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Sample records for hormone mimic zr-512

  1. A microbially derived tyrosine-sulfated peptide mimics a plant peptide hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Rory N; Joe, Anna; Zhang, Weiguo; Feng, Wei; Stewart, Valley; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Dinneny, José R; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-07-01

    The biotrophic pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) produces a sulfated peptide named RaxX, which shares similarity to peptides in the PSY (plant peptide containing sulfated tyrosine) family. We hypothesize that RaxX mimics the growth-stimulating activity of PSY peptides. Root length was measured in Arabidopsis and rice treated with synthetic RaxX peptides. We also used comparative genomic analyses and reactive oxygen species burst assays to evaluate the activity of RaxX and PSY peptides. Here we found that a synthetic sulfated RaxX derivative comprising 13 residues (RaxX13-sY), highly conserved between RaxX and PSY, induces root growth in Arabidopsis and rice in a manner similar to that triggered by PSY. We identified residues that are required for activation of immunity mediated by the rice XA21 receptor but that are not essential for root growth induced by PSY. Finally, we showed that a Xanthomonas strain lacking raxX is impaired in virulence. These findings suggest that RaxX serves as a molecular mimic of PSY peptides to facilitate Xoo infection and that XA21 has evolved the ability to recognize and respond specifically to the microbial form of the peptide. © 2017 UT-Battelle LLC. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. New synthesis of a stereoisomeric mixture of methyl 12-trishomofarnesoate, a juvenile hormone mimic useful in sericulture by increasing silk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of (E,Z)-isomers of methyl 12-trishomofarnesoate (methyl 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10-pentadecatrienoate), a juvenile hormone mimic, was synthesized in nine steps (32.6% overall yield) by starting from only four commercially available materials: 2-hexanone, vinylmagnesium bromide, methyl acetoacetate and trimethyl phosphonoacetate. The mimic is useful in increasing the yield of silk by elongating the larval period of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.).

  3. Loss of a neural AMP-activated kinase mimics the effects of elevated serotonin on fat, movement, and hormonal secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Cunningham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator of metabolism and a therapeutic target in type 2 diabetes. As an energy sensor, AMPK activity is responsive to both metabolic inputs, for instance the ratio of AMP to ATP, and numerous hormonal cues. As in mammals, each of two genes, aak-1 and aak-2, encode for the catalytic subunit of AMPK in C. elegans. Here we show that in C. elegans loss of aak-2 mimics the effects of elevated serotonin signaling on fat reduction, slowed movement, and promoting exit from dauer arrest. Reconstitution of aak-2 in only the nervous system restored wild type fat levels and movement rate to aak-2 mutants and reconstitution in only the ASI neurons was sufficient to significantly restore dauer maintenance to the mutant animals. As in elevated serotonin signaling, inactivation of AAK-2 in the ASI neurons caused enhanced secretion of dense core vesicles from these neurons. The ASI neurons are the site of production of the DAF-7 TGF-β ligand and the DAF-28 insulin, both of which are secreted by dense core vesicles and play critical roles in whether animals stay in dauer or undergo reproductive development. These findings show that elevated levels of serotonin promote enhanced secretions of systemic regulators of pro-growth and differentiation pathways through inactivation of AAK-2. As such, AMPK is not only a recipient of hormonal signals but can also be an upstream regulator. Our data suggest that some of the physiological phenotypes previously attributed to peripheral AAK-2 activity on metabolic targets may instead be due to the role of this kinase in neural serotonin signaling.

  4. The hormone response element mimic sequence of GAS5 lncRNA is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) lncRNA promotes apoptosis, and its expression is down-regulated in breast cancer. GAS5 lncRNA is a decoy of glucocorticoid/related receptors; a stem-loop sequence constitutes the GAS5 hormone response element mimic (HREM), which is essential for the regulation of breast cancer cell apoptosis. This preclinical study aimed to determine if the GAS5 HREM sequence alone promotes the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Nucleofection of hormone-sensitive and –insensitive breast cancer cell lines with a GAS5 HREM DNA oligonucleotide increased both basal and ultraviolet-C-induced apoptosis, and decreased culture viability and clonogenic growth, similar to GAS5 lncRNA. The HREM oligonucleotide demonstrated similar sequence specificity to the native HREM for its functional activity and had no effect on endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Certain chemically modified HREM oligonucleotides, notably DNA and RNA phosphorothioates, retained pro-apoptotic. activity. Crucially the HREM oligonucleotide could overcome apoptosis resistance secondary to deficient endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Thus, the GAS5 lncRNA HREM sequence alone is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including triple-negative breast cancer cells. These findings further suggest that emerging knowledge of structure/function relationships in the field of lncRNA biology can be exploited for the development of entirely novel, oligonucleotide mimic-based, cancer therapies. PMID:26862727

  5. Vasculitis mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Eamonn S; Langford, Carol A

    2008-01-01

    There are many disorders that may closely resemble the clinical, radiologic and/or pathologic features of the primary vasculitides. In this review, we focus on recently described and under-recognized syndromes that may mimic vasculitis. Hereditary causes of large-artery aneurysms such as Marfan's syndrome have long been recognized; recent years have seen a greater understanding of the genetics of Marfan's and other such disorders, including Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome type IV. Under-recognized mimics of medium-vessel vasculitis include segmental arterial mediolysis and Grange syndrome. A large number of entities can mimic small-vessel vasculitis. Recent descriptions of antibodies to human neutrophil elastase have provided insight into the occurrence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions. The differential diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis can be particularly difficult. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes represent an important class of entities that can readily mimic cerebral vasculitis but have a very different management approach and outcome. The diagnosis of vasculitis requires careful assessment of all available clinical, laboratory, radiologic and pathologic information, and consideration of many competing differential diagnoses. Awareness of noninflammatory mimics of vasculitis is essential to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment with immunosuppressive agents.

  6. Myositis Mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle, E Harlan; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-10-01

    Patients with autoimmune myositis typically present with muscle weakness, elevated serum levels of muscle enzymes, and abnormal muscle biopsies. However, patients with other acquired myopathies or genetic muscle diseases may have remarkably similar presentations. Making the correct diagnosis of another muscle disease can prevent these patients from being exposed to the risks of immunosuppressive medications, which benefit those with myositis, but not those with other types of muscle disease. Here, we review some of the most common acquired and inherited muscle diseases that can mimic autoimmune myositis, including inclusion body myositis, limb girdle muscular dystrophies, metabolic myopathies, mitochondrial myopathies, and endocrine myopathies. We emphasize aspects of the medical history, physical exam, laboratory evaluation, and muscle biopsy analysis that can help clinicians distinguish myositis mimics from true autoimmune myositis.

  7. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. A peptide mimic of an antigenic loop of alpha-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone: solution structure and interaction with a llama V-HH domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrat, G.; Renisio, J.G.; Morelli, X.; Slootstra, J.W.; Meloen, R.; Cambillau, C.; Darbon, H.

    2002-01-01

    The X-ray structure of a ternary complex between human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG) and two Fvs recognizing its alpha and beta subunits has been recently determined. The Fvs recognize the elongated hCG molecule by its two ends, one being the Leu-12-Cys-29 loop of the alpha subunit. We have

  9. Mimics of scleroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri K Nalianda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterised typically by tightening and tethering of skin. However, several other disorders are also characterised by hardening and thickening of skin. These mimics can be potentially confused with systemic sclerosis, leading to a misdiagnosis. This review describes the aetiopathogenesis, clinical features and treatment of Morphea (localised scleroderma, Scleredema, Scleromyxoedema, Eosinophilic fasciitis, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis, Diabetic Cheiroarthropathy, chronic GVHD, POEMS syndrome and drug induced scleroderma like illness. A careful and thorough clinical assessment is essential in order to differentiate these mimics from each other and from systemic sclerosis, establish the diagnosis, and initiate appropriate treatment.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  11. Enzyme Mimics: Advances and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah, Evelyn; Toh, Seraphina; Yee, Jessica; Ma, Qian; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-13

    Enzyme mimics or artificial enzymes are a class of catalysts that have been actively pursued for decades and have heralded much interest as potentially viable alternatives to natural enzymes. Aside from having catalytic activities similar to their natural counterparts, enzyme mimics have the desired advantages of tunable structures and catalytic efficiencies, excellent tolerance to experimental conditions, lower cost, and purely synthetic routes to their preparation. Although still in the midst of development, impressive advances have already been made. Enzyme mimics have shown immense potential in the catalysis of a wide range of chemical and biological reactions, the development of chemical and biological sensing and anti-biofouling systems, and the production of pharmaceuticals and clean fuels. This Review concerns the development of various types of enzyme mimics, namely polymeric and dendrimeric, supramolecular, nanoparticulate and proteinic enzyme mimics, with an emphasis on their synthesis, catalytic properties and technical applications. It provides an introduction to enzyme mimics and a comprehensive summary of the advances and current standings of their applications, and seeks to inspire researchers to perfect the design and synthesis of enzyme mimics and to tailor their functionality for a much wider range of applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mimic of OSU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hong; Miller, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Ohio State University research reactor (OSURR) is undergoing improvements in its research and educational capabilities. A computer-based digital data acquisition system, including a reactor system mimic, will be installed as part of these improvements. The system will monitor the reactor system parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital or analog form. The system includes two computers. All the signals are sent to computer 1, which processes the data and sends the data through a serial port to computer 2 with a video graphics array VGA monitor, which is utilized to display the mimic system of the reactor

  13. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  14. Synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Abhigyan; Vemparala, Satyavani; Ivanov, Ivaylo; Tew, Gregory N

    2008-01-01

    Infectious diseases and antibiotic resistance are now considered the most imperative global healthcare problem. In the search for new treatments, host defense, or antimicrobial, peptides have attracted considerable attention due to their various unique properties; however, attempts to develop in vivo therapies have been severely limited. Efforts to develop synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs) have increased significantly in the last decade, and this review will focus primarily on the structural evolution of SMAMPs and their membrane activity. This review will attempt to make a bridge between the design of SMAMPs and the fundamentals of SMAMP-membrane interactions. In discussions regarding the membrane interaction of SMAMPs, close attention will be paid to the lipid composition of the bilayer. Despite many years of study, the exact conformational aspects responsible for the high selectivity of these AMPs and SMAMPs toward bacterial cells over mammalian cells are still not fully understood. The ability to design SMAMPs that are potently antimicrobial, yet nontoxic to mammalian cells has been demonstrated with a variety of molecular scaffolds. Initial animal studies show very good tissue distribution along with more than a 4-log reduction in bacterial counts. The results on SMAMPs are not only extremely promising for novel antibiotics, but also provide an optimistic picture for the greater challenge of general proteomimetics.

  15. Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers Inclusion & Diversity Work-Life Balance Career Resources Apply for a Job Postdocs Students Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Releases - 2016 » April » Tiny plastic lung mimics human pulmonary function Tiny plastic lung mimics

  16. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  17. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  18. MIMIC Methods for Assessing Differential Item Functioning in Polytomous Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Three multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) methods, namely, the standard MIMIC method (M-ST), the MIMIC method with scale purification (M-SP), and the MIMIC method with a pure anchor (M-PA), were developed to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. In a series of simulations, it appeared that all three methods…

  19. Explosives mimic for testing, training, and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.

    2018-02-13

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make mimics for explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.

  20. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  1. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  2. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  3. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Methyl Silanediol Peptide Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Lindsay, Karl; Faber, Jesper

    2007-01-01

     The treatment of chiral sulfinimines with (methyldiphenylsilyl)lithium gives R-(methyldiphenylsilyl)-sulfinamides with excellent diastereoselectivity, and in good yield. The presence of α-protons on the imines is also well tolerated. The sulfinamide auxiliary is easily removed via treatment with...... corresponding bis-TMS siloxane via protection with TMSCl, and converted back to the desired silanediol via hydrolysis with aqueous KOH. Efforts to apply this approach to biologically relevant silanediol peptide mimics, with a view to protease inhibition, are described....

  4. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  5. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  6. DNA mimic proteins: functions, structures, and bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Ching; Ho, Chun-Han; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Wang, Andrew H-J

    2014-05-13

    DNA mimic proteins have DNA-like negative surface charge distributions, and they function by occupying the DNA binding sites of DNA binding proteins to prevent these sites from being accessed by DNA. DNA mimic proteins control the activities of a variety of DNA binding proteins and are involved in a wide range of cellular mechanisms such as chromatin assembly, DNA repair, transcription regulation, and gene recombination. However, the sequences and structures of DNA mimic proteins are diverse, making them difficult to predict by bioinformatic search. To date, only a few DNA mimic proteins have been reported. These DNA mimics were not found by searching for functional motifs in their sequences but were revealed only by structural analysis of their charge distribution. This review highlights the biological roles and structures of 16 reported DNA mimic proteins. We also discuss approaches that might be used to discover new DNA mimic proteins.

  7. Reexpression of Prior Stroke Symptoms in Adults: When is a Mimic a Mimic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; George, Alexander J; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2017-09-01

    A "stroke mimic" refers to any clinical condition that causes neurological symptoms clinically indistinguishable from a cerebral lesion that affects a vascular distribution, but is not caused by ischemia. One subtype of stroke mimic, termed stroke reexpression, is a form of mimicry in which previously recovered or improved stroke symptoms recur in the setting of a neurological disturbance (seizure, hypoperfusion state) or a systemic disturbance (toxic, metabolic, infectious). Many reports of stroke reexpression exist in the literature and are well known to clinicians, but there has been no consensus regarding terminology that has been published to date. The purpose of this review is to summarize several examples of stroke reexpression and propose simple, useful criteria for this clinical condition.

  8. Gibberellic and kaurenoic hybrid strigolactone mimics for seed germination of parasitic weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rondinelle G; Cala, Antonio; Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Molinillo, José Mg; Boaventura, Maria Ad; Macías, Francisco A

    2017-12-01

    Parasitic weeds are widespread and cause significant losses in important crops. Their germination requires the detection of crop-derived molecules such as strigolactones. Strigolactone mimics are germination-inducing molecules with the potential to apply a suicidal germination strategy for seed bank control of parasitic weeds. The D-ring, which is instrumental in the germination process of seeds of parasitic weeds, was attached to gibberellin (GA 3 ) and kaurenoic acid as the scaffold. It was shown that indeed strigolactone mimics prepared from GA 3 and kaurenoic acid are active as stimulants when a D-ring is present; some of the mimics are as active as GR24. The starting molecules were plant hormones that had previous growth-regulating activity in other organisms and the products showed enhanced activity towards parasitic weeds. The information generated may contribute to a better understanding of the germination biochemistry of the weed species used. Further research is required in this area but it is clear that the results are promising. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Mycosis Fungoides mimic chronic eczema? Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Andruszkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. Because of its great variety of clinical features and nonspecific histological findings (especially in early stages has been named the "great imitator "and can induce many wrong diagnosis [2,3]. Mycosis fungoides (MF, is an epidermotropic lymphoma included as an indolent form in the recent WHO/EORTC classification. From a clinical point of view, the classic disease progression usually is slow and takes over years or even decades, and characterized by the evolution from patches to more infiltrated plaques and eventually to tumours or erythroderma. However, the analysis of the MF disease course has been greatly impaired by the rarity of the disease, thus data about the time course of disease progression and pattern of relapse during time are not well known [4,5]. Therefore very often Mycosis fungoides is misdiagnosed as chronic eczema [6]. MF can also mimic: vitiligo [6], alopecia-Areata [7], ecchymosis [8].

  10. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  11. Clinical Mimics: An Emergency Medicine Focused Review of Anxiety Mimics: Journal of Emergency Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-09

    was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including...thyroid May or may not have hormone via potassium iodide (5 prior diagnosis of drops PO every 6-8 hours) or hyperthyroidism Lugol’s solution (5-10 PO

  12. Mimic sensor to monitor condition of human health; Mimic sensor wo riyoshita taicho monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Y. [Mechanical Engineering Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    In the aging society where the birth rate decreases and the number of nuclear families increases, it is very important to inquire after the aged or physically handicapped people, to monitor their physical conditions, and to take steps to keep them healthy. As for the in-home physical measurement for the aged or physically handicapped people and the work of health management for them based on such measurement, it is feared that under the present conditions the invalid themselves or their family members or nurses will inevitably have to bear the burden and that nobody can deny the difficulty of continuing such nursing care. If daily physical condition measurement and related data collection are automatically carried out, however, interested people' burden will lessen and in-home heath management will become actually feasible. In this paper, a mimic sensor for realizing such a situation is described, which will measure physical conditions without interfering with the daily life of interested people. Serving as the mimic sensor is a blood flow sensor embedded in a telephone receiver, and changes in the blood flow during telephone conversation and changes in the gaps between peeks will be monitored. The feasibility is shown of continual collection of information necessary for the measurement of physical conditions of the aged or physically handicapped persons. (NEDO)

  13. Surgically Confirmed Intra- and Extratesticular Hematoma Clinically Mimicing Epididymo-Orchitis and Radiologically Mimicing Traumatic Torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akay, Sinan; Kaygisiz, Mustafa; Oztas, Muharrem; Turgut, Mustafa Suphi

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal blunt trauma may result in injuries, such as testicular rupture, dislocation, torsion, hematoma, spermatic cord injury or contusion, and epididymal, scrotal, and urethral injuries. Ultrasonography (US) has a crucial role in the evaluation of those kinds of pathologies. Early diagnosis of testicular rupture may lead to the salvaging of the testicle by prompt surgical exploration within 72 h. A 21-year-old male with right scrotal swelling and pain complaints was admitted to another hospital one month ago. Epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed and the patient was given medical treatment. The patient was admitted to our emergency service with ongoing complaints. The patient stated that the pain and swelling suddenly developed after prolonged marching. On US, a large hematoma was detected between the leaves of the tunica vaginalis, and rupture from the lower pole was diagnosed. On color Doppler US, no vascularity was observed in the heterogeneous testicular parenchyma. Traumatic torsion was primarily suggested. Intraoperatively, an extratesticular hematoma, hematocele, and rupture were confirmed but torsion was not found. Because the hematoma entirely replaced the normal parenchyma, orchiectomy was performed. Testicular rupture may occur even after moderate sportive action such as prolonged marching. If any delay occurs in diagnosis and/or operation, the coagulum may replace the entire parenchyma. We think that US and clinical findings may sometimes mislead the physicians and cause misdiagnoses, such as inflammation or torsion. In this paper, we present a complex delayed diagnosed example case of testicular rupture clinically mimicing epididymo-orchitis and radiologically mimicing traumatic testicular torsion

  14. Stroke mimic diagnoses presenting to a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ang; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Pereira, Anthony C; Moynihan, Barry J

    2016-10-01

    Stroke services have been centralised in several countries in recent years. Diagnosing acute stroke is challenging and a high proportion of patients admitted to stroke units are diagnosed as a non-stroke condition (stroke mimics). This study aims to describe the stroke mimic patient group, including their impact on stroke services. We analysed routine clinical data from 2,305 consecutive admissions to a stroke unit at St George's Hospital, London. Mimic groupings were derived from 335 individual codes into 17 groupings. From 2,305 admissions, 555 stroke mimic diagnoses were identified (24.2%) and 72% of stroke mimics had at least one stroke risk factor. Common mimic diagnoses were headache, seizure and syncope. Medically unexplained symptoms and decompensation of underlying conditions were also common. Median length of stay was 1 day; a diagnosis of dementia (p=0.028) or needing MRI (p=0.006) was associated with a longer stay. Despite emergency department assessment by specialist clinicians and computed tomography brain, one in four suspected stroke patients admitted to hospital had a non-stroke diagnosis. Stroke mimics represent a heterogeneous patient group with significant impacts on stroke services. Co-location of stroke and acute neurology services may offer advantages where service reorganisation is being considered. © Royal College of Physicians 2016. All rights reserved.

  15. Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D; Kenney, Nicholas; Stoica, Adriana; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Singh, Baljit; Chepko, Gloria; Clarke, Robert; Sholler, Peter F; Lirio, Apolonio A; Foss, Colby; Reiter, Ronald; Trock, Bruce; Paik, Soonmyoung; Martin, Mary Beth

    2003-08-01

    It has been suggested that environmental contaminants that mimic the effects of estrogen contribute to disruption of the reproductive systems of animals in the wild, and to the high incidence of hormone-related cancers and diseases in Western populations. Previous studies have shown that functionally, cadmium acts like steroidal estrogens in breast cancer cells as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor. The results of the present study show that cadmium also has potent estrogen-like activity in vivo. Exposure to cadmium increased uterine wet weight, promoted growth and development of the mammary glands and induced hormone-regulated genes in ovariectomized animals. In the uterus, the increase in wet weight was accompanied by proliferation of the endometrium and induction of progesterone receptor (PgR) and complement component C3. In the mammary gland, cadmium promoted an increase in the formation of side branches and alveolar buds and the induction of casein, whey acidic protein, PgR and C3. In utero exposure to the metal also mimicked the effects of estrogens. Female offspring experienced an earlier onset of puberty and an increase in the epithelial area and the number of terminal end buds in the mammary gland.

  16. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-01-01

    -mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes

  17. Glutathione transferase mimics : Micellar catalysis of an enzymic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindkvist, Björn; Weinander, Rolf; Engman, Lars; Koetse, Marc; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Morgenstern, Ralf

    1997-01-01

    Substances that mimic the enzyme action of glutathione transferases (which serve in detoxification) are described. These micellar catalysts enhance the reaction rate between thiols and activated halogenated nitroarenes as well as alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyls. The nucleophilic aromatic

  18. Decontamination Of Bacterial Spores by a Peptide-Mimic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagarajan, R; Muller, Wayne S; Ashley, Rebekah; Mello, Charlene M

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we demonstrate that a peptide-mimic (cationic, amphiphilic) chemical agent, dodecylamine is capable of performing the dual functions of germinating the dormant spore as well as deactivating...

  19. Process mining in oncology using the MIMIC-III dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prima Kurniati, Angelina; Hall, Geoff; Hogg, David; Johnson, Owen

    2018-03-01

    Process mining is a data analytics approach to discover and analyse process models based on the real activities captured in information systems. There is a growing body of literature on process mining in healthcare, including oncology, the study of cancer. In earlier work we found 37 peer-reviewed papers describing process mining research in oncology with a regular complaint being the limited availability and accessibility of datasets with suitable information for process mining. Publicly available datasets are one option and this paper describes the potential to use MIMIC-III, for process mining in oncology. MIMIC-III is a large open access dataset of de-identified patient records. There are 134 publications listed as using the MIMIC dataset, but none of them have used process mining. The MIMIC-III dataset has 16 event tables which are potentially useful for process mining and this paper demonstrates the opportunities to use MIMIC-III for process mining in oncology. Our research applied the L* lifecycle method to provide a worked example showing how process mining can be used to analyse cancer pathways. The results and data quality limitations are discussed along with opportunities for further work and reflection on the value of MIMIC-III for reproducible process mining research.

  20. Validating the TeleStroke Mimic Score: A Prediction Rule for Identifying Stroke Mimics Evaluated Over Telestroke Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed F; Hubert, Gordian J; Switzer, Jeffrey A; Majersik, Jennifer J; Backhaus, Roland; Shepard, L Wylie; Vedala, Kishore; Schwamm, Lee H

    2018-03-01

    Up to 30% of acute stroke evaluations are deemed stroke mimics, and these are common in telestroke as well. We recently published a risk prediction score for use during telestroke encounters to differentiate stroke mimics from ischemic cerebrovascular disease derived and validated in the Partners TeleStroke Network. Using data from 3 distinct US and European telestroke networks, we sought to externally validate the TeleStroke Mimic (TM) score in a broader population. We evaluated the TM score in 1930 telestroke consults from the University of Utah, Georgia Regents University, and the German TeleMedical Project for Integrative Stroke Care Network. We report the area under the curve in receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis with 95% confidence interval for our previously derived TM score in which lower TM scores correspond with a higher likelihood of being a stroke mimic. Based on final diagnosis at the end of the telestroke consultation, there were 630 of 1930 (32.6%) stroke mimics in the external validation cohort. All 6 variables included in the score were significantly different between patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease versus stroke mimics. The TM score performed well (area under curve, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.73; P mimic during telestroke consultation in these diverse cohorts was similar to its performance in our original cohort. Predictive decision-support tools like the TM score may help highlight key clinical differences between mimics and patients with stroke during complex, time-critical telestroke evaluations. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  2. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  3. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  4. Branchial cleft anomalies and their mimics: computed tomographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnsberger, H.R.; Mancuso, A.A.; Muraki, A.S.; Byrd, S.E.; Dillon, W.P.; Johnson, L.P.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    A review was made of the clinical records and radiographic examinations of 38 patients with neck lesions clinically suspected of being branchial cleft anomalies. The impact of computed tomography in this sometimes confusing clinical picture was assessed and CT criteria for diagnosing branchial cleft anomalies (BCAs) and differentiating them from their mimics were identified. Seventeen branchial cleft anomalies and 21 BCA mimics were evaluated. A definitive CT diagnosis of second branchial cleft cysts based on characteristic morphology, location, and displacement of surrounding structures was possible in 80% of cases. CT was found to be the best radiographic examination in making a definitive diagnosis of BCA if a neck mass was present

  5. Synthesis of aminocyclopentanols: a-D-galacto configured sugar mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge

    2005-01-01

    Four aminocyclopentanols, as mimics of putative intermediates in hydrolysis of a-D-galactosides, have been synthesized through a number of stereoselective transformations, using the cis-fused cyclopentane-1,4-lactone (1R, 5S, 7R, 8R)-7,8-dihydroxy-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]oct-3-one 1 as a chiral buildi...

  6. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerer, Joshua P; Venken, Koen J T; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-04-30

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy mimics: role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly used in patients with suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) based on ECG, echocardiogram and Holter. However, various diseases may present with clinical characteristics resembling ARVC causing diagnostic dilemmas. The aim of this study was to explore the role of CMR in the differential diagnosis of patients with suspected ARVC. Methods 657 CMR referrals suspicious for ARVC in a single tertiary referral centre were analysed. Standardized CMR imaging protocols for ARVC were performed. Potential ARVC mimics were grouped into: 1) displacement of the heart, 2) right ventricular overload, and 3) non ARVC-like cardiac scarring. For each, a judgment of clinical impact was made. Results Twenty patients (3.0%) fulfilled imaging ARVC criteria. Thirty (4.6%) had a potential ARVC mimic, of which 25 (3.8%) were considered clinically important: cardiac displacement (n=17), RV overload (n=7) and non-ARVC like myocardial scarring (n=4). One patient had two mimics; one patient had dual pathology with important mimic and ARVC. RV overload and scarring conditions were always thought clinically important whilst the importance of cardiac displacement depended on the degree of displacement from severe (partial absence of pericardium) to epiphenomenon (minor kyphoscoliosis). Conclusions Some patients referred for CMR with suspected ARVC fulfil ARVC imaging criteria (3%) but more have otherwise unrecognised diseases (4.6%) mimicking potentially ARVC. Clinical assessment should reflect this, emphasising the assessment and/or exclusion of potential mimics in parallel with the detection of ARVC major and minor criteria. PMID:23398958

  8. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  10. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  11. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  12. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  13. A Taylor-Made Design of Phenoxyfuranone-Type Strigolactone Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Fukui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strigolactones are a class of plant hormones that inhibit axillary bud outgrowth and are released from plant roots to act as a rhizosphere communication signal. The Orobanchaceae parasitic plant Striga hermonthica perceives strigolactone as its germination signal, indicating host presence. After germination, the Striga plant parasitises the host plant and suppresses host growth by draining photosynthetic products, water and other essential nutrients. Because of this way of life, this parasite threatens crop production in sub-Saharan Africa with infestation in crop fields and crop devastation. Crop protection in such areas is among the most concerning problems to be dealt with as immediately as possible. With respect to crop protection from Striga, many strigolactone agonists have been developed and used in research to reveal Striga biology, and have contributed to development of crop protection methods. However, an effective method has yet to be found. In a previous study, we reported debranones as a group of strigolactone mimics that inhibit axillary buds outgrowth with moderate stimulation activity for Striga germination. Debranones would be accessible because they are simply synthesized from commercially available phenols and bromo butenolide. Taking this advantage of debranones for Striga research, we tried to find the debranones stimulating Striga seed germination. To modulate functional selectivity and to enhance germination inducing activity of debranones, we studied structure–activity relationships. We investigated effects of substituent position and functional group on debranone activity and selectivity as a strigolactone mimic. As a result, we improved stimulation activity of debranones for Striga seed germination by chemical modification, and demonstrated the pharmacophore of debranones for selective modulation of distinct strigolactone responses.

  14. Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma as a Potentially Important Stroke Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Akimoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemiparesis develops in response to a wide range of neurological disorders, such as stroke, neoplasms and several inflammatory processes. Occasionally, it may also occur due to a lesion located in the high cervical spinal cord. In this concise review, we describe the features of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma, which should be included in the large list of stroke mimics. Various concerns regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic conundrums relating to the condition are also discussed.

  15. Constraining cyclic peptides to mimic protein structure motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Timothy A.; Shepherd, Nicholas E.; Diness, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    peptides can have protein-like biological activities and potencies, enabling their uses as biological probes and leads to therapeutics, diagnostics and vaccines. This Review highlights examples of cyclic peptides that mimic three-dimensional structures of strand, turn or helical segments of peptides...... and proteins, and identifies some additional restraints incorporated into natural product cyclic peptides and synthetic macrocyclic pepti-domimetics that refine peptide structure and confer biological properties....

  16. The ability of lizards to identify an artificial Batesian mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Josef; Veselý, Petr

    2017-08-01

    Birds are usually considered the main predators shaping the evolution of aposematic signals and mimicry. Nevertheless, some lizards also represent predominately visually oriented predators, so they may also play an important role in the evolution of aposematism. Despite this fact, experimental evidence regarding the responses of lizards to aposematic prey is very poor compared to such evidence in birds. Lizards possess very similar sensory and cognitive abilities to those of birds and their response to aposematic prey may thus be affected by very similar processes. We investigated the reactions of a lizard, the Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus), to an aposematic prey and its artificial Batesian mimic. Further, we attempted to ascertain whether the lizard's food experience has any effect on its ability to recognise an artificial Batesian mimic, by using two groups of predators differing in their prior experience with the prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus) was used as an aposematic model, and the Guyana spotted roach (Blaptica dubia) as the palatable prey from which the mimic was fabricated. The appearance of the roach was modified by a paper sticker placed on its back. The skinks showed a strong aversion towards the model firebug. They also avoided attacking the cockroaches with the firebug pattern sticker. This suggests that a visual rather than a chemical signal is responsible for this aversion. The protection provided by the firebug sticker was even effective when the skinks were familiar with unmodified cockroaches (previous food experience). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  18. The frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimic presentations: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Graham; Rodgers, Helen; Flynn, Darren; Price, Christopher I

    2018-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with acute stroke symptoms have an alternative 'mimic' diagnosis. A narrative review was carried out to explore the frequency, characteristics and aetiology of stroke mimics. Prehospital and thrombolysis-treated patients were described separately. Overall, 9972 studies were identified from the initial search and 79 studies were included with a median stroke mimic rate of 19% (range: 1-64%). The prehospital median was 27% (range: 4-43%) and the thrombolysis median 10% (range: 1-25%). Seizures, migraines and psychiatric disorders are the most frequently reported causes of stroke mimics. Several characteristics are consistently associated with stroke mimics; however, they do not fully exclude the possibility of stroke. Nineteen per cent of suspected stroke patients had a mimic condition. Stroke mimics were more common with younger age and female sex. The range of mimic diagnoses, a lack of clear differentiating characteristics and the short treatment window for ischaemic stroke create challenges for early identification.

  19. Low-dose effects of hormones and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones have effects on tissue morphology, cell physiology, and behaviors at low doses. In fact, hormones are known to circulate in the part-per-trillion and part-per-billion concentrations, making them highly effective and potent signaling molecules. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) mimic hormones, yet there is strong debate over whether these chemicals can also have effects at low doses. In the 1990s, scientists proposed the "low-dose hypothesis," which postulated that EDCs affect humans and animals at environmentally relevant doses. This chapter focuses on data that support and refute the low-dose hypothesis. A case study examining the highly controversial example of bisphenol A and its low-dose effects on the prostate is examined through the lens of endocrinology. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of factors that can influence the ability of a study to detect and interpret low-dose effects appropriately. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The MIMIC Method with Scale Purification for Detecting Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Shih, Ching-Lin; Yang, Chih-Chien

    2009-01-01

    This study implements a scale purification procedure onto the standard MIMIC method for differential item functioning (DIF) detection and assesses its performance through a series of simulations. It is found that the MIMIC method with scale purification (denoted as M-SP) outperforms the standard MIMIC method (denoted as M-ST) in controlling…

  1. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  2. The MIMIC Code Repository: enabling reproducibility in critical care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alistair Ew; Stone, David J; Celi, Leo A; Pollard, Tom J

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility in medical studies is a barrier to the generation of a robust knowledge base to support clinical decision-making. In this paper we outline the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) Code Repository, a centralized code base for generating reproducible studies on an openly available critical care dataset. Code is provided to load the data into a relational structure, create extractions of the data, and reproduce entire analysis plans including research studies. Concepts extracted include severity of illness scores, comorbid status, administrative definitions of sepsis, physiologic criteria for sepsis, organ failure scores, treatment administration, and more. Executable documents are used for tutorials and reproduce published studies end-to-end, providing a template for future researchers to replicate. The repository's issue tracker enables community discussion about the data and concepts, allowing users to collaboratively improve the resource. The centralized repository provides a platform for users of the data to interact directly with the data generators, facilitating greater understanding of the data. It also provides a location for the community to collaborate on necessary concepts for research progress and share them with a larger audience. Consistent application of the same code for underlying concepts is a key step in ensuring that research studies on the MIMIC database are comparable and reproducible. By providing open source code alongside the freely accessible MIMIC-III database, we enable end-to-end reproducible analysis of electronic health records. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  3. Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology of Parathyroid Carcinoma Mimic Hürthle Cell Thyroid Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutintorn Sriphrapradang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA can cause misdiagnosis of cytomorphological findings between parathyroid and thyroid lesions. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old man presented with a palpable neck mass on the right thyroid lobe. FNA cytology was reported as intrathyroidal lymphoid hyperplasia. After 5 years, repeated FNA was done on the enlarged nodule with result of Hürthle cell lesion. Prior to right lobectomy, laboratories revealed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH. Careful history taking revealed chronic knee pain and ossifying fibroma at the maxilla. Ultrasonography showed a 2.8 cm mass inferior to right thyroid lobe. Pathology from en bloc resection was parathyroid carcinoma and immunohistochemical study revealed positivity for PTH. Genetic analysis found somatic mutation of CDC73 gene in exon1 (c.70delG which caused premature stop codon in amino acid 26 (p.Glu24Lysfs2*. The final diagnosis was hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Conclusions. FNA cytology of parathyroid can mimic thyroid lesion. It is important to consider and correlate the entire information from clinical history, laboratory, imaging, and FNA.

  4. A Less Known Stroke Mimic: Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keneilwe Malomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is a clinico-neuro-radiological diagnosis, which can complicate a wide range of conditions. Clinical features include generalised and/or focal neurological deficits. These features are also present in neurovascular disorders, such as stroke. Currently, emphasis in the management of hyperacute stroke is thrombolysis, and it is important to bear in mind stroke mimics as a possible cause of clinical features. The Authors present the case of a 66-year-old man, who presented with acute focal neurological deficit. His brain imaging and history were consistent with PRES.

  5. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods...... that are suitable for more complex double curved geometry. One approach is to use alternating layers of 2 different polymers applied by dipping and another is applying cholesteric liquid crystals in paint. However, none of them can yet make the desired metal-looking free-form surfaces....

  6. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Presenting as Stroke Mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 33-year-old male with end stage renal disease presenting to the emergency department (ED with headache, dizziness, and unilateral weakness. Initial concern was for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES. The patient was treated appropriately and made a full neurologic recovery. PRES is an under-recognized diagnosis in the ED. As a stroke mimic, PRES can lead the clinician on an incorrect diagnostic pathway with potential for iatrogenic harm.

  7. Triazolide Strigolactone Mimics Influence Root Development in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, Marcela; Soudek, Petr; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2017), s. 1318-1327 ISSN 0163-3864 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD14127 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PARASITIC WEED GERMINATION * PLANT HORMONES * BIOLOGICAL -ACTIVITY Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2016

  8. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome Mimics a Conduction Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marrakchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG, as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a “false positive” of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  9. Wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome mimics a conduction disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, S; Kammoun, I; Kachboura, S

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is important to recognise Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome in electrocardiograms (ECG), as it may mimic ischaemic heart disease, ventricular hypertrophy, and bundle branch block. Recognising WPW syndrome allows for risk stratification, the identification of associated conditions, and the institution of appropriate management. Objective. The present case showed that electrophysiological study is indicated in patients with abnormal ECG and syncope. Case Report. A 40-year-old man with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome was presented to emergency with syncope. A baseline ECG was a complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock. He was admitted to the cardiac care unit for pacemaker implantation. The atypical figure of complete right branch block and posterior left hemiblock was thought to be a "false positive" of conduction abnormality. But the long anterograde refractory period of the both accessory pathway and atrioventricular conduction may cause difficulty in diagnosing Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Conclusion. A Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome may mimic a conduction disease. No reliable algorithm exists for making an ECG diagnosis of a preexcitation syndrome with conduction disorders. This can lead to diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas in the context of syncope.

  10. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  12. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  13. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  14. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  15. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  16. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  17. Colonoscopic tattoo dye spillage mimics endometriosis on laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Shlomo M; Shurshalina, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Rare adverse effects of India ink injection spillage during colonoscopy have been reported. We present a case report in which prior colonoscopic India ink tattooing was found to mimic intraperitoneal endometriosis in a 48 year-old woman undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Multiple black lesions suspicious for endometriosis involving the anterior and posterior cul-de-sac, left ovary, and omentum were found. A pathological assessment showed peritoneal tissue with focal dark pigment associated with mild chronic inflammation and deposition of tattoo pigment; there was no evidence of endometriosis in the specimens. Surgical recognition of tattoo ink spillage in the peritoneum is very important to prevent misinterpretation of peritoneal findings. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  19. [Granulomatous lobular mastitis: a benign abnormality that mimics malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoedt, N M; Janssen, S; Mravunac, M; Wauters, C A P; Strobbe, L J A

    2008-05-03

    A palpable abnormality of the breast was found in three women, one aged 57 and two aged 41. The first two patients predominantly showed the characteristics of a purulent inflammation, and on mammogram the third patient appeared to have mastitis carcinomatosa. Histopathological investigation revealed a lobular, non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. They were treated with prednisone and the first and third patients also received azathioprine. After some time, the condition recurred in the contralateral breast in the second and third patients. Once again, medicinal treatment was given. When a palpable tumour of the breast is found the primary goal is to exclude malignancy. Granulomatous lobular mastitis is a rare and benign tumour of the breast that clinically mimics carcinoma. Often, conventional imaging does not lead to the diagnosis. A histological needle biopsy is the best way to reach a diagnosis. Immunosuppressive therapy is effective and is preferred over surgery.

  20. Antiproliferative efficacy of curcumin mimics through microtubule destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sadiya; Fatima, Kaneez; Hasanain, Mohammad; Behera, Chittaranjan; Kour, Avneet; Singh, Arjun; Luqman, Suaib; Sarkar, Jayanta; Chanda, Debabrata; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, A K; Mondhe, D M; Negi, Arvind S

    2018-05-10

    Curcumin possesses an attractive chemical structure with highly conjugated diferuloylmethane core. Curcumin mimics have been designed and prepared with an additional bridged phenyl ring in conjugation. Fourteen diverse analogues were evaluated against a panel of human cancer cell lines. The best analogue of the series i.e. compound 6a exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A431, epidermoid carcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 1.5 μM) and DLD1, colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (IC 50  = 6.9 μM). In tubulin kinetics experiment, compound 6a destabilized polymerisation process (IC 50  = 4.68 μM). In cell cycle analysis, compound 6a exerted G2/M phase arrest in A431 cells and induced apoptosis. In Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss-albino mice, compound 6a showed 78.6% tumour reduction at 80 mg/kg dose and 57% solid tumour reduction at 150 mg/kg dose. Further, in acute-oral toxicity experiment in rodent model, compound 6a was given in three different oral doses to Swiss albino mice. There were non-significant changes in various biochemical parameters and major body organs studied, including their absolute and relative weights. It was tolerable up to 300 mg/kg dose in Swiss-albino mice. The present study shows that the novel curcumin mimic 6a is a safe and efficacious anticancer compound. However, it needs to be optimized for better efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  2. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  3. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  5. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  6. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Large screen mimic display design research for advanced main control room in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Mingguang; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun; Zhang Qinshun; Ning Zhonghe

    2002-01-01

    Firstly the evolution of mimic diagrams or displays used in the main control room of nuclear power plant was introduced. The active functions of mimic diagrams were analyzed on the release of operator psychological burden and pressure, the assistance of operator for the information searching, status understanding, manual actuation, correct decision making as well as the safe and reliable operation of the nuclear power plant. The importance and necessity to use the (large screen) mimic diagrams in advanced main control room of nuclear power plant, the design principle, design details and verification measures of large screen mimic display are also described

  8. Accessing the public MIMIC-II intensive care relational database for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Lee, Joon; Silva, Ikaro; Park, Shinhyuk; Moody, George B; Celi, Leo A; Mark, Roger G

    2013-01-10

    The Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database is a free, public resource for intensive care research. The database was officially released in 2006, and has attracted a growing number of researchers in academia and industry. We present the two major software tools that facilitate accessing the relational database: the web-based QueryBuilder and a downloadable virtual machine (VM) image. QueryBuilder and the MIMIC-II VM have been developed successfully and are freely available to MIMIC-II users. Simple example SQL queries and the resulting data are presented. Clinical studies pertaining to acute kidney injury and prediction of fluid requirements in the intensive care unit are shown as typical examples of research performed with MIMIC-II. In addition, MIMIC-II has also provided data for annual PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenges, including the 2012 Challenge "Predicting mortality of ICU Patients". QueryBuilder is a web-based tool that provides easy access to MIMIC-II. For more computationally intensive queries, one can locally install a complete copy of MIMIC-II in a VM. Both publicly available tools provide the MIMIC-II research community with convenient querying interfaces and complement the value of the MIMIC-II relational database.

  9. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis Can Mimic Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor M; Wang, Andrew Y; de Lange, Eduard E; Zhao, Zimin; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Previously reported patients with IgG4-associated cholangitis mimicking cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum IgG4 levels and long-segment biliary strictures. However, in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for malignancy, IgG4-associated cholangitis should remain a consideration among patients with normal serum IgG4 and a hilar mass suspicious for cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of a hilar mass and a malignant-appearing biliary stricture in two patients with normal serum IgG4 prompted further evaluation and subsequent concomitant liver and bile duct resection and reconstruction. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated cholangitis was established during the pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens. IgG4-associated cholangitis is a known imitator of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even among serologically IgG4-negative patients with a hilar mass prior to operative resection.

  10. Fe65-PTB2 Dimerization Mimics Fe65-APP Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas P. Feilen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological function and pathology of the Alzheimer’s disease causing amyloid precursor protein (APP are correlated with its cytosolic adaptor Fe65 encompassing a WW and two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBs. The C-terminal Fe65-PTB2 binds a large portion of the APP intracellular domain (AICD including the GYENPTY internalization sequence fingerprint. AICD binding to Fe65-PTB2 opens an intra-molecular interaction causing a structural change and altering Fe65 activity. Here we show that in the absence of the AICD, Fe65-PTB2 forms a homodimer in solution and determine its crystal structure at 2.6 Å resolution. Dimerization involves the unwinding of a C-terminal α-helix that mimics binding of the AICD internalization sequence, thus shielding the hydrophobic binding pocket. Specific dimer formation is validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR techniques and cell-based analyses reveal that Fe65-PTB2 together with the WW domain are necessary and sufficient for dimerization. Together, our data demonstrate that Fe65 dimerizes via its APP interaction site, suggesting that besides intra- also intermolecular interactions between Fe65 molecules contribute to homeostatic regulation of APP mediated signaling.

  11. Fe65-PTB2 Dimerization Mimics Fe65-APP Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilen, Lukas P; Haubrich, Kevin; Strecker, Paul; Probst, Sabine; Eggert, Simone; Stier, Gunter; Sinning, Irmgard; Konietzko, Uwe; Kins, Stefan; Simon, Bernd; Wild, Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Physiological function and pathology of the Alzheimer's disease causing amyloid precursor protein (APP) are correlated with its cytosolic adaptor Fe65 encompassing a WW and two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBs). The C-terminal Fe65-PTB2 binds a large portion of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) including the GYENPTY internalization sequence fingerprint. AICD binding to Fe65-PTB2 opens an intra-molecular interaction causing a structural change and altering Fe65 activity. Here we show that in the absence of the AICD, Fe65-PTB2 forms a homodimer in solution and determine its crystal structure at 2.6 Å resolution. Dimerization involves the unwinding of a C-terminal α-helix that mimics binding of the AICD internalization sequence, thus shielding the hydrophobic binding pocket. Specific dimer formation is validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and cell-based analyses reveal that Fe65-PTB2 together with the WW domain are necessary and sufficient for dimerization. Together, our data demonstrate that Fe65 dimerizes via its APP interaction site, suggesting that besides intra- also intermolecular interactions between Fe65 molecules contribute to homeostatic regulation of APP mediated signaling.

  12. Recent developments in skin mimic systems to predict transdermal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a drive to create experimental techniques that can facilitate the accurate and precise prediction of transdermal permeation without the use of in vivo studies. This review considers why permeation data is essential, provides a brief summary as to how skin acts as a natural barrier to permeation and discusses why in vivo studies are undesirable. This is followed by an in-depth discussion on the extensive range of alternative methods that have been developed in recent years. All of the major 'skin mimic systems' are considered including: in vitro models using synthetic membranes, mathematical models including quantitative structure-permeability relationships (QSPRs), human skin equivalents and chromatographic based methods. All of these model based systems are ideally trying to achieve the same end-point, namely a reliable in vitro-in vivo correlation, i.e. matching non-in vivo obtained data with that from human clinical trials. It is only by achieving this aim, that any new method of obtaining permeation data can be acknowledged as a potential replacement for animal studies, for the determination of transdermal permeation. In this review, the relevance and potential applicability of the various models systems will also be discussed.

  13. Nanorod mediated collagen scaffolds as extra cellular matrix mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedhanayagam, Mohan; Nair, Balachandran Unni; Sreeram, Kalarical Janardhanan; Mohan, Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Creating collagen scaffolds that mimic extracellular matrices without using toxic exogenous materials remains a big challenge. A new strategy to create scaffolds through end-to-end crosslinking through functionalized nanorods leading to well-designed architecture is presented here. Self-assembled scaffolds with a denaturation temperature of 110 °C, porosity of 70%, pore size of 0.32 μm and Young’s modulus of 231 MPa were developed largely driven by imine bonding between 3-mercapto-1-propanal (MPA) functionalized ZnO nanorods and collagen. The mechanical properties obtained were much higher than that of native collagen, collagen—MPA, collagen—3-mercapto-1-propanol (3MPOH) or collagen- 3-MPOH-ZnO, clearly bringing out the relevance of nanorod mediated assembly of fibrous networks. This new strategy has led to scaffolds with mechanical properties much higher than earlier reports and can provide support for cell growth and facilitation of cell attachment. (paper)

  14. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  15. Thrombolytic treatment to stroke mimic patients via telestroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Ganesh; Castle, Amy L; Sperl, Michael A; Ravichandran, Jayashree; Gupta, Aditi; Ho, Bridget M; Hanson, Sandra K

    2017-02-01

    The safety and outcomes of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) to stroke patients via telestroke (TS) is similar to those presenting to stroke centers. Little is known on the accuracy of TS diagnosis among those receiving IVT. We sought to compare the rate of patients receiving IVT with diagnosis of ischemic stroke as opposed to stroke mimic (SM) in our TS network to those who presented to our comprehensive stroke center (CSC). Consecutive patients receiving IVT between August 2014 and June 2015 were identified at our CSC and TS network. We compared rates of SM, post-IVT symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), in-hospital mortality, and discharge destination. We evaluated 131 receiving IVT were included in the analysis. Rates of SM receiving IVT were similar (CSC 12% versus 7% TS, p=0.33). Four stroke patients experienced sICH or in-hospital mortality; neither were found among SM patients. Discharge destination was similar between stroke and SM patients (p=0.9). SM patients had higher diagnoses of migraine (p=0.05) and psychiatric illness (p<0.01). The accuracy of diagnosing stroke in IVT-eligible patients evaluated via TS is similar to evaluations at our CSC. Continued efforts should be made to minimize exposure of SM patients to IVT in both settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A MIMIC approach to modeling the underground economy in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, David Han-Min; Lin, Jer-Yan; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang

    2006-11-01

    The size of underground economy (UE) expansion usually increases the tax gap, impose a burden on the economy, and results in tax distortions. This study uses the MIMIC approach to model the causal variables and indicating variables to estimate the UE in Taiwan. We also focus on testing the data for non-stationarity and perform diagnostic tests. By using annual time-series data for Taiwan from 1961 to 2003, it is found that the estimated size of the UE varies from 11.0% to 13.1% before 1988, and from 10.6% to 11.8% from 1989 onwards. That the size of the UE experienced a substantial downward shift in 1989 indicates that there was a structural break. The UE is significantly and positively affected by such casual variables as the logarithm of real government consumption and currency inflation, but is negatively affected by the tax burden at 5% significant level. Unemployment rate and crime rate are not significantly correlated with the UE in this study.

  17. Penerapan Model MIMIC untuk Menguji Konsistensi Hasil Pengukuran melalui Skala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the use of multiple indicators and multiple (MIMIC model in testing the consistency of the measurement results when it's applied to individuals with different characteristics. Self-Esteem and Student Motivation Scale were employed to measure participant attributes. Impact of three student characteristics (gender, intelligence and school location on both measurement model were examined. Total of 2981 students from 30 cities of 15 provinces were participated in this study. Data analysis was utilized using confirmatory factor analysis under structural equation modeling (SEM approach. Results showed that measuring self-esteem was prone to be contaminated by individual heterogeneity. However, contrary results was found on motivation measure. Excluding three student characteristics as covariance in the model have increased model fit indices in the self-esteem measurement model, but not in the self-esteem. The presence of susceptibility scale to different characteristics indicated that this scale needs to be further modified. Therefore, when it is applied to heterogeneous population, the measurement results will produce consistently results.

  18. A web-based data visualization tool for the MIMIC-II database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Ribey, Evan; Wallace, James R

    2016-02-04

    Although MIMIC-II, a public intensive care database, has been recognized as an invaluable resource for many medical researchers worldwide, becoming a proficient MIMIC-II researcher requires knowledge of SQL programming and an understanding of the MIMIC-II database schema. These are challenging requirements especially for health researchers and clinicians who may have limited computer proficiency. In order to overcome this challenge, our objective was to create an interactive, web-based MIMIC-II data visualization tool that first-time MIMIC-II users can easily use to explore the database. The tool offers two main features: Explore and Compare. The Explore feature enables the user to select a patient cohort within MIMIC-II and visualize the distributions of various administrative, demographic, and clinical variables within the selected cohort. The Compare feature enables the user to select two patient cohorts and visually compare them with respect to a variety of variables. The tool is also helpful to experienced MIMIC-II researchers who can use it to substantially accelerate the cumbersome and time-consuming steps of writing SQL queries and manually visualizing extracted data. Any interested researcher can use the MIMIC-II data visualization tool for free to quickly and conveniently conduct a preliminary investigation on MIMIC-II with a few mouse clicks. Researchers can also use the tool to learn the characteristics of the MIMIC-II patients. Since it is still impossible to conduct multivariable regression inside the tool, future work includes adding analytics capabilities. Also, the next version of the tool will aim to utilize MIMIC-III which contains more data.

  19. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  20. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  1. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  2. Optimized FPGA Implementation of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism Using CAD Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Jaafar M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to implement the secretion mechanism of the Thyroid Hormone (TH) based on bio-mathematical differential eqs. (DE) on an FPGA chip. Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) is used to develop a behavioral model of the mechanism derived from the DE. The Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism is simulated with the interaction of the related stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Synthesis of the simulation is done with the aid of CAD tools and downloaded on a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) Chip. The chip output shows identical behavior to that of the designed algorithm through simulation. It is concluded that the chip mimics the Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism. The chip, operating in real-time, is computer-independent stand-alone system.

  3. A lesion mimic phenotype in tomato obtained by isolating and silencing an Lls1 homologue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spassieva, S; Hille, J

    Lesion mimic phenotypes serve as a tool to study the regulation of cell death in plants. In order to obtain a tomato lesion mimic phenotype, we used the conservation of the lethal leaf spot 1 (Lls1) genes between plant species. The tomato Lls1 homologue was cloned, sequenced and analyzed. It showed

  4. Biological Mimics: A New Paradigm in the Detection of Toxic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monty, Chelsea Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to introduce a new idea: using biological mimics in the detection of toxic compounds. Biological mimics imitate the active site of a given enzyme or have catalytic chemistry similar to enzymes and can be used in place of biological molecules to provide longer stability and simpler operation. In the following text the…

  5. Touch the Page and Mimic Me: Evaluation of a Talking-Pen Learning Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odakura, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the talking-pen device called the Mimic Me, an educational technology product of a large English conversation school in Japan, as an educational learning tool. The product will be reviewed in terms of its developmental appropriateness for the target audience based on current research. Although the Mimic Me…

  6. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  7. Primary study on lesion mimic mutants of rice (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Zhongna; Zhang Hongzhi; Tao Rongixang

    2007-01-01

    Nineteen lesion mimic mutants (xsl1-19) of japonica rice Xiushui11 were obtained by γ-rays irradiation treatment. All mutants belonged to whole life lesion mimic. Lesion mimic of mutants didn't largen after tillering stage, leaves didn't wither, and no effect on the plants exsert spikes and seed. When the highest temperature in day exceeded 32 degree C in seedling stage, lesion mimic of all mutant expect xsl19 disappeared. Under 32 degree C, lesion mimic would appear gradually, and symptoms weren't inhibited by high temperature after 5 leaf stage. The plant heights of all lesion mimic mutants were 47.56-63.54 cm in the tillering stage, and that of CK was 83.75 cm; but the dwarf phenomenon of mutants only appeared before tillering stage, and didn't affect plant heights finally; the heading dates of mutants were the same to the CK, the ear length of all mutants were 9.43-15.19 cm, and that of CK was 16.41 cm; the total grain quantity per spike of all mutants were 88.17-165.33, and those of xsl19 and CK were 49.50 and 76.17. The results showed all lesion mimic mutants except xsl19 had short spikes and total grain quantity per spike increasing. All lesion mimic mutants were susceptible to Magnaporthe grisea, and they had no relationship with resistance. (authors)

  8. Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test with a Critical Value Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun; Lee, Taehun

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be…

  9. Nuclear power station: validation of a method for designing operation mimic diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colard, M.I.; De Vlaminck, M.; Javaux, D.

    1995-01-01

    This is the first time in a Belgium nuclear power station that the design of mimic diagrams has involved biotechnologists. The methodology is based upon task analysis, the formalism of which has been evaluated. It is now integrated in the Dimos assisted supervision system to produce the final design of mimic diagram images. (authors). 3 figs., 3 refs

  10. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei: a potential mimic of germinal matrix hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, A.E.; Shackelford, G.D.; Adcock, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have encountered bilateral hyperechoic foci in the region of the germinal matrix on cranial sonograms in neonates that have an appearance similar to germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), but are unusual either due to the age of the patient at presentation or to the evolution of the foci on follow-up. We believe that these findings represent hyperechoic caudate nuclei (HCN) rather than GMH. Objective. To demonstrate that bilateral HCN can be seen on cranial sonography in neonates and can mimic bilateral GMH. Materials and methods. The cranial sonograms were reviewed in nine neonates (three term and six premature) who had HCN identified on at least one sonographic examination. CT (two patients) and MR (one patient) studies were also reviewed, as well as the neuropathological examination in one patient who died and had an autopsy. The patients' medical records were reviewed to identify any clinical markers for significant risk of perinatal ischemia. Results. There was clinical evidence for risk of ischemia in five of the nine neonates. All nine patients had bilateral HCN on the initial or follow-up studies. Small cysts were seen sonographically in two patients. CT was normal in one patient and revealed a small unilateral focus of increased attenuation in one infant (very small compared to the bilateral HCN). MR was normal in one patient. Histopathological examination of the brain was normal in the one patient who died and had an autopsy. Conclusion. Hyperechoic caudate nuclei can occur in neonates either as a normal finding, or possibly related to ischemia, and should not always be attributed to GMH. (orig.)

  11. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  12. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  13. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  15. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  16. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  17. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  19. Stroke mimics under the drip-and-ship paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sonal; Vora, Nirav; Edgell, Randall C; Allam, Hesham; Alawi, Aws; Koehne, Jennifer; Kumar, Abhay; Feen, Eliahu; Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Alshekhlee, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggested better outcomes associated with the drip-and-ship paradigm for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with thrombolysis. We hypothesized that a higher rate of stroke mimics (SM) among AIS treated in nonspecialized stroke centers that are transferred to comprehensive centers is responsible for such outcomes. Consecutive patients treated with thrombolysis according to the admission criteria were reviewed in a single comprehensive stroke center over 1 academic year (July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). Information on the basic demographic, hospital complications, psychiatric diagnoses, and discharge disposition was collected. We identified those patients who were treated at a facility and then transferred to the tertiary center (ie, drip-and-ship paradigm). In addition to comparative and adjusted analysis to identify predictors for SM, a stratified analysis by the drip-and-ship status was performed. One hundred twenty patients were treated with thrombolysis for AIS included in this analysis; 20 (16.7%) were discharged with the final diagnosis of SM; 14 of those had conversion syndrome and 6 patients had other syndromes (seizures, migraine, and hypoglycemia). Patients with SM were younger (55.6 ± 15.0 versus 69.4 ± 14.9, P = .0003) and more likely to harbor psychiatric diagnoses (45% versus 9%; P ≤ .0001). Eighteen of 20 SM patients (90%) had the drip-and-ship treatment paradigm compared with 65% of those with AIS (P = .02). None of the SM had hemorrhagic complications, and all were discharged to home. Predictors of SM on adjusted analysis included the drip-and-ship paradigm (odds ratio [OR] 12.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78, 92.1) and history of any psychiatric illness (OR 12.08; 95% CI 3.14, 46.4). Eighteen of 83 drip-and-ship patients (21.7%) were diagnosed with SM compared with 2 of 37 patients (5.4%) presented directly to the hub hospital (P = .02). The drip-and-ship paradigm and any psychiatric history predict the diagnosis of

  20. Accumulation of murine amyloid-β mimics early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Markus; Bracke, Alexander; Avchalumov, Yosef; Schumacher, Toni; Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Paarmann, Kristin; Fröhlich, Christina; Lange, Cathleen; Brüning, Thomas; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Pahnke, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Amyloidosis mouse models of Alzheimer's disease are generally established by transgenic approaches leading to an overexpression of mutated human genes that are known to be involved in the generation of amyloid-β in Alzheimer's families. Although these models made substantial contributions to the current knowledge about the 'amyloid hypothesis' of Alzheimer's disease, the overproduction of amyloid-β peptides mimics only inherited (familiar) Alzheimer's disease, which accounts for patients with Alzheimer's disease. The inherited form is even regarded a 'rare' disease according to the regulations for funding of the European Union (www.erare.eu). Here, we show that mice that are double-deficient for neprilysin (encoded by Mme), one major amyloid-β-degrading enzyme, and the ABC transporter ABCC1, a major contributor to amyloid-β clearance from the brain, develop various aspects of sporadic Alzheimer's disease mimicking the clinical stage of mild cognitive impairment. Using behavioural tests, electrophysiology and morphological analyses, we compared different ABC transporter-deficient animals and found that alterations are most prominent in neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice. We show that these mice have a reduced probability to survive, show increased anxiety in new environments, and have a reduced working memory performance. Furthermore, we detected morphological changes in the hippocampus and amygdala, e.g. astrogliosis and reduced numbers of synapses, leading to defective long-term potentiation in functional measurements. Compared to human, murine amyloid-β is poorly aggregating, due to changes in three amino acids at N-terminal positions 5, 10, and 13. Interestingly, our findings account for the action of early occurring amyloid-β species/aggregates, i.e. monomers and small amyloid-β oligomers. Thus, neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice present a new model for early effects of amyloid-β-related mild cognitive impairment that allows investigations

  1. Membrane-Mimic Nanoparticles for Drug and Gene Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-12-01

    Nanoscale organic particles have gained a prominent role in drug and gene delivery field. As the nature of the nanoparticle’s (NPs) surface plays a major role in their targeting efficiency, bioavailability, and cytotoxicity, membrane-mimic nanoparticles are considered highly attractive materials for in vivo and in vitro applications. Synthetic membrane vesicles (liposomes) and nanoconstructs built with native cancer cellular membrane are excellent scaffolds to improve cellular delivery. Liposomes have been extensively used due to their high loading capacity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, modifications with stimuli responsive materials are highly needed to improve their stability and turn them active participants in controlled delivery. Towards a nature inspired approach, reconstructed bilayers from cell membrane are a good candidate to enhance NP’s targeting ability and biocompatibility. The primary focus of this research is to develop smart responsive (lipid) membrane coated NPs with surface modifications for controlled and targeted drug and/or gene delivery for application in cancer therapy. Three approaches have been developed, namely i) liposomes as thermoresponsive nanocarriers for the delivery of genetic material; ii) magnetically photosensitive liposome hybrids and iii) biomimetic periodic mesoporous organo silica engineered for better a biocompatibility and targeting capabilities. In the first project synthetic liposomes were loaded with ammonium bicarbonate salt (ABC) and siRNA. The combination of lipids chosen and the relative ratios allowed the rapid release of the genetic material to the multi drug resistant cancer cells studied, upon external heat trigger. This design has improved the gene silencing efficiency via successful endosomal escape. In the second project, SPIO@Au nanoparticles were imbedded in the lipid bilayer to produce a photo/thermal responsive carrier that could be also used in cell imaging besides gene transfection

  2. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  3. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  5. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  6. Open-access MIMIC-II database for intensive care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Scott, Daniel J; Villarroel, Mauricio; Clifford, Gari D; Saeed, Mohammed; Mark, Roger G

    2011-01-01

    The critical state of intensive care unit (ICU) patients demands close monitoring, and as a result a large volume of multi-parameter data is collected continuously. This represents a unique opportunity for researchers interested in clinical data mining. We sought to foster a more transparent and efficient intensive care research community by building a publicly available ICU database, namely Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II). The data harnessed in MIMIC-II were collected from the ICUs of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from 2001 to 2008 and represent 26,870 adult hospital admissions (version 2.6). MIMIC-II consists of two major components: clinical data and physiological waveforms. The clinical data, which include patient demographics, intravenous medication drip rates, and laboratory test results, were organized into a relational database. The physiological waveforms, including 125 Hz signals recorded at bedside and corresponding vital signs, were stored in an open-source format. MIMIC-II data were also deidentified in order to remove protected health information. Any interested researcher can gain access to MIMIC-II free of charge after signing a data use agreement and completing human subjects training. MIMIC-II can support a wide variety of research studies, ranging from the development of clinical decision support algorithms to retrospective clinical studies. We anticipate that MIMIC-II will be an invaluable resource for intensive care research by stimulating fair comparisons among different studies.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of cardiac glycoside mimics as potential anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie; Schmidt, Steffen; Fedosova, Natalya

    2011-01-01

    recent years cardiac glycosides have furthermore been suggested to possess valuable anticancer activity. To mimic the labile trisaccharide of digitoxin with a stabile carbohydrate surrogate, we have used sulfur linked ethylene glycol moieties of varying length (mono-, di-, tri- or tetra-ethylene glycol...... the shortest mimics were found to have highest efficacy, with the best ligand having a monoethylene glycol unit (IC(50) 0.24 μM), which was slightly better than digitoxigenin (IC(50) 0.64 μM), while none of the novel cardiac glycoside mimics display an in vitro effect as high as digitoxin (IC(50) 0.02 μM)....

  9. Ghrelin mimics fasting to enhance human hedonic, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampal responses to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Prechtl, Christina G; Scholtz, Samantha; Miras, Alexander D; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Deliran, Seyedeh S; Beckmann, Christian; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Ashby, Damien R; Waldman, Adam D; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Thorner, Michael O; Frost, Gary S; Bloom, Stephen R; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin, which is a stomach-derived hormone, increases with fasting and energy restriction and may influence eating behaviors through brain hedonic reward-cognitive systems. Therefore, changes in plasma ghrelin might mediate counter-regulatory responses to a negative energy balance through changes in food hedonics. We investigated whether ghrelin administration (exogenous hyperghrelinemia) mimics effects of fasting (endogenous hyperghrelinemia) on the hedonic response and activation of brain-reward systems to food. In a crossover design, 22 healthy, nonobese adults (17 men) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food-picture evaluation task after a 16-h overnight fast (Fasted-Saline) or after eating breakfast 95 min before scanning (730 kcal, 14% protein, 31% fat, and 55% carbohydrate) and receiving a saline (Fed-Saline) or acyl ghrelin (Fed-Ghrelin) subcutaneous injection before scanning. One male subject was excluded from the fMRI analysis because of excess head motion, which left 21 subjects with brain-activation data. Compared with the Fed-Saline visit, both ghrelin administration to fed subjects (Fed-Ghrelin) and fasting (Fasted-Saline) significantly increased the appeal of high-energy foods and associated orbitofrontal cortex activation. Both fasting and ghrelin administration also increased hippocampus activation to high-energy- and low-energy-food pictures. These similar effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperghrelinemia were not explicable by consistent changes in glucose, insulin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1. Neither ghrelin administration nor fasting had any significant effect on nucleus accumbens, caudate, anterior insula, or amygdala activation during the food-evaluation task or on auditory, motor, or visual cortex activation during a control task. Ghrelin administration and fasting have similar acute stimulatory effects on hedonic responses and the activation of corticolimbic reward-cognitive systems during food

  10. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Botelho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10% combined with estriol (0.1% + estradiol (0.25% for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. METHODS: A total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. RESULTS: An improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05 after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04±4.9 to 57.12±4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. CONCLUSION: The nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women.

  11. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan; Almeida, Jackson Guedes; Quintans Junior, Lucindo

    2014-01-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  12. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  13. Nanostructured transdermal hormone replacement therapy for relieving menopausal symptoms: a confocal Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Marco Antonio; Queiroz, Dinalva Brito; Barros, Gisele; Guerreiro, Stela; Umbelino, Sonia; Lyra, Arao; Borges, Boniek; Freitas, Allan, E-mail: marcobotelho@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Potiguar, Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Nanotecnologia; Fechine, Pierre [Universidade Federal do Ceara (GQMAT/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica. Grupo Avancado de Biomateriais em Quimica; Queiroz, Danilo Caldas de [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFCT), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Biotecnologia; Ruela, Ronaldo [Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada (INBIOS), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Almeida, Jackson Guedes [Universidade Federal do Vale de Sao Francisco (UNIVALE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Quintans Junior, Lucindo [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia

    2014-06-01

    Objective:to determine the safety and efficacy of a transdermal nanostructured formulation of progesterone (10%) combined with estriol (0.1%) + estradiol (0.25%) for relieving postmenopausal symptoms. Methods: a total of 66 postmenopausal Brazilian women with climacteric symptoms of natural menopause received transdermal nanostructured formulations of progesterone and estrogens in the forearm daily for 60 months to mimic the normal ovarian secretory pattern. Confocal Raman spectroscopy of hormones in skin layers was performed. Clinical parameters, serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone, blood pressure, BI-RADS classification from bilateral mammography, and symptomatic relief were compared between baseline and 60 months post-treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02033512. Results: an improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 92.5% of women evaluated before and after 60 months of treatment. The serum concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone changed significantly (p<0.05) after treatment; the values of serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased after 60 months from 82.04 ± 4.9 to 57.12 ± 4.1 IU/mL. A bilateral mammography assessment of the breasts revealed normal results in all women. No adverse health-related events were attributed to this hormone replacement therapy protocol. Conclusion: the nanostructured formulation is safe and effective in re-establishing optimal serum levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone and relieving the symptoms of menopause. This transdermal hormone replacement therapy may alleviate climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. (author)

  14. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  15. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  16. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  17. Potential Therapeutic Uses of p19ARF Mimics in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hann, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Since many breast tumors have deregulated c-Myc we hypothesize that an ARF mimic would be a valuable therapeutic agent for breast cancer to inhibit c-Myc-induced transformation/tumorigenesis without...

  18. [Discussion of the implementation of MIMIC database in emergency medical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyuan; Feng, Cong; Jia, Lijing; Chen, Li; Pan, Fei; Li, Tanshi

    2018-05-01

    To introduce Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) database and elaborate the approach of critically emergent research with big data based on the feature of MIMIC and updated studies both domestic and overseas, we put forward the feasibility and necessity of introducing medical big data to research in emergency. Then we discuss the role of MIMIC database in emergency clinical study, as well as the principles and key notes of experimental design and implementation under the medical big data circumstance. The implementation of MIMIC database in emergency medical research provides a brand new field for the early diagnosis, risk warning and prognosis of critical illness, however there are also limitations. To meet the era of big data, emergency medical database which is in accordance with our national condition is needed, which will provide new energy to the development of emergency medicine.

  19. Pattern Differences of Small Hand Muscle Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Mimic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Guan, Yu-Zhou; Du, Hua; Li, Ben-Hong; Cui, Bo; Ding, Qing-Yun; Cui, Li-Ying

    2016-04-05

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and some mimic disorders, such as distal-type cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA), Hirayama disease (HD), and spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) may present with intrinsic hand muscle atrophy. This study aimed to investigate different patterns of small hand muscle involvement in ALS and some mimic disorders. We compared the abductor digiti minimi/abductor pollicis brevis (ADM/APB) compound muscle action potential (CMAP) ratios between 200 ALS patients, 95 patients with distal-type CSA, 88 HD patients, 43 SBMA patients, and 150 normal controls. The ADM/APB CMAP amplitude ratio was significantly higher in the ALS patients (P mimic disorders presumably reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms underlying different disorders, and may aid in distinguishing between ALS and mimic disorders.

  20. MOCVD process technology for affordable, high-yield, high-performance MESFET structures. Phase 3: MIMIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Under the MIMIC Program, Spire has pursued improvements in the manufacturing of low cost, high quality gallium arsenide MOCVD wafers for advanced MIMIC FET applications. As a demonstration of such improvements, Spire was tasked to supply MOCVD wafers for comparison to MBE wafers in the fabrication of millimeter and microwave integrated circuits. In this, the final technical report for Spire's two-year MIMIC contract, we report the results of our work. The main objectives of Spire's MIMIC Phase 3 Program, as outlined in the Statement of Work, were as follows: Optimize the MOCVD growth conditions for the best possible electrical and morphological gallium arsenide. Optimization should include substrate and source qualification as well as determination of the optimum reactor growth conditions; Perform all work on 75 millimeter diameter wafers, using a reactor capable of at least three wafers per run; and Evaluate epitaxial layers using electrical, optical, and morphological tests to obtain thickness, carrier concentration, and mobility data across wafers.

  1. Selective chromo-fluorogenic detection of DFP (a Sarin and Soman mimic) and DCNP (a Tabun mimic) with a unique probe based on a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba-Bon, Andrea; Costero, Ana M; Gil, Salvador; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Sancenón, Félix

    2014-11-21

    A novel colorimetric probe (P4) for the selective differential detection of DFP (a Sarin and Soman mimic) and DCNP (a Tabun mimic) was prepared. Probe P4 contains three reactive sites; i.e. (i) a nucleophilic phenol group able to undergo phosphorylation with nerve gases, (ii) a carbonyl group as a reactive site for cyanide; and (iii) a triisopropylsilyl (TIPS) protecting group that is known to react with fluoride. The reaction of P4 with DCNP in acetonitrile resulted in both the phosphorylation of the phenoxy group and the release of cyanide, which was able to react with the carbonyl group of P4 to produce a colour modulation from pink to orange. In contrast, phosphorylation of P4 with DFP in acetonitrile released fluoride that hydrolysed the TIPS group in P4 to yield a colour change from pink to blue. Probe P4 was able to discriminate between DFP and DCNP with remarkable sensitivity; limits of detection of 0.36 and 0.40 ppm for DCNP and DFP, respectively, were calculated. Besides, no interference from other organophosphorous derivatives or with presence of acid was observed. The sensing behaviour of P4 was also retained when incorporated into silica gel plates or onto polyethylene oxide membranes, which allowed the development of simple test strips for the colorimetric detection of DCNP and DFP in the vapour phase. P4 is the first probe capable of colorimetrically differentiating between a Tabun mimic (DCNP) and a Sarin and Soman mimic (DFP).

  2. In vitro enzyme-mimic activity and in vivo therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017, a novel Mn porphyrin-based antioxidant enzyme mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao-qiu; Dong, Xin; Li, Na; Gao, Ji-you; Yuan, Qiang; Fang, Shi-hong; Gong, Xian-chang; Wang, Shu-juan; Wang, Feng-shan

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (III) 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis [3-(2-(2-methoxy)-ethoxy) ethoxy] phenyl porphyrin chloride, designated HSJ-0017, is a novel antioxidant enzyme mimic. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzyme-mimic activity and the therapeutic potential of HSJ-0017 in free radical-related diseases. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium chloride monohydrate reduction assay. Catalase (CAT) mimic activity was measured based on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The antitumor, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects of HSJ-0017 were evaluated in H22 or S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects were, respectively, evaluated in histamine-induced edema model and CCl4-induced hepatic damage model in Wistar rats. HSJ-0017 over a concentration range of 0.001-10 µmol/L significantly inhibited the generation of superoxide anion. Significant hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity was observed when the concentration of HSJ-0017 was higher than 0.01 µmol/L. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg exhibited significant antitumor effect on S180 tumor xenografts, whereas no significant antitumor effect was observed in H22 tumor xenografts. HSJ-0017 at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg enhanced the antitumor effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and reduced their toxicity. However, HSJ-0017 counteracted the antitumor effects of radiotherapy when administered simultaneously with radiotherapy. HSJ-0017 showed significant anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. Our results demonstrate that HSJ-0017 exhibits antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, chemoprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. It is a potent dual SOD/CAT mimic. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  3. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  5. Building a better hormone therapy?: How understanding the rapid effects of sex steroid hormones could lead to new therapeutics for age-related memory decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of data collected in recent decades has demonstrated that ovarian sex-steroid hormones, particularly 17β-estradiol (E2), are important trophic factors that regulate the function of cognitive regions of the brain such as the hippocampus. The loss of hormone cycling at menopause is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in women, and the onset of memory decline in animal models. However, hormone therapy is not currently recommended to prevent or treat cognitive decline, in part because of its detrimental side effects. In this article, it is proposed that investigations of the rapid effects of E2 on hippocampal function be used to further the design of new drugs that mimic the beneficial effects of E2 on memory without the side effects of current therapies. A conceptual model is presented for elucidating the molecular and biochemical mechanisms through which sex-steroid hormones modulate memory, and a specific hypothesis is proposed to account for the rapid memory-enhancing effects of E2. Empirical support for this hypothesis is discussed as a means of stimulating the consideration of new directions for the development of hormone-based therapies to preserve memory function in menopausal women. PMID:22289043

  6. Systematic Assessment of Strategies for Lung-targeted Delivery of MicroRNA Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Kenny; Taha, Mohamad; Stewart, Duncan J.

    2018-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of synthetic miRNA mimics (or inhibitors) as potential therapeutic agents in pulmonary vascular disease; however, the optimal delivery method to achieve high efficiency, selective lung targeting has not been determined. Here, we sought to investigate the relative merits of different lung-targeted strategies for delivering miRNA mimics in rats. Methods: Tissue levels of a synthetic miRNA mimic, cel-miR-39-3p (0.5 nmol in 50 µL invivofectamine/PBS vehicle) were compared in male rats (n=3 rats/method) after delivery by commonly used lung-targeting strategies including intratracheal liquid instillation (IT-L), intratracheal aerosolization with (IT-AV) or without ventilator assistance (IT-A), intranasal liquid instillation (IN-L) and intranasal aerosolization (IN-A). Intravenous (IV; via jugular vein), intraperitoneal (IP) and subcutaneous (SC) delivery served as controls. Relative levels of cel-miR-39 were quantified by RT-qPCR. Results: At 2 h post delivery, IT-L showed the highest lung mimic level, which was significantly higher than levels achieved by all other methods (from ~10- to 10,000-fold, pMimic levels remained detectable in the lung 24 h after delivery, but were 10- to 100-fold lower. The intrapulmonary distribution of cel-miR-39 was comparable when delivered as either a liquid or aerosol, with evidence of mimic distribution to both the left and right lung lobes and penetration to distal regions. All lung-targeted strategies showed lung-selective mimic uptake, with mimic levels 10- to 100-fold lower in heart and 100- to 10,000-fold lower in liver, kidney and spleen. In contrast, IV, SC and IP routes showed comparable or higher mimic levels in non-pulmonary tissues. Conclusions: miRNA uptake in the lungs differed markedly by up to 4 orders of magnitude, demonstrating that the choice of delivery strategy could have a significant impact on potential therapeutic outcomes in preclinical investigations of miRNA-based drug

  7. A Host-Produced Autoinducer-2 Mimic Activates Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Anisa S; Valastyan, Julie S; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-04-13

    Host-microbial symbioses are vital to health; nonetheless, little is known about the role crosskingdom signaling plays in these relationships. In a process called quorum sensing, bacteria communicate with one another using extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. One autoinducer, AI-2, is proposed to promote interspecies bacterial communication, including in the mammalian gut. We show that mammalian epithelia produce an AI-2 mimic activity in response to bacteria or tight-junction disruption. This AI-2 mimic is detected by the bacterial AI-2 receptor, LuxP/LsrB, and can activate quorum-sensing-controlled gene expression, including in the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. AI-2 mimic activity is induced when epithelia are directly or indirectly exposed to bacteria, suggesting that a secreted bacterial component(s) stimulates its production. Mutagenesis revealed genes required for bacteria to both detect and stimulate production of the AI-2 mimic. These findings uncover a potential role for the mammalian AI-2 mimic in fostering crosskingdom signaling and host-bacterial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MIMIC II: a massive temporal ICU patient database to support research in intelligent patient monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.; Lieu, C.; Raber, G.; Mark, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Development and evaluation of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) decision-support systems would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a large-scale ICU patient database. Following our previous efforts with the MIMIC (Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care) Database, we have leveraged advances in networking and storage technologies to develop a far more massive temporal database, MIMIC II. MIMIC II is an ongoing effort: data is continuously and prospectively archived from all ICU patients in our hospital. MIMIC II now consists of over 800 ICU patient records including over 120 gigabytes of data and is growing. A customized archiving system was used to store continuously up to four waveforms and 30 different parameters from ICU patient monitors. An integrated user-friendly relational database was developed for browsing of patients' clinical information (lab results, fluid balance, medications, nurses' progress notes). Based upon its unprecedented size and scope, MIMIC II will prove to be an important resource for intelligent patient monitoring research, and will support efforts in medical data mining and knowledge-discovery.

  9. Enzyme-Triggered Defined Protein Nanoarrays: Efficient Light-Harvesting Systems to Mimic Chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Linlu; Zou, Haoyang; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Hongcheng; Wang, Tingting; Pan, Tiezheng; Li, Xiumei; Bai, Yushi; Qiao, Shanpeng; Luo, Quan; Xu, Jiayun; Hou, Chunxi; Liu, Junqiu

    2017-01-24

    The elegance and efficiency by which chloroplasts harvest solar energy and conduct energy transfer have been a source of inspiration for chemists to mimic such process. However, precise manipulation to obtain orderly arranged antenna chromophores in constructing artificial chloroplast mimics was a great challenge, especially from the structural similarity and bioaffinity standpoints. Here we reported a design strategy that combined covalent and noncovalent interactions to prepare a protein-based light-harvesting system to mimic chloroplasts. Cricoid stable protein one (SP1) was utilized as a building block model. Under enzyme-triggered covalent protein assembly, mutant SP1 with tyrosine (Tyr) residues at the designated sites can couple together to form nanostructures. Through controlling the Tyr sites on the protein surface, we can manipulate the assembly orientation to respectively generate 1D nanotubes and 2D nanosheets. The excellent stability endowed the self-assembled protein architectures with promising applications. We further integrated quantum dots (QDs) possessing optical and electronic properties with the 2D nanosheets to fabricate chloroplast mimics. By attaching different sized QDs as donor and acceptor chromophores to the negatively charged surface of SP1-based protein nanosheets via electrostatic interactions, we successfully developed an artificial light-harvesting system. The assembled protein nanosheets structurally resembled the natural thylakoids, and the QDs can achieve pronounced FRET phenomenon just like the chlorophylls. Therefore, the coassembled system was meaningful to explore the photosynthetic process in vitro, as it was designed to mimic the natural chloroplast.

  10. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  11. Estimating the size of non-observed economy in Croatia using the MIMIC approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjekoslav Klarić

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a quick overview of the approaches that have been used in the research of shadow economy, starting with the definitions of the terms “shadow economy” and “non-observed economy”, with the accent on the ISTAT/Eurostat framework. Several methods for estimating the size of the shadow economy and the non-observed economy are then presented. The emphasis is placed on the MIMIC approach, one of the methods used to estimate the size of the nonobserved economy. After a glance at the theory behind it, the MIMIC model is then applied to the Croatian economy. Considering the described characteristics of different methods, a previous estimate of the size of the non-observed economy in Croatia is chosen to provide benchmark values for the MIMIC model. Using those, the estimates of the size of non-observed economy in Croatia during the period 1998-2009 are obtained.

  12. Reproducing a Prospective Clinical Study as a Computational Retrospective Study in MIMIC-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kury, Fabrício S P; Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we sought to reproduce, as a computational retrospective study in an EHR database (MIMIC-II), a recent large prospective clinical study: the 2013 publication, by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM), about disseminated intravascular coagulation, in the journal Critical Care (PMID: 23787004). We designed in SQL and Java a set of electronic phenotypes that reproduced the study's data sampling, and used R to perform the same statistical inference procedures. All produced source code is available online at https://github.com/fabkury/paamia2015. Our program identified 2,257 eligible patients in MIMIC-II, and the results remarkably agreed with the prospective study. A minority of the needed data elements was not found in MIMIC-II, and statistically significant inferences were possible in the majority of the cases.

  13. Bicelles and Other Membrane Mimics: Comparison of Structure, Properties, and Dynamics from MD Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mikkel; Kraft, Johan Frederik; Vosegaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    present molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structural and dynamic properties of small bicelles and compare them to a large alignable bicelle, a small nanodisc, and a lipid bilayer. Properties such as lipid packing and properties related to embedding both an α-helical peptide and a transmembrane...... protein are investigated. The small bicelles are found to be very dynamic and mainly assume a prolate shape substantiating that small bicelles cannot be regarded as well-defined disclike structures. However, addition of a peptide results in an increased tendency to form disc-shaped bicelles. The small......The increased interest in studying membrane proteins has led to the development of new membrane mimics such as bicelles and nanodiscs. However, only limited knowledge is available of how these membrane mimics are affected by embedded proteins and how well they mimic a lipid bilayer. Herein, we...

  14. MicroRNA-30c Mimic Mitigates Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sara; Pan, Xiaoyue; Peck, Bailey C. E.; Iqbal, Jahangir; Sethupathy, Praveen; Hussain, M. Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis. Delivery of a miR-30c mimic to the liver diminished diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in C57BL/6J mice. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with increases in hepatic miR-30c levels. Long term dose escalation studies showed that miR-30c mimic caused sustained reductions in plasma cholesterol with no obvious side effects. Furthermore, miR-30c mimic significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-30c mimic had no effect on LDL clearance but reduced lipoprotein production by down-regulating microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression. MiR-30c had no effect on fatty acid oxidation but reduced lipid synthesis. Additionally, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-30c mimic significantly down-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis pathways. Therefore, miR-30c lowers plasma cholesterol and mitigates atherosclerosis by reducing microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and lipoprotein production and avoids steatosis by diminishing lipid syntheses. It mitigates atherosclerosis most likely by reducing lipoprotein production and plasma cholesterol. These findings establish that increasing hepatic miR-30c levels is a viable treatment option for reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:27365390

  15. Antimicrobial Effects of Novel Triple Antibiotic Paste-Mimic Scaffolds on Actinomyces naeslundii Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria T P; Ryan, Stuart J; Münchow, Eliseu A; Kamocka, Maria M; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2015-08-01

    Actinomyces naeslundii has been recovered from traumatized permanent teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulps. In this work, a triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic scaffold is proposed as a drug-delivery strategy to eliminate A. naeslundii dentin biofilm. Metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline were added to a polydioxanone (PDS) polymer solution and spun into fibrous scaffolds. Fiber morphology, mechanical properties, and drug release were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, microtensile testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Human dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3), n = 4/group) were inoculated with A. naeslundii (ATCC 43146) for 7 days for biofilm formation. The infected dentin specimens were exposed to TAP-mimic scaffolds, TAP solution (positive control), and pure PDS (drug-free scaffold). Dentin infected (7-day biofilm) specimens were used for comparison (negative control). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was done to determine bacterial viability. Scaffolds displayed a submicron mean fiber diameter (PDS = 689 ± 312 nm and TAP-mimic = 718 ± 125 nm). Overall, TAP-mimic scaffolds showed significantly (P ≤ .040) lower mechanical properties than PDS. Within the first 24 hours, a burst release for all drugs was seen. A sustained maintenance of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin was observed over 4 weeks, but not for minocycline. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated complete elimination of all viable bacteria exposed to the TAP solution. Meanwhile, TAP-mimic scaffolds led to a significant (P mimic scaffolds hold significant potential in the eradication/elimination of bacterial biofilm, a critical step in regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MicroRNA-30c Mimic Mitigates Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sara; Pan, Xiaoyue; Peck, Bailey C E; Iqbal, Jahangir; Sethupathy, Praveen; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2016-08-26

    High plasma cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol can be reduced by inhibiting lipoprotein production; however, this is associated with steatosis. Previously we showed that lentivirally mediated hepatic expression of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) reduced hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in mice without causing hepatosteatosis. Because viral therapy would be formidable, we examined whether a miR-30c mimic can be used to mitigate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis without inducing steatosis. Delivery of a miR-30c mimic to the liver diminished diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in C57BL/6J mice. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with increases in hepatic miR-30c levels. Long term dose escalation studies showed that miR-30c mimic caused sustained reductions in plasma cholesterol with no obvious side effects. Furthermore, miR-30c mimic significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies showed that miR-30c mimic had no effect on LDL clearance but reduced lipoprotein production by down-regulating microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression. MiR-30c had no effect on fatty acid oxidation but reduced lipid synthesis. Additionally, whole transcriptome analysis revealed that miR-30c mimic significantly down-regulated hepatic lipid synthesis pathways. Therefore, miR-30c lowers plasma cholesterol and mitigates atherosclerosis by reducing microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and lipoprotein production and avoids steatosis by diminishing lipid syntheses. It mitigates atherosclerosis most likely by reducing lipoprotein production and plasma cholesterol. These findings establish that increasing hepatic miR-30c levels is a viable treatment option for reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  18. Design and synthesis of an antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, Ryan D.; Huffman, Brian J.; Cliffel, David E.; Wright, David W.

    2008-01-01

    An antigenic mimic of the Ebola glycoprotein was synthesized and tested for its ability to be recognized by an anti-Ebola glycoprotein antibody. Epitope-mapping procedures yielded a suitable epitope that, when presented on the surface of a nanoparticle, forms a structure that is recognized by an antibody specific for the native protein. This mimic-antibody interaction has been quantitated through ELISA and QCM-based methods and yielded an affinity (Kd = 12 × 10−6 M) within two orders of magni...

  19. Development of novel miR-129 mimics with enhanced efficacy to eliminate chemoresistant colon cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingfang

    2018-01-01

    Background Resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) based chemotherapy is the major reason for failure of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Materials and methods In this study, we developed a novel miR-129 mimic with potent efficacy in eliminating resistant colon cancer stem cells both in vitro and in vivo. We integrated 5-FU into miR-129 by replacing Uracil (U) to generate 5-FU-miR-129 mimics (Mimic-1). Results Mimic-1 is a strong therapeutic candidate with a number of unique features. Mimic-1 can be delivered to cancer cells without any transfection reagents (e.g. lipids, viral vector, nanoparticles). Mimic-1 is more potent at inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase than native miR-129 and the other mimics tested, while retaining target specificity. Mimic-1 prevents colon cancer metastasis in vivo without toxicity. Conclusion This represents a significant advancement in the development of a nontoxic and highly potent miRNA based cancer therapeutics and establishes a foundation for further developing Mimic-1 as a novel anti-cancer therapeutic for treating colorectal cancer. PMID:29507661

  20. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  1. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  2. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  3. Synergistic Effect of MiR-146a Mimic and Cetuximab on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suning Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues compared to the adjacent noncancerous hepatic tissues. In the current study, we have explored the in vitro effect of miR-146a on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. MiR-146a mimic could suppress cell growth and increase cellular apoptosis in HCC cell lines HepG2, HepB3, and SNU449, as assessed by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Furthermore, western blot showed that miR-146a mimic downregulated EGFR, ERK1/2, and stat5 signalings. These effects were less potent compared to that of a siRNA targeting EGFR, a known target gene of miR-146a. Moreover, miR-146a mimic could enhance the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction impact of various EGFR targeting agents. The most potent combination was miR-146a mimic with cetuximab, presenting a synergistic effect. In conclusion, miR-146a plays a vital role in the cell growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and inducing miR-146a level might be a critical targeted molecular therapy strategy for HCC.

  4. Unmasking Hyperthyroidism in the Elderly: How to distinguish hyperthyroidism from conditions that mimic the symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Michael; Isenberg, Yoel; Bain, Jerald

    1992-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism in the elderly can mimic symptoms suggestive of aging or concomitant illnesses. The disease can cause serious problems and disabilities in older individuals. A strong sense of suspicion, the appropriate use of screening tests, and, when indicated, more definitive investigations usually results in the accurate diagnosis of a condition for which there is effective treatment.

  5. Vesicles to concentrate iron in low-Iron media: An attempt to mimic marine siderophores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednárová, Lucie; Brandel, J.; d'Hardemare, A. d. M.; Bednár, J.; Serratrice, G.; Pierre, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2008), s. 3680-3686 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : iron * marine siderophore mimics * micelles * self-assembly * vesicles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.454, year: 2008

  6. Families, schools, and student achievement inequality: a multilevel MIMIC model approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsai, S. L.; Smith, Michael; Hauser, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 64-88 ISSN 0038-0407 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP404/12/J006; GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : MIMIC model * educational inequality * academic performance Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology Impact factor: 2.697, year: 2016

  7. Fluorescent discrimination between traces of chemical warfare agents and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Greñu, Borja; Moreno, Daniel; Torroba, Tomás; Berg, Alexander; Gunnars, Johan; Nilsson, Tobias; Nyman, Rasmus; Persson, Milton; Pettersson, Johannes; Eklind, Ida; Wästerby, Pär

    2014-03-19

    An array of fluorogenic probes is able to discriminate between nerve agents, sarin, soman, tabun, VX and their mimics, in water or organic solvent, by qualitative fluorescence patterns and quantitative multivariate analysis, thus making the system suitable for the in-the-field detection of traces of chemical warfare agents as well as to differentiate between the real nerve agents and other related compounds.

  8. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca(2+) Signaling in Human Sperm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca(2+) influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca(2+) channel and controls multiple Ca(2+)-dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic...

  9. The immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqin; Pei, Fenghua; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lixia; Song, Yanyan; Chen, Zhendong; Liu, Bingrong

    2017-09-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute suppurative appendicitis and to determine whether TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in this process. 48 rabbits were assigned into 4 groups: group I, the mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy group; group II, the appendectomy group; group III, the model group; and group IV, the blank group. White blood cells decreased, while levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 increased on the 2 nd day in group I and II. IgA in feces decreased at 2 weeks, while fecal microbiota changed at 2 and 4 weeks after appendectomy. CD8 + cells in appendix of group I increased within 8 weeks. Upregulated expression of TLR4, MYD88, and nuclear NF-κB were detected on the 2 nd day in group I and II. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy are effective ways for acute suppurative appendicitis. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy was more preferable due to its advantage in maintaining intestinal immune function. TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in acute phase of appendicitis.

  10. Self-Assembly of Multi-nanozymes to Mimic an Intracellular Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Ju, Enguo; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, for the first time, we constructed a novel multi-nanozymes cooperative platform to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense system. V2 O5 nanowire served as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimic while MnO2 nanoparticle was used to mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Dopamine was used as a linker to achieve the assembling of the nanomaterials. The obtained V2 O5 @pDA@MnO2 nanocomposite could serve as one multi-nanozyme model to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense procedure in which, for example SOD, CAT, and GPx co-participate. In addition, through assembling with dopamine, the hybrid nanocomposites provided synergistic antioxidative effect. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that our biocompatible system exhibited excellent intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal ability to protect cell components against oxidative stress, showing its potential application in inflammation therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Recent advances in compartmentalized synthetic architectures as drug carriers, cell mimics and artificial organelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York-Durán, María José; Gallardo, Maria Godoy; Labay, Cédric Pierre

    2017-01-01

    significant research attention and these assemblies are proposed as candidate materials for a range of biomedical applications. In this Review article, the recent successes of multicompartment architectures as carriers for the delivery of therapeutic cargo or the creation of micro- and nanoreactors that mimic...

  12. A novel nitrogen-dependent gene associates with the lesion mimic trait in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesion mimic (LM) refers to hypersensitive reaction-like (HRL) symptoms that appears on leaf tissue in the absence of plant pathogens. In a wheat line P7001, LM showed up on the leaves under the 0 g nitrogen (N) treatment, but disappeared when sufficient N was supplied, suggesting that LM is N-respo...

  13. Antibacterial TAP-mimic electrospun polymer scaffold: effects on P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maria Tereza P; Evans, Joshua D; Gregory, Richard L; Valera, Marcia C; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to investigate, in vitro, the effects of a recently developed triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic polymer nanofibrous scaffold against Porphyromonas gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Dentin specimens (4 × 4 × 1 mm(3)) were prepared from human canines. The specimens were sterilized, inoculated with P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), and incubated for 1 week to allow for biofilm formation. Infected dentin specimens were exposed for 3 days to the following treatments: antibiotic-free polydioxanone scaffold (PDS, control), PDS + 25 wt% TAP [25 mg of each antibiotic (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline) per mL of the PDS polymer solution], or a saturated TAP-based solution (50 mg of each antibiotic per mL of saline solution). In order to serve as the negative control, infected dentin specimens were left untreated (bacteria only). To determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the TAP-mimic scaffold, a colony-forming unit (CFU) per milliliter (n = 10/group) measurement was performed. Furthermore, additional specimens (n = 2/group) were prepared to qualitatively study biofilm inhibition via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Statistics were performed, and significance was set at the 5% level. Both the TAP-mimic scaffold and the positive control (TAP solution) led to complete bacterial elimination, differing statistically (p mimic scaffold against an established P. gingivalis-infected dentin biofilm. Collectively, the data suggest that the proposed nanofibrous scaffold might be used as an alternative to the advocated clinical gold standard (i.e., TAP) for intracanal disinfection prior to regenerative endodontics.

  14. Evaluation of MIMIC-Model Methods for DIF Testing with Comparison to Two-Group Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for 1 group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. This study focuses on the use of multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation models for DIF testing, parameterized as item…

  15. Synergistic effect of MiR-146a mimic and cetuximab on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Suning; He, Rongquan; Rong, Minhua; Dang, Yiwu; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a) was downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues compared to the adjacent noncancerous hepatic tissues. In the current study, we have explored the in vitro effect of miR-146a on the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells. MiR-146a mimic could suppress cell growth and increase cellular apoptosis in HCC cell lines HepG2, HepB3, and SNU449, as assessed by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Furthermore, western blot showed that miR-146a mimic downregulated EGFR, ERK1/2, and stat5 signalings. These effects were less potent compared to that of a siRNA targeting EGFR, a known target gene of miR-146a. Moreover, miR-146a mimic could enhance the cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction impact of various EGFR targeting agents. The most potent combination was miR-146a mimic with cetuximab, presenting a synergistic effect. In conclusion, miR-146a plays a vital role in the cell growth and apoptosis of HCC cells and inducing miR-146a level might be a critical targeted molecular therapy strategy for HCC.

  16. MiMIC: a highly versatile transposon insertion resource for engineering Drosophila melanogaster genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Schulze, Karen L.; Haelterman, Nele A.; Pan, Hongling; He, Yuchun; Evans-Holm, Martha; Carlson, Joseph W.; Levis, Robert W.; Spradling, Allan C.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the versatility of a collection of insertions of the transposon Minos mediated integration cassette (MiMIC), in Drosophila melanogaster. MiMIC contains a gene-trap cassette and the yellow+ marker flanked by two inverted bacteriophage ΦC31 attP sites. MiMIC integrates almost at random in the genome to create sites for DNA manipulation. The attP sites allow the replacement of the intervening sequence of the transposon with any other sequence through recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We can revert insertions that function as gene traps and cause mutant phenotypes to wild type by RMCE and modify insertions to control GAL4 or QF overexpression systems or perform lineage analysis using the Flp system. Insertions within coding introns can be exchanged with protein-tag cassettes to create fusion proteins to follow protein expression and perform biochemical experiments. The applications of MiMIC vastly extend the Drosophila melanogaster toolkit. PMID:21985007

  17. Validation of Triphasic Mixture Theory for a Mimic of Intervertebral Disk Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Heus, de H.J.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Nelissen, J.G.L.; Janssen, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies an synthetic madel materials that mimic the mechanical behavior af intervertebral disk tissue. The results are used ta validate the triphasic mixture theory to describe soft charged hydrated materiais. Permeability and swelling pressure experiments were used

  18. Bourgeois Males of the Peacock Blenny, Salaria pavo, Discriminate Female Mimics from Females?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, David; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara; Fagundes, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In a Portuguese population of Salaria pavo, two types of reproductively active males occur: large bourgeois males that defend nests and have fully developed secondary sex characters (SSC) and small sneaker males that mimic the females' morphology and behaviour to approach nests and parasitize...

  19. Extensive preclinical investigation of polymersomal formulation of doxorubicin versus Doxil-mimic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Abnous, Khalil; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Hadizadeh, Farzin; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Sahar; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-10-28

    Due to the severe cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its usage is limited. This shortcoming could be overcome by modifying pharmacokinetics of the drugs via preparation of various nanoplatforms. Doxil, a well-known FDA-approved nanoplatform of doxorubicin as antineoplastic agent, is frequently used in clinics in order to reduce cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. Since Doxil shows some shortcomings in clinics including hand and food syndrome and very slow release pattern thus, there is a demand for the development and preparation of new doxorubicin nanoformulation with fewer side effects. The new formulation of the doxorubicin, synthesized previously by our group was extensively examined in the current study. This new formulation is doxorubicin encapsulated in PEG-PLGA polymersomes (PolyDOX). The main aim of the study was to compare the distribution and treatment efficacy of a new doxorubicin-polymersomal formulation (PolyDOX) with regular liposomal formulation (Doxil-mimic) in murine colon adenocarcinoma model. Additionally, the pathological, hematological changes, pharmacodynamics, biodistribution, tolerated dose and survival rate in vivo were evaluated and compared. Murine colon cancer model was induced by subcutaneous inoculation of BALB/c mice with C26 cells. Afterwards, either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX was administered intravenously. The obtained results from biodistribution study showed a remarkable difference in the distribution of drugs in murine organs. In this regard, Doxil-mimic exhibited prolonged (48h) presence within liver tissues while PolyDOX preferentially accumulate in tumor and the presence in liver 48h post-treatment was significantly lower than that of Doxil-mimic. Obtained results demonstrated comparable final length of life for mice receiving either Doxil-mimic or PolyDOX formulations whereas tolerated dose of mice receiving Doxil-mimic was remarkably higher than those receiving PolyDOX. Therapeutic efficacy of formulation in term of tumor growth rate

  20. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  1. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  2. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  3. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  4. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  5. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  6. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  7. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  11. Triazacyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded histidine and aspartic acid residues as mimics of non-heme metalloenzyme active sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.; Soulimani, F.; Jacobs, H.J.F.; Versluis, C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Liskamp, R.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and coordination behaviour to copper(II) of two close structural triazacyclophane-based mimics of two often encountered aspartic acid and histidine containing metalloenzyme active sites. Coordination of these mimics to copper(I) and their reaction with molecular oxygen

  12. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Teresa S.; Haraldsen, Jason T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  13. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. Wiley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  14. Bisphenol A and Hormone-Associated Cancers: Current Progress and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate. PMID:25569640

  15. Non-hormonal male contraception: A review and development of an Eppin based contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rand, Michael G; Silva, Erick J R; Hamil, Katherine G

    2016-01-01

    Developing a non-hormonal male contraceptive requires identifying and characterizing an appropriate target and demonstrating its essential role in reproduction. Here we review the development of male contraceptive targets and the current therapeutic agents under consideration. In addition, the development of EPPIN as a target for contraception is reviewed. EPPIN is a well characterized surface protein on human spermatozoa that has an essential function in primate reproduction. EPPIN is discussed as an example of target development, testing in non-human primates, and the search for small organic compounds that mimic contraceptive antibodies; binding EPPIN and blocking sperm motility. Although many hurdles remain before the success of a non-hormonal male contraceptive, continued persistence should yield a marketable product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Bang, Anne G; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Agulnick, Alan D; Smart, Nora G; Moorman, Mark A; Kroon, Evert; Carpenter, Melissa K; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2006-11-01

    Of paramount importance for the development of cell therapies to treat diabetes is the production of sufficient numbers of pancreatic endocrine cells that function similarly to primary islets. We have developed a differentiation process that converts human embryonic stem (hES) cells to endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, gut-tube endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and endocrine precursor--en route to cells that express endocrine hormones. The hES cell-derived insulin-expressing cells have an insulin content approaching that of adult islets. Similar to fetal beta-cells, they release C-peptide in response to multiple secretory stimuli, but only minimally to glucose. Production of these hES cell-derived endocrine cells may represent a critical step in the development of a renewable source of cells for diabetes cell therapy.

  17. Bisphenol A and hormone-associated cancers: current progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate.

  18. How well does cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimic cholesterol in saturated phospholipid bilayers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, W.; Tynkkynen, J.; Javanainen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteryl hemisuccinate is a detergent that is often used to replace cholesterol in crystallization of membrane proteins. Here we employ atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to characterize how well the properties of cholesteryl hemisuccinate actually match those of cholesterol in saturated...... protein-free lipid membranes. We show that the protonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate mimics many of the membrane properties of cholesterol quite well, while the deprotonated form of cholesteryl hemisuccinate is less convincing in this respect. Based on the results, we suggest that cholesteryl...... hemisuccinate in its protonated form is a quite faithful mimic of cholesterol for membrane protein crystallization, if specific cholesterol-protein interactions (not investigated here) are not playing a crucial role....

  19. Biomaterial delivery of morphogens to mimic the natural healing cascade in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manav; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Duda, Georg N; Mooney, David J

    2012-09-01

    Complications in treatment of large bone defects using bone grafting still remain. Our understanding of the endogenous bone regeneration cascade has inspired the exploration of a wide variety of growth factors (GFs) in an effort to mimic the natural signaling that controls bone healing. Biomaterial-based delivery of single exogenous GFs has shown therapeutic efficacy, and this likely relates to its ability to recruit and promote replication of cells involved in tissue development and the healing process. However, as the natural bone healing cascade involves the action of multiple factors, each acting in a specific spatiotemporal pattern, strategies aiming to mimic the critical aspects of this process will likely benefit from the usage of multiple therapeutic agents. This article reviews the current status of approaches to deliver single GFs, as well as ongoing efforts to develop sophisticated delivery platforms to deliver multiple lineage-directing morphogens (multiple GFs) during bone healing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitive fluorescence on-off probes for the fast detection of a chemical warfare agent mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Shar Jhahan; Wang, Ya-Wen; Senge, Mathias O; Peng, Yu

    2018-01-15

    Two highly sensitive probes bearing a nucleophilic imine moiety have been utilized for the selective detection of chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics. Diethyl chlorophosphate (DCP) was used as mimic CWAs. Both iminocoumarin-benzothiazole-based probes not only demonstrated a remarkable fluorescence ON-OFF response and good recognition, but also exhibited fast response times (10s) along with color changes upon addition of DCP. Limits of detection for the two sensors 1 and 2 were calculated as 0.065μM and 0.21μM, respectively, which are much lower than most other reported probes. These two probes not only show high sensitivity and selectivity in solution, but can also be applied for the recognition of DCP in the gas state, with significant color changes easily observed by the naked eye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Knockdown of Rice microRNA166 by Short Tandem Target Mimic (STTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotia, Sachin; Zhang, Dabing; Tang, Guiliang

    2017-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are abundant in plants and play key roles in controlling plant development and physiology. miRNAs regulate the expression of the target genes involved in key plant processes. Due to functional redundancy among miRNA family members in plants, an ideal approach to silence the expression of all members simultaneously, for their functional characterization, is desirable. Target mimic (TM) was the first approach to achieve this goal. Short tandem target mimic (STTM) is a potent approach complementing TM for silencing miRNAs in plants. STTMs have been successfully used in dicots to block miRNA functions. Here, we describe in detail the protocol for designing STTM construct to block miRNA functions in rice. Such approach can be applied to silence miRNAs in other monocots as well.

  2. Structural Mimics of the [Fe]-Hydrogenase: A Complete Set for Group VIII Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Chandan Kr; Ganguly, Rakesh; Li, Yongxin; Leong, Weng Kee

    2018-06-18

    A set of structural mimics of the [Fe]-hydrogenase active site comprising all the group VIII metals, viz., [M(2-NHC(O)C 5 H 4 N)(CO) 2 (2-S-C 5 H 4 N)], has been synthesized. They exist as a mixture of isomers in solution, and the relative stability of the isomers depends on the nature of the metal and the substituent at the 6-position of the pyridine ligand.

  3. Artificial cell mimics as simplified models for the study of cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Ces, Oscar; Elani, Yuval

    2017-07-01

    Living cells are hugely complex chemical systems composed of a milieu of distinct chemical species (including DNA, proteins, lipids, and metabolites) interconnected with one another through a vast web of interactions: this complexity renders the study of cell biology in a quantitative and systematic manner a difficult task. There has been an increasing drive towards the utilization of artificial cells as cell mimics to alleviate this, a development that has been aided by recent advances in artificial cell construction. Cell mimics are simplified cell-like structures, composed from the bottom-up with precisely defined and tunable compositions. They allow specific facets of cell biology to be studied in isolation, in a simplified environment where control of variables can be achieved without interference from a living and responsive cell. This mini-review outlines the core principles of this approach and surveys recent key investigations that use cell mimics to address a wide range of biological questions. It will also place the field in the context of emerging trends, discuss the associated limitations, and outline future directions of the field. Impact statement Recent years have seen an increasing drive to construct cell mimics and use them as simplified experimental models to replicate and understand biological phenomena in a well-defined and controlled system. By summarizing the advances in this burgeoning field, and using case studies as a basis for discussion on the limitations and future directions of this approach, it is hoped that this minireview will spur others in the experimental biology community to use artificial cells as simplified models with which to probe biological systems.

  4. A concise flow synthesis of indole-3-carboxylic ester and its derivatisation to an auxin mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Baumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An assembled suite of flow-based transformations have been used to rapidly scale-up the production of a novel auxin mimic-based herbicide which was required for preliminary field trials. The overall synthetic approach and optimisation studies are described along with a full description of the final reactor configurations employed for the synthesis as well as the downstream processing of the reaction streams.

  5. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient

    OpenAIRE

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acut...

  6. Acute aortic dissection mimics acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction in a Marfan syndrome patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phowthongkum, Prasit

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year old man with acute chest pain was diagnosed with acute inferoposterior wall myocardial infarction following electrocardiography. After a failed coronary angiography, an echocardiogram revealed an aortic intimal flap after which acute aortic dissection was diagnosed. The patient received a successful Bentall operation without immediate complication. Retrospective examination then confirmed the diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. This case demonstrates acute aortic dissection may mimic acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Noise analysis and mimic experiments for loose part accident in the primary coolant loop of PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiuzhou; Cheng Tingxiang; Zhang Bin

    1994-01-01

    The basic principle of loose part monitoring is to detect and measure the structure transfer sound generated by impacting of metal loose part with accelerators and to identify and diagnose by the micro-processor. This paper introduces the theoretical base of loose part monitoring, the location and mass estimation of loose part, and three mimic experiment applying noise analysis techniques. It provides some useful preparations for the development of loose part monitoring system

  8. A sensitive colorimetric aptasensor based on trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwen; Xu, Naihan; Tan, Chunyan; Fang, Wei; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2018-08-14

    In this study, a novel colorimetric aptasensor was prepared by coupling trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme and magnetic nanoparticles for highly sensitive and selective detection of target proteins. A three G-quadruplex (G4) DNA-hemin complex was employed as the trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme, in which hemin assisted the G4-DNA to fold into a catalytic conformation and act as an enzyme. The design of the aptasensor includes magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), complementary DNA (cDNA) modified with biotin, and a label-free single strand DNA (ssDNA) including the aptamer and trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme. The trivalent DNAzyme, which has the highest catalytic activity among multivalent DNAzymes, catalyzed the H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation of ABTS. The colorless ABTS was oxidized to produce a blue-green product that can be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. The aptamer and trivalent peroxidase-mimic DNAzyme promote the specificity and sensitivity of this detection method, which can be generalized for other targets by simply replacing the corresponding aptamers. To demonstrate the feasible use of the aptasensor for target detection, a well-known tumor biomarker MUC1 was evaluated as the model target. The limits of detection were determined to be 5.08 and 5.60 nM in a linear range of 50-1000 nM in a buffer solution and 10% serum system, respectively. This colorimetric and label-free aptasensor with excellent sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability has potential application in disease diagnoses, prognosis tracking, and therapeutic evaluation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and fine mapping of a light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Bangquan; Yin, Junjie; Yuan, Can; Zhou, Xiaogang; Li, Weitao; He, Min; Wang, Jichun; Chen, Weilan; Qin, Peng; Ma, Bintian; Wang, Yuping; Li, Shigui; Chen, Xuewei

    2015-12-01

    Plants that spontaneously produce lesion mimics or spots, without any signs of obvious adversity, such as pesticide and mechanical damage, or pathogen infection, are so-called lesion mimic mutants (lmms). In rice, many lmms exhibit enhanced resistance to pathogens, which provides a unique opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying lmms. We isolated a rice light-dependent leaf lesion mimic mutant 1 (llm1). Lesion spots appeared in the leaves of the llm1 mutant at the tillering stage. Furthermore, the mutant llm1 had similar agronomic traits to wild type rice. Trypan blue and diamiobenzidine staining analyses revealed that the lesion spot formation on the llm1 mutant was due to programmed cell death and reactive oxygen species. The chloroplasts were severely damaged in the llm1 mutant, suggesting that chloroplast damage was associated with the formation of lesion spots in llm1. More importantly, llm1 exhibited enhanced resistance to bacterial blight pathogens within increased expression of pathogenesis related genes (PRs). Using a map-based cloning approach, we delimited the LLM1 locus to a 121-kb interval between two simple sequence repeat markers, RM17470 and RM17473, on chromosome 4. We sequenced the candidate genes on the interval and found that a base mutation had substituted adenine phosphate for thymine in the last exon of LOC_Os04g52130, which led to an amino acid change (Asp(388) to Val) in the llm1 mutant. Our investigation showed that the putative coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (CPOX) encoded by LOC_Os04g52130 was produced by LLM1 and that amino acid Asp(388) was essential for CPOX function. Our study provides the basis for further investigations into the mechanism underlying lesion mimic initiation associated with LLM1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Independent monitor unit calculation for intensity modulated radiotherapy using the MIMiC multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Xing Lei; Nath, Ravinder

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent monitor unit (MU) and isocenter point-dose calculation method has been developed that provides an independent verification of the MU for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the MIMiC (Nomos Corporation) multileaf collimator. The method takes into account two unique features of IMRT using the MIMiC: namely the gantry-dynamic arc delivery of intensity modulated photon beams and the slice-by-slice dose delivery for large tumor volumes. The method converts the nonuniform beam intensity planned at discrete gantry angles of 5 deg. or 10 deg. into conventional nonmodulated beam intensity apertures of elemental arc segments of 1 deg. This approach more closely simulates the actual gantry-dynamic arc delivery by MIMiC. Because each elemental arc segment is of uniform intensity, the MU calculation for an IMRT arc is made equivalent to a conventional arc with gantry-angle dependent beam apertures. The dose to the isocenter from each 1 deg. elemental arc segment is calculated by using the Clarkson scatter summation technique based on measured tissue-maximum-ratio and output factors, independent of the dose calculation model used in the IMRT planning system. For treatments requiring multiple treatment slices, the MU for the arc at each treatment slice takes into account the MU, leakage and scatter doses from other slices. This is achieved by solving a set of coupled linear equations for the MUs of all involved treatment slices. All input dosimetry data for the independent MU/isocenter point-dose calculation are measured directly. Comparison of the MU and isocenter point dose calculated by the independent program to those calculated by the Corvus planning system and to direct measurements has shown good agreement with relative difference less than ±3%. The program can be used as an independent initial MU verification for IMRT plans using the MIMiC multileaf collimators

  11. Glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in murine islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Yun, Jun-Won; Lei, Xin Gen

    2014-01-10

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) mimic ebselen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic copper diisopropylsalicylate (CuDIPs) were used to rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in islets of GPX1 and(or) SOD1-knockout mice. Ebselen improved GSIS in islets of all four tested genotypes. The rescue in the GPX1 knockout resulted from a coordinated transcriptional regulation of four key GSIS regulators and was mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α)-mediated signaling pathways. In contrast, CuDIPs improved GSIS only in the SOD1 knockout and suppressed gene expression of the PGC-1α pathway. Islets from the GPX1 and(or) SOD1 knockout mice provided metabolically controlled intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide conditions for the present study to avoid confounding effects. Bioinformatics analyses of gene promoters and expression profiles guided the search for upstream signaling pathways to link the ebselen-initiated H2O2 scavenging to downstream key events of GSIS. The RNA interference was applied to prove PGC-1α as the main mediator for that link. Our study revealed a novel metabolic use and clinical potential of ebselen in rescuing GSIS in the GPX1-deficient islets and mice, along with distinct differences between the GPX and SOD mimics in this regard. These findings highlight the necessities and opportunities of discretional applications of various antioxidant enzyme mimics in treating insulin secretion disorders. REBOUND TRACK: This work was rejected during standard peer review and rescued by Rebound Peer Review (Antioxid Redox Signal 16: 293-296, 2012) with the following serving as open reviewers: Regina Brigelius-Flohe, Vadim Gladyshev, Dexing Hou, and Holger Steinbrenner.

  12. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  13. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  14. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  15. MIMIC: An Innovative Methodology for Determining Mobile Laser Scanning System Point Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Cahalane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how various Mobile Mapping System (MMS laser hardware configurations and operating parameters exercise different influence on point density is important for assessing system performance, which in turn facilitates system design and MMS benchmarking. Point density also influences data processing, as objects that can be recognised using automated algorithms generally require a minimum point density. Although obtaining the necessary point density impacts on hardware costs, survey time and data storage requirements, a method for accurately and rapidly assessing MMS performance is lacking for generic MMSs. We have developed a method for quantifying point clouds collected by an MMS with respect to known objects at specified distances using 3D surface normals, 2D geometric formulae and line drawing algorithms. These algorithms were combined in a system called the Mobile Mapping Point Density Calculator (MIMIC and were validated using point clouds captured by both a single scanner and a dual scanner MMS. Results from MIMIC were promising: when considering the number of scan profiles striking the target, the average error equated to less than 1 point per scan profile. These tests highlight that MIMIC is capable of accurately calculating point density for both single and dual scanner MMSs.

  16. A collection of target mimics for comprehensive analysis of microRNA function in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Todesco

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many targets of plant microRNAs (miRNAs are thought to play important roles in plant physiology and development. However, because plant miRNAs are typically encoded by medium-size gene families, it has often been difficult to assess their precise function. We report the generation of a large-scale collection of knockdowns for Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA families; this has been achieved using artificial miRNA target mimics, a recently developed technique fashioned on an endogenous mechanism of miRNA regulation. Morphological defects in the aerial part were observed for approximately 20% of analyzed families, all of which are deeply conserved in land plants. In addition, we find that non-cleavable mimic sites can confer translational regulation in cis. Phenotypes of plants expressing target mimics directed against miRNAs involved in development were in several cases consistent with previous reports on plants expressing miRNA-resistant forms of individual target genes, indicating that a limited number of targets mediates most effects of these miRNAs. That less conserved miRNAs rarely had obvious effects on plant morphology suggests that most of them do not affect fundamental aspects of development. In addition to insight into modes of miRNA action, this study provides an important resource for the study of miRNA function in plants.

  17. Instructions to mimic improve facial emotion recognition in people with sub-clinical autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael B; Dunn, Emily

    2017-11-01

    People tend to mimic the facial expression of others. It has been suggested that this helps provide social glue between affiliated people but it could also aid recognition of emotions through embodied cognition. The degree of facial mimicry, however, varies between individuals and is limited in people with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). The present study sought to investigate the effect of promoting facial mimicry during a facial-emotion-recognition test. In two experiments, participants without an ASC diagnosis had their autism quotient (AQ) measured. Following a baseline test, they did an emotion-recognition test again but half of the participants were asked to mimic the target face they saw prior to making their responses. Mimicry improved emotion recognition, and further analysis revealed that the largest improvement was for participants who had higher scores on the autism traits. In fact, recognition performance was best overall for people who had high AQ scores but also received the instruction to mimic. Implications for people with ASC are explored.

  18. Early diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes: pros and cons of current clinical diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Vicente, Elena; Pradas, Jesús; Marín-Lahoz, Juan; De Luna, Noemi; Clarimón, Jordi; Turon-Sans, Janina; Gelpí, Ellen; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Illa, Isabel; Rojas-Garcia, Ricard

    2017-08-01

    To describe the frequency and clinical characteristics of patients referred to a tertiary neuromuscular clinic as having amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but who were re-diagnosed as having an ALS mimic syndrome, and to identify the reasons that led to the revision of the diagnosis. We reviewed the final diagnosis of all patients prospectively registered in the Sant Pau-MND register from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2015. A detailed clinical evaluation and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study were performed at first evaluation. Twenty of 314 (6.4%) patients included were re-diagnosed as having a condition other than ALS, in 18 cases already at first evaluation. An alternative specific diagnosis was identified in 17 of those 20, consisting of a wide range of conditions. The main finding leading to an alternative diagnosis was the result of the electrophysiological study. Fifty per cent did not fulfil the El Escorial revised criteria (EECr) for ALS. The most common clinical phenotype at onset in patients with ALS mimic syndromes was progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). Misdiagnosing ALS is still a common problem. Early identification of ALS mimic syndromes is possible based on atypical clinical features and a clinically-guided electrophysiological study. Patients should be attended in specialised centres. The application of EECr helps to identify ALS misdiagnoses.

  19. MicroRNA-122 mimic transfection contributes to apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yueyong; Li, Shaoyang

    2015-11-01

    There is currently a requirement for effective treatment strategies for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a leading cause of cancer‑associated mortality. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122), a repressor of the endogenous apoptosis regulator Bcl‑w, is frequently downregulated in HCC. Thus, it is hypothesized that the activation of miR‑122 may induce selective hepatocellular apoptosis via caspase activation in a model of HCC. In the present study, an miR‑122 mimic transfection was performed in HepG2 cells, and used to investigate the role and therapeutic potential of miR‑122 in the regulation of HCC‑derived cell lines. The apoptotic rates of HepG2 cells were significantly increased following miR‑122 mimic transfection. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that Bcl‑w mRNA was significantly reduced, while the mRNA levels of caspase‑9 and caspase‑3 were markedly increased. The immunocytochemistry results supported the mRNA trends. Collectively, the present results suggest that endogenous miR‑122 contributes to HepG2 apoptosis and that transfection of mimic miR‑122 normalizes apoptotic levels in a model of HCC.

  20. Fast and efficient Drosophila melanogaster gene knock-ins using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Sven; Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Maes, Ine; Schoovaerts, Nils; Zhou, Lujia; Soukup, Sandra; da Cunha, Raquel; Lauwers, Elsa; Fiers, Mark; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-10-08

    Modern molecular genetics studies necessitate the manipulation of genes in their endogenous locus, but most of the current methodologies require an inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination step to locally modify the genome. Here we describe a methodology to efficiently generate Drosophila knock-in alleles by capitalizing on the availability of numerous genomic MiMIC transposon insertions carrying recombinogenic attP sites. Our methodology entails the efficient PhiC31-mediated integration of a recombination cassette flanked by unique I-SceI and/or I-CreI restriction enzyme sites into an attP-site. These restriction enzyme sites allow for double-strand break-mediated removal of unwanted flanking transposon sequences, while leaving the desired genomic modifications or recombination cassettes. As a proof-of-principle, we mutated LRRK, tau, and sky by using different MiMIC elements. We replaced 6 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the tau locus and 35 kb encompassing the sky locus with a recombination cassette that permits easy integration of DNA at these loci and we also generated a functional LRRK(HA) knock in allele. Given that ~92% of the Drosophila genes are located within the vicinity (MiMIC element, our methodology enables the efficient manipulation of nearly every locus in the fruit fly genome without the need for inefficient donor-dependent homologous recombination events. Copyright © 2014 Vilain et al.

  1. Mimic Carbonic Anhydrase Using Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture and Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chaonan; Zhang, Sainan; Zhang, Zhenjie; Chen, Yao

    2018-02-19

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a zinc-containing metalloprotein, in which the Zn active center plays the key role to transform CO 2 into carbonate. Inspired by nature, herein we used metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to mimic CA for CO 2 conversion, on the basis of the structural similarity between the Zn coordination in MOFs and CA active center. The biomimetic activity of MOFs was investigated by detecting the hydrolysis of para-nitrophenyl acetate, which is a model reaction used to evaluate CA activity. The biomimetic materials (e.g., CFA-1) showed good catalytic activity, and excellent reusability, and solvent and thermal stability, which is very important for practical applications. In addition, ZIF-100 and CFA-1 were used to mimic CA to convert CO 2 gas, and exhibited good efficiency on CO 2 conversion compared with those of other porous materials (e.g., MCM-41, active carbon). This biomimetic study revealed a novel CO 2 treatment method. Instead of simply using MOFs to absorb CO 2 , ZIF-100 and CFA-1 were used to mimic CA for in situ CO 2 conversion, which provides a new prospect in the biological and industrial applications of MOFs.

  2. Sensitive electrochemical assaying of DNA methyltransferase activity based on mimic-hybridization chain reaction amplified strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqun; Liu, Yuanjian; Li, Ying; Zhao, Yuewu; Wei, Wei; Liu, Songqin

    2016-08-24

    A mimic-hybridization chain reaction (mimic-HCR) amplified strategy was proposed for sensitive electrochemically detection of DNA methylation and methyltransferase (MTase) activity In the presence of methylated DNA, DNA-gold nanoparticles (DNA-AuNPs) were captured on the electrode by sandwich-type assembly. It then triggered mimic-HCR of two hairpin probes to produce many long double-helix chains for numerous hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride ([Ru(NH3)6](3+), RuHex) inserting. As a result, the signal for electrochemically detection of DNA MTase activity could be amplified. If DNA was non-methylated, however, the sandwich-type assembly would not form because the short double-stranded DNAs (dsDNA) on the Au electrode could be cleaved and digested by restriction endonuclease HpaII (HapII) and exonuclease III (Exo III), resulting in the signal decrement. Based on this, an electrochemical approach for detection of M.SssI MTase activity with high sensitivity was developed. The linear range for M.SssI MTase activity was from 0.05 U mL(-1) to 10 U mL(-1), with a detection limit down to 0.03 U mL(-1). Moreover, this detecting strategy held great promise as an easy-to-use and highly sensitive method for other MTase activity and inhibition detection by exchanging the corresponding DNA sequence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential effects of lesion mimic mutants in barley on disease development by facultative pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Graham R. D.; Steed, , Andrew; Burt, Christopher; Nicholson, Paul; Brown, James K. M.

    2015-01-01

    Lesion mimic mutants display spontaneous necrotic spots and chlorotic leaves as a result of mis-regulated cell death programmes. Typically these mutants have increased resistance to biotrophic pathogens but their response to facultative fungi that cause necrotrophic diseases is less well studied. The effect of altered cell death regulation on the development of disease caused by Ramularia collo-cygni, Fusarium culmorum and Oculimacula yallundae was explored using a collection of barley necrotic (nec) lesion mimic mutants. nec8 mutants displayed lower levels of all three diseases compared to nec9 mutants, which had increased R. collo-cygni but decreased F. culmorum disease symptoms. nec1 mutants reduced disease development caused by both R. collo-cygni and F. culmorum. The severity of the nec1-induced lesion mimic phenotype and F. culmorum symptom development was reduced by mutation of the negative cell death regulator MLO. The significant reduction in R. collo-cygni symptoms caused by nec1 was completely abolished in the presence of the mlo-5 allele and both symptoms and fungal biomass were greater than in the wild-type. These results indicate that physiological pathways involved in regulation of cell death interact with one another in their effects on different fungal pathogens. PMID:25873675

  4. Settlement pattern of Posidonia oceanica epibionts along a gradient of ocean acidification: an approach with mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DONNARUMMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ocean acidification (OA on the colonization/settlement pattern of the epibiont community of the leaves and rhizomesof the Mediterranean seagrass,Posidoniaoceanica, have been studied at volcanic CO2vents off Ischia (Italy, using “mimics”as artificial substrates. The experiments were conducted in shallowPosidoniastands (2-3 m depth, in three stations on the northand three on the south sides of the study area, distributed along a pH gradient. At each station, 4 rhizome mimics and 6 artificialleaves were collected every three months (Sept 2009-Sept 2010. The epibionts on both leaf and rhizome mimics showed clearchanges along the pH gradient; coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates (bryozoans, serpulid polychaetes and barnacles weredominant at control stations but progressively disappeared at the most acidified stations. In these extremely low pH sites theassemblage was dominated by filamentous algae and non calcareous taxa such as hydroids and tunicates. Settlement pattern onthe artificial leaves and rhizome mimics over time showed a consistent distribution pattern along the pH gradient and highlightedthe peak of recruitment of the various organisms in different periods according to their life history.Posidoniamimics at theacidified station showed a poor and very simplified assemblage where calcifying epibionts seemed less competitive for space. Thisprofound difference in epiphyte communities in low pH conditions suggests cascading effects on the food web of the meadow and,consequently, on the functioning of the system

  5. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. miR-370 mimic inhibits replication of Japanese encephalitis virus in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjuan; Cheng, Peng; Nie, Shangdan; Cui, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe viral infections of the central nervous system. No effective treatment for JE currently exists, because its pathogenesis remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to screen the potential microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in JE. Glioblastoma cells were collected, after being infected with the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Total miRNAs were extracted and analyzed using an miRNA chip. One of the most severely affected miRNAs was selected, and the role of miR-370 in JEV infection was investigated. Cell viability and apoptosis of the host cells were evaluated. JEV replication was detected via analysis of gene E expression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the levels of endogenous miR-370 and expression of innate immunity-related genes. Following JEV infection, 114 miRNAs were affected, as evidenced by the miRNA chip. Among them, 30 miRNAs were upregulated and 84 were downregulated. The changes observed in five miRNAs were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. One of the significantly downregulated miRNAs was miR-370. Therefore, miR-370 mimic was transfected into the cells, following which the levels of endogenous miR-370 were significantly elevated. Concurrently, JEV replication was significantly reduced 24 hours after transfection of miR-370 mimic. Functionally, miR-370 mimic mitigated both JEV-induced apoptosis and the inhibition of host cell proliferation. Following JEV infection, interferon-β and nuclear factor-kappa B were upregulated, whereas miR-370 mimic prevented the upregulation of the genes induced by JEV infection. The present study demonstrated that miR-370 expression in host cells is downregulated following JEV infection, which further mediates innate immunity-related gene expression. Taken together, miR-370 mimic might be useful to prevent viral replication and infection-induced host cell injury.

  7. The Effect of Small Sample Size on Measurement Equivalence of Psychometric Questionnaires in MIMIC Model: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Jamali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating measurement equivalence (also known as differential item functioning (DIF is an important part of the process of validating psychometric questionnaires. This study aimed at evaluating the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC model for DIF detection when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small. In this simulation-based study, Type I error rates and power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF were investigated under different combinations of reference to focal group sample size ratio, magnitude of the uniform-DIF effect, scale length, the number of response categories, and latent trait distribution. Moderate and high skewness in the latent trait distribution led to a decrease of 0.33% and 0.47% power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF, respectively. The findings indicated that, by increasing the scale length, the number of response categories and magnitude DIF improved the power of MIMIC model, by 3.47%, 4.83%, and 20.35%, respectively; it also decreased Type I error of MIMIC approach by 2.81%, 5.66%, and 0.04%, respectively. This study revealed that power of MIMIC model was at an acceptable level when latent trait distributions were skewed. However, empirical Type I error rate was slightly greater than nominal significance level. Consequently, the MIMIC was recommended for detection of uniform-DIF when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small.

  8. Characterization and mapping of complementary lesion-mimic genes lm1 and lm2 in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qin; Zhou, Ronghua; Fu, Tihua; Wu, Weiren; Zhu, Zhendong; Li, Aili; Jia, Jizeng

    2009-10-01

    A lesion-mimic phenotype appeared in a segregating population of common wheat cross Yanzhan 1/Zaosui 30. The parents had non-lesion normal phenotypes. Shading treatment and histochemical analyses showed that the lesions were caused by light-dependent cell death and were not associated with pathogens. Studies over two cropping seasons showed that some lines with more highly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes exhibited significantly lower grain yields than those with the normal phenotype, but there were no significant effects in the lines with weakly expressed lesion-mimic phenotypes. Among yield traits, one-thousand grain weight was the most affected by lesion-mimic phenotypes. Genetic analysis indicated that this was a novel type of lesion mimic, which was caused by interaction of recessive genes derived from each parent. The lm1 (lesion mimic 1) locus from Zaosui 30 was flanked by microsatellite markers Xwmc674 and Xbarc133/Xbarc147 on chromosome 3BS, at genetic distances of 1.2 and 3.8 cM, respectively, whereas lm2 from Yanzhan 1 was mapped between microsatellite markers Xgwm513 and Xksum154 on chromosome 4BL, at genetic distances of 1.5 and 3 cM, respectively. The linked microsatellite makers identified in this study might be useful for evaluating whether potential parents with normal phenotype are carriers of lesion-mimic alleles.

  9. The Effect of Small Sample Size on Measurement Equivalence of Psychometric Questionnaires in MIMIC Model: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Jafari, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating measurement equivalence (also known as differential item functioning (DIF)) is an important part of the process of validating psychometric questionnaires. This study aimed at evaluating the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model for DIF detection when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small. In this simulation-based study, Type I error rates and power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF were investigated under different combinations of reference to focal group sample size ratio, magnitude of the uniform-DIF effect, scale length, the number of response categories, and latent trait distribution. Moderate and high skewness in the latent trait distribution led to a decrease of 0.33% and 0.47% power of MIMIC model for detecting uniform-DIF, respectively. The findings indicated that, by increasing the scale length, the number of response categories and magnitude DIF improved the power of MIMIC model, by 3.47%, 4.83%, and 20.35%, respectively; it also decreased Type I error of MIMIC approach by 2.81%, 5.66%, and 0.04%, respectively. This study revealed that power of MIMIC model was at an acceptable level when latent trait distributions were skewed. However, empirical Type I error rate was slightly greater than nominal significance level. Consequently, the MIMIC was recommended for detection of uniform-DIF when latent construct distribution is nonnormal and the focal group sample size is small.

  10. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  11. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  12. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  13. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  14. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  15. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  17. In vivo preclinical evaluation of the accuracy of toroidal-shaped HIFU treatments using a tumor-mimic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N'Djin, W A; Melodelima, D; Parmentier, H; Chapelon, J Y; Rivoire, M

    2010-01-01

    The pig is an ideal animal model for preclinical evaluation of HIFU treatments, especially in the liver. However, there is no liver tumor model available for pigs. In this work, we propose to study an in vivo tumor-mimic model as a tool for evaluating if a sonographycally guided HIFU treatment, delivered by a toroidal-shaped device dedicated for the treatment of liver metastases, is correctly located in the liver. One centimeter tumor-mimics were created in liver tissues. These tumor-mimics were detectable on ultrasound imaging and on gross pathology. Two studies were carried out. First, an in vivo study of tolerance at mid-term (30 days, 10 pigs) revealed that tumor-mimics are suitable for studying HIFU treatments at a preclinical stage, since local and biological tolerances were excellent. The dimensions of the tumor-mimics were reproducible (diameter at day 0: 9.7 ± 2.0 mm) and were the same as a function of time (p = 0.64). A second in vivo study was carried out in ten pigs. Tumor mimics were used as targets in liver tissues in order to determine if the HIFU treatment is correctly located in the liver. A procedure of extensive HIFU ablation using multiple HIFU lesions juxtaposed manually was then tested on eight tumor-mimics. In 88% of the cases (seven out of eight), tumor-mimics were treated with negative margins (≥1 mm) in all directions. On average, negative margins measured 10.0 ± 6.7 mm. These tumor-mimics constitute an excellent reference for studying in vivo the accuracy of HIFU therapy in the liver.

  18. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  19. Differential Juvenile Hormone Variations in Scale Insect Extreme Sexual Dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Mifom Vea

    Full Text Available Scale insects have evolved extreme sexual dimorphism, as demonstrated by sedentary juvenile-like females and ephemeral winged males. This dimorphism is established during the post-embryonic development; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms have not yet been examined. We herein assessed the role of juvenile hormone (JH on the diverging developmental pathways occurring in the male and female Japanese mealybug Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana. We provide, for the first time, detailed gene expression profiles related to JH signaling in scale insects. Prior to adult emergence, the transcript levels of JH acid O-methyltransferase, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme in JH biosynthesis, were higher in males than in females, suggesting that JH levels are higher in males. Furthermore, male quiescent pupal-like stages were associated with higher transcript levels of the JH receptor gene, Methoprene-tolerant and its co-activator taiman, as well as the JH early-response genes, Krüppel homolog 1 and broad. The exposure of male juveniles to an ectopic JH mimic prolonged the expression of Krüppel homolog 1 and broad, and delayed adult emergence by producing a supernumeral pupal stage. We propose that male wing development is first induced by up-regulated JH signaling compared to female expression pattern, but a decrease at the end of the prepupal stage is necessary for adult emergence, as evidenced by the JH mimic treatments. Furthermore, wing development seems linked to JH titers as JHM treatments on the pupal stage led to wing deformation. The female pedomorphic appearance was not reflected by the maintenance of high levels of JH. The results in this study suggest that differential variations in JH signaling may be responsible for sex-specific and radically different modes of metamorphosis.

  20. Plasma hormones facilitated the hypermotility of the colon in a chronic stress rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbai Liang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between brain-gut peptides, gastrointestinal hormones and altered motility in a rat model of repetitive water avoidance stress (WAS, which mimics the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted daily to 1-h of water avoidance stress (WAS or sham WAS (SWAS for 10 consecutive days. Plasma hormones were determined using Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Proximal colonic smooth muscle (PCSM contractions were studied in an organ bath system. PCSM cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion and IKv and IBKca were recorded by the patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: The number of fecal pellets during 1 h of acute restraint stress and the plasma hormones levels of substance P (SP, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, motilin (MTL, and cholecystokinin (CCK in WAS rats were significantly increased compared with SWAS rats, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH in WAS rats were not significantly changed and peptide YY (PYY in WAS rats was significantly decreased. Likewise, the amplitudes of spontaneous contractions of PCSM in WAS rats were significantly increased comparing with SWAS rats. The plasma of WAS rats (100 µl decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of controls. The IKv and IBKCa of PCSMs were significantly decreased in WAS rats compared with SWAS rats and the plasma of WAS rats (100 µl increased the amplitude of IKv and IBKCa in normal rats. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that WAS leads to changes of plasma hormones levels and to disordered myogenic colonic motility in the short term, but that the colon rapidly establishes a new equilibrium to maintain the normal baseline functioning.

  1. Hormone-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh

    2017-12-15

    Despite polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-aged women, the etiopathogenesis and mechanisms of this syndrome remain unclear. Considering the ethical limitations in human studies, animal models that reflect many features of PCOS are crucial resources to investigate this syndrome. We aimed to introduce the most suitable rat model of PCOS that closely mimics the endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances of human PCOS phenotype, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood, in order to further more detailed investigations about PCOS. We searched Pubmed, Science direct, and Web of science between 1990 and 2016, for relevant English manuscripts, using keywords including the "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome AND Rat Model" to generate a subset of citations relevant to our research. Included were those articles that compared at least both ovarian histology or estrous cycle and reproductive hormonal profiles in hormone-induced rat model of PCOS and controls. Differences in the findings between hormone-induced PCOS rats appear to be a result of the degree of transplacental transfer of the steroid administered into the fetus, dose and type of hormone, route of administration and timing and duration of exposure. We conclude that prenatal hormone-induced rat model with a lower dose and shorter time of exposure during the critical period of fetal development that exhibits endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances similar to PCOS in women, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood is more suitable than postnatal hormone-induced rat model to facilitate studies regarding PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  3. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  4. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  5. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  6. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  7. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  8. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  9. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  11. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  12. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  13. Identification of Chemical Agents (Mimics) Residues after Destructive Adsorption Using TPD and UV-vis-IR and Raman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2001-01-01

    Instrumentation was purchased that helps characterize the chemical structures and chemical reactions that occur when nanocrystalline metal oxides carry out destructive adsorption of chemical agents mimics. The residues (adducts...

  14. Effectiveness of a large mimic panel in an existing nuclear power plant central control board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sasajima, Katsuhiro; Kawano, Ryutaro; Shibuya Shinya

    1999-01-01

    We conducted the analysis of the nuclear power plant (NPP) operators' behaviors under emergency conditions by using training simulators as a joint research project by Japanese BWR groups for twelve years. In the phase-IV of this project we executed two kinds of experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of the interfaces. One was for evaluations of the interfaces such as CRTs with touch screen, a large mimic panel, and a hierarchical annunciator system introduced in the newly developed ABWR type central control board. The other was that we analyzed the operators' behaviors in emergency conditions by using the first generation BWR type central control board which was added new interfaces such as a large display screen and demarcation on the board to help operators to understand the plant. The demarcation is one of the visual interface improvements and its technique is that a line enclosing several components causes them to be perceived as a group.The result showed that both the large display panel Introduced in ABWR central control board and the large display screen in the existing BWR type central control board improved the performance of the NPP operators in the experiments. It was expected that introduction of the large mimic panel into the existing BWR type central control boards would improve operators' performance. However, in the case of actual installation of the large display board into the existing central control boards, there are spatial and hardware constraints. Therefore the size of lamps, lines connecting from symbols of the pumps or valves to the others' will have to be modified under these constraints. It is important to evaluate the displayed information on the large display board before actual installation. We made experiments to solve these problems by using TEPCO's research simulator which is added a large mimic panel. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of a double-stranded RNA mimic complexed with polycations in an experimental mouse model of leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pascual, Carmen Maria; Ferrero, Hortensia; Juarez, Irene; Martínez, Jessica; Villanueva, Ana; Pozuelo-Rubio, Mercedes; Soengas, Marisol; Tormo, Damiá; Simón, Carlos; Gómez, Raúl; Pellicer, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    To assess the antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of the double-stranded RNA mimic polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (pIC) complexed with polyethylenimine [pIC(PEI)] in xenografted human leiomyomas. Heterologous leiomyoma mouse model. University-affiliated infertility center. Ovariectomized and hormone-replaced nude mice (n = 16) who received human leiomyoma fragment transplantation. Leiomyoma fragments placed in the peritoneum of 5-week-old nude female mice and treated with the vehicle (n = 8) or 0.6 mg/kg [pIC(PEI)] (n = 8) for 4 weeks. The size of the leiomyoma implants, and cellular proliferation (Ki67), vascularization (PECAM), and apoptosis (OH-ends) assessed by quantitative immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent analysis of the recovered implants. No significant differences were observed in the size of the leiomyoma implants between groups. Vascularization and proliferation were significantly decreased, and apoptosis was increased in the [pIC(PEI)]-treated group versus control. We hypothesize that the antiangiogenic and apoptotic effects exerted by [pIC(PEI)] might lead to a decrease in lesion size in this animal model if the compound is administered for longer periods of time. This study provides promising data on [pIC(PEI)] as a potential novel therapeutic agent against human leiomyoma. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple Myeloma Presenting as Massive Amyloid Deposition in a Parathyroid Gland Associated with Amyloid Goiter: A Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Mimic on Intra-operative Frozen Section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kirk; Diaz, Jason; Hagemann, Ian S; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2018-06-01

    Clinical examples of amyloid deposition in parathyroid glands are exceedingly rare and usually present as an incidental finding in a patient with amyloid goiter. Here, we present the first histologically documented case of parathyroid amyloid deposition that presented as a mass. The patient did not have hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid gland was submitted for intra-operative frozen section and concern for medullary thyroid carcinoma was raised. An important histologic clue arguing against medullary thyroid carcinoma was the evenly dispersed nature of the amyloid. Histologic perinuclear clearing and parathyroid hormone immunohistochemistry confirmed parathyroid origin on permanent sections. The patient was also found to have associated amyloid goiter. Mass spectrometry of the amyloid showed it to be composed of kappa light chains. On further work-up, the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. Awareness of parathyroid amyloid deposition is important as it is a histologic mimic of medullary thyroid carcinoma, especially on frozen section. Amyloid typing with evaluation for multiple myeloma in any patient with kappa or lambda light chain restriction is also important.

  17. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  18. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  19. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  20. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  1. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  2. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  3. Synthetic miR-145 Mimic Enhances the Cytotoxic Effect of the Antiangiogenic Drug Sunitinib in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwei; Liu, Zhixiong; Jiang, Bing; Huo, Lei; Liu, Jinfang; Lu, Jingchen

    2015-06-01

    Although aggressive therapeutic regimen has been applied in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM), the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of Suntinib in GBM both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we showed that the cytotoxicity was enhanced by transfection with miR-145 mimic. In addition, we suggested that the enhanced cytotoxicity of Sunitinib by miR-145 mimic was mediated by inhibition of both P-gp and Bcrp.

  4. Creation of a Tumor-Mimic Model Using a Muscle Paste for Radiofrequency Ablation of the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Kaminou, T.; Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A.; Fujioka, S.; Ito, H.; Nakamura, K.; Ogawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an easily created tumor-mimic model and evaluate its efficacy for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the lung. The bilateral lungs of eight living adult swine were used. A tumor-mimic model was made by percutaneous injection of 1.0 ml muscle paste through the bone biopsy needle into the lung. An RFA probe was then inserted into the tumor mimics immediately after tumor creation. Ablation time, tissue impedance, and temperature were recorded. The tumor mimics and their coagulated regions were evaluated microscopically and macroscopically. The muscle paste was easily injected into the lung parenchyma through the bone biopsy needle and well visualized under fluoroscopy. In 10 of 12 sites the tumor mimics were oval shaped, localized, and homogeneous on gross specimens. Ten tumor mimics were successfully ablated, and four locations were ablated in the normal lung parenchyma as controls. In the tumor and normal lung parenchyma, ablation times were 8.9 ± 3.5 and 4.4 ± 1.6 min, respectively; tissue impedances at the start of ablation were 100.6 ± 16.6 and 145.8 ± 26.8 Ω, respectively; and temperatures at the end of ablation were 66.0 ± 7.9 and 57.5 ± 7.6 o C, respectively. The mean size of tumor mimics was 13.9 x 8.2 mm, and their coagulated area was 18.8 x 13.1 mm. In the lung parenchyma, the coagulated area was 15.3 x 12.0 mm. In conclusion, our tumor-mimic model using muscle paste can be easily and safely created and can be ablated using the ablation algorithm in the clinical setting.

  5. Chondromyxoid fibroma of the rib mimics a chondrosarcoma on 18F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Brandon Regional Health Centre, Brandon (Canada)), email: makisw79@yahoo.com; Ciarallo, Anthony; Lisbona, Robert (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, McGill Univ. Health Centre, Montreal (Canada))

    2011-06-15

    Chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) is a rare benign bone tumor of chondroid origin that occurs mostly in the metaphyses of long bones. CMF can occasionally mimic a chondrosarcoma on CT, and the literature on the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging characteristics of CMF tumors is limited. In the presented case, a large histologically proven CMF chest wall mass was initially misinterpreted as a chondrosarcoma. This case highlights a potential pitfall in the PET/CT evaluation of these rare benign bone tumors

  6. Synthesis of 3-alkyl enol mimics inhibitors of type II dehydroquinase: factors influencing their inhibition potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Beatriz; Sedes, Antía; Peón, Antonio; Lamb, Heather; Hawkins, Alastair R; Castedo, Luis; González-Bello, Concepción

    2012-05-14

    Several 3-alkylaryl mimics of the enol intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by type II dehydroquinase were synthesized to investigate the effect on the inhibition potency of replacing the oxygen atom in the side chain by a carbon atom. The length and the rigidity of the spacer was also studied. The inhibitory properties of the reported compounds against type II dehydroquinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Helicobacter pylori are also reported. The binding modes of these analogs in the active site of both enzymes were studied by molecular docking using GOLD 5.0 and dynamic simulations studies.

  7. Mucous retention cyst of temporal bone: a mimic of cholesteatoma on DW-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Amit; Goh, Julian; Loke, Siu Cheng; Yeo, Seng Beng; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Non-EPI DW imaging is increasingly being used as a sensitive sequence in detecting cholesteatomas especially if CT findings are not confirmatory. Cholesteatoma appears as a hyperintense focus on DWI. We present two cases of mucous retention cysts in the mastoid temporal bone/middle ear cavity, which present as hyperintense on non-EPI DWI and potentially may mimic cholesteatomas. Differentiating between the two conditions is important, as surgery can be avoided in mucous retention cysts. We have also discussed ways to differentiate between these two conditions on MRI. To our knowledge, this entity is not reported previously. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimating the size of non-observed economy in Croatia using the MIMIC approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vjekoslav Klaric

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a quick overview of the approaches that have been used in the research of shadow economy, starting with the defi nitions of the terms “shadow economy” and “non-observed economy”, with the accent on the ISTAT/Eurostat framework. Several methods for estimating the size of the shadow economy and the non-observed economy are then presented. The emphasis is placed on the MIMIC approach, one of the methods used to estimate the size of the nonobserved economy. After a glance at the ...

  9. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew Cj; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of...

  10. Effector Mimics and Integrated Decoys, the Never-Ending Arms Race between Rice and Xanthomonas oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, Paola; Szurek, Boris; Koebnik, Ralf; Kroj, Thomas; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by a wide range of pathogens and have therefore evolved an array of mechanisms to defend against them. In response to these defense systems, pathogens have evolved strategies to avoid recognition and suppress plant defenses (Brown and Tellier, 2011). Three recent reports dealing with the resistance of rice to Xanthomonas oryzae have added a new twist to our understanding of this fascinating co-evolutionary arms race (Ji et al., 2016; Read et al., 2016; Triplett et al., 2016). They show that pathogens also develop sophisticated effector mimics to trick recognition.

  11. Exaggerated Arthropod Bite: A Case Report and Review of the Mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagah Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Exaggerated arthropod bite reactions causing hemorrhagic or necrotic bullous lesions can mimic other serious conditions such as cutaneous anthrax, brown recluse spider bite, and tularemia. A 55- year-old, healthy woman presented to the emergency department with a 3.5-centimeter painless, collapsed hemorrhagic bulla at the left costal margin. She was afebrile and had no systemic symptoms. Laboratory evaluation was unremarkable. She was prescribed silver sulfadiazine cream and mupirocin ointment. The area denuded two days later and the lesion completely healed. This case illustrates the broad differential to be considered when evaluating patients with hemorrhagic bullous lesions.

  12. Arterial tortuosity syndrome: An extremely rare disease presenting as a mimic of pulmonary sling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Farkas, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary sling is the anatomic variant defined by the aberrant origin of the left pulmonary artery from the right pulmonary artery. This patient presented with a mimic of pulmonary sling as a result of an extremely rare condition, arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS. The patient was first diagnosed with pulmonary sling on prenatal echocardiogram performed by cardiology. Computed tomography angiography of the chest obtained at birth to evaluate respiratory depression demonstrated ATS. The early detection of ATS has been demonstrated to improve patient outcome. This case provides an overview of the typical imaging features of ATS to aid radiologists in making this uncommon diagnosis.

  13. TAPIR, a web server for the prediction of plant microRNA targets, including target mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Eric; He, Ying; Billiau, Kenny; Van de Peer, Yves

    2010-06-15

    We present a new web server called TAPIR, designed for the prediction of plant microRNA targets. The server offers the possibility to search for plant miRNA targets using a fast and a precise algorithm. The precise option is much slower but guarantees to find less perfectly paired miRNA-target duplexes. Furthermore, the precise option allows the prediction of target mimics, which are characterized by a miRNA-target duplex having a large loop, making them undetectable by traditional tools. The TAPIR web server can be accessed at: http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/tapir. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Asthma mimic: Case report and literature review of vocal cord nodule associated with wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Singh, Tushi; Aslam, Ahsan; Khaja, Misbahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. Various clinical conditions can mimic asthma, such as foreign body aspiration, subglottic stenosis, congestive heart failure, diffuse panbronchiolitis, aortic arch anomalies, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, retrosternal goiter, vocal cord tumors, other airway tumors, and vocal cord dysfunction. Upper airway obstruction can be a life-threatening emergency. Here, we present the case of a 58-year-old female with recurrent hospital visits for wheezing and exacerbations of asthma, who was later found to have a vocal cord nodule confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma, which was mimicking like asthma.

  15. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  16. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  17. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  18. Dual-energy CT for the evaluation of urinary calculi: Image interpretation, pitfalls and stone mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepperson, M.A.; Cernigliaro, J.G.; Sella, D.; Ibrahim, E.; Thiel, D.D.; Leng, S.; Haley, W.E.

    2013-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease with a reported prevalence between 4% and 20% in developed countries. Determination of urinary calculi composition is a key factor in preoperative evaluation, treatment, and stone recurrence prevention. Prior to the introduction of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), available methods for determining urinary stone composition were only available after stone extraction, and thereby unable to aid in optimized stone management prior to intervention. DECT utilizes the attenuation difference produced by two different x-ray energy spectra to quantify urinary calculi composition as uric acid or non-uric acid (with likely further classification in the future) while still providing the information attained with a conventional CT. Knowledge of DECT imaging pitfalls and stone mimics is important, as the added benefit of dual-energy analysis is the determination of stone composition, which in turn affects all aspects of stone management. This review briefly describes DECT principles, scanner types and acquisition protocols for the evaluation of urinary calculi as they relate to imaging pitfalls (inconsistent characterization of small stones, small dual-energy field of view, and mischaracterization from surrounding material) and stone mimics (drainage devices) that may adversely impact clinical decisions. We utilize our clinical experience from scanning over 1200 patients with this new imaging technique to present clinically relevant examples of imaging pitfalls and possible mechanisms for resolution

  19. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  20. Synthesis and biological investigation of PIM mimics carrying biotin or a fluorescent label for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Front, Sophie; Bourigault, Marie-Laure; Rose, Stéphanie; Noria, Ségueni; Quesniaux, Valérie F J; Martin, Olivier R

    2013-01-16

    Phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs) are constituents of the mycobacterial cell wall; these glycolipids are known to exhibit potent inhibitory activity toward the LPS-induced production of cytokines by macrophages, and therefore have potential as anti-inflammatory agents. Recently, heterocyclic analogues of PIMs in which the inositol is replaced by a piperidine (aza-PIM mimics) or a tetrahydropyran moiety (oxa-PIM mimics) have been prepared by short synthetic sequences and shown to retain the biological activity of the parent PIM structures. In this investigation, the aza-PIM analogue was used as a convenient scaffold to link biotin or a fluorescent label (tetramethyl-rhodamine) by way of an aminocaproyl spacer, with the goal of using these conjugates for intracellular localization and for the study of the mechanism of their antiinflammatory action. The synthesis of these compounds is reported, as well as the evaluation of their activities as inhibitors of LPS-induced cytokine production by macrophages (TNFα, IL12p40); preliminary investigations by FACS and confocal microscopy indicated that PIM-biotin conjugate binds to macrophage membranes with rapid kinetics.

  1. Differentiation of meningiomas from histologic mimics via the use of claudin-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.M.R.; Naquib, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Meningiomas may be occasionally difficult to distinguish pathologically from other tumors of the central nervous system. Claudin-1 is a tight junction-associated protein recently shown to be expressed in anaplastic meningiomas. This study aimed at assessment whether immunohistochemical staining for claudin-1 could help distinguish meningiomas from histologic mimics, compared with commonly used markers. Tissue sections from 20 meningothelial meningiomas, 40 fibrous meningiomas, 20 atypical meningiomas, 14 solitary fibrous tumors of the meninges, 10 meningeal hemangiopericytomas, and 14 vestibular schwannomas were stained immunohistochemically for claudin-1, epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, CD34, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. In total, 42(53%) of 80 meningiomas were immunoreactive for claudin-1, whereas none of the other tumors were positive. In contrast, there was considerable overlap in the distribution of the other antibodies evaluated. Claudin-1 seems to be a specific marker for meningiomas in this context. Although its sensitivity is relatively low, claudin-1 may be helpful in a panel of immunostains to distinguish meningiomas from histologic mimics. (author)

  2. Intravital Confocal and Two-photon Imaging of Dual-color Cells and Extracellular Matrix Mimics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ufuk; Andresen, Volker; Baggett, Brenda; Utzinger, Urs

    2013-01-01

    To optimize imaging of cells in three dimensional culture we studied confocal backscattering, Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and autofluorescence as source of contrast in extracellular matrix (ECM) mimics and evaluated the attenuation as well as bleaching of endogenous cellular fluorescence signals. All common ECM mimics exhibit contrast observable with confocal reflectance microscopy. SHG imaging on collagen I based hydrogels provides high contrast and good optical penetration depth. Agarose is a useful embedding medium because it allows for large optical penetration and exhibits minimal autofluorescence while still providing good reflectance to detect voids in the embedding medium. We labeled breast cancer cells’ outline with DsRed2 and nucleus with eGFP. DsRed2 can be excited with confocal imaging at 568nm, and with two photon excitation (TPE) in the red and longer NIR. eGFP was excited at 488nm for confocal and in the NIR for TPE. While there is small difference in the bleaching rate for eGFP between confocal and TPE we observed significant difference for DsRed2 where bleaching is strongest during TPE in the red wavelengths and smallest during confocal imaging. After a few hundred microns depth in a collagen I hydrogel, TPE fluorescence becomes twice as strong compared to confocal imaging. PMID:23380006

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  4. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  6. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  7. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  11. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  12. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  13. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  14. IFN-γ Induces Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in Lung Epithelial Cells Through Autophagy-Regulated DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chien, Shun-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) causes cell growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in lung epithelial malignancies. Regarding the induction of autophagy related to IFN-γ signaling, this study investigated the link between autophagy and IFN-γ cytotoxicity. In A549 human lung cancer cells, IFN-γ treatment induced concurrent apoptotic and nonapoptotic events. Unexpectedly, the nonapoptotic cells present mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis), which was regulated by caspase-3 and by autophagy induction through immunity-related GTPase family M protein 1 and activating transcription factor 6. Furthermore, IFN-γ signaling controlled mimic ETosis through a mechanism involving an autophagy- and Fas-associated protein with death domain-controlled caspase-8/-3 activation. Following caspase-mediated lamin degradation, IFN-γ caused DNA damage-associated ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR)/ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-regulated mimic ETosis. Upon ATR/ATM signaling, peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4)-mediated histone 3 citrullination promoted mimic ETosis. Such IFN-γ-induced effects were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 human lung cancer cells, which were unsusceptible to IFN-γ-induced autophagy. Due to autophagy-based caspase cascade activation, IFN-γ triggers unconventional caspase-mediated DNA damage, followed by ATR/ATM-regulated PAD4-mediated histone citrullination during mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  15. Targeted delivery of microRNA 146b mimic to hepatocytes by lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles for the treatment of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuying; Guo, Weihong; Deng, Feihong; Chen, Kequan; Jiang, Yonghong; Dong, Minyu; Peng, Liang; Chen, Xueqing

    2018-03-21

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver diseases worldwide, and precision therapeutic will be a benefit for the NAFLD regression. In this study, we observed low microRNA 146 b (miR-146 b) expression in NAFLD mice model induced by methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) compared with control group. Furthermore, miR-146b -/- mice induced MCD exhibited severe liver steatosis and hepatitis. A bio-distribution study showed that novel Lactosylated PDMAEMA nanoparticles effectively targeted hepatocytes Lac-PDMAEMA. We coupled miR-146b mimic with Lac-PDMAEMA and then were administrated to NAFLD mice model, which could obviously alleviate the hepatic steatosis. Lac-PDMAEMA effectively delivered miR-146b mimic to hepatocytes with a ∼8-fold upregulation of miR-146b mimic targeting MyD88 and IRAK1, and in turn suppressed the expression of PPARγ. Meanwhile, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels were decreased after administration of Lac-PDMAEMA/miR-146b mimic. So, we made a conclusion that targeted delivering miR-146b mimic to the hepatocytes by, coupling Lac-PDMAEMA nanoparticles could effectively alleviate the hepatic steatosis in NAFLD mice, which maybe bring a new and effective way to intervene and therapy the NAFLD.

  16. Oxidative Stress Facilitates IFN-γ-Induced Mimic Extracellular Trap Cell Death in A549 Lung Epithelial Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiou-Feng; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chien, Shun-Yi; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Yu-Chih; Tsai, Tsung-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that IFN-γ induces an autophagy-regulated mimic extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) in A549 human lung cancer cells. Regarding reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in ETosis, this study investigated the role of oxidative stress. After IFN-γ stimulation, a necrosis-like cell death mimic ETosis occurred accompanied by the inhibition of cell growth, aberrant nuclear staining, and nucleosome release. ROS were generated in a time-dependent manner with an increase in NADPH oxidase component protein expression. STAT1-mediated IFN regulatory factor-1 activation was essential for upregulating ROS production. By genetically silencing p47phox, IFN-γ-induced ROS and mimic ETosis were significantly attenuated. This mechanistic study indicated that ROS may mediate DNA damage followed by histone H3 citrullination. Furthermore, ROS promoted IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in cooperation with autophagy. These findings further demonstrate that ROS regulates IFN-γ-induced mimic ETosis in lung epithelial malignancy.

  17. Insights from the structure of a smallpox virus topoisomerase-DNA transition state mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kay; Hwang, Young; Bushman, Frederic D.; Van Duyne, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses encode their own type IB topoisomerases (TopIBs) which release superhelical tension generated by replication and transcription of their genomes. To investigate the reaction catalyzed viral TopIBs, we have determined the structure of a variola virus topoisomerase-DNA complex trapped as a vanadate transition state mimic. The structure reveals how the viral TopIB enzymes are likely to position the DNA duplex for ligation following relaxation of supercoils and identifies the sources of friction observed in single molecule experiments that argue against free rotation. The structure also identifies a conformational change in the leaving group sugar that must occur prior to cleavage and reveals a mechanism for promoting ligation following relaxation of supercoils that involves a novel Asp-minor groove interaction. Overall, the new structural data support a common catalytic mechanism for the TopIB superfamily but indicate distinct methods for controlling duplex rotation in the small vs. large enzyme subfamilies. PMID:20152159

  18. Neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon mimics a soft tissue tumor in the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Chi-Lun; Yen, Tze-Hsun; Wu, Lien-Chen; Huang, Yi-You; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2014-04-01

    A wrist mass is rarely caused by a ruptured tendon in the forearm. The common pathologies are ganglia, tendon tenosynovitis, and giant cell tumors of tendon sheaths. Less common causes are nerve sheath tumors, vascular lesions, or an accessory muscle belly. The authors investigated a case of neglected ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon that mimics a mass in the wrist. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report in relevant literature. During investigation, the high-resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound suggested a soft tissue tumor or a ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. The magnetic resonance imaging scan indicated an accessory flexor carpi ulnaris muscle belly. The diagnosis of ruptured flexor carpi ulnaris tendon was confirmed by surgical exploration. This case indicates that ultrasound may be better suited than magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating a wrist mass for its accuracy, availability, and portability.

  19. Cooperative interplay of let-7 mimic and HuR with MYC RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzburg, Menachem J; Sivakumaran, Andrew; Pendini, Nicole R; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Gorospe, Myriam; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    Both RNA-binding proteins (RBP) and miRNA play important roles in the regulation of mRNA expression, often acting together to regulate a target mRNA. In some cases the RBP and miRNA have been reported to act competitively, but in other instances they function cooperatively. Here, we investigated HuR function as an enhancer of let-7-mediated translational repression of c-Myc despite the separation of their binding sites. Using an in vitro system, we determined that a let-7 mimic, consisting of single-stranded (ss)DNA complementary to the let-7 binding site, enhanced the affinity of HuR for a 122-nt MYC RNA encompassing both binding sites. This finding supports the biophysical principle of cooperative binding by an RBP and miRNA purely through interactions at distal mRNA binding sites.

  20. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production from an MCM-41-immobilized photosensitizer-[Fe-Fe] hydrogenase mimic dyad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Yu, Tianjun; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Jinping; Yang, Guoqiang; Li, Yi

    2014-11-01

    A covalently linked photosensitizer-catalytic center dyad Ps-Hy, consisting of two bis(2-phenylpyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine)iridium(iii) chromophores (Ps) and a diiron hydrogenase mimic (Hy) was constructed by using click reaction. Ps-Hy was incorporated into K(+)-exchanged molecular sieve MCM-41 to form a composite (Ps-Hy@MCM-41), which has been successfully applied to the photochemical production of hydrogen. The catalytic activity of Ps-Hy@MCM-41 is ∼3-fold higher as compared with that of Ps-Hy in the absence of MCM-41. The incorporation of Ps-Hy into MCM-41 stabilizes the catalyst, and consequently, advances the photocatalysis. The present study provides a potential strategy for improving catalytic efficiency of artificial photosynthesis systems using mesoporous molecular sieves.

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosis with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: A mimic of Buerger′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasugi Zoya

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report is about a past smoker who presented with history of recurrent ulcers and digital gangrene with claudication pain of the left foot for the past fifteen years. Clinical examination and angiogram showed disease involving the peripheral vessels of lowervlimb. This patient had been labeled as Buerger′s disease 15 years ago based on clinical and demographic profile of the illness. We felt that the progression of the disease despite the patient having stopped smoking 15 years ago along with the presence of elevated inflammatory markers in the blood with proteinuria was not in keeping with the nature of the disease. Furthur evaluation revealed that the patient had systemic lupus erythematosus with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This case highlights the need for a careful search for diseases, which can mimic Buerger′s disease in young smokers who present with peripheral vascular disease and who have an atypical clinical presentation or progression.

  3. Polyproline as a Minimal Antifreeze Protein Mimic That Enhances the Cryopreservation of Cell Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ben; Bailey, Trisha L; Healey, Joseph R J; Marcellini, Moreno; Deville, Sylvain; Gibson, Matthew I

    2017-12-11

    Tissue engineering, gene therapy, drug screening, and emerging regenerative medicine therapies are fundamentally reliant on high-quality adherent cell culture, but current methods to cryopreserve cells in this format can give low cell yields and require large volumes of solvent "antifreezes". Herein, we report polyproline as a minimum (bio)synthetic mimic of antifreeze proteins that is accessible by solution, solid-phase, and recombinant methods. We demonstrate that polyproline has ice recrystallisation inhibition activity linked to its amphipathic helix and that it enhances the DMSO cryopreservation of adherent cell lines. Polyproline may be a versatile additive in the emerging field of macromolecular cryoprotectants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection can mimic type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlotsky, J M; Deforges, L; Bretagne, S; André, C; Métreau, J M; Thiers, V; Zafrani, E S; Goossens, M; Duval, J; Mavier, J P

    1993-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been shown to induce anti-liver-kidney microsomal-1 (LKM1) antibody positive chronic active hepatitis, simulating type 2 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. The cases of five patients presenting with features of type 1 (antinuclear antibody positive) autoimmune chronic active hepatitis and extrahepatic autoimmune manifestations, in whom immunosuppressive treatment had no effect on liver disease are presented. In these patients, HCV infection could be shown by the presence in serum of anti-HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction. These cases suggest the following: (a) chronic HCV infection can mimic type 1, as well as type 2, autoimmune chronic active hepatitis; (b) HCV infection might be systematically sought in patients presenting with features of type 1 autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, with special care in patients who are unresponsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Images Figure PMID:7686122

  5. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  6. Potent neutralization of hepatitis A virus reveals a receptor mimic mechanism and the receptor recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxi; Zhu, Ling; Dang, Minghao; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Yuan, Shuai; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo; Ren, Jingshan; Kotecha, Abhay; Walter, Thomas S; Wang, Junzhi; Fry, Elizabeth E; Stuart, David I; Rao, Zihe

    2017-01-24

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infects ∼1.4 million people annually and, although there is a vaccine, there are no licensed therapeutic drugs. HAV is unusually stable (making disinfection problematic) and little is known of how it enters cells and releases its RNA. Here we report a potent HAV-specific monoclonal antibody, R10, which neutralizes HAV infection by blocking attachment to the host cell. High-resolution cryo-EM structures of HAV full and empty particles and of the complex of HAV with R10 Fab reveal the atomic details of antibody binding and point to a receptor recognition site at the pentamer interface. These results, together with our observation that the R10 Fab destabilizes the capsid, suggest the use of a receptor mimic mechanism to neutralize virus infection, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  8. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The transport of DDT from chylomicrons to adipocytes does not mimic triacylglycerol transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Alison B.; Vandersall, Abbey E.; Yang, Qing; Xu, Min; Jandacek, Ronald J.; Tso, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Despite being banned in the U.S., organochlorine toxins such as DDT are frequently detected in human adipose tissue. The main route of exposure is through the consumption of contaminated foods and subsequent intestinal packaging of DDT into chylomicrons. These chylomicrons, which also contain dietary triacylglycerol (TG), are delivered directly to peripheral tissues without first being metabolized by the liver. The physiological process by which these compounds are delivered from chylomicrons to adipose is not well understood, but is clinically relevant since it bypasses first-pass metabolism. Based on its highly lipophilic nature, it has been assumed that DDT is transferred to peripheral tissues similar to TG; however, this has not been measured. Here, we use the lymph fistula rat to isolate chylomicrons containing both DDT and TG. These chylomicrons are the in vivo DDT delivery vehicle. Using 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we investigated the rate at which DDT transfers from chylomicrons to adipocytes, and mediators of this process. This novel approach closely approximates the in vivo DDT exposure route. We show that: 1) DDT repartitions from chylomicrons to adipocytes, 2) this transport does not require hydrolysis of TG within the chylomicron, and is stimulated by the inhibition of LPL, 3) albumin does not inhibit DDT uptake, 4) DDT dissolved in DMSO does not appropriately mimic in vivo DDT transport; and most importantly, 5) DDT uptake from chylomicrons does not mimic the uptake of TG from the same particles. Understanding these factors is important for designing interventions for human populations exposed to DDT. PMID:22885168

  10. Functional Stroke Mimics: Incidence and Characteristics at a Primary Stroke Center in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stacy Schantz; Bourke, Paula; Salam, Abdul; Akhtar, Naveed; D'Souza, Atlantic; Kamran, Saadat; Bhutta, Zain; Shuaib, Ashfaq

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Approximately 30% of individuals who initially present with stroke are found to be stroke mimics (SM), with functional/psychological SM (FSM) accounting for up to 6.4% of all stroke presentations. Middle Eastern countries may have higher rates of somatization of emotional distress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of FSM at a large general hospital in the Middle East. Methods All patients presenting with an initial diagnosis of stroke from June 2015 to September 2016 were eligible for this study. Clinical and sociodemographic data were obtained from the hospital's stroke database. All SM and strokes were diagnosed by Joint Commission International–certified stroke program neurologists. SM was defined as any discharge diagnosis (other than acute stroke) for symptoms that prompted initial admission for suspected stroke. FSM were compared with medical stroke mimics (MSM) and strokes (ischemic, hemorrhagic, and transient ischemic attacks). Results A total of 1961 patients were identified; 161 FSM (8.2%), 390 MSM (19.9%), and 1410 strokes (71.9%) (985 ischemic strokes, 196 transient ischemic attacks, 229 intracerebral hemorrhages). Admission with FSM was related to patients' nationality, with the highest frequency in Arabic (15.6%) and African (16.8%) patients. FSM patients were younger, more often female, and had fewer cardiovascular risk factors except for smoking compared with the strokes. FSM patients presented with more left-sided weakness and had more magnetic resonance imagings than the stroke and MSM groups. A total of 9.9% of FSM patients received thrombolysis versus only 0.5% of the MSM and 16.4% of ischemic strokes. Conclusions FSM frequencies varied by nationality, with Arab and African nationals being twice as prevalent. Stress, vulnerable status as expats, sociopolitical instability, and exposure to trauma are proposed as potential factors contributing to FSM. PMID:29394187

  11. Lipid bilayer-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles carrying bovine hemoglobin towards an erythrocyte mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jing; Bussmann, Jeroen; Du, Guangsheng; Gao, Yue; Bouwstra, Joke A; Kros, Alexander

    2018-05-30

    Hemoglobin (Hb)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) coated with a lipid bilayer (LB-MSNs) were investigated as an erythrocyte mimic. MSNs with a large average pore size (10 nm) act as a rigid core and provide a protective environment for Hb encapsulated inside the pores. The colloidal stability of Hb-loaded MSNs was enhanced upon the application of a lipid bilayer, through fusion of PEGylated liposomes onto the exterior surface of Hb-loaded MSNs. The morphology and mesostructure of the MSNs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface area analysis. The Hb loading capacity (mg/g) in MSNs was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed that Hb inside MSNs had an identical, but slightly broadened peak in the Soret region compared to free Hb. Furthermore the encapsulated Hb exhibits similar peroxidase-like activity in catalyzing the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide. The introduction of a supported lipid bilayer (LB) demonstrated the potential to prevent premature Hb release (the burst release decreased from 25.50 ± 0.33% to 6.73 ± 0.83%) and increased the colloidal stability of the Hb-loaded MSNs (hydrodynamic diameter remained ∼250 nm for at least one week). The in vivo systemic circulation and biodistribution of LB-MSNs were studied in optically transparent zebrafish embryos, revealing that LB-MSNs have the potential to act as an erythrocyte mimic in transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of internal barriers to drug treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Kelly, Brian C; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Luo, Tao; Deng, Huiqiong; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2015-03-01

    Although evidence exists for distinct barriers to drug abuse treatment (BDATs), investigations of their inter-relationships and the effect of individual characteristics on the barrier factors have been sparse, especially in China. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied for this target. A sample of 262 drug users were recruited from three drug rehabilitation centers in Hunan Province, China. We applied a MIMIC approach to investigate the effect of gender, age, marital status, education, primary substance use, duration of primary drug use, and drug treatment experience on the internal barrier factors: absence of problem (AP), negative social support (NSS), fear of treatment (FT), and privacy concerns (PC). Drug users of various characteristics were found to report different internal barrier factors. Younger participants were more likely to report NSS (-0.19, p=0.038) and PC (-0.31, p<0.001). Compared to other drug users, ice users were more likely to report AP (0.44, p<0.001) and NSS (0.25, p=0.010). Drug treatment experiences related to AP (0.20, p=0.012). In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) occurred in three items when participant from groups with different duration of drug use, ice use, or marital status. Individual characteristics had significant effects on internal barriers to drug treatment. On this basis, BDAT perceived by different individuals could be assessed before tactics were utilized to successfully remove perceived barriers to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. TGF-β mimic proteins form an extended gene family in the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Danielle J; Harcus, Yvonne; White, Madeleine P J; Gregory, William F; Nahler, Janina; Stephens, Ian; Toke-Bjolgerud, Edward; Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Alasdair; McSorley, Henry J; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-04-01

    We recently reported the discovery of a new parasite-derived protein that functionally mimics the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The Heligmosomoides polygyrus TGF-β Mimic (Hp-TGM) shares no homology to any TGF-β family member, however it binds the mammalian TGF-β receptor and induces expression of Foxp3, the canonical transcription factor of both mouse and human regulatory T cells. Hp-TGM consists of five atypical Complement Control Protein (CCP, Pfam 00084) domains, each lacking certain conserved residues and 12-15 amino acids longer than the 60-70 amino acids consensus domain, but with a recognizable 3-cysteine, tryptophan, cysteine motif. We now report on the identification of a family of nine related Hp-TGM homologues represented in the secreted proteome and transcriptome of H. polygyrus. Recombinant proteins from five of the nine new TGM members were tested for TGF-β activity, but only two were functionally active in an MFB-F11 reporter assay, and by the induction of T cell Foxp3 expression. Sequence comparisons reveal that proteins with functional activity are similar or identical to Hp-TGM across the first three CCP domains, but more variable in domains 4 and 5. Inactive proteins diverged in all domains, or lacked some domains entirely. Testing truncated versions of Hp-TGM confirmed that domains 1-3 are essential for full activity in vitro, while domains 4 and 5 are not required. Further studies will elucidate whether these latter domains fulfill other functions in promoting host immune regulation during infection and if the more divergent family members play other roles in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dynamic Changes in Host Gene Expression following In Vitro Viral Mimic Stimulation in Crocodile Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics. Cells displayed a marked upregulation of many genes known to be involved in the mammalian response to viral infection, including viperin, Mx1, IRF7, IRF1, and RIG-I with approximately 10% of the genes being uncharacterized transcripts. Both pathway and genome analysis suggested that the crocodile may utilize the main known mammalian TLR and cytosolic antiviral RNA signaling pathways, with the pathways being responsible for sensing DNA viruses less clear. Viral mimic stimulation upregulated the type I interferon, IFN-Omega, with many known antiviral interferon-stimulated genes also being upregulated. This work demonstrates for the first time that reptiles show functional regulation of many known and unknown antiviral pathways and effector genes. An enhanced knowledge of these ancient antiviral pathways will not only add to our understanding of the host antiviral innate response in non-mammalian species, but is critical to fully comprehend the complexity of the mammalian innate immune response to viral infection.

  15. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  16. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  17. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  18. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  20. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  1. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  2. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  5. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  6. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota; Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure

  7. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  8. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  9. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  10. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  12. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  13. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  14. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  15. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  16. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  17. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  18. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  19. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  20. Endogenous target mimics down-regulate miR160 mediation of ARF10, -16 and -17 cleavage during somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yuling elin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA160 plays a critical role in plant development by negatively regulating the auxin response factors ARF10, -16 and -17. However, the ways in which miR160 expression is regulated at the transcriptional level, and how miR160 interacts with its targets during plant embryo development, remain unknown. Here, we studied the regulatory relationships among endogenous target mimics (eTMs, and miR160 and its targets, and their involvement in hormone signaling and somatic embryogenesis (SE in Dimocarpus longan. We identified miR160 family members and isolated the miR160 precursor, primary transcript, and promoter. The promoter contained cis-acting elements responsive to stimuli such as light, abscisic acid, salicylic acid and heat stress. The pri-miR160 was down-regulated in response to salicylic acid but up-regulated by gibberellic acid, ethylene, and methyl jasmonate treatment, suggesting that pri-miR160 was associated with hormone transduction. Dlo-miR160a, -a* and -d* reached expression peaks in torpedo-shaped embryos, globular embryos and cotyledonary embryos, respectively, but were barely detectable in embryogenic callus. This suggests that they have expression-related and functional diversity, especially during the middle and later developmental stages of SE. Four potential eTMs for miR160 were identified. Two of them, glucan endo-1,3-beta- glucosidase-like protein 2-like and calpain-type cysteine protease DEK1, were confirmed to control the corresponding dlo-miR160a* expression level. This suggests that they may function to abolish the binding between dlo-miR160a* and its targets. These two eTMs also participated in auxin and ABA signal transduction. DlARF10, -16, and -17 targeting by dlo-miR160a was confirmed; their expression levels were higher in friable-embryogenic callus and incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures and responded to 2,4-D, suggesting they may play a major role in the early stages of longan SE dependent on 2,4-D. The e

  1. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Kelly L; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated...... human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11...

  2. Engineering poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) based vascular scaffolds to mimic native artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S; Nivedhitha Sundaram, M; Vijayan, Ponni; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2018-04-01

    Electrospun tri-layered fibrous scaffold incorporating VEGF and Platelet Factor Concentrate (PFC) in multiple layers having different layer architectures was designed to mimic native artery. The scaffold consisted of longitudinally aligned poly(hydroxy butyrate-co-hydroxy valerate) (PHBV) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers (inner layer), radially aligned PHBV-elastin nanofibers (middle layer) to provide the bi-directional alignment and combination of longitudinally aligned PHBV-elastin and random PHBV/PVA multiscale fibers (peripheral layer). Tubular constructs of diameter <6 mm were developed. The developed electrospun fibers were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Tensile tests. Further the burst strength, compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered tubular scaffold was evaluated. SEM images of fibrous layers showed the typical longitudinal and radial alignment of fibers in the tubular construct. SEM images showed that the prepared PHBV nanofibers were in the range of 500-800 nm and PHBV microfibers were of 1-2 μm in diameter in the tri-layered electrospun membrane. PVA nanofibers were of size 200-250 nm. The tensile strength, percentage compliance and stiffness index of tri-layered membrane was in accordance with that of native small blood vessels. The developed tri-layered membrane was blood compatible, with hemolysis degree 0.85 ± 0.21% and did not activate platelets. Controlled release of VEGF and PFC was observed from the scaffold. The biocompatibility of the tri-layered scaffold was evaluated using HUVECs, SMCs and MSCs and SMCs infiltration from the outer layer was also evaluated. Specific protein expression for the HUVECs and SMCs was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. HUVECs and SMCs exhibited good elongation and alignment along the direction of fibers and was found to maintain its CD31, VE-Cadherin and αSMA expression respectively. The results

  3. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  4. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  5. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  6. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  7. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  8. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  9. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  10. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  11. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  12. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  13. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  14. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  15. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  16. Orbital interactions and charge redistribution in weak hydrogen bonds: The Watson-Crick AT mimic adenine-2,4-difluorotoluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is given of results that reestablish hydrogen bonding as an essential factor in DNA replication involving natural bases as well as less polar mimics and they also confirm the importance of steric factors, in line with Kool's experimental work. In addition they show that knowledge of the

  17. High-fidelity in vivo replication of DNA base shape mimics without Watson–Crick hydrogen bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, James C.; Henderson, Paul T.; Helquist, Sandra A.; Morales, Juan C.; Essigmann, John M.; Kool, Eric T.

    2003-01-01

    We report studies testing the importance of Watson–Crick hydrogen bonding, base-pair geometry, and steric effects during DNA replication in living bacterial cells. Nonpolar DNA base shape mimics of thymine and adenine (abbreviated F and Q, respectively) were introduced into Escherichia coli by insertion into a phage genome followed by transfection of the vector into bacteria. Genetic assays showed that these two base mimics were bypassed with moderate to high efficiency in the cells and with very high efficiency under damage-response (SOS induction) conditions. Under both sets of conditions, the T-shape mimic (F) encoded genetic information in the bacteria as if it were thymine, directing incorporation of adenine opposite it with high fidelity. Similarly, the A mimic (Q) directed incorporation of thymine opposite itself with high fidelity. The data establish that Watson–Crick hydrogen bonding is not necessary for high-fidelity replication of a base pair in vivo. The results suggest that recognition of DNA base shape alone serves as the most powerful determinant of fidelity during transfer of genetic information in a living organism. PMID:12676985

  18. Enzyme active site mimics based on TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides and amino acid residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the scope and limitations of the application of TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides or amino acid residues as enzyme active site mimics, as ligands in asymmetric catalysis and as hydrolysis catalysts attached to vancomycin. For the mimicry of functional group enzymes, of

  19. Retention of robot-assisted surgical skills in urological surgeons acquired using Mimic dV-Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teishima, Jun; Hattori, Minoru; Inoue, Shogo; Ikeda, Kenichiro; Hieda, Keisuke; Ohara, Shinya; Egi, Hiroyuki; Ohdan, Hideki; Matsubara, Akio

    2014-07-01

    We assess the retention of robot-assisted surgical skills among urologic surgeons. The robot-assisted surgery skills of 20 urologic surgeons were assessed using a Mimic dV-Trainer program (Mimic Technologies, Inc., Seattle, WA) consisting of 6 tasks. These 20 surgeons had no previous experience either using the Mimic dV-Trainer or acting as the main surgeon in robot-assisted surgery. The surgeons completed the program 4 times in a row; after 1 year, they completed it again for a fifth time. Performance scores were recorded using the Mimic dV-Trainer's built-in algorithm. For all 6 tasks, there were significant improvements to the scores in the fourth trials compared with those in the first trials. The scores in the fifth trials did not significantly decline compared with those in the fourth trials. There was no significant difference between the fifth trial scores of surgeons with laparoscopic surgery skills/experience and those without. Our results indicate that fundamental robot-assisted surgical skills can be retained in the long-term after they are acquired.

  20. MiR-26b Mimic Inhibits Glioma Proliferation In Vitro and In Vivo Suppressing COX-2 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng-Gang; Zheng, Chuan-Yi; Cai, Wang-Qing; Li, Da-Wei; Ye, Fu-Yue; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Ran; Yang, Kun

    2017-08-11

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the nervous system. Studies have shown the microRNA (miR)-26b/cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 axis in the development and progression in many tumor cells. Our study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-26b/COX-2 axis in glioma. Decreased expression of miR-26b with increased level of COX-2 was found in glioma tissues compared with matched normal tissues. A strong negative correlation was observed between the level of miR-26b and COX-2 in 30 glioma tissues. The miR-26b was then overexpressed by transfecting miR-26b mimic into U-373 cells. The invasive cell number and wounld closing rate were reduced in U-373 cells transfected with miR-26b mimic. Besides, COX2 siRNA enhanced the effect of miR-26b mimic in suppressing the expression of p-ERK1 and p-JNK. Finally, the in vivo experiment revealed that miR-26b mimic transfection strongly reduced the tumor growth, tumor volume and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9). Taken together, our research indicated a miR-26b/COX-2/ERK/JNK axis in regulating the motility of glioma in vitro and in vivo, providing a new sight for treatment of glioma.

  1. Insights into molecular recognition of LewisX mimics by DC-SIGN using NMR and molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, C.; Angulo, J.; Rojo, J.; Nieto, P.M.; Doro, F.; Bernardi, A.; Thepaut, M.; Fieschi, F.; Thepaut, M.; Fieschi, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we have studied in detail the binding of two α-fucosyl-amide-based mimics of Lewis X to DC-SIGN ECD (ECD = extracellular domain) using STD NMR and docking. We have concluded that the binding mode occurs mainly through the fucose moiety, in the same way as Lewis X . Similarly to other mimics containing mannose or fucose previously studied, we have shown that both compounds bind to DC-SIGN ECD in a multimodal fashion. In this case, the main contact is the interaction of two hydroxyl groups one equatorial and the other one axial (O3 and O4) of the fucose with the Ca 2+ as Lewis X and similarly to mannose-containing mimics (in this case the interacting groups are both in the equatorial position). Finally, we have measured the K D of one mimic that was 0.4 mM. Competitive STD NMR experiments indicate that the aromatic moiety provides additional binding contacts that increase the affinity. (authors)

  2. Mixture Item Response Theory-MIMIC Model: Simultaneous Estimation of Differential Item Functioning for Manifest Groups and Latent Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Mustafa Kuzey

    2009-01-01

    This study uses a new psychometric model (mixture item response theory-MIMIC model) that simultaneously estimates differential item functioning (DIF) across manifest groups and latent classes. Current DIF detection methods investigate DIF from only one side, either across manifest groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, etc.), or across latent classes…

  3. Systemic delivery of a miR34a mimic as a potential therapeutic for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daige, Christopher L; Wiggins, Jason F; Priddy, Leslie; Nelligan-Davis, Terri; Zhao, Jane; Brown, David

    2014-10-01

    miR34a is a tumor-suppressor miRNA that functions within the p53 pathway to regulate cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. With apparent roles in metastasis and cancer stem cell development, miR34a provides an interesting opportunity for therapeutic development. A mimic of miR34a was complexed with an amphoteric liposomal formulation and tested in two different orthotopic models of liver cancer. Systemic dosing of the formulated miR34a mimic increased the levels of miR34a in tumors by approximately 1,000-fold and caused statistically significant decreases in the mRNA levels of several miR34a targets. The administration of the formulated miR34a mimic caused significant tumor growth inhibition in both models of liver cancer, and tumor regression was observed in more than one third of the animals. The antitumor activity was observed in the absence of any immunostimulatory effects or dose-limiting toxicities. Accumulation of the formulated miR34a mimic was also noted in the spleen, lung, and kidney, suggesting the potential for therapeutic use in other cancers. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. The pattern recognition molecule deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and synthetic mimics inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Pernille; Blaich, Stephanie; End, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Liposomal nucleic acid delivery is a preferred option for therapeutic settings. The cellular pattern recognition molecule DMBT1, secreted at high levels in various diseases, and synthetic mimics efficiently inhibit liposomal nucleic acid delivery to human cells. These findings may have relevance...

  5. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  6. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  7. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  8. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  9. Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakare, U R; Ganatra, R D; Shah, D H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-04-01

    In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with /sup 125/I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones.

  10. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  11. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  12. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  13. Growth hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, A; Longobardi, S; Fazio, S; Saccà, L

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were considered essential only to the control of linear growth, glucose homeostasis, and for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. A large body of evidence recently coming from animal and human studies has unequivocally proven that the heart is a target organ for the GH/IGF-1 axis. Specifically GH exerts both direct and indirect cardiovascular actions. Among the direct effects, the ability of GH to trigger cardiac tissue growth plays a pivotal role. Another direct effect is to augment cardiac contractility, independent of myocardial growth. Direct effects of GH also include the improvement of myocardial energetics and mechanical efficiency. Indirect effects of GH on the heart include decreased peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), expansion of blood volume, increased glomerular filtration rate, enhanced respiratory activity, increased skeletal muscle performance, and psychological well-being. Among them, the most consistently found is the decrease of PVR. GH may also raise preload through its sodium-retaining action and its interference with the hormonal system that regulates water and electrolyte metabolism. Particularly important is the effect of GH on skeletal muscle mass and performance. Taking into account that heart failure is characterized by left ventricular dilation, reduced cardiac contractility, and increase of wall stress and peripheral vascular resistance, GH may be beneficial for treatment of heart failure. Animal studies and preliminary human trials have confirmed the validity of the GH approach to the treatment of heart failure. Larger placebo-controlled human studies represent the main focus of future investigations.

  14. Growth hormone deficiency in a Nigerian child with Turner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    Growth hormone treatment early in the course of management of a child with Turner syndrome may help achieve normal final height. Keywords: Turner's syndrome, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone ..... cognitive deficit.

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Estrogen overdose Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Menopause National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  16. Molecular conformation, receptor binding, and hormone action of natural and synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duax, W L; Griffin, J F; Weeks, C M; Korach, K S

    1985-01-01

    The X-ray crystallographic structural determinations of synthetic estrogens and antiestrogens provide reliable information on the global minimum energy conformation of these molecules or a local minimum energy conformation that is within 1 or 2 kcal/mole of the global minimum. In favorable cases, state-of-the-art molecular mechanics calculations provide quantitative agreement with X-ray results and information on the relative energy of other local minimum energy conformations not observed crystallographically. Because the conformation of diethylstilbestrol (DES) observed in solvated crystals has an overall conformation and dipole moment more similar to estradiol it is the form more likely to bind to the receptor and produce hormone activity. Either phenol ring of DES can successfully mimic the estradiol A-ring in binding to the receptor. Indenestrol A (INDA) and indenestrol B (INDB) have nearly identical fully extended planar conformations. Either the alpha or gamma rings of these compounds may mimic the A ring of estradiol and compete for the estrogen receptor. Although there are eight distinct ways in which molecules of a racemic mixture of INDA or INDB can bind to the receptor, not all of them may be able to elicit a hormonal response. This may account for the reduced biological activity of the compounds despite their successful competition for receptor binding. The minimum energy conformations of Z-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (ZPD) and E-pseudodiethylstilbestrol (EPD) are bent in a fashion similar to that of indanestrol (INDC). These molecules have good binding affinity suggesting that the receptor does not require a flat molecule. Therefore these conformations would appear to be compatible with receptor binding, but only the Z isomer has an energetically allowed extended conformation that accounts for its observed biological activity relative to DES. PMID:3905370

  17. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  18. Can f(T) gravity theories mimic ΛCDM cosmic history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Mohammadipour, N., E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir, E-mail: N.Mohammadipour@uok.ac.ir [Department of Science, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Recently the teleparallel Lagrangian density described by the torsion scalar T has been extended to a function of T. The f(T) modified teleparallel gravity has been proposed as the natural gravitational alternative for dark energy to explain the late time acceleration of the universe. In order to reconstruct the function f(T) by demanding a background ΛCDM cosmology we assume that, (i) the background cosmic history provided by the flat ΛCDM (the radiation ere with ω{sub eff} = (1/3), matter and de Sitter eras with ω{sub eff} = 0 and ω{sub eff} = −1, respectively) (ii) the radiation dominate in the radiation era with Ω{sub 0r} = 1 and the matter dominate during the matter phases when Ω{sub 0m} = 1. We find the cosmological dynamical system which can obey the ΛCDM cosmic history. In each era, we find a critical lines that, the radiation dominated and the matter dominated are one points of them in the radiation and matter phases, respectively. Also, we drive the cosmologically viability condition for these models. We investigate the stability condition with respect to the homogeneous scalar perturbations in each era and we obtain the stability conditions for the fixed points in each eras. Finally, we reconstruct the function f(T) which mimics cosmic expansion history.

  19. Three-dimensional culture of buffalo granulosa cells in hanging drop mimics the preovulatory follicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Monica; Agrawal, Himanshu; Pandey, Mamta; Singh, Dheer; Onteru, Suneel K

    2018-03-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) culture models mimicking the intrafollicular environment are limited. Such models have a great potential in reproductive toxicity studies. The buffalo, a monovulatory species like humans, could be a better model than polyovulatory rodents. Therefore, we targeted the development and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) culture systems for buffalo GCs. The GCs from small ovarian follicles (SF) maintained the CYP19 gene expression for 144 hr in a 2D culture system. Hence, GCs from SF were cultured directly in 3D using hanging drop and Poly-([2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate]) (polyHEMA) methods in the DMEM media containing 1 ng/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml IGF-1 for 144 hr. The expression profile of nine GC-specific transcripts; CYP19, TNFAIP6, AMH, PTI, NR4A1, FSHR, RUNX, LHR, and COX2/PTGS2; revealed that 3D-spheroids developed in hanging drop method maintained the GC phenotype of preovulatory follicles. Therefore, hanging drop method is a best method for culturing GCs to mimic the intrafollicular environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Secretory carcinoma of the breast and its histopathological mimics: value of markers for differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osako, Tomo; Takeuchi, Kengo; Horii, Rie; Iwase, Takuji; Akiyama, Futoshi

    2013-10-01

    Secretory carcinoma (SC) is a rare histological type of breast cancer, and ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is highly specific to it. The differential diagnoses of SC include acinic cell carcinoma (ACCA) and cystic hypersecretory carcinoma (CHC), as well as invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). For patients with these rare but distinctive histological subtypes, SC and its histopathological mimics should be differentiated from each other. However, differential markers have not yet been assessed systematically, and we aimed to identify and evaluate novel and existing markers. We reviewed 19 cases diagnosed initially as SC using integrated diagnostic techniques, including morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology, and validated promising markers in 445 breast cancers. We reclassified 19 formerly diagnosed 'SCs' into nine SCs, three ACCAs, three CHCs, three IDCs and one microglandular adenosis. We confirmed that ETV6-NTRK3 gene rearrangement and amylase positivity are good diagnostic markers for SC and ACCA, respectively. Vacuolar staining for adipophilin, positivity for α-lactalbumin and negativity for ETV6 rearrangement are diagnostic markers for CHC. In this study, we propose a panel of four markers (ETV6 rearrangement, amylase, α-lactalbumin and adipophilin) for distinguishing SC, ACCA, CHC and IDC. This simple but robust panel will serve pathologists well as a practical guide for reaching an appropriate diagnosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exogenous Gene Transmission of Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 2 Mimics Ischemic Preconditioning Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Alexander L; Corridon, Peter R; Zhang, Shijun; Xu, Weimin; Witzmann, Frank A; Collett, Jason A; Rhodes, George J; Winfree, Seth; Bready, Devin; Pfeffenberger, Zechariah J; Pomerantz, Jeremy M; Hato, Takashi; Nagami, Glenn T; Molitoris, Bruce A; Basile, David P; Atkinson, Simon J; Bacallao, Robert L

    2018-04-01

    Ischemic preconditioning confers organ-wide protection against subsequent ischemic stress. A substantial body of evidence underscores the importance of mitochondria adaptation as a critical component of cell protection from ischemia. To identify changes in mitochondria protein expression in response to ischemic preconditioning, we isolated mitochondria from ischemic preconditioned kidneys and sham-treated kidneys as a basis for comparison. The proteomic screen identified highly upregulated proteins, including NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2), and we confirmed the ability of this protein to confer cellular protection from injury in murine S3 proximal tubule cells subjected to hypoxia. To further evaluate the role of IDH2 in cell protection, we performed detailed analysis of the effects of Idh2 gene delivery on kidney susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene delivery of IDH2 before injury attenuated the injury-induced rise in serum creatinine ( P <0.05) observed in controls and increased the mitochondria membrane potential ( P <0.05), maximal respiratory capacity ( P <0.05), and intracellular ATP levels ( P <0.05) above those in controls. This communication shows that gene delivery of Idh2 can confer organ-wide protection against subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury and mimics ischemic preconditioning. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Cultivation of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells on Topographical Substrates to Mimic the Human Corneal Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shi Chua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human corneal endothelial cells have a limited ability to replicate in vivo and in vitro. Allograft transplantation becomes necessary when an accident or trauma results in excessive cell loss. The reconstruction of the cornea endothelium using autologous cell sources is a promising alternative option for therapeutic or in vitro drug testing applications. The native corneal endothelium rests on the Descemet’s membrane, which has nanotopographies of fibers and pores. The use of synthetic topographies mimics the native environment, and it is hypothesized that this can direct the behavior and growth of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs to resemble the corneal endothelium. In this study, HMVECs are cultivated on substrates with micron and nano-scaled pillar and well topographies. Closely packed HMVEC monolayers with polygonal cells and well-developed tight junctions were formed on the topographical substrates. Sodium/potassium (Na+/K+ adenine triphosphatase (ATPase expression was enhanced on the microwells substrate, which also promotes microvilli formation, while more hexagonal-like cells are found on the micropillars samples. The data obtained suggests that the use of optimized surface patterning, in particular, the microtopographies, can induce HMVECs to adopt a more corneal endothelium-like morphology with similar barrier and pump functions. The mechanism involved in cell contact guidance by the specific topographical features will be of interest for future studies.

  3. SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Boutant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD+-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF. Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different.

  4. SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutant, Marie; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Joffraud, Magali; Raymond, Frédéric; Métairon, Sylviane; Descombes, Patrick; Cantó, Carles

    2016-03-08

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF). Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gsk-3β Inhibitors Mimic the Cardioprotection Mediated by Ischemic Pre- and Postconditioning in Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. González Arbeláez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of GSK-3β inhibitors compared with PRE and POS in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Isolated hearts were submitted to the following protocols: IC: 45 min global ischemia (GI and 1-hour reperfusion (R; PRE: a cycle of 5 min GI and 10 minutes of R prior to 45 min GI; POS: three cycles of 30 sec GI/30 sec R at the start of R. Other hearts received lithium chloride (LiCl or indirubin-3′-monoxime,5-iodo-(IMI as GSK-3β inhibitors. All interventions reduced the infarct size observed in IC group. The expressions of P-GSK-3β and P-Akt decreased in IC and were restored after PRE, POS, and GSK-3β inhibitors treatments. An increase of cytosolic MnSOD activity and lipid peroxidation and a decrease of GSH content observed in IC hearts were attenuated in PRE, POS, and LiCl or IMI treatments. An increase of P-GSK-3β/VDAC physical association and a partial recovery of mitochondrial permeability were also detected after interventions. These data show that, in SHR hearts, GSK-3β inhibitors mimic the cardioprotection afforded by PRE and POS and suggest that a decrease in mitochondrial permeability mediated by P-GSK-3β/VDAC interaction is a crucial event.

  6. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L; Ravindran, Praveen; Chua, Dorothy; Smith, Jason D; Wong, King S; Ghusn, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A case report of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis, a rare mimic for malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Chan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lymphocytic phlebitis is a benign condition characterised by inflammation of the veins and rarely affects the gastrointestinal tract. Reported cases present as acute abdomen and involve the colon or small intestine. We report the fourth case of gastric lymphocytic phlebitis in the literature. Presentation of case: A 74-year-old female presented with eight weeks of abdominal pain. Findings at endoscopy were suggestive of a malignant ulcer on the greater curvature of antrum, while biopsies showed chronic gastritis without malignancy. Appearance at diagnostic laparoscopy was consistent with a malignant gastric ulcer with serosal changes. Due to persistent pain and the macroscopic appearance, she proceeded to have an open subtotal gastrectomy and D2 lymph node clearance. Despite macroscopic appearance, the microscopic examination demonstrated no malignancy, and was consistent with lymphocytic phlebitis with overlying ulceration. Discussion: This case was a mimic for gastric malignancy, with the benign diagnosis only being made after surgical resection. Gastric lymphocytic phlebitis is a rare differential diagnosis for gastric ulcers when biopsies are negative, although preoperative diagnosis is difficult given the lesions do not involve the mucosa. Conclusion: If clinical history and endoscopic findings are suspicious for malignancy, despite normal biopsies, an aggressive surgical resection remains reasonable given the rarity gastric lymphocytic phlebitis. Keywords: Lymphocytic phlebitis, Gastrectomy, Gastric vasculitis, Gastric ulcer, Case report

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins Mimic Human T Cell Receptors Inducing Cross-Reactive Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Root-Bernstein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV hides from the immune system in part by mimicking host antigens, including human leukocyte antigens. It is demonstrated here that HIV also mimics the V-β-D-J-β of approximately seventy percent of about 600 randomly selected human T cell receptors (TCR. This degree of mimicry is greater than any other human pathogen, commensal or symbiotic organism studied. These data suggest that HIV may be evolving into a commensal organism just as simian immunodeficiency virus has done in some types of monkeys. The gp120 envelope protein, Nef protein and Pol protein are particularly similar to host TCR, camouflaging HIV from the immune system and creating serious barriers to the development of safe HIV vaccines. One consequence of HIV mimicry of host TCR is that antibodies against HIV proteins have a significant probability of recognizing the corresponding TCR as antigenic targets, explaining the widespread observation of lymphocytotoxic autoantibodies in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Quantitative enzyme-linked immunoadsorption assays (ELISA demonstrated that every HIV antibody tested recognized at least one of twelve TCR, and as many as seven, with a binding constant in the 10−8 to 10−9 m range. HIV immunity also affects microbiome tolerance in ways that correlate with susceptibility to specific opportunistic infections.

  9. A model system to mimic environmentally active surface film roughness and hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jacob S; Shaw, Scott K

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the development and initial assessment of a laboratory platform to allow quantitative studies on model urban films. The platform consists of stearic acid and eicosane mixtures that are solution deposited from hexanes onto smooth, solid substrates. We show that this model has distinctive capabilities to better mimic a naturally occurring film's morphology and hydrophobicity, two important parameters that have not previously been incorporated into model film systems. The physical and chemical properties of the model films are assessed using a variety of analytical instruments. The film thickness and roughness are probed via atomic force microscopy while the film composition, wettability, and water uptake are analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle goniometry, and quartz crystal microbalance, respectively. Simulated environmental maturation is achieved by exposing the film to regulated amounts of UV/ozone. Ultimately, oxidation of the film is monitored by the analytical techniques mentioned above and proceeds as expected to produce a utile model film system. Including variable roughness and tunable surface coverage results in several key advantages over prior model systems, and will more accurately represent native urban film behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unofficial Economy Estimation by the MIMIC Model: the Case of Kenya, Namibia, Ghana and Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Nchor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the size and trend of the underground economies in selected African countries. Underground economies are present in all countries, but they are endemic in developing economies. Their presence is not necessarily bad for the economies, in which they prevail. It could however cause huge losses to government revenue and could also constitute serious violation of Labor regulations. The study uses the Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes model (MIMIC, a variant of Simultaneous Equations Model (SEM. It involves two sets of variables: the observed variables and the indicator variables. The former include size of government, indirect tax rates, total tax rates, business regulation, interest rate on deposits, unemployment rate, quality of public services, and GDP per capita. The indicator variables were Labor participation rate in the official economy, the amount of cash held outside the banking system and growth in GDP per capita. This study found the average level of underground economies in Kenya, Namibia, Ghana and Nigeria as 33.7%, 29.1%, 36% and 47%, respectively. The estimated results show that the causes of shadow economic activities vary among the countries. The data was obtained from the World Bank country indicators and the International Financial Statistics.

  11. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloid-β peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  12. Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase substrate mimics as templates for the design of new antibacterial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline eDerouaux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is an essential net-like macromolecule that surrounds bacteria, gives them their shape, and protects them against their own high osmotic pressure. PG synthesis inhibition leads to bacterial cell lysis, making it an important target for many antibiotics. The final two reactions in PG synthesis are performed by penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs. Their glycosyltransferase (GT activity uses the lipid II precursor to synthesize glycan chains and their transpeptidase (TP activity catalyzes the cross-linking of two glycan chains via the peptide side chains. Inhibition of either of these two reactions leads to bacterial cell death. β-Lactam antibiotics target the transpeptidation reaction while antibiotic therapy based on inhibition of the GTs remains to be developed. Ongoing research is trying to fill this gap by studying the interactions of GTs with inhibitors and substrate mimics and utilizing the latter as templates for the design of new antibiotics. In this mini review we present an updated overview on the GTs and describe the structure-activity relationship of recently developed synthetic ligands.

  13. Inhibition of oxygen-dependent radiation-induced damage by the nitroxide superoxide dismutase mimic, tempol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.B.; DeGraff, W.; Kaufman, D.; Krishna, M.C.; Samuni, A.; Finkelstein, E.; Ahn, M.S.; Hahn, S.M.; Gamson, J.; Russo, A.

    1991-01-01

    Stable nitroxide radicals have been previously shown to function as superoxide dismutase (SOD)2 mimics and to protect mammalian cells against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide-mediated oxidative stress. These unique characteristics suggested that nitroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (Tempol), might protect mammalian cells against ionizing radiation. Treating Chinese hamster cells under aerobic conditions with 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM Tempol 10 min prior to X-rays resulted in radiation protection factors of 1.25, 1.30, 2.1, and 2.5, respectively. However, the reduced form of Tempol afforded no protection. Tempol treatment under hypoxic conditions did not provide radioprotection. Aerobic X-ray protection by Tempol could not be attributed to the induction of intracellular hypoxia, increase in intracellular glutathione, or induction of intracellular SOD mRNA. Tempol thus represents a new class of non-thiol-containing radiation protectors, which may be useful in elucidating the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cellular damage and may have broad applications in protecting against oxidative stress

  14. Medical Textiles as Vascular Implants and Their Success to Mimic Natural Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanpreet Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vascular implants belong to a specialised class of medical textiles. The basic purpose of a vascular implant (graft and stent is to act as an artificial conduit or substitute for a diseased artery. However, the long-term healing function depends on its ability to mimic the mechanical and biological behaviour of the artery. This requires a thorough understanding of the structure and function of an artery, which can then be translated into a synthetic structure based on the capabilities of the manufacturing method utilised. Common textile manufacturing techniques, such as weaving, knitting, braiding, and electrospinning, are frequently used to design vascular implants for research and commercial purposes for the past decades. However, the ability to match attributes of a vascular substitute to those of a native artery still remains a challenge. The synthetic implants have been found to cause disturbance in biological, biomechanical, and hemodynamic parameters at the implant site, which has been widely attributed to their structural design. In this work, we reviewed the design aspect of textile vascular implants and compared them to the structure of a natural artery as a basis for assessing the level of success as an implant. The outcome of this work is expected to encourage future design strategies for developing improved long lasting vascular implants.

  15. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    KAUST Repository

    Bruggeman, Quentin

    2015-01-30

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM) has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i) the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii) the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii) a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv) secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v) the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  16. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins: a new approach to mimic complex antigens for diagnostic purposes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hausammann

    Full Text Available Inhibitory antibodies directed against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII can be found in patients with acquired and congenital hemophilia A. Such FVIII-inhibiting antibodies are routinely detected by the functional Bethesda Assay. However, this assay has a low sensitivity and shows a high inter-laboratory variability. Another method to detect antibodies recognizing FVIII is ELISA, but this test does not allow the distinction between inhibitory and non-inhibitory antibodies. Therefore, we aimed at replacing the intricate antigen FVIII by Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins mimicking the epitopes of FVIII inhibitors. As a model we used the well-described inhibitory human monoclonal anti-FVIII antibody, Bo2C11, for the selection on DARPin libraries. Two DARPins were selected binding to the antigen-binding site of Bo2C11, which mimic thus a functional epitope on FVIII. These DARPins inhibited the binding of the antibody to its antigen and restored FVIII activity as determined in the Bethesda assay. Furthermore, the specific DARPins were able to recognize the target antibody in human plasma and could therefore be used to test for the presence of Bo2C11-like antibodies in a large set of hemophilia A patients. These data suggest, that our approach might be used to isolate epitopes from different sets of anti-FVIII antibodies in order to develop an ELISA-based screening assay allowing the distinction of inhibitory and non-inhibitory anti-FVIII antibodies according to their antibody signatures.

  17. A non-covalent peptide-based carrier for in vivo delivery of DNA mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, May C; Gros, Edwige; Aldrian-Herrada, Gudrun; Choob, Michael; Archdeacon, John; Heitz, Frederic; Divita, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The dramatic acceleration in identification of new nucleic-acid-based therapeutic molecules has provided new perspectives in pharmaceutical research. However, their development is limited by their poor cellular uptake and inefficient trafficking. Here we describe a short amphipathic peptide, Pep-3, that combines a tryptophan/phenylalanine domain with a lysine/arginine-rich hydrophilic motif. Pep-3 forms stable nano-size complexes with peptide-nucleic acid analogues and promotes their efficient delivery into a wide variety of cell lines, including primary and suspension lines, without any associated cytotoxicity. We demonstrate that Pep-3-mediated delivery of antisense-cyclin B1-charged-PNA blocks tumour growth in vivo upon intratumoral and intravenous injection. Moreover, we show that PEGylation of Pep-3 significantly improves complex stability in vivo and consequently the efficiency of antisense cyclin B1 administered intravenously. Given the biological characteristics of these vectors, we believe that peptide-based delivery technologies hold a true promise for therapeutic applications of DNA mimics.

  18. Catalytic nanocrystalline coordination polymers as an efficient peroxidase mimic for labeling and optical immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čunderlová, Veronika; Hlaváček, Antonín; Horňáková, Veronika; Peterek, Miroslav; Němeček, Daniel; Skládal, Petr; Hampl, Aleš; Eyer, Luděk

    2016-01-01

    We report that nanocrystalline Prussian blue of the type Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 is a powerful peroxidase mimic for use in labeling of biomolecules. The cubic nanocrystals typically have a diameter of 15 nm and are capable of catalyzing the oxidation of colorless 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine in the presence of H 2 O 2 to form an intensively colored product with an absorption maximum at 662 nm. The determined pseudo turnover number is ∼20,000 s −1 which is the highest value reported for nanoparticles of a size comparable to common proteins. We also present a method for the biotinylation of the surface of these nanocrystals, and show their use in competitive bioaffinity based assays of biotin and human serum albumin. The limits of detection are 0.35 and 0.27 μg mL −1 , respectively. The results prove the applicability of coordination polymers for signal amplification and also their compatibility with the format of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. (author)

  19. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis. This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  20. To die or not to die? Lessons from lesion mimic mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eBruggeman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a ubiquitous genetically regulated process consisting in an activation of finely controlled signaling pathways that lead to cellular suicide. Although some aspects of PCD control appear evolutionary conserved between plants, animals and fungi, the extent of conservation remains controversial. Over the last decades, identification and characterization of several lesion mimic mutants (LMM has been a powerful tool in the quest to unravel PCD pathways in plants. Thanks to progress in molecular genetics, mutations causing the phenotype of a large number of LMM and their related suppressors were mapped, and the identification of the mutated genes shed light on major pathways in the onset of plant PCD such as (i the involvements of chloroplasts and light energy, (ii the roles of sphingolipids and fatty acids, (iii a signal perception at the plasma membrane that requires efficient membrane trafficking, (iv secondary messengers such as ion fluxes and ROS and (v the control of gene expression as the last integrator of the signaling pathways.

  1. Designing Reliable Cohorts of Cardiac Patients across MIMIC and eICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronaki, Catherine; Shahin, Abdullah; Mark, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The design of the patient cohort is an essential and fundamental part of any clinical patient study. Knowledge of the Electronic Health Records, underlying Database Management System, and the relevant clinical workflows are central to an effective cohort design. However, with technical, semantic, and organizational interoperability limitations, the database queries associated with a patient cohort may need to be reconfigured in every participating site. i2b2 and SHRINE advance the notion of patient cohorts as first class objects to be shared, aggregated, and recruited for research purposes across clinical sites. This paper reports on initial efforts to assess the integration of Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC) and Philips eICU, two large-scale anonymized intensive care unit (ICU) databases, using standard terminologies, i.e. LOINC, ICD9-CM and SNOMED-CT. Focus of this work is lab and microbiology observations and key demographics for patients with a primary cardiovascular ICD9-CM diagnosis. Results and discussion reflecting on reference core terminology standards, offer insights on efforts to combine detailed intensive care data from multiple ICUs worldwide. PMID:27774488

  2. BioMimic fabrication of electrospun nanofibers with high-throughput

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan; Liu Yong; Xu Lan; Yu Jianyong; Sun Gang

    2008-01-01

    Spider-spun fiber is of extraordinary strength and toughness comparable to those of electrospun fiber, the later needs a very high voltage (from several thousands voltage to several ten thousands voltages) applied to water-soluble protein 'soup' that was produced by a spider, furthermore, its mechanical strength dramatically decreases comparable to spider silk. A possible mechanism in spider-spinning process is given, the distinct character in spider-spinning is that its spinneret consists of millions of nano scale tubes, and a bubble can be produced at the apex of each nano-tube. The surface tension of each bubble is extremely small such that it can be spun into nanofibers with an awfully small force, either by the spider's body weight or tension created by the rear legs. We mimic the spider-spinning in electrospinning using an aerated solution, which leads to various small bubbles on surface with very small surface tension, as a result the bubble can be easily electrospun into nanofibers with low applied voltage. This fabrication process possesses features of high productivity, versatility, in addition, the minimum diameter of nanofibers produced by this process can reach as small as 50 nm

  3. Platelet factor 4 activity against P. falciparum and its translation to nonpeptidic mimics as antimalarials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Melissa S; Millholland, Melanie G; Mishra, Satish; Kulkarni, Swapnil; Freeman, Katie B; Pan, Wenxi; Kavash, Robert W; Costanzo, Michael J; Jo, Hyunil; Daly, Thomas M; Williams, Dewight R; Kowalska, M Anna; Bergman, Lawrence W; Poncz, Mortimer; DeGrado, William F; Sinnis, Photini; Scott, Richard W; Greenbaum, Doron C

    2012-12-13

    Plasmodium falciparum pathogenesis is affected by various cell types in the blood, including platelets, which can kill intraerythrocytic malaria parasites. Platelets could mediate these antimalarial effects through human defense peptides (HDPs), which exert antimicrobial effects by permeabilizing membranes. Therefore, we screened a panel of HDPs and determined that human platelet factor 4 (hPF4) kills malaria parasites inside erythrocytes by selectively lysing the parasite digestive vacuole (DV). PF4 rapidly accumulates only within infected erythrocytes and is required for parasite killing in infected erythrocyte-platelet cocultures. To exploit this antimalarial mechanism, we tested a library of small, nonpeptidic mimics of HDPs (smHDPs) and identified compounds that kill P. falciparum by rapidly lysing the parasite DV while sparing the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Lead smHDPs also reduced parasitemia in a murine malaria model. Thus, identifying host molecules that control parasite growth can further the development of related molecules with therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intratemporal facial nerve neuromas and their mimics: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chong Sun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon [Chungang Gil General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    CT and MR findings of nine cases with intra temporal facial nerve neuromas were described and compared with CT findings of 3 cases with facial nerve palsy and facial nerve canal erosion which may mimic facial nerve neuroma. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve was involved in 8 cases, mastoid segment in 7 cases and labyrinthine segment in 5 cases. The lesions were easily diagnosed with high resolution CT with bone algorithms by showing the expansion of bony structures along the course of the facial nerves. In 4 cases with large vertical segment tumors, extensive destruction of mastoid air cells and external auditory canals posed difficulty in making a diagnosis. Two out of 5 cases with labyrinthine segment involvement were presented as middle cranial fossa masses. MRI with enhancement was performed in 4 cases and was useful in characterizing the lesion as a tumor with its superior sensitivity to enhancement. Three cases of facial neuroma-mimicking lesion including post-inflammatory peri neural thickening, peri neural extension from parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma, and congenita; cholesteatoma showed irregular erosion or mild expansion of the facial nerve canal which may be helpful for differential diagnosis from neuromas.

  5. Potent agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, M; Serfozo, P; Zsigo, J; Bokser, L; Janaky, T; Olsen, D B; Bajusz, S; Schally, A V

    1992-03-01

    Analogs of the 29 amino acid sequence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) with agmatine (Agm) in position 29 have been synthesized by the solid phase method, purified, and tested in vitro and in vivo. The majority of the analogs contained desaminotyrosine (Dat) in position 1, but a few of them had Tyr1, or N-MeTyr1. Some peptides contained one or more additional L- or D-amino acid substitutions in positions 2, 12, 15, 21, 27, and/or 28. Compared to the natural sequence of GH-RH(1-29)NH2, [Dat1,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-191) and [D-Ala2,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-201) were 8.2 and 7.1 times more potent in vitro, respectively. These two peptides contained Met27. Their Nle27 analogs, [Dat1,Ala15,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-2-51), prepared previously (9), and [D-Ala2,Ala15,Nle28]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-3-195) showed relative in vitro potencies of 10.5 and 2.4, respectively. These data indicate that replacement of Met27 by Nle27 enhanced the GH-releasing activity of the analog when the molecule contained Dat1-Ala2 residues at the N-terminus, but peptides containing Tyr1-D-Ala2 in addition to Nle27 showed decreased potencies. Replacement of Ser28 with Asp in multi-substituted analogs of GH-RH(1-28)Agm resulted in a decrease in in vitro potencies compared to the parent compound. Thus, the Ser28-containing MZ-2-51, and [Dat1,Ala15,D-Lys21,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm, its Asp28 homolog (MZ-3-149), possessed relative activities of 10.5 and 5.6, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines

  7. The role of soil layers in preventing ground water pollution with 17ß-estradiol hormone (E 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A’zam Golzari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estrogens include estoril (E3, estradiol and estrone (E1. These chemicals are produced in human and animal bodies as well as in synthetic chemicals (drugs. Estrogens can enter water sources in different ways. When these chemicals enter the human body through water and wastewater, they have the ability to mimic or disrupt the normal estrogen activities in humans and animals. Estrogens in wastewater are able to pass soil layers and contaminate groundwater. Therefore, in this study, the removal of the hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2 as a representative of estrogens in three types of soils was studied. The selection was chosen in respect to the importance of entering the hormone into groundwater through the soil. Methods: This study was an experimental study in which the removal of the hormone E2 from different depths of three types of soils was experimented. The soils were consisted of two different textures, the silty sandy clay and the silty sand with gravel. The hormone E2 was diluted and injected into the drilled holes. Soils were characterized in the soil mechanics laboratory. Hormone extraction from the soils was performed using a centrifuge and analyzed with the Elecsys device. The results were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 22 software. Results: The results showed that the removal rates of hormone E2 in the three types of soils were higher than 99.5%, and the removal rate in the silty sand was more than the others. In all three soil samples, the removal rates in the first layer were high. The average injected hormone in the soil decreased from 3500 to 3112 ng/l. The results showed that the adhesion and plasticity of the soil had also affected the removal rates. Conclusion: Results showed that the soil plays a significant role in the removal of E2 hormone and this hormone was reduced or eliminated in the first layers of the soils. Thus, the risk of groundwater contamination is low.

  8. Association between asthma and female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Raquel Prudente de Carvalho; Silva, Ivaldo

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sex hormones and asthma has been evaluated in several studies. The aim of this review article was to investigate the association between asthma and female sex hormones, under different conditions (premenstrual asthma, use of oral contraceptives, menopause, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy). Narrative review of the medical literature, Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT) and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). We searched the CAPES journal portal, a Brazilian platform that provides access to articles in the MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used based on Medical Subject Headings: asthma, sex hormones, women and use of oral contraceptives. The associations between sex hormones and asthma remain obscure. In adults, asthma is more common in women than in men. In addition, mortality due to asthma is significantly higher among females. The immune system is influenced by sex hormones: either because progesterone stimulates progesterone-induced blocking factor and Th2 cytokines or because contraceptives derived from progesterone and estrogen stimulate the transcription factor GATA-3. The associations between asthma and female sex hormones remain obscure. We speculate that estrogen fluctuations are responsible for asthma exacerbations that occur in women. Because of the anti-inflammatory action of estrogen, it decreases TNF-α production, interferon-γ expression and NK cell activity. We suggest that further studies that highlight the underlying physiopathological mechanisms contributing towards these interactions should be conducted.

  9. Effects of hormones on lipids and lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, R.M.

    1991-12-01

    Levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins are strong predictors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. In women, as in men, numerous factors contribute to variations in plasma lipoproteins that may affect cardiovascular disease risk. These include age, dietary components, adiposity, genetic traits, and hormonal changes. Each of these factors may operate to varying degrees in determining changes in plasma lipoprotein profiles accompanying menopause- Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested increases in levels of cholesterol, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins associated with menopause. High density lipoproteins (HDL), which are higher in women than men and are thought to contribute to relative protection of premenopausal women from cardiovascular disease, remain relatively constant in the years following menopause, although small, and perhaps transient reductions in the HDL{sub 2} subfraction have been reported in relation to reduced estradiol level following menopause. Despite these associations, it has been difficult to determine the role of endogenous hormones in influencing the plasma lipoproteins of postmenopausal women. In principle, the effects of hormone replacement should act to reverse any alterations in lipoprotein metabolism that are due to postmenopausal hormone changes. While there may be beneficial effects on lipoproteins, hormone treatment does not restore a premenopausal lipoprotein profile. Furthermore, it is not dear to what extent exogenous hormone-induced lipoprotein changes contribute to the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease with hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Inhibition of progesterone metabolism mimics the effect of progesterone withdrawal on forced swim test immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Ethan H; Finn, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Withdrawal from high levels of progesterone in rodents has been proposed as a model for premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression. Forced swim test (FST) immobility, used to model depression, was assessed in intact female DBA/2J mice following progesterone withdrawal (PWD) or treatment with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride. Following 5 daily progesterone injections (5 mg/kg IP) FST immobility increased only in mice withdrawn for 3 days (pimmobility. PWD and finasteride treatment, both of which reduce allopregnanolone levels, were associated with increased FST immobility in female DBA/2J mice. These findings suggest that decreased levels of the GABAergic neurosteroid allopregnanolone contribute to symptoms of PWD. Future studies of PWD may provide information about human conditions that are associated with hormone changes such as premenstrual syndrome or postpartum depression.

  11. Oxytocin is a cardiovascular hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT, a nonapeptide, was the first hormone to have its biological activities established and chemical structure determined. It was believed that OT is released from hypothalamic nerve terminals of the posterior hypophysis into the circulation where it stimulates uterine contractions during parturition, and milk ejection during lactation. However, equivalent concentrations of OT were found in the male hypophysis, and similar stimuli of OT release were determined for both sexes, suggesting other physiological functions. Indeed, recent studies indicate that OT is involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of cardiovascular functions. It has long been known that OT induces natriuresis and causes a fall in mean arterial pressure, both after acute and chronic treatment, but the mechanism was not clear. The discovery of the natriuretic family shed new light on this matter. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP, a potent natriuretic and vasorelaxant hormone, originally isolated from rat atria, has been found at other sites, including the brain. Blood volume expansion causes ANP release that is believed to be important in the induction of natriuresis and diuresis, which in turn act to reduce the increase in blood volume. Neurohypophysectomy totally abolishes the ANP response to volume expansion. This indicates that one of the major hypophyseal peptides is responsible for ANP release. The role of ANP in OT-induced natriuresis was evaluated, and we hypothesized that the cardio-renal effects of OT are mediated by the release of ANP from the heart. To support this hypothesis, we have demonstrated the presence and synthesis of OT receptors in all heart compartments and the vasculature. The functionality of these receptors has been established by the ability of OT to induce ANP release from perfused heart or atrial slices. Furthermore, we have shown that the heart and large vessels

  12. A selective androgen receptor modulator for hormonal male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiyun; Hwang, Dong Jin; Bohl, Casey E; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2005-02-01

    The recent discovery of nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) provides a promising alternative for testosterone replacement therapies, including hormonal male contraception. The identification of an orally bioavailable SARM with the ability to mimic the central and peripheral androgenic and anabolic effects of testosterone would represent an important step toward the "male pill". We characterized the in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity of (S)-3-(4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-nitro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)propionamide (C-6), a novel SARM developed in our laboratories. C-6 was identified as an androgen receptor (AR) agonist with high AR binding affinity (K(i) = 4.9 nM). C-6 showed tissue-selective pharmacologic activity with higher anabolic activity than androgenic activity in male rats. The doses required to maintain the weight of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and levator ani muscle to half the size of the maximum effects (i.e., ED(50)) were 0.78 +/- 0.06, 0.88 +/- 0.1, and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mg/day, respectively. As opposed to other SARMs, gonadotropin levels in C-6-treated groups were significantly lower than control values. C-6 also significantly decreased serum testosterone concentration in intact rats after 2 weeks of treatment. Marked suppression of spermatogenesis was observed after 10 weeks of treatment with C-6 in intact male rats. Pharmacokinetic studies of C-6 in male rats revealed that C-6 was well absorbed after oral administration (bioavailability 76%), with a long (6.3 h) half-life at a dose of 10 mg/kg. These studies show that C-6 mimicked the in vivo pharmacologic and endocrine effects of testosterone while maintaining the oral bioavailability and tissue-selective actions of nonsteroidal SARMs.

  13. Orbital interactions and charge redistribution in weak hydrogen bonds: Watson-Crick GC mimic involving C-H proton donor and F proton acceptor groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca Guerra, C.; Baerends, E.J.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery by Kool and coworkers that 2,4-difluorotoluene (F) mimics thymine (T) in DNA replication has led to controversy regarding the question of whether this mimic has the capability of forming hydrogen bonds with adenine (A). Recently, we have provided evidence for an important role of both

  14. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, J.I.; Lewin, N.; Burgett, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

  15. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  16. Menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo, Edgard; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1996-01-01

    La terapia hormonal en la menopausia/ menopausia y terapia hormonal de reemplazo (THR)/¿Qué es la menopausia?/ ¿Porqué hay tanto “ruido” acerca de la menopausia, si es un evento natural en la vida de toda mujer?/ ¿Qué significa terapia hormonal de reemplazo?(THR)/ ¿Cuáles son las ventajas de recibir la THR?/ Mejoraría en la calidad de vida/ Prevención de enfermedad/ ¿Quiere esto decir que absolutamente todas las mujeres deber recibir una THR?/ ¿Cuáles son las molestias más frecuentes a las qu...

  17. Chronic food restriction and the circadian rhythms of pituitary-adrenal hormones, growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, A; Montero, J L; Jolin, T

    1987-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to food restriction so that they ate 65% of food ingested by control rats. While control rats had free access to food over the 24-hour period, food-restricted rats were provided with food daily at 10 a.m. The experimental period lasted for 34 days. On day 35, rats from both experimental groups were killed at 08.00, 11.00, 14.00, 24.00 and 02.00 h. Food restriction modified the circadian rhythms of ACTH and corticosterone. In addition, total circulating corticosterone throughout the day was higher in food-restricted than in control rats. In contrast, food restriction resulted in depressed secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone. The results indicate that time of food availability entrained circadian corticosterone rhythm but not thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone rhythms.

  18. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz, E-mail: rcmosca@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm{sup 3}) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  19. An athymic mouse model to mimic cobalt-60 cutaneous radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, Rodrigo Crespo; Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Dornelles, Leonardo Dalla Porta; Alvarenga, Eluara Ortigoso; Mathor, Monica Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Propose: Cutaneous wound from irradiation is the most common complication in radiotherapy treatment, and can be lead to mortality. We describe an athymic mouse model to mimic cutaneous radiation injury by Cobalt-60. Methods: A protocol was including dosimetry with silicon diodes,10x10x5 cm arrangement made by four lead bricks and PVC pipe designed to immobilize the athymic mouse in order to irradiate one clamped back skin point that was subdivided in four parts. To get the measurements of dose rates on the arrangement in Panoramic Irradiator, it was used a silicon diode encased in an opaque protection for ambient light and connected to an electric cable, forming a dosing probe. The currents generated in diode sensitive volume as a function of time of exposure to gamma radiation coming from the radiator, with dose rate of 0,015 Gy/min in positions 1, 0,021 Gy/min in position 2, 0,55 Gy/min in position 3 and 1,45 Gy/min in position four. After the dosimetry, each athymic mouse was anesthetized using Xylazine and Ketamine dilution and entered into a PVC pipe and a small portion of skin (1 cm 3 ) was clamped. This tube was then fixed to arrangement and the athymic mouse was irradiate for 60 min, than it was being returned to its cage. Results: The wound was visualized in all animals and photographed after 5 days of irradiation, with the emergence of ulceration after 9 days. No systemic or lethal sequelae occurred or visualized in any animals. Late clinical signs included a wound healing after 22 days. Conclusion: While still being a baseline study, we created a new functional preclinical animal model that can be used for new therapies and may improve radiotherapy management. (author)

  20. Sulfinylated Azadecalins act as functional mimics of a pollen germination stimulant in Arabidopsis pistils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan; Wysocki, Ronald J; Somogyi, Arpad; Feinstein, Yelena; Franco, Jessica Y; Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Dunatunga, Damayanthi; Levy, Clara; Smith, Steven; Simpson, Robert; Gang, David; Johnson, Mark A; Palanivelu, Ravishankar

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Polarized cell elongation is triggered by small molecule cues during development of diverse organisms. During plant reproduction, pollen interactions with the stigma result in the polar outgrowth of a pollen tube, which delivers sperm cells to the female gametophyte to effect double fertilization. In many plants, pistils stimulate pollen germination. However, in Arabidopsis, the effect of pistils on pollen germination and the pistil factors that stimulate pollen germination remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that stigma, style, and ovules in Arabidopsis pistils stimulate pollen germination. We isolated an Arabidopsis pistil extract fraction that stimulates Arabidopsis pollen germination, and employed ultrahigh resolution ESI FT-ICR and MS/MS techniques to accurately determine the mass (202.126 daltons) of a compound that is specifically present in this pistil extract fraction. Using the molecular formula (C10H19NOS) and tandem mass spectral fragmentation patterns of the m/z (mass to charge ratio) 202.126 ion, we postulated chemical structures, devised protocols, synthesized N-Methanesulfinyl 1- and 2-azadecalins that are close structural mimics of the m/z 202.126 ion, and showed that they are sufficient to stimulate Arabidopsis pollen germination in vitro (30 µM stimulated ~50% germination) and elicit accession-specific response. Although N-Methanesulfinyl 2-azadecalin stimulated pollen germination in three species of Lineage I of Brassicaceae, it did not induce a germination response in Sisymbrium irio (Lineage II of Brassicaceae) and tobacco, indicating that activity of the compound is not random. Our results show that Arabidopsis pistils promote germination by producing azadecalin-like molecules to ensure rapid fertilization by the appropriate pollen. PMID:21801250

  1. Shape-specific nanostructured protein mimics from de novo designed chimeric peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linhai; Yang, Su; Lund, Reidar; Dong, He

    2018-01-30

    Natural proteins self-assemble into highly-ordered nanoscaled architectures to perform specific functions. The intricate functions of proteins have provided great impetus for researchers to develop strategies for designing and engineering synthetic nanostructures as protein mimics. Compared to the success in engineering fibrous protein mimetics, the design of discrete globular protein-like nanostructures has been challenging mainly due to the lack of precise control over geometric packing and intermolecular interactions among synthetic building blocks. In this contribution, we report an effective strategy to construct shape-specific nanostructures based on the self-assembly of chimeric peptides consisting of a coiled coil dimer and a collagen triple helix folding motif. Under salt-free conditions, we showed spontaneous self-assembly of the chimeric peptides into monodisperse, trigonal bipyramidal-like nanoparticles with precise control over the stoichiometry of two folding motifs and the geometrical arrangements relative to one another. Three coiled coil dimers are interdigitated on the equatorial plane while the two collagen triple helices are located in the axial position, perpendicular to the coiled coil plane. A detailed molecular model was proposed and further validated by small angle X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results from this study indicated that the molecular folding of each motif within the chimeric peptides and their geometric packing played important roles in the formation of discrete protein-like nanoparticles. The peptide design and self-assembly mechanism may open up new routes for the construction of highly organized, discrete self-assembling protein-like nanostructures with greater levels of control over assembly accuracy.

  2. Cadmium mimics estrogen-driven cell proliferation and prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A Ronchetti

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a heavy metal of considerable occupational and environmental concern affecting wildlife and human health. Recent studies indicate that Cd, like other heavy metals, can mimic effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 involving E2 receptor (ER activation. Lactotrophs, the most abundant cell type in anterior pituitary gland, are the main target of E2, which stimulates cell proliferation and increases prolactin secretion through ERα. The aim of this work was to examine whether Cd at nanomolar concentrations can induce cell proliferation and prolactin release in anterior pituitary cells in culture and whether these effects are mediated through ERs. Here we show that 10 nM Cd was able to stimulate lactotroph proliferation in anterior pituitary cell cultures from female Wistar rats and also in GH3 lactosomatotroph cell line. Proliferation of somatotrophs and gonadotrophs were not affected by Cd exposure. Cd promoted cell cycle progression by increasing cyclins D1, D3 and c-fos expression. Cd enhanced prolactin synthesis and secretion. Cd E2-like effects were blocked by the pure ERs antagonist ICI 182,780 supporting that Cd acts through ERs. Further, both Cd and E2 augmented full-length ERαexpression and its 46 kDa-splicing variant. In addition, when co-incubated Cd was shown to interact with E2 by inducing ERα mRNA expression which indicates an additive effect between them. This study shows for the first time that Cd at nanomolar concentration displays xenoestrogenic activities by inducing cell growth and stimulating prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary cells in an ERs-dependent manner. Cd acting as a potent xenoestrogen can play a key role in the aetiology of different pathologies of the anterior pituitary and in estrogen-responsive tissues which represent considerable risk to human health.

  3. Functionalized hybrid nanofibers to mimic native ECM for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karuppuswamy, Priyadharsini [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy, E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Navaneethan, Balchandar [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Department Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai (India); Laiva, Ashang Luwang; Sridhar, Sreepathy; Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Functionalized hybrid polymer mats fabricated for tissue engineering. • Hybrid polymer mats showed high surface area, high porosity and good wettability. • Incorporation of natural polymers modified the properties of nanofiber mats more biologically favorable for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanotechnology being one of the most promising technologies today shows an extremely huge potential in the field of tissue engineering to mimic the porous topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Natural polymers are incorporated into the synthetic polymers to fabricate functionalized hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds, which improve cell and tissue compatibility. The present study identified the biopolymers – aloe vera, silk fibroin and curcumin incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) as suitable substrates for tissue engineering. Different combinations of PCL with natural polymers – PCL/aloe vera, PCL/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin/curcumin were electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated two dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds showed high surface area, appropriate mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and porosity, required for the regeneration of diseased tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), porometry, Instron tensile tester, VCA optima contact angle measurement and FTIR to analyze the fiber diameter and morphology, porosity and pore size distribution, mechanical strength, wettability, chemical bonds and functional groups, respectively. The average fiber diameter of obtained fibers ranged from 250 nm to 350 nm and the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds at 4.49 MPa increased upto 8.3 MPa for PCL/silk fibroin scaffolds. Hydrophobicity of PCL decreased with the incorporation of natural polymers, especially for PCL/aloe vera scaffolds. The properties of as-spun nanofiber scaffolds showed their potential as promising scaffold materials in

  4. Earwigs ( Labidura riparia) mimic rotting-flesh odor to deceive vertebrate predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A.

    2015-08-01

    Many insects repel predators with caustic chemicals, while insects mimicking odors of wastes/dead insects to fool predators have not been documented. We found that the shore earwig, Labidura riparia (Dermaptera: Labiduridae) when bitten by anole lizards, Anolis carolinenesus, spits a rotting-flesh odor that deceives these insectivores into rejecting prey. Once a lizard attacked and rejected an earwig, the lizard did not attack another earwig during several weeks despite consuming other prey, indicating associative learning after one trial. The fetid odor was found in the head-prothorax containing salivary glands of both male and female earwigs and was comprised of ˜100 ng dimethyl disulfide and ˜600 ng dimethyl trisulfide. Nymphs had odorous sulfides after prolonged attacks by harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex rugosus, who were only deterred by the earwig's forceps. Sulfides released by the earwig are similar to odors of carrion/feces, which may be innately repulsive to some vertebrate predators. The mean initial discharge percentage (IDP) of sulfides from a cohort of earwigs was 62 %; however, IDPs of individuals were highly variable (3-99 %; mean 57 %). The discharge refill time (DRT) to refill 50 % of the earwig's allomone reservoir was estimated at 13 h. A positive relationship in sulfide amounts with body weight was found only in females in 2009, suggesting metabolic cost tradeoffs were revealed when sulfide content was half that in 2010. This is the first report of insects releasing sulfur-containing compounds that may mimic carrion-fecal odors as a deceptive defense against vertebrate predators.

  5. Functionalized hybrid nanofibers to mimic native ECM for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppuswamy, Priyadharsini; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Navaneethan, Balchandar; Laiva, Ashang Luwang; Sridhar, Sreepathy; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Functionalized hybrid polymer mats fabricated for tissue engineering. • Hybrid polymer mats showed high surface area, high porosity and good wettability. • Incorporation of natural polymers modified the properties of nanofiber mats more biologically favorable for biomedical applications. - Abstract: Nanotechnology being one of the most promising technologies today shows an extremely huge potential in the field of tissue engineering to mimic the porous topography of natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Natural polymers are incorporated into the synthetic polymers to fabricate functionalized hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds, which improve cell and tissue compatibility. The present study identified the biopolymers – aloe vera, silk fibroin and curcumin incorporated into polycaprolactone (PCL) as suitable substrates for tissue engineering. Different combinations of PCL with natural polymers – PCL/aloe vera, PCL/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin, PCL/aloe vera/silk fibroin/curcumin were electrospun into nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated two dimensional nanofibrous scaffolds showed high surface area, appropriate mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and porosity, required for the regeneration of diseased tissues. The nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM), porometry, Instron tensile tester, VCA optima contact angle measurement and FTIR to analyze the fiber diameter and morphology, porosity and pore size distribution, mechanical strength, wettability, chemical bonds and functional groups, respectively. The average fiber diameter of obtained fibers ranged from 250 nm to 350 nm and the tensile strength of PCL scaffolds at 4.49 MPa increased upto 8.3 MPa for PCL/silk fibroin scaffolds. Hydrophobicity of PCL decreased with the incorporation of natural polymers, especially for PCL/aloe vera scaffolds. The properties of as-spun nanofiber scaffolds showed their potential as promising scaffold materials in

  6. AICAR stimulation metabolome widely mimics electrical contraction in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Licht; Egawa, Tatsuro; Oshima, Rieko; Kurogi, Eriko; Tomida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Hayashi, Tatsuya

    2013-12-15

    Physical exercise has potent therapeutic and preventive effects against metabolic disorders. A number of studies have suggested that 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a pivotal role in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in contracting skeletal muscles, while several genetically manipulated animal models revealed the significance of AMPK-independent pathways. To elucidate significance of AMPK and AMPK-independent signals in contracting skeletal muscles, we conducted a metabolomic analysis that compared the metabolic effects of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR) stimulation with the electrical contraction ex vivo in isolated rat epitrochlearis muscles, in which both α1- and α2-isoforms of AMPK and glucose uptake were equally activated. The metabolomic analysis using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry detected 184 peaks and successfully annotated 132 small molecules. AICAR stimulation exhibited high similarity to the electrical contraction in overall metabolites. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the major principal component characterized common effects whereas the minor principal component distinguished the difference. PCA and a factor analysis suggested a substantial change in redox status as a result of AMPK activation. We also found a decrease in reduced glutathione levels in both AICAR-stimulated and contracting muscles. The muscle contraction-evoked influences related to the metabolism of amino acids, in particular, aspartate, alanine, or lysine, are supposed to be independent of AMPK activation. Our results substantiate the significance of AMPK activation in contracting skeletal muscles and provide novel evidence that AICAR stimulation closely mimics the metabolomic changes in the contracting skeletal muscles.

  7. A molecular docking study of phytochemical estrogen mimics from dietary herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Chelsea N; Setzer, William N

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a molecular docking approach to identify potential estrogen mimics or anti-estrogens in phytochemicals found in popular dietary herbal supplements. In this study, 568 phytochemicals found in 17 of the most popular herbal supplements sold in the United States were built and docked with two isoforms of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ (a total of 27 different protein crystal structures). The docking results revealed six strongly docking compounds in Echinacea, three from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), three from Gingko biloba, one from Sambucus nigra, none from maca (Lepidium meyenii), five from chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), two from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), and two from Rhodiola rosea. Notably, of the most popular herbal supplements for women, there were numerous compounds that docked strongly with the estrogen receptor: Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) had a total of 26 compounds strongly docking to the estrogen receptor, 15 with wild yam (Dioscorea villosa), 11 from black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), eight from muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum), eight from red clover (Trifolium pratense), three from damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca or T. diffusa), and three from dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Of possible concern were the compounds from men's herbal supplements that exhibited strong docking to the estrogen receptor: Gingko biloba had three compounds, gotu kola (Centella asiatica) had two, muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides or P. uncinatum) had eight, and Tribulus terrestris had six compounds. This molecular docking study has revealed that almost all popular herbal supplements contain phytochemical components that may bind to the human estrogen receptor and exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulation. As such, these herbal supplements may cause unwanted side effects related to estrogenic activity.

  8. Chemical and morphological gradient scaffolds to mimic hierarchically complex tissues: From theoretical modeling to their fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrella, Alessandra; Aiello, Maurizio; Quarto, Rodolfo; Scaglione, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Porous multiphase scaffolds have been proposed in different tissue engineering applications because of their potential to artificially recreate the heterogeneous structure of hierarchically complex tissues. Recently, graded scaffolds have been also realized, offering a continuum at the interface among different phases for an enhanced structural stability of the scaffold. However, their internal architecture is often obtained empirically and the architectural parameters rarely predetermined. The aim of this work is to offer a theoretical model as tool for the design and fabrication of functional and structural complex graded scaffolds with predicted morphological and chemical features, to overcome the time-consuming trial and error experimental method. This developed mathematical model uses laws of motions, Stokes equations, and viscosity laws to describe the dependence between centrifugation speed and fiber/particles sedimentation velocity over time, which finally affects the fiber packing, and thus the total porosity of the 3D scaffolds. The efficacy of the theoretical model was tested by realizing engineered graded grafts for osteochondral tissue engineering applications. The procedure, based on combined centrifugation and freeze-drying technique, was applied on both polycaprolactone (PCL) and collagen-type-I (COL) to test the versatility of the entire process. A functional gradient was combined to the morphological one by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) powders, to mimic the bone mineral phase. Results show that 3D bioactive morphologically and chemically graded grafts can be properly designed and realized in agreement with the theoretical model. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2286-2297. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A mimic of sexually-motivated homicide: insect stings and heat exhaustion in a forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nancy X; Pollanen, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    We report the case a woman who was found dead in a forest. The body was nude and the position of the body suggested a sexually motivated homicide. We concluded that death was not related to homicide, but was related to the conjunction of environmental factors, including insect stings, and acute psychosis. A medicolegal death investigation with postmortem examination was undertaken to determine cause of death. At the scene, the body was supine with legs spread apart and the knees flexed, exposing the external genitalia. There were multiple apparent bruises on the body and neck. At autopsy, based on macroscopic and microscopic examination, the apparent bruises were found to be hemorrhagic insect bites. No significant injuries were present and no semen was found. Death appeared to be related to heat exhaustion and innumerable insect stings. Investigation of the medical history revealed longstanding schizoaffective disorder with episodic psychotic decompensations. In the past, during an acute psychotic episode the decedent removed her clothing and ran wildly in a forest, until she was rescued in a state of exhaustion and marked agitation, and taken to hospital for treatment. We concluded that the same circumstances had been repeated but with a fatal outcome. This case is an example of a mimic of sexually-motivated homicide and is a reminder to forensic pathologists to avoid tunnel vision. We need to be skeptical of the allure of common sense based on first impressions of the scene and the body. Forensic pathologists must be unafraid to scientifically explore improbable, but true, alternate explanations.

  10. ceRNAs in plants: computational approaches and associated challenges for target mimic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschoal, Alexandre Rossi; Lozada-Chávez, Irma; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Stadler, Peter F

    2017-05-30

    The competing endogenous RNA hypothesis has gained increasing attention as a potential global regulatory mechanism of microRNAs (miRNAs), and as a powerful tool to predict the function of many noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs themselves. Most studies have been focused on animals, although target mimic (TMs) discovery as well as important computational and experimental advances has been developed in plants over the past decade. Thus, our contribution summarizes recent progresses in computational approaches for research of miRNA:TM interactions. We divided this article in three main contributions. First, a general overview of research on TMs in plants is presented with practical descriptions of the available literature, tools, data, databases and computational reports. Second, we describe a common protocol for the computational and experimental analyses of TM. Third, we provide a bioinformatics approach for the prediction of TM motifs potentially cross-targeting both members within the same or from different miRNA families, based on the identification of consensus miRNA-binding sites from known TMs across sequenced genomes, transcriptomes and known miRNAs. This computational approach is promising because, in contrast to animals, miRNA families in plants are large with identical or similar members, several of which are also highly conserved. From the three consensus TM motifs found with our approach: MIM166, MIM171 and MIM159/319, the last one has found strong support on the recent experimental work by Reichel and Millar [Specificity of plant microRNA TMs: cross-targeting of mir159 and mir319. J Plant Physiol 2015;180:45-8]. Finally, we stress the discussion on the major computational and associated experimental challenges that have to be faced in future ceRNA studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Caloric restriction in C57BL/6J mice mimics therapeutic fasting in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Christine A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caloric restriction (CR has long been recognized as a dietary therapy that improves health and increases longevity. Little is known about the persistent effects of CR on plasma biomarkers (glucose, ketone bodies, and lipids following re-feeding in mice. It is also unclear how these biomarker changes in calorically restricted mice relate to those observed previously in calorically restricted humans. Results Three groups of individually housed adult female C57BL/6J (B6 mice (n = 4/group were fed a standard rodent chow diet either: (1 unrestricted (UR; (2 restricted for three weeks to reduce body weight by approximately 15–20% (R; or (3 restricted for three weeks and then re-fed unrestricted (ad libitum for an additional three weeks (R-RF. Body weight and food intake were measured throughout the study, while plasma lipids and levels of glucose and ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate were measured at the termination of the study. Plasma glucose, phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and triglycerides were significantly lower in the R mice than in the UR mice. In contrast, plasma fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were significantly higher in the R mice than in the UR mice. CR had no effect on plasma phosphatidylinositol levels. While body weight and plasma lipids of the R-RF mice returned to unrestricted levels upon re-feeding, food intake and glucose levels remained significantly lower than those prior to the initiation of CR. Conclusion CR establishes a new homeostatic state in B6 mice that persists for at least three weeks following ad libitum re-feeding. Moreover, the plasma biomarker changes observed in B6 mice during CR mimic those reported in humans on very low calorie diets or during therapeutic fasting.

  12. Somatostatin receptor 1 and 5 double knockout mice mimic neurochemical changes of Huntington's disease transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmesh S Rajput

    Full Text Available Selective degeneration of medium spiny neurons and preservation of medium sized aspiny interneurons in striatum has been implicated in excitotoxicity and pathophysiology of Huntington's disease (HD. However, the molecular mechanism for the selective sparing of medium sized aspiny neurons and vulnerability of projection neurons is still elusive. The pathological characteristic of HD is an extensive reduction of the striatal mass, affecting caudate putamen. Somatostatin (SST positive neurons are selectively spared in HD and Quinolinic acid/N-methyl-D-aspartic acid induced excitotoxicity, mimic the model of HD. SST plays neuroprotective role in excitotoxicity and the biological effects of SST are mediated by five somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTR1-5.To delineate subtype selective biological responses we have here investigated changes in SSTR1 and 5 double knockout mice brain and compared with HD transgenic mouse model (R6/2. Our study revealed significant loss of dopamine and cAMP regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32 and comparable changes in SST, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors subtypes, calbindin and brain nitric oxide synthase expression as well as in key signaling proteins including calpain, phospho-extracellular-signal-regulated kinases1/2, synapsin-IIa, protein kinase C-α and calcineurin in SSTR1/5(-/- and R6/2 mice. Conversely, the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes, enkephalin and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases were strain specific. SSTR1/5 appears to be important in regulating NMDARs, DARPP-32 and signaling molecules in similar fashion as seen in HD transgenic mice.This is the first comprehensive description of disease related changes upon ablation of G- protein coupled receptor gene. Our results indicate that SST and SSTRs might play an important role in regulation of neurodegeneration and targeting this pathway can provide a novel insight in understanding the pathophysiology of Huntington's disease.

  13. Migrainous aura as stroke-mimic: The role of perfusion-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Mariana; Granato, Antonio; Polverino, Paola; Furlanis, Giovanni; Ukmar, Maja; Zorzenon, Irene; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    The acute-onset of migrainuos aura (MA) can be erroneously diagnosed in Emergency Department (ED) as acute stroke (AS) and it can be classified as "stroke mimic" (SM). Perfusion computer tomography (PCT) may be useful to improve detection of infarcts. The aim of the study was to investigate the role in ED of PCT in improving diagnosis of migrainous aura. Data were compared with the well-defined perfusion patterns in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A standardized Stroke Protocol was planned. The protocol consisted in centralizing in ED all the patients with acute-onset of neurological symptoms compatible with cerebrovascular disease and in performing a general and neurological examination, hematological tests, brain non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), CT angiography (CTA) of the supra-aortic and intracranial arteries and cerebral PCT. Patients with diagnosis of definite or probable acute stroke were hospitalized in Stroke Unit (SU). A six-months retrospective analysis of all the patients included in the Stroke Protocol and discharged from ED or from SU with a diagnosis of migraine with aura was performed. 172 patients were included in the Stroke Protocol and 6 patients were enrolled. NCCT, CTA and PCT were performed after 60-90 min from symptoms onset and revealed normal perfusion. Intravenous thrombolysis was performed only in one patient. Patients with acute-onset of neurological symptoms, who have rapid progressive improvement of symptoms, normal neuroimaging, in particular PCT, and preceding episodes of migraine with aura, may be considered as suffering from MA. In these cases, even if thrombolysis is safe, clinicians may defer a prompt aggressive treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cirrus cloud mimic surfaces in the laboratory: organic acids, bases and NOx heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodeau, J.; Oriordan, B.

    2003-04-01

    CIRRUS CLOUD MIMIC SURFACES IN THE LABORATORY:ORGANIC ACIDS, BASES AND NOX HETEROGENEOUS REACTIONS. B. ORiordan, J. Sodeau Department of Chemistry and Environment Research Institute, University College Cork, Ireland j.sodeau@ucc.ie /Fax: +353-21-4902680 There are a variety of biogenic and anthropogenic sources for the simple carboxylic acids to be found in the troposphere giving rise to levels as high as 45 ppb in certain urban areas. In this regard it is of note that ants of genus Formica produce some 10Tg of formic acid each year; some ten times that produced by industry. The expected sinks are those generally associated with tropospheric chemistry: the major routes studied, to date, being wet and dry deposition. No studies have been carried out hitherto on the role of water-ice surfaces in the atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids and the purpose of this paper is to indicate their potential function in the heterogeneous release of atmospheric species such as HONO. The deposition of formic acid on a water-ice surface was studied using FT-RAIR spectroscopy over a range of temperatures between 100 and 165K. In all cases ionization to the formate (and oxonium) ions was observed. The results were confirmed by TPD (Temperature Programmed Desorption) measurements, which indicated that two distinct surface species adsorb to the ice. Potential reactions between the formic acid/formate ion surface and nitrogen dioxide were subsequently investigated by FT-RAIRS. Co-deposition experiments showed that N2O3 and the NO+ ion (associated with water) were formed as products. A mechanism is proposed to explain these results, which involves direct reaction between the organic acid and nitrogen dioxide. Similar experiments involving acetic acid also indicate ionization on a water-ice surface. The results are put into the context of atmospheric chemistry potentially occuring on cirrus cloud surfaces.

  15. Flavonols Protect Against UV Radiation-Induced Thymine Dimer Formation in an Artificial Skin Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maini, Sabia; Fahlman, Brian M; Krol, Ed S

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of skin to ultraviolet light has been shown to have a number of deleterious effects including photoaging, photoimmunosuppression and photoinduced DNA damage which can lead to the development of skin cancer. In this paper we present a study on the ability of three flavonols to protect EpiDerm™, an artificial skin mimic, against UV-induced damage. EpiDerm™ samples were treated with flavonol in acetone and exposed to UVA (100 kJ/m(2) at 365 nm) and UVB (9000 J/m(2) at 310 nm) radiation. Secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-a) were determined by ELISA, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers were quantified using LC-APCI-MS. EpiDerm™ treated topically with quercetin significantly decreased MMP-1 secretion induced by UVA (100 µM) or UVB (200 µM) and TNF-a secretion was significantly reduced at 100 µM quercetin for both UVA and UVB radiation. In addition, topically applied quercetin was found to be photostable over the duration of the experiment. EpiDerm™ samples were treated topically with quercetin, kaempferol or galangin (52 µM) immediately prior to UVA or UVB exposure, and the cyclobutane thymine dimers (T-T (CPD)) were quantified using an HPLC-APCI MS/MS method. All three flavonols significantly decreased T-T (CPD) formation in UVB irradiated EpiDerm™, however no effect could be observed for the UVA irradiation experiments as thymine dimer formation was below the limit of quantitation. Our results suggest that flavonols can provide protection against UV radiation-induced skin damage through both antioxidant activity and direct photo-absorption. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  16. Optimized animal model to mimic the reality of stress-induced depression in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yuting; Lei, Hui; Wang, Lei; Xue, Liang; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2017-05-06

    Animal models are useful tools for verifying the relationship between stress and depression; however, an operational criterion for excluding the resilient animals from the analysis has not been established yet, which hinders the model's ability to more accurately mimic the scenario in humans. To induce depression-like symptoms, rats received maternal deprivation (MD) during PND1-14, and/or chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) exposure. The latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to determine latent subgroups in treatment naive adult rats. The percentile method was used to distinguish sensitive and non-sensitive behaviors in rats. The sucrose preference rate of treatment naive adult rats was fit using a Beta distribution, while immobility time was fit using a Gamma distribution. Indexes of behavioral tests revealed the 4-class model as the best fit for treatment naive adult rats. The incidence of stress-resilience in MD rats was significantly higher than that in CUS rats and MD + CUS rats. There was a significantly higher incidence of stress-resilience in CUS rats compared with MD + CUS rats. Recovery rate of anhedonia-like and sub anhedonia-like behaviors in CUS rats was significantly higher than that in MD and MD + CUS rats. There was a significantly higher recovery rate of anhedonia-like behaviors in MD rats compared to MD + CUS rats. The percentile method is suitable for setting up an operational cutoff to classify depression-like, sub depression-like, and resilient behaviors in rats exposed to MD and CUS.

  17. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  19. Hormonal profiles in buffalo bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaraknath, P.K.; Agarwal, S.P.; Agarwal, V.K.; Dixit, N.K.; Sharma, I.J.

    1984-01-01

    Serum samples from male buffaloes were radioimmunoassayed for steroid and thyroid hormones to investigate circadian rhythms, the effect of growth and season. An evaluation of RIA of serum testosterone with and without extraction yielded unacceptably low recoveries in unextracted serum samples. Studies on temporal variations during the day revealed three peaks for testosterone, four peaks for cortisol and one peak each for T 4 and T 3 . In growing calves the testosterone levels were low (0.1 ng/mL) up to 15 months of age but exhibited peaks at puberty (0.4 ng/mL) and maturity (0.8 ng/mL). Cortisol, T 4 and T 3 also exhibited peaks at puberty and maturity. Progesterone and oestradiol remained at basal levels throughout growth and development. Breeding buffalo bulls exhibited significant seasonal variations in testosterone, progesterone and oestradiol but not in T 4 and T 3 . Semen quality and sexual behaviour did not vary between seasons. (author)

  20. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  1. [Hormone regulation of male fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, J G

    1975-01-01

    An innocuous, sure, reversible means of male fertility control which does not disturb the libido is being sought. 20 healthy volunteers from ages 20 to 36 participated, using a 2nd form of protection when necessary. 10 received implants of 60 mg testosterone equally divided into 3 tubes, and began oral ingestion of 100 mg weekly, divided into daily doses, of R2323 (13-ethyl-17-hydroxy-gonen 4,9,11, trien-3-one) until the sperm became ineffective. Then oral doses were given according to personal requirements from 50 to 25 mg. The 2nd series of 10 received no testosterone implants, but followed the same scheme for oral ingestion. All patients but 1 reduced their sperm count and 80% were low enough to consider the sperm inactive. For those who used the hormone treatment as the only protection against pregnancy, no pregnancy occurred. Of the 1st group, 2 had excessive weight gain, 3 felt their libido reduced, and 1 had pain in the nipples and 1 had pain in the hepatic region. Recuperation of normal sperm characteristics was slow, especially motility and vitality. The spermogram is so altered during treatment that any accidental pregnancy could result in a defective egg and serious complications. It should definitely be avoided.

  2. Chemosignals, hormones, and amphibian reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Chemosignals and Reproduction". Amphibians are often thought of as relatively simple animals especially when compared to mammals. Yet the chemosignaling systems used by amphibians are varied and complex. Amphibian chemosignals are particularly important in reproduction, in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Chemosignaling is most evident in salamanders and newts, but increasing evidence indicates that chemical communication facilitates reproduction in frogs and toads as well. Reproductive hormones shape the production, dissemination, detection, and responsiveness to chemosignals. A large variety of chemosignals have been identified, ranging from simple, invariant chemosignals to complex, variable blends of chemosignals. Although some chemosignals elicit straightforward responses, others have relatively subtle effects. Review of amphibian chemosignaling reveals a number of issues to be resolved, including: 1) the significance of the complex, individually variable blends of courtship chemosignals found in some salamanders, 2) the behavioral and/or physiological functions of chemosignals found in anuran "breeding glands", 3) the ligands for amphibian V2Rs, especially V2Rs expressed in the main olfactory epithelium, and 4) the mechanism whereby transdermal delivery of chemosignals influences behavior. To date, only a handful of the more than 7000 species of amphibians has been examined. Further study of amphibians should provide additional insight to the role of chemosignals in reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Neuroendocrine effect of sex hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N

    2005-01-01

    The paper provides a generalization of data and the results of own experiments on influence ovarian steroids on the hypothalamus and other brain areas related to reproduction. Ovarian hormones have widespread effects throughout the brain: on catecholaminergic neurons and serotonergic pathways and the basal forebrain cholinergic system, as well as the hipocampus, spinal cord, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system, in addition to glial cells and blood-brain barrier. The widespread influences of these various neuronal systems ovarian steroids have measurable effects on mood and affect as well as on cognition, with implications for dementia. There are developmentally programmed sex differenced in hippocampal structure that may help to explain differences in the strategies which male and female rats use to solve spatial navigation problems. The multiple sites and mechanisms of estrogen action in brain underlie a variety of importants effects on cognitive and other brain functions--coordination of movement, pain, affective state, as well as possible protection in Alzheimer's disease. Estrogen withdrawal after natural or surgical menopause can lead to a host of changes in brain function and behavior.

  4. Hormone Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ping Chen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As in other Western countries, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death among women in Taiwan, exceeding the mortality from cervical or breast cancer. Women generally present with CVD after menopause and later than men, since menopause-related estrogen deficiency has been considered to be associated with an increased risk for CVD. Thus, coronary artery diseases and stroke are the two main contributors of mortality among postmenopausal women. Observational studies have reported a reduction in coronary artery disease risk after hormone therapy (HT ranging from 31-44%. However, recent randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of HT on primary and secondary CVD prevention have questioned the efficacy of HT, despite confirming the lipid-lowering effect of estrogen. However, a cluster of factors are responsible for the genesis and progression of CVD. Until we further evaluate their specific actions and how these different factors interact, the issue related to HT and cardiovascular risk will remain unsettled. Since these studies have contributed to our understanding of the benefits and risks associated with HT, HT use should be individualized after consideration of the condition of each postmenopausal patient. Ideally, the efficacy of different preparations and dosages of HT in postmenopausal women who are at risk of CVD, before atheromatous lesions have developed, should be investigated.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  6. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  7. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  8. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has online tools available .... trials and marketing experience.

  9. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  10. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  11. TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Serum; p. 484. ...

  12. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  13. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses

  14. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...

  15. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  16. Hormone patterns in early human gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishell, D.R. Jr.; Thorneycroft, I.H.; Nagata, Y.; Murata, T.; Nakamura, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the low concentration of gonadotropins and steroid hormones present in human serum has been made possible by the development of sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques. With the use of RIA FSH and LH, progesterone and 17OH-progesterone have been previously measured in early normal pregnancy. In order to determine the daily pattern of hormone levels in early normal pregnancy, gonadotropins as well as steroid hormone levels were measured in serum samples obtained daily from three women from the time of the last menstrual period prior to conception throughout the first few months of gestation. To further identify the steroid hormone pattern in early normal pregnancy, concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone were measured in individual serum samples obtained from a group of 158 women with apparently normal gestations who subsequently had therapeutic abortions. (auth)

  17. Hormonal therapy in female pattern hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Brough

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Female pattern hair loss is the most common cause of hair loss in women and one of the most common problems seen by dermatologists. This hair loss is a nonscarring alopecia in which loss occurs on the vertex scalp, generally sparing the frontal hairline. Hair loss can have significant psychosocial effects on patients, and treatment can be long and difficult. The influence of hormones on the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss is not entirely known. The purpose of this paper is to review physiology and potential hormonal mechanisms for the pathogenesis of female pattern hair loss. We also discuss the current hormonal and hormone-modifying therapies that are available to providers as they partner with patients to treat this frustrating issue.

  18. Exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, J; Glass, A R; Fears, W B; Ferguson, E W; Vigersky, R A

    1987-03-01

    Most studies of exercise-induced amenorrhea have compared amenorrheic athletes (usually runners) with sedentary control subjects. Such comparisons will identify hormonal changes that develop as a result of exercise training but cannot determine which of these changes play a role in causing amenorrhea. To obviate this problem, we assessed reproductive hormone status in a group of five amenorrheic runners and compared them to a group of six eumenorrheic runners matched for body fatness, training intensity, and exercise performance. Compared to the eumenorrheic runners, the amenorrheic runners had lower serum estradiol concentrations, similar basal serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations, and exaggerated responses of serum gonadotropins after administration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (100 micrograms intravenous bolus). Serum prolactin levels, both basally and after thyrotropin-releasing hormone administration (500 micrograms intravenous bolus) or treadmill exercise, was similar in the two groups, as were serum thyroid function tests (including thyrotropin response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone). Changes in serum cortisol levels after short-term treadmill exercise were similar in both groups, and serum testosterone levels increased after exercise only in the eumenorrheic group. In neither group did such exercise change serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, or thyrotropin levels. We concluded that exercise-induced amenorrhea is not solely related to the development of increased prolactin output after exercise training. The exaggerated gonadotropin response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone seen in amenorrheic runners in comparison with matched eumenorrheic runners is consistent with a hypothalamic etiology for the menstrual dysfunction, analogous to that previously described in "stress-induced" or "psychogenic" amenorrhea.

  19. Silent pituitary macroadenoma co-secreting growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Orhan; Ertorer, M Eda; Aydin, M Volkan; Erdogan, Bulent; Altinors, Nur; Zorludemir, Suzan; Guvener, Nilgun

    2005-04-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas are a group of tumors showing heterogenous morphological features with no hormonal function observed clinically. To date no explanation has been provided as to why these tumors remain "silent". We report a case of a silent macroadenoma with both growth hormone (GH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) staining and secretion but with no clinical manifestations, in particular, the absence of features of acromegaly or hyperthyroidism. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  20. Minimal methylation classifier (MIMIC): A novel method for derivation and rapid diagnostic detection of disease-associated DNA methylation signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, E C; Hicks, D; Rafiee, G; Bashton, M; Gohlke, H; Enshaei, A; Potluri, S; Matthiesen, J; Mather, M; Taleongpong, P; Chaston, R; Silmon, A; Curtis, A; Lindsey, J C; Crosier, S; Smith, A J; Goschzik, T; Doz, F; Rutkowski, S; Lannering, B; Pietsch, T; Bailey, S; Williamson, D; Clifford, S C

    2017-10-18

    Rapid and reliable detection of disease-associated DNA methylation patterns has major potential to advance molecular diagnostics and underpin research investigations. We describe the development and validation of minimal methylation classifier (MIMIC), combining CpG signature design from genome-wide datasets, multiplex-PCR and detection by single-base extension and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, in a novel method to assess multi-locus DNA methylation profiles within routine clinically-applicable assays. We illustrate the application of MIMIC to successfully identify the methylation-dependent diagnostic molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma (the most common malignant childhood brain tumour), using scant/low-quality samples remaining from the most recently completed pan-European medulloblastoma clinical trial, refractory to analysis by conventional genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. Using this approach, we identify critical DNA methylation patterns from previously inaccessible cohorts, and reveal novel survival differences between the medulloblastoma disease subgroups with significant potential for clinical exploitation.

  1. Single helically folded aromatic oligoamides that mimic the charge surface of double-stranded B-DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziach, Krzysztof; Chollet, Céline; Parissi, Vincent; Prabhakaran, Panchami; Marchivie, Mathieu; Corvaglia, Valentina; Bose, Partha Pratim; Laxmi-Reddy, Katta; Godde, Frédéric; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Chaignepain, Stéphane; Pourquier, Philippe; Huc, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    Numerous essential biomolecular processes require the recognition of DNA surface features by proteins. Molecules mimicking these features could potentially act as decoys and interfere with pharmacologically or therapeutically relevant protein-DNA interactions. Although naturally occurring DNA-mimicking proteins have been described, synthetic tunable molecules that mimic the charge surface of double-stranded DNA are not known. Here, we report the design, synthesis and structural characterization of aromatic oligoamides that fold into single helical conformations and display a double helical array of negatively charged residues in positions that match the phosphate moieties in B-DNA. These molecules were able to inhibit several enzymes possessing non-sequence-selective DNA-binding properties, including topoisomerase 1 and HIV-1 integrase, presumably through specific foldamer-protein interactions, whereas sequence-selective enzymes were not inhibited. Such modular and synthetically accessible DNA mimics provide a versatile platform to design novel inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions.

  2. Phenol degradation catalyzed by a peroxidase mimic constructed through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Yang, Jiebing; Wang, Xinghuo; Han, Haobo; Yang, Yan; Tang, Jun; Li, Quanshun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to construct a peroxidase mimic for achieving the phenol degradation through Fenton reaction. The enzyme mimic was synthesized through the conjugation of heme with the amino group of 2-amino-1,4-benzene dicarboxylate in UiO-66-NH 2 (ZrMOF), namely Heme-ZrMOF. Compared to free heme, the composite Heme-ZrMOF exhibited an obviously enhanced ability for phenol degradation with up to 97.3% of phenol removal after 2h. Meanwhile, it could achieve the easy separation of catalyst from the system and the elimination of iron residues in the process of phenol degradation. Finally, the catalyst Heme-ZrMOF was observed to possess good recyclability in the phenol degradation with still 76.2% of phenol removal after 4 cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biocompatible Polymer Nanoformulation To Improve the Release and Safety of a Drug Mimic Molecule Detectable via ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Talamini, Laura; Violatto, Martina Bruna; Giangregorio, Paola; Sponchioni, Mattia; Morbidelli, Massimo; Salmona, Mario; Bigini, Paolo; Moscatelli, Davide

    2017-01-03

    Fluorescent poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized and successfully loaded with a titanium organometallic compound as a mimic of a water-insoluble drug. The nature of this nanovector enabled us to combine the quantification of the metal in tissues after systemic administration in healthy immunocompetent mice by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) followed by the visualization of NPs in organ sections by confocal microscopy. This innovative method of nanodrug screening has enabled us to elucidate the crucial parameters of their kinetics. The organometallic compound is a good mimic of most anticancer drugs, and this approach is an interesting starting point to design the relevance of a broad range of nanoformulations in terms of safety and targeted delivery of the cargoes.

  4. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Steroid hormones in bluegill, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics including female mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Rosemary; Neff, Bryan D

    2007-12-22

    The proximate mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of within-sex variation in mating behaviour are still poorly understood. Species characterized by alternative reproductive tactics provide ideal opportunities to investigate such mechanisms. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) are noteworthy in this regard because they exhibit two distinct cuckolder (parasitic) morphs (called sneaker and satellite) in addition to the parental males that court females. Here we confirm previous findings that spawning cuckolder and parental males have significantly different levels of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. We also report, for the first time, that oestradiol and cortisol levels are higher in cuckolders than in parental males. The two cuckolder morphs did not differ in average levels of any of the four hormones. However, among satellite males which mimic females in appearance and behaviour, there was a strong negative relationship between oestradiol levels and body length, a surrogate for age. This finding suggests that for satellite males, oestradiol dependency of mating behaviour decreases with increasing mating experience. Although such decreased hormone dependence of mating behaviour has been reported in other taxa, our data represent the first suggestion of the relationship in fishes.

  6. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  7. Thyroid hormone resistance misdiagnosed as Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Gutch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH syndrome is a very rare disorder characterized by mutations of the thyroid hormone receptor beta and is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Patients with RTH are usually euthyroid but rarely may present with signs and symptoms consistent with hyperthyroidism. Here, we describe the case of a young girl with goiter who was previously misdiagnosed to have hyperthyroidism and was subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from RTH.

  8. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.; Awh, O.D.; Park, K.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), various experiments such as 125 I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  9. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone, and mapping of antigenic determinants on the hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soos, M.; Siddle, K.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone were produced. The affinities varied from 4 X 10 7 to 1 X 10 10 l/mol. The specificity of each antibody was assessed by determining the relative reactivities with luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotrophin. Six antibodies bound to the α-subunit as shown by similar reactivity with all hormones, and the remainder to the β-subunit as shown by specificity for luteinising hormone. This latter group of antibodies cross-reacted only weakly with thyroid stimulating hormone (approximately 10%) and follicle stimulating hormone (approximately 3%). Three of these antibodies also showed low reactivity towards chorionic gonadotrophin (<10%), though the others did not (80-300%). The ability of different antibodies to bind simultaneously to luteinising hormone was examined and it was shown that several distinct antigenic determinants existed on both subunits. The characterisation of monoclonal binding sites is discussed in relation to the use of antibodies in two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

  10. Simultaneous Vascular Targeting and Tumor Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T-Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    in May 2013, the difference between nude mice (which lack T- cells , but still have a partially functional adaptive and innate immune system) and NSG...Mangada J, Greiner DL, Handgretinger R. Human lymphoid and myeloid cell development in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R gamma null mice engrafted with mobilized human...Targeting of Cerebral Breast Cancer Metastases Using a T- Cell Receptor Mimic Antibody PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ulrich Bickel

  11. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Background Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. Methods We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and rel...

  12. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T 3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

  14. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  16. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years. Regulat......The two incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are key factors in the regulation of islet function and glucose metabolism, and incretin-based therapy for type 2 diabetes has gained considerable interest during recent years....... Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...... that a diurnal regulation exists with incretin hormone secretion to an identical meal being greater when the meal is served in the morning compared to in the afternoon. Finally, whether incretin hormone secretion is altered in disease states is an area with, so far, controversial results in different studies...

  17. [Dynamics of hormone secretion during chronic emotional stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiragova, M G; Kovalev, S V; Svirskaia, R I

    1979-05-01

    Study of spontaneous secretion of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones and the direct hormonal response to stress revealed the pathogenic effect of chronic combined emotional stress upon the hormonal function of adrenal glands. The hippocampus takes part in formation of the emotional tension in response to stress stimulus and of the following hormonal secretion.

  18. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  19. Regulation of Thyroid Hormone Bioactivity in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTThyroid hormone plays an essential role in a variety of metabolic processes in the human body. Examples are the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and on the heart. The production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) via the TSH

  20. The role of releasing hormones in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luteinising hormone-releasing factor and thyrotrophinreleasing factor were used in conjunction with the insulin tolerance test in 9 patients with known or suspected panhypopituitarism. It appears that growth hormone and luteinising hormone fail early in panhypopituitarism. Cortisol and thyroid-stimulating hormone ...

  1. Sex hormone imbalances and adipose tissue dysfunction impacting on metabolic syndrome; a paradigm for the discovery of novel adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Sairam, M Ram

    2014-02-01

    Sex hormone imbalance is causally related with visceral adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction and visceral obesity - an etiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), associated with high risk of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In general, premenopausal women appear to be protected from CVD and the dramatic decline in sex steroid hormone occurring during menopausal transitions or other sex-related disorders influence the regional distribution, function, and metabolism of AT and increase the risk of CVD. Visceral AT dysfunction, manifesting as abnormality of fatty acid metabolism, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and excessive production of adipokines have been proposed in the pathogenesis of MetS. However, direct evidence of molecular mechanisms of depot-specific AT alterations, and dysfunction causally related to MetS is limited in studies on postmenopausal women due to difficulty in collecting discrete AT specimens at different ages and repeated sampling from different fat depots. This can be overcome using animal models that can mimic the cluster of pathology leading to MetS and help establish the molecular basis of links between loss of gonadal function on various AT depots and their contribution to MetS. Our group used sex hormone imbalance FSH receptor knock out (FORKO) female mice to recapitulate different aspects of the MetS and addressed the mechanism of visceral obesity related to MetS and discover two novel sex steroid hormone-regulated deep mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipose (MEDAs) genes. Taken together, such recent studies raise hopes for pharmacologic intervention strategies targeting sex steroid hormone signaling in AT to provide protection against AT dysfunction.

  2. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Ilizabete; Pihan, Jean-Claude; Falla, Jairo

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 μm). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17β-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  3. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijia Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT-deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  4. Skin lesions over the pocket area that may mimic cardiac implantable electronic device infection: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Plakoutsi, Sofia; Florou, Elizabeth; Bechlioulis, Aris

    2018-05-21

    The early and correct diagnosis of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infections is critical given that early aggressive treatment with complete removal of the system along with antimicrobial therapy dramatically improves outcomes. Pocket infection manifested by local signs of inflammation is the most common form of CIED infections. Conditions mimicking pocket infection have been described in the literature. These include various types of malignancy and rarely allergic reactions/contact dermatitis to pacemaker compounds. We aimed to describe skin lesions and disorders over the pocket area that mimic CIED infection. We present a series of 5 cases with skin lesions that mimic pocket infection. We document these cases with corresponding photographs. Most of them have not been described in this setting. We report the following cases of conditions that proved not to be CIED infection: One case of superficial cellulitis, one case of herpes zoster over the pocket area, one case of spontaneous bruising over the pocket a long time after implantation in a patient taking oral anticoagulation, and 2 cases of contact dermatitis due to prolonged postoperative application of povidone iodine. All cases had favorable outcome after conservative treatment and no CIED infection was developed during follow-up. Clinicians should be aware of rare conditions that mimic CIED infection. Incorrect diagnosis of these disorders may falsely lead to CIED extraction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous Downregulation of MTHFR and COMT in Switchgrass Affects Plant Performance and Induces Lesion-Mimic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijia; Fu, Chunxiang; Gou, Jiqing; Sun, Liang; Huhman, David; Zhang, Yunwei; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ) has been developed into a model lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. Downregulation of caffeic acid O -methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, has been shown to alter lignification and increase biofuel yield in switchgrass. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mediates C1 metabolism and provides methyl units consumed by COMT. It was predicted that co-silencing of MTHFR and COMT would impact lignification even more than either of the single genes. However, our results showed that strong downregulation of MTHFR in a COMT -deficient background led to altered plant growth and development, but no significant change in lignin content or composition was found when compared with COMT plants. Another unexpected finding was that the double MTHFR/COMT downregulated plants showed a novel lesion-mimic leaf phenotype. Molecular analyses revealed that the lesion-mimic phenotype was caused by the synergistic effect of MTHFR and COMT genes, with MTHFR playing a predominant role. Microarray analysis showed significant induction of genes related to oxidative and defense responses. The results demonstrated the lack of additive effects of MTHFR and COMT on lignification. Furthermore, this research revealed an unexpected role of the two genes in the modulation of lesion-mimic cell death as well as their synergistic effects on agronomic performance.

  6. Characteristics and genetic mapping of a lesion mimic mutant pl(t) in japonica rice variety zhejing 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingping; Zhang Xiaoming; Ye Shenghai; Zhao Ningchun; Lu Yanting; Liu Heqin; Jin Qingsheng; Yang Ling

    2010-01-01

    A lesion mimic mutant,obtained by radiation mutagenesis on the seeds of a japonica rice variety Zhejing 22, exhibited a lesion mimic phenotype during the whole growth stage under different environments. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant trait was controlled by a single recessive gene named spl (t). Relying on simple sequence repeat (SSR) and recessive class analysis method to map the spl (t) gene with a F 2 population was constructed by crossing the mutant spl (t) with Zhenshan 97B.spl (t) was mapped in the interval of 0.8cM between RM7195 and RM27929 near centromere region on the short arm of chromosome 12.Blue trypan dye analyses indicated that the lesion mimic trait of the mutant was caused by the programmer cell death. Further study showed that the programmer cell death was caused by H 2 O 2 oxidative burst. By inoculation of bacterial leaf blight and blast strains, the resistances of the mutant were similar to the wild variety Zhejing 22. (authors)

  7. A peroxidase mimic with atom transfer radical polymerization activity constructed through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Pan, Yue; Yang, Jiebing; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yan; Tang, Jun; Li, Quanshun

    2018-07-01

    Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) has been considered to be an efficient strategy for constructing functional macromolecules owing to its simple operation and versatile monomers, and thus it is of great significance to develop ideal catalysts with higher activity and perfect reusability. We constructed a peroxidase mimic through the grafting of heme onto metal-organic frameworks UiO-66-NH 2 (ZrMOF), namely Heme-ZrMOF. After the systematic characterization of structure, the composite Heme-ZrMOF was demonstrated to possess high peroxidase activity using 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as substrates. The enzyme mimic was then used as catalysts in the ATRP reactions of different monomers, in which favorable monomer conversion (44.6-98.0%) and product molecular weight (8600-25,600 g/mol) could be obtained. Compared to free heme, Heme-ZrMOF could efficiently achieve the easy separation of heme from the catalytic system and facilitate the ATRP reaction in an aqueous environment to avoid the utilization of organic solvents. In conclusion, the enzyme mimic Heme-ZrMOF could be potentially used as an effective catalyst for preparing well-defined polymers with biomedical applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity of selenenamide-based mimic as a function of the aromatic thiols nucleophilicity, a DFT-SAPE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirabadi, Ramesh; Izadyar, Mohammad

    2018-05-18

    The mechanism of action of the selenenamide 1 as a mimic of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was investigated by the density functional theory. The solvent-assisted proton exchange procedure was applied to model the catalytic behavior and antioxidant activity of this mimic. To have an insight into the charge transfer effect, different aromatic thiols, including electron donating substituents on the phenyl ring were considered. The catalytic behavior of the selenenamide was modeled in a four-step mechanism, described by the oxidation of the mimic, the reduction of the obtained product, selenoxide, the reduction of the selenenylsulfide and dehydration of selenenic acid. On the basis of the activation parameters, the final step of the proposed mechanism is the rate determining states of the catalytic cycle. Turnover frequency (TOF) analysis showed that the electron donating groups at the para-position of the phenyl ring of the PhSH do not affect the catalytic activity of the selenenamide in contrast to p-methyl thiophenol which indicates the highest nucleophilicity. The evaluation of the electronic contribution of the various donating groups on the phenyl ring of the aromatic thiols shows that the antioxidant activity of the selenenamide sufficiently increases in the presence of the electron-donating substitutions. Finally, the charge transfer process at the rate-determining state was investigated based on the natural bond orbital analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  10. Growth hormone and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bex, Marie; Bouillon, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I have major effects on growth plate chondrocytes and all bone cells. Untreated childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) markedly impairs linear growth as well as three-dimensional bone size. Adult peak bone mass is therefore about 50% that of adults with normal height. This is mainly an effect on bone volume, whereas true bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm(3)) is virtually normal, as demonstrated in a large cohort of untreated Russian adults with childhood-onset GHD. The prevalence of fractures in these untreated childhood-onset GHD adults was, however, markedly and significantly increased in comparison with normal Russian adults. This clearly indicates that bone mass and bone size matter more than true bone density. Adequate treatment with GH can largely correct bone size and in several studies also bone mass, but it usually requires more than 5 years of continuous treatment. Adult-onset GHD decreases bone turnover and results in a mild deficit, generally between -0.5 and -1.0 z-score, in bone mineral content and BMD of the lumbar spine, radius and femoral neck. Cross-sectional surveys and the KIMS data suggest an increased incidence of fractures. GH replacement therapy increases bone turnover. The three controlled studies with follow-up periods of 18 and 24 months demonstrated a modest increase in BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck in male adults with adult-onset GHD, whereas no significant changes in BMD were observed in women. GHD, whether childhood- or adult-onset, impairs bone mass and strength. Appropriate substitution therapy can largely correct these deficiencies if given over a prolonged period. GH therapy for other bone disorders not associated with primary GHD needs further study but may well be beneficial because of its positive effects on the bone remodelling cycle. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Growth hormone therapy: emerging dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2011-06-01

    The history of pituitary growth hormone (GH) started 100 years ago but the isolation purification and determination of the chemical structure of the human GH (hGH) took another 50 years. Starting in 1957 hGH was extracted from cadaver pituitaries and its clinical use was restricted to severe GH deficient patient. With the invention of recombinant biosynthetic hGH in 1985; the indications for its use were extended. The major approved medications are GH deficiency and short statured children of various etiologies. This is a critical review of present and future use of human GH. To evaluate the effectiveness of the hGH treatment several pharmaceutical companies established postmarketing follow-up programs which are based on the reliability and cooperation of the treating physicians. Unfortunately they stop when the treatment is terminated and most studies refer to growth stimulation effectiveness during initial years but do not follow the children until final height. The long-term experience enabled to evaluate adverse effects (AE), the majority being due to large dosage. The most serious AE reported are increases in malignancies and early or late mortality in adult age. There is consensus that GH deficient children need replacement therapy. As long-term hGH treatment is expensive and the final height gains in non-GH deficient children small the cost-benefit indications to treat short children without a disease has been questioned. To avoid the need of daily injections, long-acting hGH preparations undergo clinical trials. The future will show their effectiveness and eventual adverse effects.

  12. Obesity, growth hormone and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is regulated, suppressed and stimulated by numerous physiological stimuli. However, it is believed that obesity disrupts the physiological and pathological factors that regulate, suppress or stimulate GH release. Pulsatile GH has been potently stimulated in healthy subjects by both aerobic and resistance exercise of the right intensity and duration. GH modulates fuel metabolism, reduces total fat mass and abdominal fat mass, and could be a potent stimulus of lipolysis when administered to obese individuals exogenously. Only pulsatile GH has been shown to augment adipose tissue lipolysis and, therefore, increasing pulsatile GH response may be a therapeutic target. This review discusses the factors that cause secretion of GH, how obesity may alter GH secretion and how both aerobic and resistance exercise stimulates GH, as well as how exercise of a specific intensity may be used as a stimulus for GH release in individuals who are obese. Only five prior studies have investigated exercise as a stimulus of endogenous GH in individuals who are obese. Based on prior literature, resistance exercise may provide a therapeutic target for releasing endogenous GH in individuals who are obese if specific exercise programme variables are utilized. Biological activity of GH indicates that this may be an important precursor to beneficial changes in body fat and lean tissue mass in obese individuals. However, additional research is needed including what molecular GH variants are acutely released and involved at target tissues as a result of different exercise stimuli and what specific exercise programme variables may serve to stimulate GH in individuals who are obese.

  13. Various clinical conditions can mimic Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in pediatric patients in endemic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner S. Kara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease with high mortality. Many disorders can mimic CCHF. It is important to recognize the condition and to perform differential diagnosis in endemic countries. Twenty-one children aged 18 years or less with a preliminary diagnosis of CCHF were retrospectively evaluated. Real-time PCR and a confirmatory indirect immunofluorescence assay for negative results were performed. The diagnoses determined that 9 patients had (42.9% CCHF; 7 patients had (33.3% viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI; 2 patients had (9.5% brucellosis; 1 patients had (4.7% periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA syndrome episode; 1 patient had (4.7% cerebral palsy, diabetes insipidus, acute gastroenteritis, and hypernatremic dehydration; and 1 patient had (4.7% cellulitis after a tick bite. The mean age of patients with CCHF was greater than that of the other patients (116.1 ± 53.6 vs. 94.1 ± 52.1 months, p = 0.02. Seventeen (81% of the children included had a history of tick bites, 2 (9.5% had a history of contact with a patient with CCHF, and 2 (9.5% had no exposure, but were living in an endemic region. Three patients had an underlying disorder: cerebral palsy and diabetes insipidus, epilepsy, or PFAPA. All of the children experienced fever. Other frequent symptoms were malaise, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, but none of these differed statistically between the patient groups. CCHF patients had a longer mean duration of symptoms (10.56 ± 1.42 vs. 6.75 ± 3.62 days, p = 0.008 and a longer mean length of hospitalization (8.00 ± 2.08 vs. 3.58 ± 1.56 days, p < 0.001 than the other patients. At laboratory examination, patients with CCHF had statistically significant lower leukocyte and platelet counts, more prolonged coagulation parameters, and greater AST, ALT, LDH, and CK levels than the other patients. No mortality or complications occurred

  14. Efficacy of biorhythmic transdermal combined hormone treatment in relieving climacteric symptoms: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Formby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available B Formby, F SchmidtThe Rasmus Institute for Medical Research, Program in Reproductive Endocrinology, Santa Barbara, CA, USAObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of bioidentical combined 17β-estradiol and progesterone transdermal delivery system (lipophilic emulsion-type base to relieve climacteric symptoms. The hormonal replacement was given during a period of 6 months at four different cyclic doses to mimic the normal ovary secretory pattern.Design: An open, randomized, comparative, between-patient trial conducted over 6 months in 29 menopausal women with climacteric symptoms assessed with the Kupperman index at baseline and during treatments. Saliva and serum values of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were quantitated before treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Pharmacokinetic data following transdermal administration of 17β-estradiol (0.3 mg, daily and progesterone (100 mg, daily were calculated from saliva levels using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.Results: Improvement in climacteric symptoms was reported in 93% of women evaluated before and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Values of saliva 17β-estradiol increased after 6 months from 0.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL to 14.1 ± 3.3 pg/mL, and the values of serum 17β-estradiol increased from 3.3 ± 2.8 pg/mL to 80.6 ± 21.9 pg/mL. Of responders, 88% characterized symptom relief as complete. No adverse health-related events were attributed to the bioidentical hormone therapy. Time to maximum saliva concentrations (Tmax, in all experimental cases, was observed after 6 hours. Baseline values were reached within 24 hours, indicating a diurnal rhythm of 17β-estradiol seen in normally cyclic women over the 24-hour period, ie, its daily biological rhythm.Conclusion: Percutaneous absorption of 17β-estradiol, as well as the absorption of progesterone, was associated with relief of climacteric symptoms. The cyclical transdermal delivery of combined bioidentical hormones may be

  15. Effects of juvenile hormone (JH) analog insecticides on larval development and JH esterase activity in two spodopterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Kamita, Shizuo G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile hormone analog (JHA) insecticides are biological and structural mimics of JH, a key insect developmental hormone. Toxic and anti-developmental effects of the JHA insecticides methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen were investigated on the larval and pupal stages of Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Bioassays showed that fenoxycarb has the highest toxicity and fastest speed of kill in 2nd instar S. littoralis. All three JHAs affected the development of 6th instar (i.e., final instar) and pupal S. frugiperda. JH esterase (JHE) is a critical enzyme that helps to regulate JH levels during insect development. JHE activity in the last instar S. littoralis and S. frugiperda was 11 and 23 nmol min(-1) ml(-1) hemolymph, respectively. Methoprene and pyriproxyfen showed poor inhibition of JHE activity from these insects, whereas fenoxycarb showed stronger inhibition. The inhibitory activity of fenoxycarb, however, was more than 1000-fold lower than that of OTFP, a highly potent inhibitor of JHEs. Surprisingly, topical application of methoprene, fenoxycarb or pyriproxyfen on 6th instars of S. littoralis and S. frugiperda prevented the dramatic reduction in JHE activity that was found in control insects. Our findings suggest that JHAs may function as JH agonists that play a disruptive role or a hormonal replacement role in S. littoralis and S. frugiperda. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Face, content and concurrent validity of the Mimic® dV-Trainer for robot-assisted endoscopic surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egi, H; Hattori, M; Tokunaga, M; Suzuki, T; Kawaguchi, K; Sawada, H; Ohdan, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation exists between the performance of the Mimic® dV-Trainer (Mimic Technologies, Seattle, Wash., USA) and the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Calif., USA). Twelve participants were recruited, ranging from residents to consultants. We used four training tasks, consisting of 'Pick and Place', 'Peg Board', 'Thread the Rings' and 'Suture Sponge', from the software program of the Mimic dV-Trainer. The performance of the participants was recorded and measured. Additionally, we prepared the same tasks for the da Vinci Surgical System. All participants completed the tasks using the da Vinci Surgical System and were assessed according to time, the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill checklist and the global rating score for endoscopic suturing assessed by two independent blinded observers. After performing these tasks, the participants completed a questionnaire that evaluated the Mimic dV-Trainer's face and content validity. The final results for each participant for the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System were compared. All participants ranked the Mimic dV-Trainer as a realistic training platform that is useful for residency training. There was a significant relationship between the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System in all four tasks. We verified the reliability of the assessment of the checklist and the global rating scores for endoscopic suturing assessed by the two blinded observers using Cronbach's alpha test (r = 0.803, 0.891). We evaluated the concurrent validity of the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System. Our results suggest the possibility that training using the Mimic dV-Trainer may therefore be able to improve the operator's performance during live robot-assisted surgery. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Gonadal Hormones and Retinal Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Nuzzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AimGonadal hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can act on neural and other organ systems, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for this hypothesis in relation to eye disorders and to retinopathies in particular.MethodsEpidemiological studies and research articles were reviewed.ResultsAnalysis of the biological basis for a relationship between eye diseases and hormones showed that estrogen, androgen, and progesterone receptors are present throughout the eye and that these steroids are locally produced in ocular tissues. Sex hormones can have a neuroprotective action on the retina and modulate ocular blood flow. There are differences between the male and the female retina; moreover, sex hormones can influence the development (or not of certain disorders. For example, exposure to endogenous estrogens, depending on age at menarche and menopause and number of pregnancies, and exposure to exogenous estrogens, as in hormone replacement therapy and use of oral contraceptives, appear to protect against age-related macular degeneration (both drusenoid and neurovascular types, whereas exogenous testosterone therapy is a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy. Macular hole is more common among women than men, particularly in postmenopausal women probably owing to the sudden drop in estrogen production in later middle age. Progestin therapy appears to ameliorate the course of retinitis pigmentosa. Diabetic retinopathy, a complication of diabetes, may be more common among men than women.ConclusionWe observed a correlation between many retinopathies and sex, probably as a result of the protective effect some gonadal hormones may exert against the development of certain disorders. This may have ramifications for the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of eye disease and of retinal disorders in particular.

  18. Sex hormone-binding globulin as a marker for the thrombotic risk of hormonal contraceptives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raps, M.; Helmerhorst, F.; Fleischer, K.; Thomassen, S.; Rosendaal, F.; Rosing, J.; Ballieux, B.; Vliet, H. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It takes many years to obtain reliable values for the risk of venous thrombosis of hormonal contraceptive users from clinical data. Measurement of activated protein C (APC) resistance via thrombin generation is a validated test for determining the thrombogenicity of hormonal

  19. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  20. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Yan; Yang, Jie; Li, Yukun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochr...