges, or extensive and rapid resorption of the alveolar ridges. In removable partial dentures made by the author for several patients, the residual ridge remained stable and in physiologic equilibrium when rests were not used. A history of the long-term effect on patients wearing partial dentures with and without rests is presented.

  15. On the electrodynamics of partial discharges in voids in solid dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Aage

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested that a correct interpretation of partial-discharge transients can be obtained only through the concept of induced charge. The application of this concept enables a partial-discharge theory to be developed by means of which the influence of relevant void parameters can be assessed ...

  16. Partial volume effects in dynamic contrast magnetic resonance renal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, D. Rodriguez, E-mail: drodriguez@biotronics3d.co [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Wells, K., E-mail: k.wells@surrey.ac.u [CVSSP, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey (United Kingdom); Diaz Montesdeoca, O., E-mail: o.diaz.montesdeoca@gmail.co [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Moran Santana, A. [EUITT, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Mendichovszky, I.A., E-mail: iosifm@hotmail.co [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom); Gordon, I., E-mail: i.gordon@ich.ucl.ac.u [Radiology and Physics Unit, UCL Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This is the first study of partial volume effect in quantifying renal function on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic image data were acquired for a cohort of 10 healthy volunteers. Following respiratory motion correction, each voxel location was assigned a mixing vector representing the 'overspilling' contributions of each tissue due to the convolution action of the imaging system's point spread function. This was used to recover the true intensities associated with each constituent tissue. Thus, non-renal contributions from liver, spleen and other surrounding tissues could be eliminated from the observed time-intensity curves derived from a typical renal cortical region of interest. This analysis produced a change in the early slope of the renal curve, which subsequently resulted in an enhanced glomerular filtration rate estimate. This effect was consistently observed in a Rutland-Patlak analysis of the time-intensity data: the volunteer cohort produced a partial volume effect corrected mean enhancement of 36% in relative glomerular filtration rate with a mean improvement of 7% in r{sup 2} fitting of the Rutland-Patlak model compared to the same analysis undertaken without partial volume effect correction. This analysis strongly supports the notion that dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of kidneys is substantially affected by the partial volume effect, and that this is a significant obfuscating factor in subsequent glomerular filtration rate estimation.

  17. Thyroid Hormone Deiodinases and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBianco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Deiodinases constitute a group of thioredoxin-containing selenoenzymes that play an important function in thyroid hormone homeostasis and control of thyroid hormone action. There are three known deiodinases: D1 and D2 activate the pro-hormone thyroxine (T4 to T3, the most active form of thyroid hormone, while D3 inactivates thyroid hormone and terminates T3 action. A number of studies indicate that deiodinase expression is altered in several types of cancers, suggesting that (i they may represent a useful cancer marker and/or (ii could play a role in modulating cell proliferation - in different settings thyroid hormone modulates cell proliferation. For example, although D2 is minimally expressed in human and rodent skeletal muscle, its expression level in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS-13 cells is 3-4 fold higher. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC cells, sonic hedgehog (Shh-induced cell proliferation is accompanied by induction of D3 and inactivation of D2. Interestingly a 5-fold reduction in the growth of BCC in nude mice was observed if D3 expression was knocked down. A decrease in D1 activity has been described in renal clear cell carcinoma, primary liver cancer, lung cancer, and some pituitary tumors, while in breast cancer cells and tissue there is an increase in D1 activity. Furthermore D1 mRNA and activity were found to be decreased in papillary thyroid cancer while D1 and D2 activities were significantly higher in follicular thyroid cancer tissue, in follicular adenoma and in anaplastic thyroid cancer. It is conceivable that understanding how deiodinase dysregulation in tumor cells affect thyroid hormone signaling and possibly interfere with tumor progression could lead to new antineoplastic approaches.

  18. Blepharoptosis correction with buried suture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Woo; Kang, Moon Seok; Nam, Seung Min; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-02-01

    Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct blepharoptosis, including the anterior levator resection or advancement, tarsoaponeurectomy, and Fasanella-Servat Müllerectomy. However, to minimize surgical scarring and reduce the postoperative recovery time, the procedure has been developed from a complete incision to a partial incision, which is appealing to patients. To aid the procedural development, this study describes a surgical technique in which the correction of blepharoptosis and a double eyelid fold operation are performed using a buried suture technique during the same operation. A retrospective review was conducted using the medical records and preoperative and postoperative photography of 121 patients who underwent simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis and had a double eyelid fold created between October 2010 and July 2011. All of the patients had mild (1-2 mm) or moderate (3-4 mm) bilateral blepharoptosis and excellent or good levator function (>8 mm). The average preoperative marginal reflex distance (MRD1) measured 1.174 (0.3) mm. No intraoperative complications occurred. The average postoperative MRD1 measured 3.968 (0.2) mm. There was statistical significance improvement between preoperative MRD1 and postoperative MRD1 (Pexposure keratopathy were noted. Blepharoptosis correction using the buried suture technique is an effective technique for young patients experiencing mild to moderate blepharoptosis who want to have the double eyelid fold operation using the buried suture technique.

  19. Radiative corrections to DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2008-01-01

    Early deep inelastic scattering (DIS) experiments at SLAC discovered partons, identified them as quarks and gluons, and restricted the set of the candidate theories for strong interactions to those exhibiting the asymptotic freedom property. The next generation DIS experiments at FNAL and CERN confirmed the predictions of QCD for the size of the scaling violation effects in the nucleon structure functions. The QCD fits to their data resulted in determining the momentum distributions of the point-like constituents of nucleons. Interpretation of data coming from all these experiments and, in the case of the SLAC experiments, even an elaboration of the running strategies, would not have been possible without a precise understanding of the electromagnetic radiative corrections. In this note I recollect the important milestones, achieved in the period preceding the HERA era, in the high precision calculations of the radiative corrections to DIS, and in the development of the methods of their experimental control. ...

  20. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  1. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  2. Correcting Duporcq's theorem☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawratil, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In 1898, Ernest Duporcq stated a famous theorem about rigid-body motions with spherical trajectories, without giving a rigorous proof. Today, this theorem is again of interest, as it is strongly connected with the topic of self-motions of planar Stewart–Gough platforms. We discuss Duporcq's theorem from this point of view and demonstrate that it is not correct. Moreover, we also present a revised version of this theorem. PMID:25540467

  3. Congenitally corrected transposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debich-Spicer Diane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenitally corrected transposition is a rare cardiac malformation characterized by the combination of discordant atrioventricular and ventriculo-arterial connections, usually accompanied by other cardiovascular malformations. Incidence has been reported to be around 1/33,000 live births, accounting for approximately 0.05% of congenital heart malformations. Associated malformations may include interventricular communications, obstructions of the outlet from the morphologically left ventricle, and anomalies of the tricuspid valve. The clinical picture and age of onset depend on the associated malformations, with bradycardia, a single loud second heart sound and a heart murmur being the most common manifestations. In the rare cases where there are no associated malformations, congenitally corrected transposition can lead to progressive atrioventricular valvar regurgitation and failure of the systemic ventricle. The diagnosis can also be made late in life when the patient presents with complete heart block or cardiac failure. The etiology of congenitally corrected transposition is currently unknown, and with an increase in incidence among families with previous cases of congenitally corrected transposition reported. Diagnosis can be made by fetal echocardiography, but is more commonly made postnatally with a combination of clinical signs and echocardiography. The anatomical delineation can be further assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and catheterization. The differential diagnosis is centred on the assessing if the patient is presenting with isolated malformations, or as part of a spectrum. Surgical management consists of repair of the associated malformations, or redirection of the systemic and pulmonary venous return associated with an arterial switch procedure, the so-called double switch approach. Prognosis is defined by the associated malformations, and on the timing and approach to palliative surgical care.

  4. Derivative corrections in 10-dimensional super-Maxwell theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collinucci, A; de Roo, M; Eenink, MGC; Eenink, Martijn G.C.

    2003-01-01

    We construct the supersymmetric effective action at order alpha'(4) of the abelian open superstring. It includes the alpha'4 terms in the abelian Born-Infeld action, and in particular the leading derivative correction of the form partial derivative(4)F(4). Besides linear supersymmetry this sector of

  5. Numerical correction of aberrations via phase retrieval with speckle illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    What we believe to be a novel technique for wavefront aberration measurement using speckle patterns is presented. The aberration correction is done numerically. A tilted lens is illuminated with a partially developed speckle field, and the transmitted light intensity is sampled at axially displaced...

  6. Phase error correction in wavefront curvature sensing via phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2008-01-01

    Wavefront curvature sensing with phase error correction system is carried out using phase retrieval based on a partially-developed volume speckle field. Various wavefronts are reconstructed: planar, spherical, cylindrical, and a wavefront passing through the side of a bare optical fiber. Spurious...

  7. Lexicographic Shellability of Partial Involutions

    CERN Document Server

    Can, Mahir Bilen

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript we study inclusion posets of Borel orbit closures on (symmetric) matrices. In particular, we show that the Bruhat poset of partial involutions is a lexicographiically shellable poset. Also, studying the embeddings of symmetric groups and involutions into rooks and partial involutions, respectively, we find new $EL$-labelings on permutations as well as on involutions.

  8. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  9. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  10. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  11. Permutation and Its Partial Transpose

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Werner, R F; Zhang, Yong; Kauffman, Louis H.; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2006-01-01

    Permutation and its partial transpose play important roles in quantum information theory. The Werner state is recognized as a rational solution of the Yang--Baxter equation, and the isotropic state with an adjustable parameter is found to form a braid representation. The set of permutation's partial transposes is an algebra called the "PPT" algebra which guides the construction of multipartite symmetric states. The virtual knot theory having permutation as a virtual crossing provides a topological language describing quantum computation having permutation as a swap gate. In this paper, permutation's partial transpose is identified with an idempotent of the Temperley--Lieb algebra. The algebra generated by permutation and its partial transpose is found to be the Brauer algebra. The linear combinations of identity, permutation and its partial transpose can form various projectors describing tangles; braid representations; virtual braid representations underlying common solutions of the braid relation and Yang--...

  12. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  13. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...... under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization or differentiated posttranslational...

  14. MRI intensity inhomogeneity correction by combining intensity and spatial information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2004-09-07

    We propose a novel fully automated method for retrospective correction of intensity inhomogeneity, which is an undesired phenomenon in many automatic image analysis tasks, especially if quantitative analysis is the final goal. Besides most commonly used intensity features, additional spatial image features are incorporated to improve inhomogeneity correction and to make it more dynamic, so that local intensity variations can be corrected more efficiently. The proposed method is a four-step iterative procedure in which a non-parametric inhomogeneity correction is conducted. First, the probability distribution of image intensities and corresponding second derivatives is obtained. Second, intensity correction forces, condensing the probability distribution along the intensity feature, are computed for each voxel. Third, the inhomogeneity correction field is estimated by regularization of all voxel forces, and fourth, the corresponding partial inhomogeneity correction is performed. The degree of inhomogeneity correction dynamics is determined by the size of regularization kernel. The method was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on simulated and real MR brain images. The obtained results show that the proposed method does not corrupt inhomogeneity-free images and successfully corrects intensity inhomogeneity artefacts even if these are more dynamic.

  15. Normal breast physiology: the reasons hormonal contraceptives and induced abortion increase breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Angela

    2014-01-01

    A woman gains protection from breast cancer by completing a full-term pregnancy. In utero, her offspring produce hormones that mature 85 percent of the mother's breast tissue into cancer-resistant breast tissue. If the pregnancy ends through an induced abortion or a premature birth before thirty-two weeks, the mother's breasts will have only partially matured, retaining even more cancer-susceptible breast tissue than when the pregnancy began. This increased amount of immature breast tissue will leave the mother with more sites for cancer initiation, thereby increasing her risk of breast cancer. Hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk by their proliferative effect on breast tissue and their direct carcinogenic effects on DNA. Hormonal contraceptives include estrogen-progestin combination drugs prescribed in any manner of delivery: orally, transdermally, vaginally, or intrauterine. This article provides the detailed physiology and data that elucidate the mechanisms through which induced abortion and hormonal contraceptives increase breast-cancer risk.

  16. RISUG:A new perspective in non-hormonal male contraception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Vineet Mehta; Dinesh Kumar; Nitesh

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are several hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception available but due to long term side effects of hormonal contraceptives, a great research is undergoing to develop an effective and noninvasive non- hormonal male contraceptive. One of the product of this research is RISUG (an acronym for the Reversible Inhibition of Sperm Under Guidance). RISUG is a co-polymer of Styrene Maleic Anhydride (SMA) dissolved in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) to form a gel. This gel is then introduced in the lumen of male vas deferens which results in the partial blockage of vas deferens. It causes the disruption of the membrane of spermatozoa and release of enzymes that are essential for the fertilization of ova. Thus the ejaculation after RISUG contains infertile spermatozoa.

  17. [Thyroid hormones and their precursors. II. Species-specific properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gergo; Noszál, Béla

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the species-specific physico-chemical parameters (basicity and lipophilicity) and related biological functions of thyroid hormones (thyroxine, liothyronine and reverse liothyronine) and their biological precursors (tyrosine, monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine). The protonation macroconstants were determined by 1H NMR-pH titrations while the microconstants were determined by a multimodal spectroscopic-deductive methodology using auxiliary derivatives of reduced complexity. Our results show that the different number and/or position of iodine are the key factors to influence the phenolate basicity. The ionization state of the phenolate site is crucial in the biosynthesis and protein binding of thyroid hormones. The role of the protonation state in the receptor binding was investigated by an in silico docking method. Microspecies of thyroid hormones were docked to the thyroid hormone receptor isoforms. Our results quantitate at the molecular level how the ionization stage and the charge distribution influence the protein binding. The anionic form of the carboxyl group is essential for the protein binding, whereas the protonated form of the amino group loosens it. The protonation state of the phenolate plays a role of secondary importance in the receptor binding. The combined results of docking and microspeciation studies show that microspecies of the highest concentration at the pH of blood are not the strongest binding ones. The site-specific lipophilicity of our investigated molecules was determined with the measurement of distribution coefficients at different pH using carboxymethyl- and O-methyl-derivatives to mimic the partition of some of the individual microspecies. Correction factors were determined and introduced. Our data show that the iodinated aromatic ring system is the definitive structural element that fundamentally determines the lipophilicity of thyroid hormones, whereas the protonation state of the aliphatic part is essential in

  18. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  19. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed.

  20. [Women, immunity and sexual hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenberg, R

    1995-01-01

    How a weakened immune system affects the female's reproductive system is explained. The female's endocrine system controls the menstrual and reproductive systems, and the immune system attacks harmful substances and organisms. The hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to produce the hormones FSH and LH, which in turn signal the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones cause a mature egg to be released. If fertilized, the egg remains within the uterus; if not, menstruation occurs. HIV-positive females often complain of menstrual cycle changes, such as irregular periods, depression, or pain. The virus, other complications, or medications, such as AZT, may cause these symptoms. Estrogen therapy may help those with suppressed immune systems who have premature menopause. Oral contraceptives offer protection against pregnancy, but not HIV. It is not known if the pill reacts adversely with AIDS treatment drugs. Lists are provided showing the pros and cons of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy.

  1. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone treated with frusemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C

    1982-07-10

    Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction.

  2. Inverse problems for partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Isakov, Victor

    2017-01-01

    This third edition expands upon the earlier edition by adding nearly 40 pages of new material reflecting the analytical and numerical progress in inverse problems in last 10 years. As in the second edition, the emphasis is on new ideas and methods rather than technical improvements. These new ideas include use of the stationary phase method in the two-dimensional elliptic problems and of multi frequencies\\temporal data to improve stability and numerical resolution. There are also numerous corrections and improvements of the exposition throughout. This book is intended for mathematicians working with partial differential equations and their applications, physicists, geophysicists, and financial, electrical, and mechanical engineers involved with nondestructive evaluation, seismic exploration, remote sensing, and various kinds of tomography. Review of the second edition: "The first edition of this excellent book appeared in 1998 and became a standard reference for everyone interested in analysis and numerics of...

  3. Hormones and prostate cancer: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, A W

    2001-01-01

    In summary, the hormonal hypothesis remains one of the most important hypotheses in prostate cancer etiology. Although epidemiologic data regarding the role of hormones are still inconclusive, there are many intriguing leads. Armed with more complete methodological data, state-of-the-art hormone assays, sound epidemiologic design, and a more thorough analytical approach, a new generation of studies should yield critical data and insights to help clarify further the role of hormones in prostate cancer. These new studies may determine ultimately whether racial/ethnic differences in hormonal levels and in genetic susceptibility to hormone-metabolizing genes can help explain the very large racial/ethnic differences in prostate cancer risk.

  4. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  5. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  6. Chicago aberration correction work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, V.D., E-mail: vnlbeck@earthlink.net [1 Hobby Drive, Ridgefield, CT 06877-01922 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crewe and his group made significant advances in aberration correction and reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A deeper understanding of the quadrupole octopole corrector was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A scheme to correct spherical aberration using hexapoles was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatic aberration was corrected using a uniform field mirror.

  7. HOW CORRECTION CAN MOTIVATE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionMistakes and their correction generally follow one another in the language classroom.Most teachersthink that correction is a necessary part of teaching;while most students agree that making mistakesis a necessary part of learning.Although both teachers and students maintain that correction andmistakes are necessary,we often find that some correction helps students’ learning and some does not.Correction can make students lose confidence and interest in learning.In order to try and find outmore about why this happens I surveyed students attitudes towards mistakes and correction.

  8. Experimental repetitive quantum error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Philipp; Barreiro, Julio T; Monz, Thomas; Nebendahl, Volckmar; Nigg, Daniel; Chwalla, Michael; Hennrich, Markus; Blatt, Rainer

    2011-05-27

    The computational potential of a quantum processor can only be unleashed if errors during a quantum computation can be controlled and corrected for. Quantum error correction works if imperfections of quantum gate operations and measurements are below a certain threshold and corrections can be applied repeatedly. We implement multiple quantum error correction cycles for phase-flip errors on qubits encoded with trapped ions. Errors are corrected by a quantum-feedback algorithm using high-fidelity gate operations and a reset technique for the auxiliary qubits. Up to three consecutive correction cycles are realized, and the behavior of the algorithm for different noise environments is analyzed.

  9. Hormones and the Autonomic Nervous System are Involved in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Modulation of Glucose Homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, M.; Buijs, R.M.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is one of the most important energy sources for the body in general, and the brain in particular. It is essential for survival to keep glucose levels within strict boundaries. Acute disturbances of glucose homeostasis are rapidly corrected by hormonal and neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, ch

  10. Calculating correct compilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high-level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers...... falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language features and their combination, including arithmetic expressions, exceptions, state, various forms...

  11. [Correction of hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M

    1998-12-01

    A thorough evaluation of both urethral and penile malformation are mandatory for the choice of the best surgical treatment of patients with hypospadias. The site and the size of the urethral meatus, the presence of a chordee and of a velamentous distal urethra must be carefully assessed. In distal (glandular and coronal) hypospadias, the meatal advancement with glanduloplasty is the treatment of choice. In proximal hypospadias with chordee, the transverse preputial island flap according to the Duckett's technique allows a one-stage hypospadias repair. The awareness of the possible psychologic impact of genital malformations in childhood recommends an early correction of hypospadias, if possible during the first year of life.

  12. [Correction of paralytic lagophthalmos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskusnykh, N S; Grusha, Y O

    2015-01-01

    Current options for correction of paralytic lagophthalmos are either temporary (external eyelid weight placement, hyaluronic acid gel or botulinum toxin A injection) or permanent (various procedures for narrowing of the palpebral fissure, upper eyelid weights or spring implantation). Neuroplastic surgery (cross-facial nerve grafting, nerve anastomoses) and muscle transposition surgery is not effective enough. The majority of elderly and medically compromised patients should not be considered for such complicated and long procedures. Upper eyelid weight implantation thus appears the most reliable and simple treatment.

  13. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  14. Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn

    2009-01-01

    Giving feedback on second language (L2) writing is a challenging task. This research proposed an interactive environment for error correction and corrective feedback. First, we developed an online corrective feedback and error analysis system called "Online Annotator for EFL Writing". The system consisted of five facilities: Document Maker,…

  15. PARTIAL SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; LIU Zeng-rong

    2005-01-01

    A new method for partial synchronization between different systems was obtained. The definition of partial synchronization under which the problem works is given. The stability of the method is analyzed by the Liapunov function method and the condition of choosing the control term is derived. The reliability of this method is proved by some numerical examples, in which the dynamical behaviors of the synchronized systems are observed and it is found that whatever state the response system is partial synchronization can be always achieved by adding some proper control term.

  16. An "enigmatic" L-carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine)? Cell proliferative activity as a fundamental property of a natural dipeptide inherent to traditional antioxidant, anti-aging biological activities: balancing and a hormonally correct agent, novel patented oral therapy dosage formulation for mobility, skeletal muscle power and functional performance, hypothalamic-pituitary- brain relationship in health, aging and stress studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones are major neuroendocrine regulators of human body metabolism being driven directly to the anterior pituitary gland via hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal veins. The alternative physiological or therapeutic interventions utilizing the pharmaco-nutritional boost of imidazole-containing dipeptides (non-hydrolized oral form of carnosine, carcinine, N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops) can maintain health, enhance physical exercise performance and prevent ageing. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is synthesized in mammalian skeletal muscle. There is an evidence that the release of carnosine from the skeletal muscle sarcomeres moieties during physical exercise affects autonomic neurotransmission and physiological functions. Carnosine released from skeletal muscle during exercise acts as a powerful afferent physiological signaling stimulus for hypothalamus, may be transported into the hypothalamic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN), specifically to TMN-histamine neurons and hydrolyzed herewith via activities of carnosine-degrading enzyme (carnosinase 2) localized in situ. Through the colocalized enzymatic activity of Histidine decarboxylase in the histaminergic neurons, the resulting L-histidine may subsequently be converted into histamine, which could be responsible for the effects of carnosine on neurotransmission and physiological function. Carnosine and its imidazole-containing dipeptide derivatives are renowned for their anti-aging, antioxidant, membrane protective, metal ion chelating, buffering, anti-glycation/ transglycating activities used to prevent and treat a spectrum of age-related and metabolic diseases, such as neurodegenerative disease, sight threatening eye diseases, Diabetes mellitus and its complications, cancers and other disorders due to their wide spectrum biological activities. The precursor of carnosine (and related imidazole containing compounds) synthesis in skeletal muscles beta-alanine is used as the

  17. Epiphyseal growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling is decreased in chronic kidney disease-related growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troib, Ariel; Landau, Daniel; Kachko, Leonid; Rabkin, Ralph; Segev, Yael

    2013-11-01

    Linear growth retardation in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been ascribed to insensitivity to growth hormone. This resistance state has been attributed to impaired growth hormone signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in liver and skeletal muscle leading to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Here we determine whether systemic and growth plate alterations in growth hormone signaling contribute to CKD-induced linear growth retardation using partially nephrectomized and pair-fed control 20-day-old rats. Serum growth hormone did not change in rats with CKD, yet serum IGF-I levels were decreased and growth retarded. The tibial growth plate hypertrophic zone was wider and vascularization at the primary ossification center was reduced in CKD. This was associated with a decrease in growth plate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and immunostainable VEGF and IGF-I levels. Growth plate growth hormone receptor and STAT5 protein levels were unchanged, while JAK2 was reduced. Despite comparable growth hormone and growth hormone receptor levels in CKD and control rats, relative STAT5 phosphorylation was significantly depressed in CKD. Of note, the mRNA of SOCS2, an inhibitor of growth hormone signaling, was increased. Thus, linear growth impairment in CKD can in part be explained by impaired long bone growth plate growth hormone receptor signaling through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway, an abnormality that may be caused by an increase in SOCS2 expression.

  18. Laser welding of removable partial denture frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvik, James S; Lee, Seungbum; Croshaw, Steve N; Reimers, Donald L; Reimers, Dave L

    2008-01-01

    To identify and measure distortions inherent in the casting process of a Class III mandibular cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) framework to illustrate the problems faced by the laboratory technician and the clinician and to measure the changes that occur during the correction of the fit discrepancy using laser welding. Five identical castings of a Co-Cr alloy partial denture casting were made and measured between 3 widely separated points using the x, y, and z adjustments of a Nikon Measurescope. The same measurements were made after each of the following clinical and laboratory procedures: sprue removal, sectioning of the casting into 3 parts through the posterior meshwork, fitting the segments to the master cast, picking up the segments using resin, and laser welding of the 3 segments. Measurements of all 5 castings showed a cross-arch decrease after sprue removal, an increase after fitting the segments to the master cast, and a slight decrease after resin pickup and laser welding. Within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that precise tooth-frame relations can be established by resin pickup and laser welding of segments of Co-Cr removable partial denture frameworks.

  19. Topology optimization for optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits a topology optimization design approach for micro-manufacturing and extends it to optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination. The solution is based on a combination of two technologies, the topology optimization and the proximity error correction in microl......This article revisits a topology optimization design approach for micro-manufacturing and extends it to optical microlithography with partially coherent illumination. The solution is based on a combination of two technologies, the topology optimization and the proximity error correction...... in microlithography/nanolithography. The key steps include (i) modeling the physical inputs of the fabrication process, including the ultraviolet light illumination source and the mask, as the design variables in optimization and (ii) applying physical filtering and heaviside projection for topology optimization...

  20. Enhanced Neuroactivation during Verbal Memory Processing in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Short Term Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Carol C.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Love, Tiffany; Wang, Heng; Tkaczyk, Anne; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2012-01-01

    Capsule Using a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, we showed that short-term hormone replacement therapy increases brain activation in parietal and prefrontal areas during verbal memory tasks in postmenopausal women. Objective To study the effects of hormone therapy on brain activation patterns during verbal memory in postmenopausal women. Design A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study was performed. Setting A tertiary care university medical center. Participants Ten healthy postmenopausal women (age range 50-60 years) were recruited from the local community. Interventions Women were randomized to the order they received combined hormone therapy, 5 ug ethinyl estradiol and 1 mg norethindrone acetate, and placebo. Volunteers received hormone therapy or placebo for 4 weeks, followed by a one month washout period, and then received the other treatment for 4 weeks. An fMRI was performed at the end of each 4 week treatment utilizing a verbal memory task. Main Outcome Measure Brain activation patterns were compared between hormone therapy and placebo. Results Hormone therapy was associated with increased activation in left middle/superior frontal cortex (BA 6,9), medial frontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate (BA 24,32), posterior cingulate (BA 6), and left inferior parietal (BA 40) during memory encoding. All regions were significant at p ≤ 0.05 with correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusions Hormone therapy increased neural activation in frontal and parietal areas in postmenopausal women during a verbal memory task. PMID:18692790

  1. A New Method to Correct Partial Volume Effect in ASL (Arterial Spin Labeling) Magnetic Resonance Images%一种改善动脉自旋标记磁共振图像中部分容积效应的新算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伟; 陈光

    2015-01-01

    ASL is a novel non⁃invasive modality in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI) . ASL is capable of directly reflecting the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) of scanned patients, and is helpful to doing two things:(1) determining whether the scanned patient suffers from the dementia disease or not; ( 2 ) if the patient does suffer from the disease, determining the severity of the disease. However, since the spectral resolution of ASL is not high and problems of signal cross⁃contamination as well as voxel heterogeneity exist in this modality, the problem of Par⁃tial Volume Effect ( PVE) is commonly seen in ASL images. Moreover, PVE can easily deteriorate ASL signals, making the measured CBF of patients inaccurate and badly influencing their disease diagnosis thereafter. In this pa⁃per, a novel method solely based on single voxel information is introduced to correct PVE in ASL. Extensive experi⁃ments are conducted to suggest that this new method is not only capable of handling existing problems of blurring and brain detail loss which are commonly generated in conventional PVE correction methods but is also helpful to improving the precision of dementia disease diagnosis, from the statistical point of view.%动脉自旋标记磁共振图像是一种新颖的无侵入式的功能性磁共振图像。这类图像可以直观测量患者大脑血流量,对揭示患者是否患有老年痴呆症及判断相应的病症程度十分有效。然而,动脉自旋标记图像本身的分辨率不高,再加上扫描过程中不可避免的信号相叉污染和像素异质性等问题,使得部分容积效应在该类图像中普遍存在。部分容积效应会造成动脉自旋标记图像中信号还原失真,进而影响患者大脑血流量测量,对其病症判断带来不利影响。在文章中,一种基于单像素点信息的新颖算法被提出,改善动脉自旋标记磁共振图像中的部分容积效应。大量的统计比较实验表明

  2. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pParathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  3. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a

  4. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  5. Parathyroid Hormone in Osteoporosis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Özkul

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone stimulates bone formation, prevents or reverses bone loss, increases bone mass, bone strength and provides protection against fractures. PTH treatment for postmenopausal, male and glucocorticoid- induced osteoporosis proved to be effective in a number of RCTs.

  6. Hormone receptors in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, K. P M; van der Wall, E.; van Diest, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid hormone receptors are critical for the growth and development of breast tissue as well as of breast cancer. The importance of the role estrogens in breast cancer has been delineated for more than 100 years. The analysis of its expression has been used not only to classify breast cancers but

  7. Hypothalamic effects of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Boelen, Anita; Bisschop, Peter H; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, Eric

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is a key driver of metabolism in mammals. Plasma concentrations of TH are kept within a narrow range by negative feedback regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Plasma TH concentrations are an important determinant of metabolic processes in liver and brown

  8. Hormonal contraceptives and venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Berendina Hendrika (Bernardine)

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is associated with venous thrombosis. However, the mechanism behind this remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate genetic variation in the first-pass metabolism of contraceptives, to identify the clinical implications of hormonal contraceptive use after a thromb

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pself-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  11. Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, A.

    2012-01-01

    The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivo

  12. Growth Hormone: Use and Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GH helps children grow taller (also called linear growth), increases muscle mass, and decreases body fat. In both children ... syndrome In adults, GH is used to treat • Growth hormone deficiency • Muscle wasting (loss of muscle tissue) from HIV • Short ...

  13. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  14. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  15. The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161110.html The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus Small, preliminary study suggests oxytocin ... tinnitus -- may find some relief by spraying the hormone oxytocin in their nose, a small initial study ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Testing (4 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Ateleiotic dwarfism Genetic Testing Registry: Autosomal dominant isolated somatotropin deficiency ... in my area? Other Names for This Condition dwarfism, growth hormone deficiency dwarfism, pituitary growth hormone deficiency ...

  17. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  18. Symmetries of partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Gaussier, Hervé; Merker, Joël

    2004-01-01

    We establish a link between the study of completely integrable systems of partial differential equations and the study of generic submanifolds in C^n. Using the recent developments of Cauchy-Riemann geometry we provide the set of symmetries of such a system with a Lie group structure. Finally we determine the precise upper bound of the dimension of this Lie group for some specific systems of partial differential equations.

  19. Development of Partial Discharge Sensing Device for Epoxy Resin Bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutakamihigashi, Tatsuya; Kawasaki, Makoto; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    For the electric power equipment and the cables, prevention of accident is very important. And in substations, a lot of solid insulations using epoxy resin are introduced into cubicle-type switchgears because of its high insulation reliability and down-sizing ability. We know a phenomenon that partial discharge occur when electric installation have degraded. When void or crack exist in the polymer insulating materials or interface of conductor, partial discharge is caused and finally results in breakdown. In recent years, the feature is seen in the partial discharge generated in the epoxy resin before and after the progress of electric tree by our research. Electro-magnetic wave spectra radiated from partial discharge have specific frequency region from 200MHz to 450MHz. We developed the sensing device that can detect the electric discharge by receiving the signal by mobile antenna. We proved the performance of this equipment in operating substations; As a result, partial discharge in epoxy resin was detected by electro-magnetic wave. And then, we removed epoxy resin bushing from the cubicle and measured partial discharge by discharging current, we confirmed that presumed level is correct.

  20. 78 FR 34245 - Miscellaneous Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... office, correcting and adding missing cross-references, correcting grammatical errors, revising language... the name of its human capital office, correcting and adding missing cross-references,...

  1. Power corrections, renormalons and resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M.

    1996-08-01

    I briefly review three topics of recent interest concerning power corrections, renormalons and Sudakov resummation: (a) 1/Q corrections to event shape observables in e(+)e(-) annihilation, (b) power corrections in Drell-Yan production and (c) factorial divergences that arise in resummation of large infrared (Sudakov) logarithms in moment or `real` space.

  2. Radiation camera motion correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  3. 75 FR 16516 - Dates Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Office of the Federal Register Dates Correction Correction In the Notices section... through 15499, the date at the top of each page is corrected to read ``Monday, March 29, 2010''....

  4. Response of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in prepubertal and pubertal chidren, as measured by a highly sensitive immunradiometric assay

    OpenAIRE

    樋口,譲二

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the age-related changes in the pituitary responsiveness to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), the consentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured before and after LH-RH administra-tion using the highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in 283 normal children (161 males and 77 females) between 4 and 14 years old and in 22 patients (18 males and 4 females) with pituitary dwarfism. Then, the area of response ...

  5. Stray Light Correction of HMI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Duvall, Thomas; Schou, Jesper; Cheung, Mark; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2017-08-01

    The point spread function (PSF) for HMI is an Airy function convolved with a Lorentzian. The parameters are bound by ground-based testing before launch, then post-launch off-limb light curves, lunar eclipse and Venus transit data. The PSF correction is programmed in C and runs within the HMI data processing pipeline environment. A single full-disk intensity image can be processed in less than one second. Deconvolution of the PSF on the Stokes profile data (a linear combination of original filtergrms) is less computationally expensive and is shown to be equivalent to deconvolution applied at the original filtergram level. Results include a decrease in umbral darkness of a few percent (~200 K cooler), a doubling of the granulation contrast in intensity from 3.6 to 7.2%, an increase in plage field strengths by a factor of 1.5, and a partial correction of the convective blueshift in Doppler velocities. Requests for data corrected for stray light are welcome and will be processed by the HMI team.

  6. Radical correction of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qiang; WANG Zhong-gao; MENG Qing-you; SANG Hong-fei; QIAN Ai-min; DUAN Peng-fei; RONG Jian-jie

    2007-01-01

    Background Interventional therapy is widely accepted as the first choice for the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome,but the use of radical correctional therapy should not be discarded. This study describes radical correction by controlling bleeding from distal end of pathological segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and discusses potential surgical errors and postoperative complications.Methods Of the 216 patients in the study, 78 were treated with simple membranectomy, 64 with dissection of the pathological segment of the IVC and vascular prosthesis or pericardial patch plasty, 60 with resection of the pathological segment of the IVC and orthotopic graft transplantation with vascular prosthesis, and 14 with resection of the occlusive main hepatic vein and its upper IVC, hepatic venous outflow plasty and vascular prosthesis orthotopic graft transplantation from the hepatic venous entrance to the IVC of right atrial ostium.Results Except 14 cases who were discharged after hepatic vein outflow plasty, four cases died postoperatively, and 198 patients were discharged without complications. The symptoms of 15 patients were relieved partially and 2 without any change. There were no deaths intraoperatively. Of the 112 cases who were followed up for 72 months, 13 suffered from a relapse.Conclusions Radical correction is a beneficial therapy in the treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  7. Corrections to quark asymmetries at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, A.; /Fermilab; Monig, K.; /DESY, Zeuthen

    2004-11-01

    The most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}{sup l} at LEP is from the forward-backward asymmetry e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} b{bar b} at the Z-pole. In this note the QED and electroweak radiative corrections to obtain the pole asymmetry from the measured asymmetry for b- and c-quarks have been calculated using ZFITTER, which has been amended to allow a consistent treatment of partial two-loop corrections for the b-quark final asymmetries. A total correction of {delta}A{sub FB}{sup b} = 0.0019 {+-} 0.0002 and {delta}A{sub FB}{sup c} = 0.0064 {+-} 0.0001 has been found, where the remaining theoretical uncertainty is much too small to explain the apparent discrepancy between sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub eff}{sup l} obtained from A{sub FB}{sup b} and from the left-right asymmetry at SLD.

  8. Corrections to quark asymmetries at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Moenig, K.

    2004-11-01

    The most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub eff}{sup l} at LEP is from the forward-backward asymmetry e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} bb at the Z-pole. In this note the QED and electroweak radiative corrections to obtain the pole asymmetry from the measured asymmetry for b- and c-quarks have been calculated using ZFITTER, which has been amended to allow a consistent treatment of partial two-loop corrections for the b-quark final asymmetries. A total correction of {delta}A{sub FB}{sup b} = 0.0019 {+-} 0.0002 and {delta}A{sub FB}{sup c} = 0.0064 {+-} 0.0001 has been found, where the remaining theoretical uncertainty is much too small to explain the apparent discrepancy between sin{sup 2}{theta}{sub eff}{sup l} obtained from A{sub FB}{sup b} and from the left-right asymmetry at SLD. (orig.)

  9. Anomaly corrected heterotic horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, A.; Gutowski, J. B.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an {s}{l}(2,{R}) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating α' corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in α' for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  10. Anomaly Corrected Heterotic Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanella, A; Papadopoulos, G

    2016-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an sl(2,R) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating $\\alpha'$ corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in $\\alpha'$ for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  11. Catalytic quantum error correction

    CERN Document Server

    Brun, T; Hsieh, M H; Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting (EAQEC) codes, a generalization of the stabilizer formalism to the setting in which the sender and receiver have access to pre-shared entanglement. Conventional stabilizer codes are equivalent to dual-containing symplectic codes. In contrast, EAQEC codes do not require the dual-containing condition, which greatly simplifies their construction. We show how any quaternary classical code can be made into a EAQEC code. In particular, efficient modern codes, like LDPC codes, which attain the Shannon capacity, can be made into EAQEC codes attaining the hashing bound. In a quantum computation setting, EAQEC codes give rise to catalytic quantum codes which maintain a region of inherited noiseless qubits. We also give an alternative construction of EAQEC codes by making classical entanglement assisted codes coherent.

  12. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  13. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M.J. Lengyel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  14. Optics measurement and correction during acceleration with beta-squeeze in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has only taken place at injection and at final energy, with interpolation of corrections partially into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats that, if corrected, could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoiding the high-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. We recently demonstrated successful beam optics corrections during acceleration at RHIC. We verified conclusively the superior control of the beam realized via these corrections

  15. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  16. "Sex Hormones" in Secondary School Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Young, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which the term "sex hormone" is used in science textbooks, and whether the use of the term "sex hormone" is associated with pre-empirical concepts of sex dualism, in particular the misconceptions that these so-called "sex hormones" are sex specific and restricted to sex-related physiological functioning. We found…

  17. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken int

  18. Structural simplification of chemical reaction networks in partial steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaine, Guillaume; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim; Tonello, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the structural simplification of chemical reaction networks with partial steady state semantics assuming that the concentrations of some but not all species are constant. We present a simplification rule that can eliminate intermediate species that are in partial steady state, while preserving the dynamics of all other species. Our simplification rule can be applied to general reaction networks with some but few restrictions on the possible kinetic laws. We can also simplify reaction networks subject to conservation laws. We prove that our simplification rule is correct when applied to a module of a reaction network, as long as the partial steady state is assumed with respect to the complete network. Michaelis-Menten's simplification rule for enzymatic reactions falls out as a special case. We have implemented an algorithm that applies our simplification rules repeatedly and applied it to reaction networks from systems biology.

  19. Identification of the growth hormone-releasing hormone analogue [Pro1, Val14]-hGHRH with an incomplete C-term amidation in a confiscated product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Simone; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a modified version of the 44 amino acid human growth hormone-releasing hormone (hGHRH(1-44)) containing an N-terminal proline extension, a valine residue in position 14, and a C-terminus amidation (sequence: PYADAIFTNSYRKVVLGQLSARKLLQDIMSRQQGESNQERGARARL-NH2 ) has been identified in a confiscated product by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Investigation of the product suggests also an incomplete C-term amidation. Similarly to other hGHRH analogues, available in black markets, this peptide can potentially be used as performance-enhancing drug due to its growth hormone releasing activity and therefore it should be considered as a prohibited substance in sport. Additionally, the presence of partially amidated molecule reveals the poor pharmaceutical quality of the preparation, an aspect which represents a big concern for public health as well.

  20. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V. (Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  1. Partial Treatment Requests and Underlying Motives of Applicants for Gender Affirming Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Steensma, Thomas D

    2015-11-01

    Historically, only individuals with a cross-gender identity who wanted to receive a full treatment, were eligible for "complete sex reassignment" consisting of feminizing/masculinizing hormone treatment and several surgical interventions including genital surgery (full treatment). Currently, it is unclear what motives underlie a request for hormones only or surgery only or a combination of hormones and surgery (e.g., a mastectomy), but no genital surgery (partial treatment). The aims of this study were (i) to describe treatment requests of applicants at a specialized gender identity clinic in the Netherlands; and (ii) to explore the motives underlying a partial treatment request, including the role of (non-binary) gender identity. Information was collected on all 386 adults who applied for treatment at the Center of Expertise on Gender Dysphoria of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in the year 2013. Treatment requests were available for 360 individuals: 233 natal men (64.7%) and 127 natal women (35.3%). Treatment requests were systematically collected during assessment. Individuals were classified as either desiring a full or partial treatment. The motives behind a partial treatment request were collected and categorized as well. The majority of applicants at our gender identity clinic requested full treatment. Among those who requested partial treatment, the most reported underlying motive was surgical risks/outcomes. Only a small number of applicants requested partial treatment to bring their body into alignment with their non-binary gender identity. It becomes clear that partial treatment is requested by a substantial number of applicants. This emphasizes the need for gender identity clinics to provide information about the medical possibilities and limitations, and careful introduction and evaluation of non-standard treatment options. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  3. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  4. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  5. Hormonal treatment of acne vulgaris: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaie, Mohamed L

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition associated with multiple factors. Although mostly presenting alone, it can likewise present with features of hyperandrogenism and hormonal discrepancies. Of note, hormonal therapies are indicated in severe, resistant-to-treatment cases and in those with monthly flare-ups and when standard therapeutic options are inappropriate. This article serves as an update to hormonal pathogenesis of acne, discusses the basics of endocrinal evaluation for patients with suspected hormonal acne, and provides an overview of the current hormonal treatment options in women. PMID:27621661

  6. Reasonable partiality in professional relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Brenda

    2005-04-01

    First, two aspects of the partiality issue are identified: (1) Is it right/reasonable for professionals to favour their clients' interests over either those of other individuals or those of society in general? (2) Are special non-universalisable obligations attached to certain professional roles? Second, some comments are made on the notions of partiality and reasonableness. On partiality, the assumption that only two positions are possible--a detached universalism or a partialist egoism--is challenged and it is suggested that partiality, e.g. to family members, lies between these two positions, being neither a form of egoism, nor of impersonal detachment. On reasonableness, it is pointed out that 'reasonable' is an ambiguous concept, eliding the notions of the 'morally right' and the 'rational.' Third, a series of practical examples are taken from counselling, medicine, law, education and religious practice and some common principles are abstracted from the cases and discussed. These include truth-telling, confidentiality, conflicts of interest between clients and particular others and between clients and society. It is concluded that while partiality can be justified as a useful tool in standard cases, particular circumstances can affect the final verdict.

  7. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  8. Causes and correction of dissatisfaction after implantation of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Allister; Ali, Tayyeba K; Waren, Daniel P; Donaldson, Kendall E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the causes and possible solutions for patient dissatisfaction after the implantation of presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods This study was a retrospective review of clinical records. All patients who were seen between January 2009 and December 2013 whose primary reason for consultation was dissatisfaction with visual performance after presbyopia-correcting IOL implantation were included in the study. A single treating physician, who determined the most probable cause of dissatisfaction, decided which interventions to pursue following the initial consultation. Results Data from 74 eyes of 49 patients were analyzed. The most common cause for complaint was blurry or foggy vision both for distance and near (68%). Complaints were most frequently attributed to residual refractive error (57%) and dry eye (35%). The most common interventions pursued were treatment of refractive error with glasses or contact lenses (46%) and treatment for dry eye (24%). Corneal laser vision correction was done in 8% of eyes; 7% required an IOL exchange. After the interventions, 45% of patients had completed resolution of symptoms, 23% of patients were partially satisfied with the results, and 32% remained completely dissatisfied with the final results. Conclusion The most identifiable causes of dissatisfaction after presbyopia-correcting IOL implantation are residual refractive error and dry eye. Most patients can be managed with conservative treatment, though a significant number of patients remained unsatisfied despite multiple measures. PMID:27784985

  9. Electromagnetic Corrections for the Analysis of Low-Energy $\\pi^{-}p$ Scattering Data

    CERN Document Server

    Gashi, A; Oades, G C; Rasche, G; Woolcock, W S

    1999-01-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic corrections to the isospin invariant mixing angle and to the two eigenphases for the $s$-, $p_{1/2}$- and $p_{3/2}$-partial waves for $\\pi^- p$ elastic and charge exchange scattering. These corrections have to be applied to the nuclear quantities in order to obtain the two hadronic phase shifts for each partial wave. The calculation uses relativised Schrödinger equations containing the sum of an electromagnetic potential and an effective hadronic potential. The mass differences between $\\pi^-$ and results with those of previous calculations and qualitatively estimate the uncertainties in the corrections.

  10. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Bińkowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens.

  11. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  13. Thyroid hormone disorders and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Yu, Zhui; Li, Yinping

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with high mortality, which results from severe infection and can lead to secondary organ dysfunction. It is one of the most common cause of death in intensive care unit. Clinical reports have shown that sepsis was often accompanied by thyroid dysfunction, which is called "low triiodothyronine (T3)" syndrome and characterized by decreased blood total T3 and free T3, and by normal or decreased thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). This syndrome may greatly affect the prognosis of patients with sepsis. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the role of thyroid hormone disorder in the development and prognosis of sepsis.

  14. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    . Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone......A proper hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis with normal androgen synthesis and action is a prerequisite for normal testicular descent. Various defects in this axis may result in cryptorchidism but endocrine abnormalities are rarely detected. Androgens regulate testicular descent but androgen action...... alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have...

  15. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  16. Correcting Reflux Laparoscopically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Poulin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Most operations in the abdominal cavity and chest can be performed using minimally invasive techniques. As yet it has not been determined which laparoscopic procedures are preferable to the same operations done through conventional laparotomy. However, most surgeons who have completed the learning curves of these procedures believe that most minimally invasive techniques will be scientifically recognized soon. The evolution, validation and justification of advanced laparoscopic surgical methods seem inevitable. Most believe that the trend towards procedures that minimize or eliminate the trauma of surgery while adhering to accepted surgical principles is irreversible. The functional results of laparoscopic antireflux surgery in the seven years since its inception have been virtually identical to the success curves generated with open fundoplication in past years. Furthermore, overall patient outcomes with laparoscopic procedures have been superior to outcomes with the traditional approach. Success is determined by patient selection and operative technique. Patient evaluation should include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, barium swallow, 24 h pH study and esophageal motility study. Gastric emptying also should be evaluated. Patients who have abnormal propulsion in the esophagus should not receive a complete fundoplication (Nissen because it adds a factor of obstruction. Dor or Toupet procedures are adequate alternatives. Prokinetic agents, dilation or pyloroplasty are used for pyloric obstruction ranging from little to more severe. Correcting reflux laparoscopically is more difficult in patients with obesity, peptic strictures, paraesophageal hernias, short esophagus, or a history of previous upper abdominal or antireflux surgery.

  17. Patients' experience of partial tooth loss and expectations to treatment: a qualitative study in Danish and Swedish patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Öwall, Bengt; Åkerman, Sigvard;

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of impairments, wishes and expectations is essential to make correct decisions regarding oral rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate discomforts, wishes and expectations in patients' with partial edentulism before entering oral rehabilitation. In Copenhagen, Denmar...

  18. Partial Priapism Treated with Pentoxifylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Meghan A.; Carrion, Rafael E.; Yang, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Main findings: A 26-year-old man suffering from partial priapism was successfully treated with a regimen including pentoxifylline, a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is often used to conservatively treat Peyronie's disease. Case hypothesis: Partial priapism is an extremely rare urological condition that is characterized by thrombosis within the proximal segment of a single corpus cavernosum. There have only been 36 reported cases to date. Although several factors have been associated with this unusual disorder, such as trauma or bicycle riding, the etiology is still not completely understood. Treatment is usually conservative and consists of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic. Promising future implications: This case report supports the utilization of pentoxifylline in patients with partial priapism due to its anti-fibrogenic and anti-thrombotic properties. PMID:26401875

  19. Partial metrizability in value quantales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph D. Kopperman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Partial metrics are metrics except that the distance from a point to itself need not be 0. These are useful in modelling partially defined information, which often appears in computer science. We generalize this notion to study “partial metrics” whose values lie in a value quantale which may be other than the reals. Then each topology arises from such a generalized metric, and for each continuous poset, there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the Scott topology, and whose dual topology is the lower topology. These are both corollaries to our result that a bitopological space is pairwise completely regular if and only if there is such a generalized metric whose topology is the first topology, and whose dual topology is the second.

  20. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xi-Jun; HAN Yong-Jian; WU Yu-Chun; GUO Guang-Can

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet.Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρT(ρ's partial transposition)when ρ is a two-partite state.There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρT is N(N-1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space CM(×)CN.For the special case,the 2×2 system,we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρT|T≥0.We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρT or the negative entropy of ρ.

  1. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    To steer model-based conformance testing of real-time systems towards certain test purposes or test coverage, many testing methods need (to be enhanced with) the assumption of full observability of the System Under Test (SUT), which means that the tester can observe precisely what state...... precision sensors that we use to measure the SUT. This paper studies the problem of testing timed systems that are only partially observable. We model the SUT using Timed Game Automata (TGA) which has internal actions, uncontrollable outputs and timing uncertainty of outputs. We define the partial...... observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  2. Growth hormone therapy in progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nejad, Ab; Demmer, Laurie

    2007-05-01

    Catabolic processes seen in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria resemble those of normal aging and, in the affected children, usually result in death at an early age. In addition to its growth promoting effects, growth hormone (GH) has potent anabolic properties. Administration of GH ameliorates some of the catabolic effects of normal aging. We report the results of GH treatment in a young child with progeria.

  3. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  4. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  5. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  6. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  7. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  8. Thyroid hormone deiodination in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darras, Veerle M; Verhoelst, Carla H J; Reyns, Geert E; Kühn, Eduard R; Van der Geyten, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Because the avian thyroid gland secretes almost exclusively thyroxine (T4), the availability of receptor-active 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) has to be regulated in the extrathyroidal tissues, essentially by deiodination. Like mammals and most other vertebrates, birds possess three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, and D3) that closely resemble their mammalian counterparts, as shown by biochemical characterization studies in several avian species and by cDNA cloning of the three enzymes in chicken. The tissue distribution of these deiodinases has been studied in detail in chicken at the level of activity and mRNA expression. More recently specific antibodies were used to study cellular localization at the protein level. The abundance and distribution of the different deiodinases shows substantial variation during embryonic development and postnatal life. Deiodination in birds is subject to regulation by hormones from several endocrine axes, including thyroid hormones, growth hormone and glucocorticoids. In addition, deiodination is also influenced by external parameters, such as nutrition, temperature, light and also a number of environmental pollutants. The balance between the outer and inner ring deiodination resulting from the impact of all these factors ultimately controls T3 availability.

  9. Ecological constraints and the evolution of hormone-behavior interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, J C; Jacobs, J; Hillgarth, N

    1997-01-15

    testosterone for prolonged periods are also known to suppress the immune system. This latter effect may have profound implications for the development of androgen-dependent secondary sex characteristics that have evolved through sexual selection. There are several ways to avoid potential "costs" of hormone secretion at inappropriate times. A hormone may be metabolized at its target cell to another form that then binds to a different receptor (e.g., aromatization of testosterone to estradiol). Also receptors may be downregulated in tissues that would otherwise respond inappropriately in a specific life history state. On the other hand, multiple hormone mechanisms may have evolved to activate behavioral traits at the right time and in the correct context. When a behavioral trait is expressed throughout the life cycle, hormones may potentially deactivate behavior for short periods. With detailed investigations of organisms in their natural environment we can determine the potential ecological costs underlying hormone-behavior interactions that, in turn, shed light on their evolution. These data also indicate a number of problems for hormonal control mechanisms, but also indicate trends, alternatives, and hopefully in the future a more complete understanding of common mechanisms underlying behavioral endocrinology at the cell and molecular level. Only then will we be able to predict when and where specific mechanisms of hormone-behavior interactions operate and how they evolved.

  10. Molecular cloning and properties of a full-length putative thyroid hormone receptor coactivator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, A; Yen, P M; Misiti, S; Cardona, G R; Liu, Y; Chin, W W

    1996-08-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate target gene transcription. The conserved carboxy-terminal region of the ligand-binding domain (AF-2) has been thought to play a critical role in mediating ligand-dependent transactivation by the interaction with coactivator(s). Using bacterially-expressed TR as a probe, far-Western-based expression cDNA library screening identified cDNAs that encode, in part, the recently reported partial steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) sequence. Additional work, including 5' RACE, has characterized a full-length cDNA that encodes a approximately 160 kD protein as a putative thyroid hormone receptor coactivator (F-SRC-1). In vitro binding studies show that F-SRC-1 binds to a variety of nuclear hormone receptors in a ligand-dependent manner, along with TBP and TFIIB, suggesting that F-SRC-1 may play a role as a bridging molecule between nuclear hormone receptors and general transcription factors. Interestingly, AF-2 mutants also retain ligand-dependent interaction with F-SRC-1. Although F-SRC-1 recognizes the ligand-induced conformational changes of nuclear hormone receptors, our observations suggest that F-SRC-1 may bind directly with subregion(s) in nuclear hormone receptors other than the AF-2 region.

  11. A Brief Introduction to Researches on Treatment of Hormone-dependent Asthma with Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔红生; 武维屏

    2001-01-01

    @@In recent years, with the establishment of the theory of air passage inflammation concerning the pathologic mechanism of asthma, the glucocorticoid hormone (referred to hereafter only as hormone for short), a strong inflammation killer, has become a fundamental medication for treatment of asthma. However, long period of hormone administration will result in general side effects in the whole body as well as hormone dependence, which has now become a hard problem for physicians. Now a non-hormone medication of immunosuppressant has been chosen in western medicine to treat asthma as a replacement or partial replacement of hormone. Nevertheless, its therapeutic effect is not reliable and its side effects severe, hence hardly acceptable to patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) always adheres to the principle of holistic treatment and has a great advantage in the treatment of this disease. TCM doctors have made some trials and researches in this area and obtained some accomplishments. The following is a brief account of general researches on the treatment of asthma with TCM.

  12. A case for partial patellectomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of fractures of the the patella is a subject of controversy. Partial patellectomy with retention of a major fragment and suture of the quadriceps to it, seems reasonable. 18 cases of patella fracture underwent such a procedure. The average age of the patients was 47 years. Maximum recovery took an average of 5 months. There were 6 excellent results, 9 good, 3 fair. Results were assessed on the basis of pain, muscle wasting, quadriceps power, and range of knee motion. Total patellectomy and patella fixation as alternative modes of treatment are discussed. Partial patellectomy, whenever possible, is a good choice.

  13. Yet another partial wave calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present a new C++ library for partial wave analysis: YAP - yet another partial wave calculator. YAP is intended for amplitude analyses of the decays of spin-0 heavy mesons (principally B and D) to multiple (3, 4, etc.) pseudoscalar mesons but is not hard coded for such situations and is flexible enough to handle other decay scenarios. The library allows for both model dependent and model independent analysis methods. We introduce the software, and demonstrate examples for generating Monte Carlo data efficiently, and for analyzing data (both with the aid of the Bayesian Analysis Toolkit).

  14. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  15. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian N

    2006-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  16. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction...... exchanges. Through detailed multimodal analysis of participants’ actions, it is shown how instructors systematically elaborate their corrective instructions to include relevant information about the trouble and remedial action – a practice we refer to as unpacking corrections. It is proposed...... that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  17. Gravitational Correction to Vacuum Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

  18. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective...... management of food systems may improve outcomes for incarcerated people and help correctional administrators to maximize their health and safety. This report summarizes existing research on food systems in correctional settings and provides examples of food programmes in prison and remand facilities......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  19. Nested Quantum Error Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhuo; Fan, Hen; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The theory of quantum error correction was established more than a decade ago as the primary tool for fighting decoherence in quantum information processing. Although great progress has already been made in this field, limited methods are available in constructing new quantum error correction codes from old codes. Here we exhibit a simple and general method to construct new quantum error correction codes by nesting certain quantum codes together. The problem of finding long quantum error correction codes is reduced to that of searching several short length quantum codes with certain properties. Our method works for all length and all distance codes, and is quite efficient to construct optimal or near optimal codes. Two main known methods in constructing new codes from old codes in quantum error-correction theory, the concatenating and pasting, can be understood in the framework of nested quantum error correction codes.

  20. Spatiotemporal modelling of hormonal crosstalk explains the level and patterning of hormones and gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and mutant roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Mudge, Anna; Rowe, James H; Topping, Jennifer F; Liu, Junli; Lindsey, Keith

    2015-01-01

    • Patterning in Arabidopsis root development is coordinated via a localized auxin concentration maximum in the root tip, requiring the regulated expression of specific genes. However, little is known about how hormone and gene expression patterning is generated. • Using a variety of experimental data, we develop a spatiotemporal hormonal crosstalk model that describes the integrated action of auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling, the POLARIS protein, and the functions of PIN and AUX1 auxin transporters. We also conduct novel experiments to confirm our modelling predictions. • The model reproduces auxin patterning and trends in wild-type and mutants; reveals that coordinated PIN and AUX1 activities are required to generate correct auxin patterning; correctly predicts shoot to root auxin flux, auxin patterning in the aux1 mutant, the amounts of cytokinin, ethylene and PIN protein, and PIN protein patterning in wild-type and mutant roots. Modelling analysis further reveals how PIN protein patterning is related to the POLARIS protein through ethylene signalling. Modelling prediction of the patterning of POLARIS expression is confirmed experimentally. • Our combined modelling and experimental analysis reveals that a hormonal crosstalk network regulates the emergence of patterns and levels of hormones and gene expression in wild-type and mutants. PMID:25906686

  1. Processor register error correction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Gupta, Meeta S.

    2016-12-27

    Processor register protection management is disclosed. In embodiments, a method of processor register protection management can include determining a sensitive logical register for executable code generated by a compiler, generating an error-correction table identifying the sensitive logical register, and storing the error-correction table in a memory accessible by a processor. The processor can be configured to generate a duplicate register of the sensitive logical register identified by the error-correction table.

  2. Comparison of Topographic Correction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Richter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of topographic correction methods is conducted for Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+, and SPOT-5 imagery from different geographic areas and seasons. Three successful and known methods are compared: the semi-empirical C correction, the Gamma correction depending on the incidence and exitance angles, and a modified Minnaert approach. In the majority of cases the modified Minnaert approach performed best, but no method is superior in all cases.

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippone EJ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Filippone,1 Shirley J Dopson,2 Denise M Rivers,3 Rebeca D Monk,4 Suneel M Udani,5 Golriz Jafari,6 Solomon C Huang,6 Arafat Melhem,7 Bassim Assioun,7 Paul G Schmitz7 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, 2Division of Medicine, Washington Health System, Southwestern Nephrology, Inc, Washington, PA, 3Department of Medicine, University Nephrology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 5Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 6Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Olive View–University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Sylmar, CA, 7Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USABackground: Adrenocorticotropic hormone is being increasingly studied for treatment of various glomerulopathies, most notably membranous nephropathy. Less data are available regarding its use in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS secondary to minimal change disease (MCD or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. We report here our experience with H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with INS.Methods: Data were taken from three patients with MCD and ten patients with FSGS from around the US, who were treated with Acthar Gel as initial or subsequent therapy. Treatment was solely at the discretion of the primary nephrologist without a specific protocol. A complete response (CR was defined as final urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <500 mg/g and a partial response (PR as 50% decrease without rise of serum creatinine. Side effects and tolerability were noted.Results: All three patients with MCD received Acthar Gel as second-line or later immunosuppressive (IS therapy and all responded (one CR and two PRs. Two of

  4. [The role of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems in etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    The role of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems of brain and peripheral tissues in etiology and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) of the types 1 and 2 is discussed. Available data confirming the hypothesis of central genesis of some forms of DM caused by disturbances in the brain neurotransmitter systems are presented. It is concluded that the study of disturbances in the hormonal signaling systems is a promising approach for development of new strategies of DM treatment, based on correction of these disturbances in the CNS and the periphery.

  5. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  6. Food systems in correctional settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoyer, Amy; Kjær Minke, Linda

    Food is a central component of life in correctional institutions and plays a critical role in the physical and mental health of incarcerated people and the construction of prisoners' identities and relationships. An understanding of the role of food in correctional settings and the effective mana......, including a case study of food-related innovation in the Danish correctional system. It offers specific conclusions for policy-makers, administrators of correctional institutions and prison-food-service professionals, and makes proposals for future research....

  7. Hormonal regulation and partial purification of thyroxine 5'-deiodinase in brown adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.Y. Barge (Renée)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the thermogenic function of Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) in hibernators has been recognized for many years, it has only been recently accepted that BAT is also the most important thermogenic organ in nonhibernators such as the rat. It has also become clear that thermogenesis in BA

  8. Effect of growth hormone on fatty acid synthase gene expression in porcine adipose tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A.F.B.V. José

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an efficient in vitro assay to test growth hormone effects on mRNA levels and fatty acid synthase (FAS, EC. 2.3.1.85 activity. Swine adipose tissue explants were long-term cultured in medium containing growth hormone and FAS mRNA levels and enzyme activity were measured. We quantified FAS transcripts by competitive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR using total RNA from cultured adipose tissue explants and RT-PCR standard-curves were constructed using a cloned 307 bp segment of native FAS cDNA and a shorter fragment from which a 64 bp (competitor, 243 bp internal sequence had been deleted. A known amount of competitor was added to each PCR as an internal control and µ-actin transcripts were also measured to correct for differences in total RNA extraction and reverse transcription efficiency. In cultures with added growth hormone FAS mRNA levels decreased 70% (p < 0.01 and FAS enzyme activity decreased 22% (p < 0.05. These in vitro growth hormone effects were consistent with those observed in vivo, showing that in vitro adipose tissue culture combined with RT-PCR is a useful and accurate tool for studying growth hormone modulation of adipose tissue metabolism. This technique allowed the diagnosis of lower levels of FAS mRNA in the presence of growth hormone and these low levels were associated with decreased FAS activity in the adipose tissue explants.

  9. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  10. Partial Dynamical Symmetries in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2000-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries (PDS) are shown to be relevant to the interpretation of the $K=0_2$ band and to the occurrence of F-spin multiplets of ground and scissors bands in deformed nuclei. Hamiltonians with bosonic and fermionic PDS are presented.

  11. Explanation Based Generalisation = Partial Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, van F.A.H.; Bundy, A.

    1988-01-01

    We argue that explanation-based generalisation as recently proposed in the machine learning literature is essentially equivalent to partial evaluation, a well known technique in the functional and logic programming literature. We show this equivalence by analysing the definitions and underlying algo

  12. Bayesian Sparse Partial Least Squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidaurre, D.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Bielza, C.; Larrañaga, P.; Heskes, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) is a class of methods that makes use of a set of latent or unobserved variables to model the relation between (typically) two sets of input and output variables, respectively. Several flavors, depending on how the latent variables or components are computed, have been dev

  13. Migrating Partial Seizures of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A national surveillance study in conjunction with the British Paediatric Neurology Unit was undertaken to further define the clinical, pathological and molecular genetic features of migrating partial seizures of infancy (MPSI, a rare early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with poor prognosis.

  14. Covert Reinforcement: A Partial Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripstra, Constance C.; And Others

    A partial replication of an investigation of the effect of covert reinforcement on a perceptual estimation task is described. The study was extended to include an extinction phase. There were five treatment groups: covert reinforcement, neutral scene reinforcement, noncontingent covert reinforcement, and two control groups. Each subject estimated…

  15. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  16. Hormone symphony during root growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; De La Paz Sánchez, María; García-Ponce, Berenice; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R

    2012-12-01

    Hormones regulate plant growth and development in response to external environmental stimuli via complex signal transduction pathways, which in turn form complex networks of interaction. Several classes of hormones have been reported, and their activity depends on their biosynthesis, transport, conjugation, accumulation in the vacuole, and degradation. However, the activity of a given hormone is also dependent on its interaction with other hormones. Indeed, there is a complex crosstalk between hormones that regulates their biosynthesis, transport, and/or signaling functionality, although some hormones have overlapping or opposite functions. The plant root is a particularly useful system in which to study the complex role of plant hormones in the plastic control of plant development. Physiological, cellular, and molecular genetic approaches have been used to study the role of plant hormones in root meristem homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the synthesis, signaling, transport of hormones and role during root development and examine the role of hormone crosstalk in maintaining homeostasis in the apical root meristem.

  17. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  18. Effects of injection of anti-corticotropin release hormone serum in the lateral ventricles and electroacupuncture analgesia on pain threshold in rats with adjuvant arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunying Qiao; Fudong Wu; Jian Wang; Xiaolu Cui; Congcong Liu; Xinlong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Rat models of adjuvant arthritis were established, and anti-corticotropin release hormone serum injection in the lateral ventricles and electroacupuncture at right Jiaji (EX-B2) were performed. The pain threshold was decreased at 45 and 60 minutes after injection of the anti-corticotropin release hormone serum. Electroacupuncture at Jiaji can resist this effect. Immunohistochemical staining results showed that the expression of corticotropin release hormone in the hypothalamic paraven-tricular nucleus was greater in the electroacupuncture + anti-corticotropin release hormone serum group compared with the anti-corticotropin release hormone serum group. The expression of corti-cotropin release hormone was correlated with the pain threshold. The effect of endogenous corti-cotropin release hormone in pain modulation can be obstructed by anti-corticotropin release hor-mone serum. The analgesia of electroacupuncture can partially resist the depressed pain threshold caused by injection of anti-corticotropin release hormone serum. The analgesic effect of elec-troacupuncture is associated with the corticotropin release hormone content in the hypothalamus.

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Digital orthophotography for all 100 counties in North Carolina. Full FGDC compliant metadata are available for each county at the NC OneMap Geospatial Portal. The metadata link below is to the OGC WMS metadata record, which is a partial record., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, NC OITS / Center for Geographic Information & Analysis.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of...

  20. An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, W. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Allton, C. R. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Leinweber, Derek B. [Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Thomas, Anthony W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Young, Ross D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, Mn, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. The leading one-loop corrections to the nucleon mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.

  1. Prescription drug coverage: implications for hormonal therapy adherence in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Dahman, Bassam; Jagsi, Reshma; Katz, Steven; Hawley, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    In spite of its demonstrated benefits, many women do not initiate hormonal therapy, and among those who do, many discontinue it prematurely. We examined whether differences in hormonal therapy adherence may be at least partially explained by the availability of prescription drug coverage. Women aged 20-79 years diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer between June 2005 and February 2007 were enrolled in the study. Women completed a mailed survey, on average 9 months after diagnosis, and again approximately 4 years later (N = 712). Adjusted logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of initiating hormonal therapy and hormonal therapy continuation. Women who had prescription drug coverage were more likely to initiate hormonal therapy relative to women without prescription drug coverage (OR 2.91, 95 % CI 1.24-6.84). Women with prescription drug coverage were also more likely to continue hormonal therapy (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 0.99-5.05, p = 0.0543). The lowest income women were also less likely to continue hormonal therapy relative to women with annual household income that exceeded $70,000 (OR 0.55; 95 % CI 0.29-1.04) with a borderline significance of (p = 0.08). This study demonstrates the critical role of prescription drug coverage in hormonal therapy initiation and continuation, independent of health insurance coverage. These findings add to the body of literature that addresses medication adherence. Financial factors must be considered along with behavioral factors that influence adherence, which is becoming increasingly relevant to oncology as treatments are shifted to oral medications, many of which are very expensive.

  2. The correction of occlusal vertical dimension on tooth wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostiny Rostiny

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The loss of occlusal vertical dimension which is caused by tooth wear is necessarily treated to regain vertical dimension. Correctional therapy should be done as early possible. In this case, simple and relatively low cost therapy was performed. In unserve loss of occlusal vertical dimension, partial removable denture could be used and the improvement of lengthening anterior teeth using composite resin to improve to regain vertical dimensional occlusion.

  3. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  4. Partial spectral multipliers and partial Riesz transforms for degenerate operators

    CERN Document Server

    ter Elst, A F M

    2012-01-01

    We consider degenerate differential operators $A = \\displaystyle{\\sum_{k,j=1}^d \\partial_k (a_{kj} \\partial_j)}$ on $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ with real symmetric bounded measurable coefficients. Given a function $\\chi \\in C_b^\\infty(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ (respectively, $\\Omega$ a bounded Lipschitz domain) and suppose that $(a_{kj}) \\ge \\mu > 0$ a.e.\\ on $ \\supp \\chi$ (resp., a.e.\\ on $\\Omega$). We prove a spectral multiplier type result: if $F\\colon [0, \\infty) \\to \\mathbb{C}$ is such that $\\sup_{t > 0} \\| \\varphi(.) F(t .) \\|_{C^s} d/2$ then $M_\\chi F(I+A) M_\\chi$ is weak type $(1,1)$ (resp.\\ $P_\\Omega F(I+A) P_\\Omega$ is weak type $(1,1)$). We also prove boundedness on $L^p$ for all $p \\in (1,2]$ of the partial Riesz transforms $M_\\chi \

  5. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lene; Broth, Mathias; Cromdal, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...

  6. Feature Referenced Error Correction Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feature referenced error correction apparatus utilizing the multiple images of the interstage level image format to compensate for positional...images and by the generation of an error correction signal in response to the sub-frame registration errors. (Author)

  7. Impacts of motivational valence on the error-related negativity elicited by full and partial errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yuya; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Masaki, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    Affect and motivation influence the error-related negativity (ERN) elicited by full errors; however, it is unknown whether they also influence ERNs to correct responses accompanied by covert incorrect response activation (partial errors). Here we compared a neutral condition with conditions, where correct responses were rewarded or where incorrect responses were punished with gains and losses of small amounts of money, respectively. Data analysis distinguished ERNs elicited by full and partial errors. In the reward and punishment conditions, ERN amplitudes to both full and partial errors were larger than in the neutral condition, confirming participants' sensitivity to the significance of errors. We also investigated the relationships between ERN amplitudes and the behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS/BAS). Regardless of reward/punishment condition, participants scoring higher on BAS showed smaller ERN amplitudes in full error trials. These findings provide further evidence that the ERN is related to motivational valence and that similar relationships hold for both full and partial errors.

  8. Expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenomas of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenicek, Tanja; Kasumović, Dino; Stajduhar, Emil; Dzombeta, Tihana; Jukić, Zoran; Kruslin, Bozo

    2013-06-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most prevalent benign breast tumor. It consists of epithelial and stromal components. In general, breast tumors are highly hormonally dependent and growth hormone by its physiology may have a possible oncogenic potential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas. Study group included 30 randomly chosen fibroadenomas from female patients aged between 18 and 69 years. The expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor was defined in both histologic components of fibroadenomas. Growth hormone was expressed in 96.7% of both epithelial and stromal components of fibroadenomas, with stronger expression in the stromal component. The same percentage of positive reaction (96.7%) was obtained in the epithelial component of fibroadenomas for growth hormone receptor expression. Only 6.7% of stromal components tested for growth hormone receptor were positive. The high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in fibroadenoma tissue indicates their possible role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Follow up of patients with high expression of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor may be suggested.

  9. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  10. Evaluating the function of putative hormone transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Wolf B; Schulz, Burkhard; Murphy, Angus S

    2009-02-01

    Hormones typically serve as long distance signaling molecules. To reach their site of action, hormones need to be transported from the sites of synthesis. Many plant hormones are mobile, thus requiring specific transport systems for the export from their source cells as well as subsequent import into target cells. Hormone transport in general is still poorly understood. Auxin is probably the most intensively studied plant hormone concerning transport in the moment. To advance our understanding of hormone transport we need two principal data sets: information on the properties of the transport systems including substrate specificity and kinetics, and we need to identify candidate genes for the respective transporters. Physiological transport data can provide an important basis for identifying and characterizing candidate transporters and to define their in vivo role. A recent publication in Plant Physiology highlights how kinetic and specificity studies may help to identify cytokinin transporters.

  11. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  12. Do hormones influence melanoma? Facts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amie; Driscoll, Marcia S

    2010-01-01

    The issue of whether hormones influence malignant melanoma (MM) has been controversial for many years. Although early case reports demonstrated a negative effect of hormones, recent evidence has not supported a potential role for hormones in MM. We address whether exogenous and endogenous hormones influence a woman's risk for MM or affect her prognosis if diagnosed with MM. Multiple epidemiologic studies show the use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy does not appear to increase a woman's risk for MM. Pregnancy does not appear to influence a woman's risk of MM, nor does pregnancy appear to affect prognosis in the woman diagnosed with MM. When counseling the woman who is diagnosed with MM during pregnancy or during the childbearing years, future use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy is not contraindicated; counseling concerning future pregnancies should be done on a case-by-case basis, with emphasis placed on established prognostic factors for MM.

  13. Requirement for specific gravity and creatinine adjustments for urinary steroids and luteinizing hormone concentrations in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet K S; Balzer, Ben W R; Desai, Reena; Jimenez, Mark; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Handelsman, David J

    2015-11-01

    Urinary hormone concentrations are often adjusted to correct for hydration status. We aimed to determine whether first morning void urine hormones in growing adolescents require adjustments and, if so, whether urinary creatinine or specific gravity are better adjustments. The study population was adolescents aged 10.1 to 14.3 years initially who provided fasting morning blood samples at 0 and 12 months (n = 343) and first morning urine every three months (n = 644). Unadjusted, creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted hormonal concentrations were compared by Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis and grouped according to self-rated Tanner stage or chronological age. F-ratios for self-rated Tanner stages and age groups were used to compare unadjusted and adjusted hormonal changes in growing young adolescents. Correlations of paired serum and urinary hormonal concentration of unadjusted and creatinine and specific gravity-adjusted were also compared. Fasting first morning void hormone concentrations correlated well and were unbiased between unadjusted or adjusted by either creatinine or specific gravity. Urine creatinine concentration increases with Tanner stages, age and male gender whereas urine specific gravity was not influenced by Tanner stage, age or gender. Adjustment by creatinine or specific gravity of urinary luteinizing hormone, estradiol, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations did not improve correlation with paired serum concentrations. Urine steroid and luteinizing hormone concentrations in first morning void samples of adolescents are not significantly influenced by hydration status and may not require adjustments; however, if desired, both creatinine and specific gravity adjustments are equally suitable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Mechanism of growth hormone-induced postprandial carbohydrate intolerance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, P; Kryshak, E; Rizza, R

    1991-04-01

    Growth hormone excess can cause postprandial carbohydrate intolerance. To determine the contribution of splanchnic and extrasplanchnic tissues to this process, subjects were fed an isotopically labeled mixed meal after either a 12-h infusion of saline or growth hormone (4 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 [corrected]). Growth hormone infusion resulted in higher glucose and insulin concentrations both before and after meal ingestion. Despite growth hormone-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, postprandial hepatic glucose release and carbon dioxide incorporation into glucose (a qualitative estimate of gluconeogenesis) were similar to those present during saline, suggesting altered hepatic regulation. This was confirmed when glucose was infused in the absence of growth hormone to achieve glucose (and insulin) concentrations comparable to those present during growth hormone infusion. Although growth hormone excess did not alter splanchnic uptake of ingested glucose, it resulted in a fivefold increase in postprandial hepatic glucose release (578 +/- 31 vs. 117 +/- 10 mg.kg-16 h-1, P less than 0.01), less suppression of carbon dioxide incorporation into glucose (-13 +/- 9 vs. -53 +/- 12 mg.kg-1. 6-h-1, P less than 0.01), and lower glucose uptake (1,130 +/- 59 vs. 1,850 +/- 150 mg.kg-1.6 h-1, P less than 0.01). The decrease in postprandial glucose uptake did not appear to be mediated by a change in substrate uptake since postprandial plasma concentrations and forearm balance of lactate, free fatty acids, and ketone bodies did not differ in the presence and absence of growth hormone excess.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Aluminum, parathyroid hormone, and osteomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnatowska-Hledin, M.A.; Kaiser, L.; Mayor, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    Aluminum exposure in man is unavoidable. The occurrence of dialysis dementia, vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia, and hypochromic microcytic anemia in dialysis patients underscores the potential for aluminum toxicity. Although exposure via dialysate and hyperalimentation leads to significant tissue aluminum accumulation, the ubiquitous occurrence of aluminum and the severe pathology associated with large aluminum burdens suggest that smaller exposures via the gastrointestinal tract and lungs could represent an important, though largely unrecognized, public health problem. It is clear that some aluminum absorption occurs with the ingestion of small amounts of aluminum in the diet and medicines, and even greater aluminum absorption is seen in individuals consuming large amounts of aluminum present in antacids. Aluminum absorption is enhanced in the presence of elevated circulating parathyroid hormone. In addition, elevated PTH leads to the preferential deposition of aluminum in brain and bone. Consequently, PTH is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of toxicities in those organs. PTH excess also seems to lead to the deposition of aluminum in the parathyroid gland. The in vitro demonstration that aluminum inhibits parathyroid hormone release is consistent with the findings of a euparathyroid state in dialysis patients with aluminum related vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia. Nevertheless, it seems likely that hyperparathyroidism is at least initially involved in the pathogenesis of aluminum neurotoxicity and osteomalacia; the increases in tissue aluminum stores are followed by suppression of parathyroid hormone release, which is required for the evolution of osteomalacia. Impaired renal function is not a prerequisite for increased tissue aluminum burdens, nor for aluminum-related organ toxicity. Consequently, it is likely that these diseases will be observed in populations other than those with chronic renal disease.

  16. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  17. Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Heiman; H. Rupp; E. Janssen; S.K. Newhouse; M. Brauer; E. Laan

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two s

  18. Cognitive, Emotional, Physical and Social Effects of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybye, C; Thoren, M.; Bohm, B.

    2005-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multisystem genetic disorder characterized by short stature, muscular hypotonia, hyperphagia, obesity, maladaptive behaviour, hypogonadism and partial growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD). Severe GHD of other aetiologies has been shown to affect mood and quality of life negatively, and there are reports of…

  19. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  20. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...... in the treatment of fractures and could thus be a potentially new treatment option for induction of fracture healing in humans. Furthermore, fractures in animals with experimental conditions of impaired healing such as aging, estrogen withdrawal, and malnutrition can heal in an expedited manner after PTH treatment...