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Sample records for hormone immunoradiometric assay

  1. Reproductive hormones disorders of Sudanese females using immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N. I.; Almahi, W. A. A.; Abdalla, O. M.; Bafarag, S. M. I.; Abdelgadir, O. M.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Hassan, A. M. E.

    2004-12-01

    In this study fertility hormones were measured for 587 infertile Sudanese female referred from gynecological clinics. The ages of these female ranges from 16-50 years divided into seven groups. Eighty seven percent of them are in the age range between 21 and 40 year which correlate with the female's fertile period and 5.6% of them under 20 years. Sensitive (IRMA) method was used for measuring the hormone concentration. The objective of this study was to found out the percentage of hormonal disorders and its relation to the age in infertile Sudanese females. The age group (21-25) was the most affected group by the Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and represented 5.1% of the total number of patients. The least group was the age group (41-45) with a percentage of 0.4. The LH and the FSH in the age group of (31-35) was found to be higher than the other groups and represented 11.4% and 7.8% from the total number of patients respectively. The least percent of high level of LH and FSH was found to be in the most fertile age group (15-20) and it was 1.7% and 1.0% from the total number of studied patient, respectively. Those who were in the age range (26-30) with hyperprolactinaemia represented 10.4% of patients, while those with age rang (46-50) with hyperprolactinaemia represented the lowest percentage (1.2%). The percentage of patients having high LH and high FSH was 44.5% and 29.1% respectively, while the hyperprolactinaemia among the infertile Sudanese female was found to 38.2%.(Author)

  2. Establishment and clinical application of immunoradiometric assay for human growth hormone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinfeng; Wu Congyuan; Niu Zhanpo; Zhang Kui; Song Ailing; Deng Jieying; Shi Mifan

    1992-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human growth hormone (hGH) in serum is developed based on two high specific monoclonal antibodies against hGh. It can specifically detect the levels of serum bioactive hGh and had no cross-reaction with human prolactin (hPRL) and hGh oligmeric forms. The sensitivity was 0.2 ng/ml and the recovery for different concentrations of hGh was 92.0% ∼ 103.2%. The coefficients of variation for intra and inter-assay were<9.1% and <14.2%, respectively. Integral analysis of the results of RIA and IRMA with the patients' clinical manifestations revealed that hGh IRMA is better than hGh RIA in reflecting the clinical states of different acromegalic patients

  3. Comparative assessment of quality of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and chemiluminescence immunometric assay (CHEIMA) for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Biological substances like hormones, vitamins and enzymes are found in minute quantities in blood. Their estimation requires very sensitive and specific methods. The most modern method for estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone in serum is non-isotopic enzyme enhanced chemiluminescence immunometric method. In our laboratory immunoradiometric assay is in routine for the last many years. Recently interest has grown to establish non-isotopic techniques in laboratories of PAEC. However, the main requirement to adopt the new procedures is to compare their results, cost and other benefits with the existing method. Immunoassay laboratory of MINAR, therefore, conducted a study to compare the two methods. A total of 173 (males: 34 females: 139 age: between 1 and 65 years) cases of clinically confirmed thyroid status were included in the study. Serum samples of these cases were analyzed by two methods and results were compared by plotting precision profiles, correlation plots and calculating sensitivities and specificities of the methods. As the results in all the samples were not normally distributed Wilcoxon rank sum test was applied to compare the analytical results of two methods. The comparison shows that the results obtained in two methods are not completely similar (p=0.0003293), although analysis of samples in groups shows that some similarity exists between the results of hypo and hyperthyroid patients (p<=0.156 and p<=0.6138). This shows that results obtained in these two methods could sometimes disagree in final diagnosis. Although TSH-CHEIMA is analytically more sensitive than TSH-IRMA the clinical sensitivities and specificities of two methods are not significantly different. TSH-CHEIMA test completes in almost 2 hours whereas TSH-IRMA takes about 6 hours to complete. Comparison of costs shows that TSH-CHIEMA is almost 5 times more expensive than TSH-IRMA. We conclude that the two methods could sometimes disagree but the two techniques have almost same

  4. Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, E.A.; McLean, C.; Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C.; Tilders, F.J.; Van der Veen, E.A.; Lowry, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) which allows the direct estimation of human CRH (hCRH) in plasma is described. Using this IRMA, basal levels of CRH in normal subjects ranged from 2-28 pg/mL [mean, 15 +/- 7 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 58]. Values in men and women were similar. Plasma CRH values within this range were also found in patients with Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and Nelson's syndrome, with no correlation between plasma CRH and ACTH levels in these patients. Elevated plasma CRH levels were found in pregnant women near term [1462 +/- 752 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 55], and the dilution curve of this CRH-like immunoreactivity paralleled the IRMA standard curve. After its immunoadsorption from maternal plasma, this CRH-like material eluted on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with a retention time identical to that of synthetic CRH and had equipotent bioactivity with the synthetic peptide in the perfused anterior pituitary cell bioassay. Circulating CRH was not detected in Wistar rats, even after adrenalectomy and subsequent ether stress. Synthetic hCRH was degraded by fresh human plasma relatively slowly; 65% of added CRH remained after 1 h of incubation at 37 C. Degradation was inhibited by heat treatment (54 C; 1 h), cold treatment (4 C; 4 h), or freezing and thawing. Loss of synthetic rat CRH occurred more rapidly when fresh rat plasma was used; only 20% of added CRH remained under the same conditions. The inability to measure CRH in peripheral rat plasma may be due to the presence of active CRH-degrading enzymes which fragment the CRH molecule into forms not recognized by the CRH IRMA

  5. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 μU/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 μU/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 μU/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Clinical evaluation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test with a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Demura, Reiko; Yamanaka, Yukako; Ishiwatari, Naoko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-10-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) test was performed using a commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) in patients with endocrine diseases. The basal serum concentration of TSH ranged from 0.2 to 2.9 ..mu..U/ml in healthy subjects. The values for endocrine diseases, except for Graves' disease, were almost within the normal range. A significant increase in TSH values caused by TRH test was observed in females compared with males (4.4 - 24.7 ..mu..U/ml vs 4.1 - 12.3 ..mu..U/ml). In cases of Graves' disease, there was a good correlation between the basal TSH value and the response of TSH to TRH. However, in the other endocrine diseases, including acromegaly, prolactinoma, anorexia nervosa, Cushing syndrome, and hypopituitarism, the response of TSH to TRH did not necessarily correlated with the basal TSH value. TRH test would be of value in elucidating pathophysiologic features, as well as in accurately diagnosing secretion reserve of TSH. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. Evaluation of some magnetizable immunosorbents in radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyotsna, N.; Kadwad, V.; Sivaprasad, N.; Nirmala, V.; Pal, N.; Singh, Y.; Karir, T.; Chouthkantiwar, V.; Paradkar, S.

    1996-01-01

    Immunoassays are now indispensable clinical tools in many laboratories. An essential requirement for achieving reliable assays is an efficient and clean method for separating the immune complexes from the unreacted reagents. The development of a wide variety of solid phase separation methods has contributed significantly towards the reliability and simplification of immunoassays. Antibody coated macro one-piece surfaces like plastic beads or tubes are very popular but require great skill and control at all stages of manufacture. On the other hand, finely divided supports especially magnetizable particles are cheaper and simpler to develop. A variety of materials have been used in immunoassays. Black iron oxide Fe 3 O 4 is the most commonly used material and it is generally coated with polymeric materials like polymerized alkyl silanes, m-diaminobenzene, polyacrylamide, polyacrolein, or cellulose to facilitate covalent coupling of the antibodies. In this project we have evaluated some magnetizable particles for use in RIAs and IRMAs of hormones. The particles include Fe 3 0 4 , silane coated iron oxide, polyacrolein coated iron oxide and magnetizable cellulose. Second antibody (anti rabbit IgG.) was coupled to the particles for use in RIA of T 3 , T 4 , HCG, LH and progesterone, while monoclonal antibodies were coupled for the IRMAs of TSH, FSH and prolactin (hPrl). The influence of conditions such as reaction time, ratio of antibody to particles, and stability of the adsorbents and assay performance have been studied. For developing IRMAs for TSH, FSH and prolactin, monoclonal antibodies for each of these hormones were tested using magnetizable cellulose as the solid phase. We have also prepared silanized Fe 3 0 4 particles using Hungarian magnetite particles, and also prepared magnetizable cellulose by a simple grinding process. Both these materials are being tried out in different assays. Preliminary results have been encouraging. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Reproductive Hormones Disorders Of Sudanese Infertile Females Using Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N. I.; Almahi, W. A. A.; Abdalla, O. M.; Bafarag, S. M. I.; Abdelgadir, O. M.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Hassan, A. M. E.; Hassan, A. M. E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study fertility hormones were measured for 587 infertile Sudanese female referred from gynecological clinics. The ages of these female ranges from 16 - 50 years divided into seven groups. Eighty seven percent of them are in the age range between 21 and 40 year which correlate with the female's fertile period and 5.6% of them under 20 years. Sensitive (IRMA) method was used for measuring the hormone concentration. The objective of this study was to found out the percentage of hormonal disorders and its relation to the age in infertile Sudanese females. The age group (21 - 25) was the most affected group by the Poly-Cystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and represented 5.1% of the total number of patients. The least group was the age group (41- 45) with a percentage of 0.4. The LH and the FSH in the age group of (31- 35) was found to be higher than the other groups and represented 11.4% and 7.8% from the total number of patients respectively. The least percent of high level of LH and FSH was found to be in the most fertile age group (15 - 20) and it was 1.7% and 1.0% from the total number of studied patient, respectively. Those who were in the age range (26 - 30) with hyperprolactinemia represented 10.4% of patients, while those with age range (46 - 50) with hyperprolactinemia represented the lowest percentage (1.2%). The percentage of patients having high LH and high FSH was 44.5% and 29.1% respectively , while the hyperprolactinemia among the infertile Sudanese female was found to 38.2%. (Authors)

  9. Antibodies immobilized on magnetic particles for radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay of hormones. Final report of a co-ordinated research programme 1991-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The IAEA organized a co-ordinated research programme (CRP) in 1991 for studying the properties of a few most promising magnetizable immunoadsorbents and standardizing some important radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay procedures using them with the ultimate aim of expanding the application of these assays in developing countries using indigenously prepared reagents. Ten laboratories from nine countries of Asia, Latin America and Europe participated in this CRP which was concluded in 1995. Three different magnetizable particles prepared and investigated by the participants, namely magnetite, magnetite coated with silane and magnetite coated with polyacrolein, have emerged suitable for use in radioimmunometric assays from this CRP. Methods have been developed for coupling antibodies to these particles and using the resultant immunoadsorbents for assaying several important hormones and proteins including T 3 , T 4 , fT 3 , fT 4 , reverse T 3 , TSH, thyroglobuling(Tg), Tg-antibodies, HCG, LH, cortisol, FSH and prolacting. All the participating laboratories could develop in house methodology for solid phase assays based on magnetizable particles during the course of the CRP and benefit from the exchange of materials, information and experience amongst them. This report includes detailed results obtained by the participating laboratories as well as a summary and assessment of the achievements of the CRP. It also includes suggestions for areas of investigation for pursuing in the future. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. Immunoradiometric assay for the determination of E. coli proteins in recombinant dna derived human growth hormone produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Carlos R.J.

    1995-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the determination of multiple antigens was set up in order to quantify E. coli (ECP) in lots of purified recombinant human growth hormone (rec-hGH). SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting techniques were carried out, in parallel, to confirm the results obtained by IRMA and to provide more information about the contaminants. Anti-ECP antibodies were obtained by rabbit immunization with ECP, which were submitted to the same purification process utilized for rec-hGH with the exception of the last step. A strain-process-specific assay was thus set up. The antiserum obtained was purified through an affinity column prepared with the same ECP used for immunization, this provided an highly sensitive assay (0,03 ng ECP/mL). This IRMA was shown to be specific, not presenting any cross reaction with hGH and studies carried out on precision, accuracy and linearity of response with dilution confirmed its validity as one of the fundamental purity tests for rec-hGH produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP, whose principles can be easily extended to the analysis of other similar products. These studies have also shown that the utilization of an affinity column, prepared with the described anti-ECP antiserum was very effective, providing rec-hGH lots with less then 10 parts per million (0,001%) of contaminating proteins. (author). 45 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Immunoradiometric assay for ferritin in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyland, M.J.; Ganguli, P.C.; Blower, D.; Delamore, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    A sensitiv specific and precise immunoradiometric assay for ferritin has been developed. Ferritin was measured in the serum of 160 hospital controls, 101 females (118 plus/minus 9 μg/l) and 59 males (189 plus/minus 16 μg/l). This difference was statistically significant. In 28 patients with untreated iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin concentration (6.1plus/minus 0.7 μg/l) was significantly lower than in the controls, but it was within the normal range in 14 cases of polycythaemia vera treated by repeated phlebotomy. In 4 patients with primary haemachromatosis (2884 plus/minus 56 μg/l), 25 with secondary iron overload states (5702 plus/minus 1235 μg/l) and 8 with haemolytic anaemia (1612 plus/minus 605 μg/l), serum ferritin levels were markedly elevated. In 14 cases of transfusional siderosis there was a highly significant correlation between serum ferritin concentration and units of blood transfused. A circadian rhythmin serum ferritin concentration was observed in 7 healthy subjects. (author)

  12. Radioimmunoassays and 2-site immunoradiometric 'sandwich' assays: basic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodbard, D

    1988-10-01

    The 'sandwich' or noncompetitive reagent-excess, 2-site immunoradiometric assay (2-site IRMA), ELISA, USERIA, and related techniques, have several advantages compared with the traditional or competitive radioimmunoassays. IRMAs can provide improved sensitivity and specificity. However, IRMAs present some practical problems with nonspecific binding, increased consumption of antibody, biphasic dose response curve, (high dose hook effect), and may require special techniques for dose response curve analysis. We anticipate considerable growth in the popularity and importance of 2-site IRMA.

  13. Radioimmunoassays and 2-site immunoradiometric "sandwich" assays: basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbard, D

    1988-10-01

    The "sandwich" or noncompetitive reagent-excess, 2-site immunoradiometric assay (2-site IRMA), ELISA, USERIA, and related techniques, have several advantages compared with the traditional or competitive radioimmunoassays. IRMAs can provide improved sensitivity and specificity. However, IRMAs present some practical problems with nonspecific binding, increased consumption of antibody, biphasic dose response curve, (high dose hook effect), and may require special techniques for dose response curve analysis. We anticipate considerable growth in the popularity and importance of 2-site IRMA.

  14. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  15. Ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay for chorionic gonadotropin which does not cross-react with luteinizing hormone nor free β chain of hCG and which detects hCG in blood of non-pregnant humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.; Odell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive, non-competitive, two-monoclonal antibody, sandwich-type or immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which shows no cross-reaction with the free β chain of hCG nor with human luteinizing hormone (LH). In the assay procedure, two, highly selected monoclonal antibodies reacted in solution with hCG to be quantified. One antibody was covalently conjugated to biotin. This antibody was specific for the β subunit of hCG, and showed no reaction with LH nor the α subunit. The second antibody was labelled with 125 I and was specific for intact hCG and LH, showing no cross-reaction with βhCG nor the α subunit. The separation system was a polystyrene ball conjugated with biotin. This ball bound via an avidin bridge the monoclonal 'sandwich' containing hCG. Counts per minute bound to the ball were directly proportional to the amount of hCG present. The assay was specific for whole hCG and showed no reaction with βhCG, βLH, intact LH nor the free α subunit. Sensitivity was adequate to detect 'hCG-like' material in all post menopausal women and, when single samples were obtained, in over 2/3 of normal men. When multiple samples were obtained, 'hCG-like' material was detectable in all eugonadal adults studied. 27 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 table

  16. Isotopic methods or immuno diagnosis: The Radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso, R.

    1997-01-01

    This work offers an explanation about the more used isotopic techniques for immuno diagnosis: the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). It describes the basic principles of these assays, the antigen-antibody reaction, the radioiodination methods with I-125 for antigens and antibodies, the purification and characterization of labelled compounds. On the order hand they present work gives a review of the methods for separate the bound and free fractions. At the end it offers the principles of the quality control of immunoassay and the future lines of research in the field of RIA and IRMA

  17. Establishment of immunoradiometric assay for free prostate-specific antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lianxue

    2009-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of free prostate specific antigen (F-PSA) in serum was established. One monoclonal antibody against total PSA (T-PSA) was coated on the plastic tubes, the other against F-PSA was labeled with 125 I. The sensitivity of assay was 0.04 μg/L (n=20, +2s), the CVs were 2.9%-4.0% for the intra-assay and 3.5%-10.5% for the inter-assay and the average recovery was 102.7%. The correlative equation comparing with the FPSA-RIA (CIS BIO) is y=0.965 1 χ -0.001 1, and r=0.996 4. This F-PSA IRMA is a sensitive and precise method in detecting F-PSA and fit for the vitro assay. (authors)

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 [human cytomegalovirus (CMV)] has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab

  20. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood. Critical comparison between immunoradiometric assays and radioimmunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L. (Physiology of Human Reproduction Research Unit, University of Louvain, School of Medicine, Brussels (Belgium)); Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van (Hopital Universitaire des Enfants, Reine Fabiola, Free University of Brussels (Belgium))

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author).

  1. An immunoradiometric assay for Helicobacter pylori urease B in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanyan; Wang Zhaoyue; Bai Xia; Ruan Changgen; Miao Jingcheng; Gu Guanbing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a novel immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for detecting helicobacter pylori (HP) urease B (ureB) in serum. Methods: HP ureB was prepared by the DNA recombinant technique. Monoclonal antibodies against HP ureB were produced by hybridoma technique and were used to establish IRMA for detecting HP ureB. Fifty patients with chronic gastric diseases were recruited in this study, including 36 with gastric ulcer disease, 9 with chronic gastritis and 5 with gastric cancer. The IRMA was compared with rapid urease test (RUT), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and direct-ELISA test of serum anti-ureB antibody, using HP culture from gastric biopsy samples as a 'golden standard'. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of IRMA for HP ureB were 94.6% and 76.9%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values being 92.1% and 83.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of RUT, PCR and serum anti-ureB antibody test were 94.6% and 23.1% , 66.8% and 84.6%, 86.5% and 38.5%, respectively. IRMA and the test of serum anti-ureB antibody was not significantly different from the 'golden standard' (X 2 =1.165, P>0.05), but RUT and PCR showed statistically significant difference with the 'gold standard' (X 2 =5.333, 9.436; all P<0.05). Conclusion: IRMA for HP ureB antigen is a sensitive and specific method for detection of HP infection, and can be used in the study of etiology and pathogenesis of gastric and some other related diseases. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of immunoradiometric and ELISA versions of a microtitre plate assay for Bacillus anthracis spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, A P; Martin, K L; Cross, N L [Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton (UK); Drake, R G [Glasgow Univ. (UK). Inst. of Biochemistry

    1984-05-11

    Solid-phase indirectly-labelled antibody assays for Bacillus anthracis spores heat-fixed on polystyrene microtitre plates were compared as immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) versions. Signal-to-noise ratios were usually higher in the IRMA than in the ELISA performed under parallel conditions but replicates were more varied in the IRMA. The antigen detection threshold and resolution limit calculated after regression analysis were broadly comparable in the 2 types of assay.

  3. Determination of congenital hypothyroidism in neonatal by immunoradiometric assays of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras P, E.

    1998-01-01

    The congenital hypothyroidism is the endocrine illness more frequent of the childhood, it is the one that produce the devastating effects on the growth and the development. It represent one of the few causes of mental delay that it could be prevented if it is diagnosed and treaty on time. The infants affected with congenital hypothyroidism, could be detected for the apparent presence of some physical abnormalities, which comes the first days of the birth. Unfortunately, in the moment in which the classical manifestations are made present, it is very probable that cerebral damage already exists, for what the affected children should be tried before the three months of life administering them thyroid hormones. In Mexico the incidence of the congenital hypothyroidism is of one for each 1612 births for that is very important in the area of Public Health diagnose in early form and with certainty the congenital hypothyroidism. The TSH hormone or thyrotropin is formed in the hypophysis and intervenes in the synthesis of the thyroid hormones (T3, T4) when the concentration of these is adapted, the formation of TSH is inhibited, for that upon lacking the thyroid hormones the concentration of TSH in the blood is high. For these reasons the shot metabolic state of a newborn could be determined, quantifying the TSH in blood obtained by heel stab of the neonatal, or in coming blood from the umbilical cord, after 48 hours of being born. However because the TSH is similar to other hormones and is in extremely low concentrations, it is made necessary appeal analytic techniques of very sensitive and specific laboratory like the Immunoradiometric assays (Irma) in order to could determine the levels of this hormone in the blood. (Author)

  4. A sensitive immunoradiometric assay for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.H.; Combridge, B.S.; Howell, D.R.; Barbara, J.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for hepatitis B surface antigen is described which has been in use since 1972. Initially it was used for reference laboratory work, but from 1974 it has also been used for screening blood and blood products. Methods for the production of reagents and their use in blood transfusion and reference work, are outlined. (Auth.)

  5. Study of serum TSH content in functioning thyroid gland adenoma by 'supersensitive' immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, Janos; Banos, Csaba; Csillag, Jozsef; Lakatos, Peter; Tarjan, Gabor; 2546970HU)

    1987-01-01

    Determinations of serum TSH levels by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-math TSH (Mallinckrodt) kit and of the thyroid function by scintiscanning using 99m Tc-pertechnetate (20-40 MBq) were carried out paralelly in euthyroid and hyperthyroid patients. A comparison of the two tests allowed a better distinction of preclinical hyperthyreosis from toxic adenomas. (L.E.)

  6. Immunological measurements on the disappearance of creatine kinase MM from the circulation. [Immunoradiometric assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wevers, R A; van Landeghem, A A.J.; Mul-Steinbusch, M W.F.J.; Bijdendijk, J G; Weerts, P; Kloeg, P; Soons, J B.J. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1983-07-15

    Both a two-site immunoradiometric assay and a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for creatine kinase MM are described. Linearity, reproducibility and cross-reactivity of the assays are satisfactory. Creatine kinase MM incubated in a pH-controlled serum matrix loses its activity, but has its antigenic determinants affected as well. Of all the techniques used, only the immunoradiometric assay is capable of measuring part of the inactivated enzyme. Measurements with this assay on the sera of patients after a myocardial infarction show identical results for enzyme activity and creatine kinase protein quantity. The in vitro disappearance rate of creatine kinase activity is slow compared with the in vivo half-life of the enzyme. These two observations lead to the conclusion that creatine kinase is removed from the circulation long before it is inactivated in the blood stream.

  7. Clinical experience of a sensitive immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Saeko; Jibiki, Kazuko; Demura, Reiko; Koike, Sachiko; Kurihara, Shigeko; Odagiri, Emi; Demura, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available immunoradiometric thyrotropin (TSH) assay kit (RIA-gnost hTSH) was used to study the concentration of TSH in serum in a series of 124 patients with thyroid dysfunction and 35 normal controls. Laboratory test for RIA-gnost hTSH showed a detection limit for TSH to be 0.03 μU/ml. The basal serum concentration of TSH in normal controls ranged from 0.17 to 3.21 μU/ml, with a mean of 0.74 μU/ml. It was less than 0.04 μU/ml in all 28 untreated patients with Graves' disease, indicating the discrimination between normal and hyperthyroid subjects. In the case of untreated 7 patients with hypothalamic hypopituitarism, the basal TSH concentration ranged from 0.80 to 13.5 μU/ml. There was no consistent tendency for changes in TSH levels with normalization of free thyroxine in 8 treated patients with Graves' disease. The basal serum concentration of TSH reflected the response of TSH to thyrotropin releasing hormone in 10 treated patients with Graves' disease. The use of the RIA-gnost hTSH would be of clinical significance in the diagnosis and management of patients with Graves' disease or hypopituitarism. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willson, V J.C.; Jones, H M; Thompson, R J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Clinical School

    1981-06-18

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and /sup 125/I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive.

  9. A two-site immunoradiometric assay for the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, V.J.C.; Jones, H.M.; Thompson, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for myocardial creatine kinase MB isoenzyme is described. The method utilizes immobilized anti-human creatine kinase BB antibodies and 125 I-labelled anti-human creatine kinase MM antibodies and can specifically detect creatine kinase MB in the presence of approximately 1000-fold excess of creatine kinase MM or BB. Native kinase MB prepared from human heart and creatine kinase MB prepared by hybridisation of purified human creatine kinase MM and creatine kinase BB appeared to react identically in the assay. Serum estimations on patients with suspected myocardial infarction correlated with the presence of MB band on electrophoresis but preliminary results suggest that the two-site immunoradiometric assay may be more sensitive. (Auth.)

  10. Immunoassays in clinical chemistry (principles of immunoradiometric assays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    The use of antibodies as reagents in clinical chemistry for the quantitation of a wide range of analytes has now become widely established. Initially antibodies were employed in precipitation techniques, usually for the analysis of serum proteins, in solution or in the form of antibody containing gels, e.g. immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis. Further developments have led to the highly sensitive techniques of radioimmunoassay and recently immunometric assay for the measurement of drugs, tumour markers and hormones. In general, those techniques without the addition of a label e.g. immunoprecipitation, immunodiffusion and immunoturbidimetry are the older techniques used for the measurement of serum proteins. These techniques are relatively insensitive, measuring at the g/L. level, and in the case of immunodiffusion are generally slow. Automation coupled with the development of chemistries to enhance precipitation has, however, reduced measurement times to minutes in modern laboratories. Nevertheless these methods have detection limits of the order of 1 g/L

  11. Immunoradiometric assay for prolactin in serum and tissue; Comparison with radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnami, Shumpei; Nakata, Hajime; Eto, Sumiya (University of Occupational and Environmental Health Hospital, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-09-01

    Prolactin (PRL) concentrations in sera and tumors of patients with various pituitary tumors were measured by both immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). PRL concentrations in sera and tumor tissues measured by IRMA were well correlated with those measured by RIA. PRL concentrations in sera reflected those of tumors removed. This IRMA is a simple and useful method for PRL determination in serum and tissue. (author).

  12. First field trial of an immunoradiometric assay for the detection of malaria sporozoites in mosquitoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, F.H.; Zavala, F.; Graves, P.M.; Cochrane, A.H.; Gwadz, R.W.; Akoh, J.; Nussenzweig, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using a monoclonal antibody to the major surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites was used to assess the P. falciparum sporozoite rate in a West African population of Anopheles gambiae (s.1.). Unlike current dissection techniques, the IRMA could detect sporozoite antigen in dried as well as fresh mosquitoes. In a controlled comparison, the sensitivity of the IRMA was comparable that of the dissection technique. Additionally, the IRMA was species specific and quantitative. Sensitivity of the assay was sufficient to detect sporozoite infections resulting from the development of a single oocyst

  13. Immunoradiometric assay of lipid A: a test for detecting and quantitating endotoxins of various origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, J P; Vladutiu, A O; Moreno, D M; Cohen, S A; Camara, D S [State University of New York, Buffalo (USA). School of Medicine

    1982-11-26

    The ability to measure circulating endotoxin in various disease states has been hampered by the lack of a specific and quantitative assay. The test most commonly used has been the Limulus gelation assay, which measures an enzymatic effect of endotoxin rather than the substance itself. Based on a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay previously developed to detect the specific lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 026, a similar assay has been developed for the lipid A moiety of endotoxins. The assay uses rabbit antibodies to lipid A which do not react with ketodeoxyoctonate, myristic or beta-hydroxymyristic acids, and detects lipid A obtained from endotoxins of various origins after acid hydrolysis of lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in rats given exogenous endotoxin suggest that this assay can be useful for quantitation of bacterial endotoxins in serum and for studying the pathophysiology of experimental endotoxemia.

  14. Study on quantification of HBs-antibody by immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yuichi; Itoi, Yoshihiro; Kajiyama, Shizuo

    1989-01-01

    Quantification of HBs-antibody assay was carried out using a commercialized assay kit and standard solutions of HBs-antibody recognised as 1 st reference preparation of hepatitis B immunogloblin by WHO. Standard curve of HBs-antibody was drawn with the function of 3D-spline and the correlation factor was obtained as r = 0.999. Coefficient of intra-assay variance was 3.8 % and that of inter-assay variance was 7.8 %. Dilution tests showed satisfactory results in the range of 2-16 times. Correlation between value of cut-off indices and concentration of HBs-antibody was obtained as the formula of y = 2.599 x-3.894 (r = 0.992) and 2.1 of cut-off index corresponded to about 5 mIU/ml of HBs-antibody concentration. (author)

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to human factor VII: a one step immunoradiometric assay for VII:Ag.

    OpenAIRE

    Takase, T; Tuddenham, E G; Chand, S; Goodall, A H

    1988-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (RFF-VII/1, RFF-VII/2, and RFF-VII/3) which bind specifically to different epitopes on human factor VII antigen were raised. Two of the antibodies, RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/2, bound strongly to factor VII antigen (VII:Ag), but only RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/3 were potent inhibitors of factor VII coagulation activity (VII:C). RFF-VII/1 and RFF-VII/2 were used in a one step, double monoclonal immunoradiometric assay for VII:Ag. This was highly reproducible and detecte...

  16. Use of monoclonal immunoradiometric assays for sensitive TSH measurements: evaluation of four commercially obtainable kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smitz, J.; Schiettecatte, J.; Stierteghem, A.C. van; Jonckheer, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four commerically available monoclonal immunoradiometric methods for the assay of TSH are tested. These four kits are: RIA-GNOST TSH code 0CPL of Behring, SUCROSEP TSH IRMA of Boots, TSH-IRMA-CT-100 of Medgenix, TSH-RIA bead II Ultrasensitive of Abbott. The accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the four kits are compared. The methods are also clinically evaluated. The authors concluded that the kits of Abbott, Behring and Boots are suitable for use in the routine laboratory. 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 7 tabs

  17. An automated immunoradiometric assay of thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, R.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric two-site assay for thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots is described. The assay is automated by means of the Kemtek 3000 automated immunoassay system. The technique uses a 6.0 mm disc punched from the dried blood samples collected as part of the screening programme for phenylketonuria. The method is sensitive and precise, and results correlate well with those obtained in TSH assays of serum samples. The procedure is rapid, results being available within 24 h of receipt of samples. Of 25204 specimens so far screened by this assay, 99.9% have TSH levels less than 15 mU/l. One false positive result has been obtained and six confirmed cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected, giving a prevalence of 1 in 4200. (Auth.)

  18. Automated immunoradiometric assay of thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, R.; Woodhead, J.S. (Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff (UK))

    1982-11-10

    An immunoradiometric two-site assay for thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots is described. The assay is automated by means of the Kemtek 3000 automated immunoassay system. The technique uses a 6.0 mm disc punched from the dried blood samples collected as part of the screening programme for phenylketonuria. The method is sensitive and precise, and results correlate well with those obtained in TSH assays of serum samples. The procedure is rapid, results being available within 24 h of receipt of samples. Of 25204 specimens so far screened by this assay, 99.9% have TSH levels less than 15 mU/l. One false positive result has been obtained and six confirmed cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected, giving a prevalence of 1 in 4200.

  19. Measurement of human tissue-type plasminogen activator by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; De Cock, F.; Collen, D.

    1983-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator was developed by using rabbit antibodies raised against plasminogen activator purified from human melanoma cell culture fluid. Samples of 100 μl containing 1 to 100 ng/ml plasminogen activator were incubated in the wells of polyvinyl chloride microtiter plates coated with antibody. The amount of bound extrinsic plasminogen activator was quantitated by the subsequent binding of 125 I-labeled affinospecific antibody. The mean level of plasma samples taken at rest was 6.6 +/- 2.9 ng/ml (n = 54). This level increased approximately threefold by exhaustive physical exercise, venous occlusion, or infusion of DDAVP. Extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and active component (1.9 +/- 1.1 ng/ml, n = 54, in resting conditions) and an inactive component that does not bind to a fibrin clot (probably extrinsic plasminogen activator-proteinase inhibitor complexes). The fibrin-adsorbable fraction increased approximately fivefold to eightfold after physical exercise, venous occlusion, or DDAVP injections. Potential applications of the immunoradiometric assay are illustrated by the measurement of extrinsic plasminogen activator in different tissue extracts, body fluids, and cell culture fluids and in oocyte translation products after injection with mRNA for plasminogen activator

  20. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of ''SCC RIABEAD'' kit for immunoradiometric assay of squamous cell carcinoma related antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Endo, Keigo; Nakajima, Kotoko

    1987-01-01

    A commercial ''SCC RIABEAD'' kit for immunoradiometric assay of squamous cell carcinoma related antigen (SCC antigen) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. Laboratory performance was satisfactory for intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility, recovery, and dilution, with rapid and simple measurement techniques. Seropositivity for SCC antigen was significantly higher for squamous cell carcinoma of the liver and uterine cervix than the other histology types. In the case of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, it increased with progressing disease. Post-treatment serum levels of SCC antigen returned to negative. SCC antigen is considered to be a useful tumor marker for these diseases. There was a good correlation between the measurement values obtained from the present and conventional (SCC RIAKIT) assays. The present assay remarkably decreased false-positive cases of pulmonary benign diseases. The results showed a ''SCC RIABEAD'' to be a favorable kit for immunoradiometric assay of SSC antigen, as compared with conventional assay kit. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys. (Auth.)

  2. Antibodies to poliovirus detected by immunoradiometric assay with a monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitz, M.; Fossati, C.A.; Schild, G.C.; Spitz, L.; Brasher, M. (National Inst. for Biological Standards and Control, London (UK))

    1982-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the assay of antibodies to poliovirus antigens is described. Dilutions of the test sera or whole (finger prick) blood samples were incubated with the poliovirus antigen bound to a solid phase and the specific antibody was detected by the addition of a mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal antibody (McAb), which was itself revealed by iodinated sheep IgG antimouse F(ab). The authors have shown that this technique is suitable for the estimation of IgG anti-poliovirus antibodies induced in children following polio vaccine. The present study shows that SPRIA provides a simple and inexpensive method for serological studies with poliovirus particularly for use in large-scale surveys.

  3. The evaluation of domestic immunoradiometric assay kit for alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-08-01

    Although {alpha}-fetoprotein is one of the most commonly used tumor markers in Korea, most of the radioimmunoassay kits for {alpha}-fetoprotein have been imported from foreign countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a recently developed domestic immunoradiometric kit for {alpha}-fetoprotein (Riakey AFP IRMA CT{sup R}, Sin-Jin Medics, Seoul, Korea). We evaluated intra-and inter-assay precision, recovery rate, parallelism, and sensitivity of serum {alpha}-fetoprotein measurement using Riakey AFP IRMA CT{sup R} kit. The values of {alpha}-fetoprotein measured by Riakey AFP IRMA CT{sup R} kit were compared with those measured by two foreign commercial kits ({alpha}-fetoproteina of Radim and {alpha}-feto.riabead of Abbott). Intra-assay coefficients of variation on three different levels were 5.3% for 18.9 ng/ml, 3.4% for 133 ng/ml and 1.6% for 330 ng/ml. Inter-assay coefficients of variation were 9.7% for 20.9 ng/ml, 3.2% for 137 ng/ml and 4.1% for 330 ng/ml respectively. Recovery rate tests on all three different levels showed within 100{+-}10%. Parallelism was also good and the sensitivity was 0.63 ng/ml. There was strong correlation between the measurement of {alpha}-fetoprotein by Riakey AFP IRMA CT{sup R} and that by two foreign commercial kits(r=3D0.98). The first Korean domestic immunoradiometric kit for {alpha}-fetoprotein, Riakey AFP IRMA CT{sup R}, performed well for clinical use.

  4. The evaluation of domestic immunoradiometric assay kit for alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Ryu, Jin Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Hee Kyung

    2000-01-01

    Although α-fetoprotein is one of the most commonly used tumor markers in Korea, most of the radioimmunoassay kits for α-fetoprotein have been imported from foreign countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a recently developed domestic immunoradiometric kit for α-fetoprotein (Riakey AFP IRMA CT R , Sin-Jin Medics, Seoul, Korea). We evaluated intra-and inter-assay precision, recovery rate, parallelism, and sensitivity of serum α-fetoprotein measurement using Riakey AFP IRMA CT R kit. The values of α-fetoprotein measured by Riakey AFP IRMA CT R kit were compared with those measured by two foreign commercial kits (α-fetoproteina of Radim and α-feto.riabead of Abbott). Intra-assay coefficients of variation on three different levels were 5.3% for 18.9 ng/ml, 3.4% for 133 ng/ml and 1.6% for 330 ng/ml. Inter-assay coefficients of variation were 9.7% for 20.9 ng/ml, 3.2% for 137 ng/ml and 4.1% for 330 ng/ml respectively. Recovery rate tests on all three different levels showed within 100±10%. Parallelism was also good and the sensitivity was 0.63 ng/ml. There was strong correlation between the measurement of α-fetoprotein by Riakey AFP IRMA CT R and that by two foreign commercial kits(r=3D0.98). The first Korean domestic immunoradiometric kit for α-fetoprotein, Riakey AFP IRMA CT R , performed well for clinical use.=20

  5. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for C-reactive protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for C-reactive protein (CRP) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid-phase support for anti-CRP antibodies. 125 I-labelled immunopurified anti-CRP antibody was used to quantitate the amount of CRP taken up by the solid phase. Unbound label was easily and rapidly removed by decantation after sedimenting the particles on a magnet. The assay could detect 1 μg CRP/l and had a range of up to 10 mg/l with the portion of the standard curve between 10 μg/l and 2-3 mg/l being linear. Fifty samples per hour could be processed manually from serum to CRP result with an intra-assay CV of 5.2% and an inter-assay CV of 10.0%, based on 5 replicates of 5 samples with CRP levels between 2 mg/l and 180 mg/l run in 5 separate assays. Fifty clinical samples were assayed in parallel with a standard electroimmunoassay and yielded a linear correlation coefficient (r) of 0.975 and a slope of 0.98. With its single, brief incubation step including all reagents and its simple phase separation procedure the present method may be the assay of choice when precise measurement of CRP concentrations is required rapidly. (Auth.)

  6. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...

  7. Development of simple immunoradiometric assays using avidin coupled to polystyrene beads as a common solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyotsna, N.; Singh, Y.; Chouthkanthiwar, V.; Paradkar, S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the preparation and application of avidin coupled polystyrene beads as a common solid phase for use in immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs). The assay system is based on two matched commercial monoclonal antibodies, of which, the capture antibody is biotinylated using biotinamidocaproate N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and the detection antibody is radiolabeled with 125 I by conventional Chloramine-T method. Avidin was immobilized on the polystyrene beads through a primary coat of bovine serum albumin using glutaraldhyde activation method. Various factors, such as concentration of reagents, incubation time, etc. were optimised to obtain a simple assay protocol consisting of only two pipetting steps, namely, that of a mixture of the two labelled antibodies (radiolabelled and biotinylated) and of the standard or sample. The advantage of the Avidin-Biotin system is the improved sensitivity, economy of antibody and the possibility to use a common solid phase in assays for different analytes. Using the polystyrene beads along with the novel decanting device, it has been possible to achieve the convenience of the 'coated-tube' technology without the expensive automation necessary for large scale preparation of antibody coated tubes. This protocol has been successfully applied to Prolactin, LH and FSH assays. The sensitivity of the Prolactin assay is 8μIU/mL (0.3 ng/mL), that of the FSH assay is 1mIU/mL and that of the LH assay is 0.9 mIU/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay variations were <10%. Shelf life of the avidin coupled beads was found to be about 8 months and that of the biotin labelled antibodies up to 18 months. (author)

  8. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstedt, S.; Rylander, H.

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, 125 I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not. (author)

  9. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, S; Rylander, H [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, /sup 125/I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not.

  10. Development of a new in vivo kit for detection of prostate specific antigen in human serum using immunoradiometric assay method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, M. H.; Behradkia, P.; Shafii, M.; Movla, M.; Forutan, H.; Najafi, R.

    2006-01-01

    Prostate is a leading site for the cancer incidence, accounted for 31.0% of new cancer cases in men. Prostate-specific antigen is widely used in the detection and monitoring of the prostate cancer. Currently, immunoassay is used to detect Prostate-specific antigen in human serum. This technique is based on the interaction between antibody and antigen. The varied immunoassay formats and equipment to run the assays allow the users to measure the analytes rapidly, with the flexibility to run a small or a large number of samples. Among different immunoassay methods, immunoradiometric assay is a more sensitive and valuable detection approach. This study has been made in 4 parts: (1) purification of Prostate-specific antigen from seminal fluid; (2) preparation of hybridoma cells which secrete monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Prostate-specific antigen , (3) selection of pair monoclonal antibody among those antibodies, and finally (4) design of an immunoradiometric assay kit and it's quality control . The results of this study were: (1) obtaining a huge amount of Prostate-specific antigen as semi-purified and purified, that is a valuable material for preparation of standard kits; (2) preparation of 8 kinds of monoclonal antibodies; (3) finding 4 pairs of monoclonal antibodies which react with different epitopes on Prostate-specific antigen molecule; and (4) preparation of immunoradiometric assay kit for measuring Prostate-specific antigen concentration in human serum

  11. Two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay of human lymphotoxin with monoclonal antibodies and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meager, A; Parti, S; Leung, H; Woolley, J; Peil, E; Sidhu, S; Roberts, T

    1987-11-23

    Three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs L49-15, L81-11 and L238-14) were raised against recombinant human lymphotoxin (rLT) derived from E. coli containing the cDNA sequence specifying LT. These MoAbs were ideal reagents for immunoassay of LT and a very sensitive, highly specific immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed. This assay was rapid to perform and was capable of detecting as little as 10 pg/ml of LT. Application of the LT IRMA in combination with previously developed human gamma-interferon (IFN-..gamma..) and human tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-specific IRMA permitted independent estimations of these three substances to be carried out in parallel. By these means, it was found that RPMI 1788 lymphoblastoid cell line produced both LT and TNF, but not IFN-..gamma... Extensive analyses on cytokine (monokine and lymphokine) preparations derived from a variety of activated lymphocytes are also reported. Co-production of LT, TNF, and IFN-..gamma.. was a common finding, even occurring in alloantigen-specific T helper cell clones. 45 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs.

  12. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for serum amyloid A protein using magnetisable cellulose particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Beer, F.C.; Dyck, R.F.; Pepys, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid phase. Rabbit antiserum to SAA was raised by immunization with SAA isolated from acute-phase serum by gel filtration in formic acid. The antiserum was rendered monospecific for SAA by solid-phase immunoabsorption with normal human serum, which contains only traces of SAA, and some was coupled covalently to the cellulose particles. Immunopurified anti-SAA antibodies were isolated from the monospecific anti-SAA serum by binding to, and elution from insolubilized acute-phase serum and were radiolabelled with 125 I. The assay was calibrated with an acute phase serum which contained 6000 times more SAA than normal sera with the lowest detectable level of SAA, and an arbitrary value of 6000 U/l was assigned to this standard. Sera were tested in the native, undenatured state and there was no increase in SAA immunoreactivity following alkali treatment or heating. The assay range was from 1-2000 U/l so that all SAA levels above 6 U/l could be measured on a single (1:6) dilution of serum. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11.7 and 15.0% respectively. Among 100 healthy normal subjects (50 male, 50 female) the median SAA level was 9 U/l, range <1-100, with 93% below 20 U/l and only 2% below the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay (1 U/l). (Auth.)

  13. Direct measurement of the precursors of adrenocorticotropin in human plasma by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, S.R.; Stewart, M.F.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; White, A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the direct measurement of the precursors of ACTH in unextracted human plasma has been developed and evaluated clinically in normal subjects and patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The IRMA is based on an iodinated monoclonal antibody to ACTH and a monoclonal antibody to gamma MSH coupled to Sephacryl S300. The assay detects only peptides containing both epitopes, i.e. POMC (31K) and pro-ACTH (22K). The reference standard was partially purified POMC from culture medium of human corticotroph adenoma cells. The detection limit (greater than +2.5SD of the 0 standard) was 2.0 pmol/L and the within-assay coefficient of variation was less than 10% between 29 and 2600 pmol/L. Plasma concentrations of ACTH precursor peptides in 11 normal subjects sampled at 0930 h ranged from 5-34 pmol/L. The concentrations in the patient groups studied were: 260-2300 pmol/L in 5 patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer, less than 2.0-104 pmol/L in 10 patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease, 23 pmol/L in a patient with Nelson's syndrome, and 3.0-230 pmol/L in 5 patients with Addison's disease. We conclude that this IRMA offers a simple and reliable method for measuring ACTH precursors in unextracted plasma. The proportionately greater elevation of ACTH precursors compared to ACTH in patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer but not in pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, suggests that this assay may be clinically useful

  14. Measurement of immunoglobulin production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffe, L.M.; Maini, R.N.; Cohen, M.L.; Meretey, K.

    1981-01-01

    A simple solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for IgG and IgM is described. Supernatants from lymphocyte cultures are incubated in microtitre plates which have been precoated with anti-IgG or anti-IgM. Subsequent binding of 125 I-labelled anti-immunoglobulin is measured and IgG and IgM in supernatants are estimated from the standard curve constructed for each assay. The assay is specific for human IgG and IgM, is able to detect nanogram amounts and offers advantages over other techniques for evaluating in vitro lymphocyte function. (Auth.)

  15. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies; Assay development and evaluation in blood transfusion practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J. (Medical School, Manchester (United Kingdom). Department of Medical microbiology, Virology Unit); Morell, G. (Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, manchester (United Kingdom))

    1990-03-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 (human cytomegalovirus (CMV)) has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab.

  16. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions

  17. Quantitative Measurement of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Using an Immunoradiometric Assay in Chronic Hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Seog Gyun; Kim, Won; Jung, Wong Jin; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis D patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on CMIA. Furthermors, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R 2= 0.838, P 2= 0.067, P=0.316 by IRMA, and R 2= 0.101, P=0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA based method in chronic hepatitis B patients

  18. Quantitative Measurement of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Using an Immunoradiometric Assay in Chronic Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Seog Gyun; Kim, Won; Jung, Wong Jin; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis D patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on CMIA. Furthermors, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R{sup 2=}0.838, P<0.001). Serum HBsAg level and serum HBV DNA copies were found to be linearly related by both methods (R{sup 2=}0.067, P=0.316 by IRMA, and R{sup 2=}0.101, P=0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA based method in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  19. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-12-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p=0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p>0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values.(Author)

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alphafeto protein (AFP) in Sudanese pregnant women using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O. M.; Khalid, M. M.; Hassan, A.; Ali, N. I.; Khalid, A. SH.; Abdelhadi, H. A.; Khair, L. A. M.; Almahi, W. A.; Gaafar, A.; Abdalla, H.; Basheer, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study 672 pregnant Sudanese women were involved in order to determine the reference values of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha feto protein (AFP). Blood samples were collected from different maternity centers in Khartoum and Omdurman maternity. Sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), method was used for measuring HCG and AFP in maternal serum. The data collected reveals that, the behavior of both AFP and HCG resemble that of the international one, where the peak concentrations of HCG are reached at 7-9 weeks of pregnancy then decrease, then staying relatively constant during the second trimester and increasing slightly towards term. The maternal serum concentration of AFP increases during pregnancy, reaching its peak during the last trimester. The concentration of AFP and HCG in maternal serum with relative couples was also compared to that of ir relative couples. Relative couples showed significant increase in maternal AFP level in the first and third trimesters (p= 0.001and 0.000) respectively. The HCG concentration in both groups was not significantly different throughout the pregnancy (p> 0.15). It is recommended that each laboratory establishes its own normal values. Since Sudanese obstetrician depends previously on values from abroad, this study may help them to handle their patients depending on our own reference values. (Authors)

  1. Analytical and clinical performances of immunoradiometric assay of total and free PSA developed locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucekkine, N.; Korso, R.; Bellazoug, K.; Ferd, N.; Bouyoucef, S.E.; Boudjemai, S.; Benzaid, A.; Bouhila, Z.

    2002-01-01

    A specific assay was developed for total and free PSA (PSAt, PSAf). Both assay use a two site IRMA with polyclonal anti PSA antibodies coated on tubes. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained after rabbit's immunisation using an under skin injection of pure PSA in multiple site. For quantification, two monoclonal antibodies were selected, the first highly specific to free PSA and the second recognising both free and bound PSA. A correlation study was performed comparatively with two commercial kits from CIS Bio and Immunotech. For that purpose, 464 serums samples ranging from 0.5 ng/ml to 3399 ng/ml were used to characterise the analytical performance of the new test. The analytical detection limit of the new test was equal to 0.05 ng/ml for the total PSA and 0.02ng/ml for the free PSA. The within run and between-day coefficients of variation were to 20 ng/ml. For BPH, no significant difference was found between the three test for the ratio PSAf/PSAt using a cut off of 14% (all were>to 14%). For the 120 patients with PC, all PSAt were > to 2 ng/ml. However the mean value of PSAt was higher for the commercial kits (14.74 ng/ml against 12.48ng/ml for the new test) but all ratio of PSAf/PSAt for the 120 newly diagnosed cancer were <14%. In conclusion, our immunoradiometric assay developed locally has a good analytical performance and its outputs are well correlated to clinical findings in prostate disease. Furthermore, a cut off of 14% for the ratio PSAf/PSAt appears to be the most accurate tools to depict a prostate cancer

  2. A two-site immunoradiometric assay for human pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowles, E.A.; Pinto-Furtado, L.G.; Bolton, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive immunoradiometric assay has been developed for human pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) using a purified mouse monoclonal antibody as the tracer and a rabbit polyclonal antibody to this protein in the solid-phase antibody preparation. The assay showed no measurable cross-reaction (< 0.1%) against a range of purified human placental proteins, and a good correlation with a previously described radioimmunoassay procedure when tested on samples taken throughout normal human pregnancies. No PAPP-A-like immunological activity could be detected in sera from non-pregnant women, confirming the absence of this protein from the circulation outside pregnancy. (Auth.)

  3. Monoclonal antibodies for use in an immunoradiometric assay for α-foetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.; Bennie, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    The advantages offered by a mouse IgG 1 monoclonal antibody to human α-foetoprotein (AFP) for the preparation of [ 125 I]antibody for use in an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) have been investigated. The antibody was isolated from ascites fluid by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The freeze-dried powder and solutions thereof were stable and were used for iodination to 1 atom 125 I/molecule antibody by the chloramine-T procedure. At high antigen concentrations 70-80% of the added [ 125 ]Ab was present in the sandwich. Linear response curves in the range 1-100 μg antigen/l incubate were obtained when [ 125 I]Ab was in slight excess. In this region an Ag : Ab ratio 1.9 : 1 was obtained which is consistent with the saturation of a bifunctional antibody. Although non-specific binding (in the absence of antigen) was consistently 125 I]Ab, this was the main factor in determining assay detection limits. The serum AFP levels from both non-pregnant and pregnant subjects as measured by the IRMA using the [ 125 I]monoclonal Ab and by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a sheep antiserum to AFP were in excellent agreement. The IRMA was manipulatively simple, employed a shorter incubation time (2h), required shorter counting times than the RIA and gave a much wider working range. The provision of a monoclonal antibody for labelling removes the one major practicability barrier which otherwise limits the development and use of the potentially superior IRMA system. (Auth.)

  4. Monoclonal antibodies for use in an immunoradiometric assay for. cap alpha. -foetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, W.M.; Bennie, J.G. (Medical Research Council, Edinburgh (UK). Immunoassay Team); Brock, D.J.H.; Heyningen, V. van (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK))

    1982-04-29

    The advantages offered by a mouse IgG/sub 1/ monoclonal antibody to human ..cap alpha..-foetoprotein (AFP) for the preparation of (/sup 125/I)antibody for use in an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) have been investigated. The antibody was isolated from ascites fluid by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The freeze-dried powder and solutions thereof were stable and were used for iodination to 1 atom /sup 125/I/molecule antibody by the chloramine-T procedure. At high antigen concentrations 70-80% of the added (/sup 125/)Ab was present in the sandwich. Linear response curves in the range 1-100 ..mu..g antigen/l incubate were obtained when (/sup 125/I)Ab was in slight excess. In this region an Ag : Ab ratio 1.9 : 1 was obtained which is consistent with the saturation of a bifunctional antibody. Although non-specific binding (in the absence of antigen) was consistently <0.1% of added (/sup 125/I)Ab, this was the main factor in determining assay detection limits. The serum AFP levels from both non-pregnant and pregnant subjects as measured by the IRMA using the (/sup 125/I)monoclonal Ab and by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a sheep antiserum to AFP were in excellent agreement. The IRMA was manipulatively simple, employed a shorter incubation time (2h), required shorter counting times than the RIA and gave a much wider working range. The provision of a monoclonal antibody for labelling removes the one major practicability barrier which otherwise limits the development and use of the potentially superior IRMA system.

  5. Development of a second generation monoclonal immunoradiometric assay. Increased sensitivity leads to enhanced detection of hepatitis B viral infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H; Wands, J R; Kameda, H

    1988-09-13

    The authors have developed and employed a second generation monoclonal immunoradiometric assay (M2-IRMA) using antibodies of high affinity for epitopes that reside on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). This assay is capable of detecting as little as 15 pg/ml of HBsAg in serum. Improvements in sensitivity over a first generation immunoradiometric assay (MI-IRMA) was achieved by increasing the sample volume and time of incubation, and subjecting the reaction to a mechanical rotary device. 164 subjects with chronic hepatitis, 105 with cirrhosis, 67 with hepatocellular carcinoma, six with acute hepatitis A, seven with acute hepatitis B, 167 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 235 healthy individuals from Japan were studied and the results of the M2-IRMA were compared to a conventional polyclonal radioimmunoassay (P-RIA). By using a more sensitive assay design (M2-IRMA), a significant number of additional cases of HBV infection heretofore unsuspected in the etiology of chronic liver disease were identified. It is concluded that improvement in assay sensitivity for HBsAg is important in the serologic diagnosis of HBV in patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. 14 refs.; 6 figs.; 6 tabs.

  6. The trial detection of malaria sporozoit in field-collected mosquito by immunoradiometric assay in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemsuth, R.; Asavanich, A.; Sucharit, S.; Vutikes, S.; Vutikes, M.; Patamatum, S.

    1988-01-01

    The sporozoite rate, species of parasite and vector are important in the epidemiology of malaria. The investigation of sporozoite by dissection and examination under a microscope is time-consuming and it could be done only on freshly killed mosquitoes. Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) that can detect, identify and quantify malaria sporozoite (Zavala et al., 1982) was therefore applied to detect sporozoite in laboratory-maintained Anopheles dirus and wild-caught mosquitoes. Study on P. falciparum-infected An. dirus showed that the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen was first found in the abdomen on the 10th day post-infection, whilst the sporozoites were examined in salivary glands from day 15 onwards. The malaria infection in wild-caught mosquitoes were investigated in Anopheles spp collected by human baites from three endemic areas in Thailand. Since the sporozoite rate refers to the presence of sporozoite in the salivary gland, then only head-thorax part of the specimens were detected by IRMA to prevent an exaggeration over the true results. It was found that none of mosquitoes collected from Phrae was positive for malaria. Four out of 1243 An. dirus among eight species collected from Chantaburi were positive for P. falciparum with sporozoites ranged from 270 to 3875. Of all ten species collected from Kanchanaburi, two and one out of 3123 An. minimus were positive for P. falciparum and P. vivax with sporozoites found in head-thorax portions were 1880, 2380 and 1026 respectively. It is evident that the IRMA is suitable for the investigation of malaria sporozoites in this region. The application of this technique in the further epidemiological study is in progress

  7. Basic Evaluation of Analytical Performance and Clinical Utility of Immunoradiometric TSH Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhy, Il Kyo; Cho, Bo Youn; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Min, Hun Ki; Lee, Mun Ho

    1987-01-01

    To assess the analytic performance of immunoradiometric TSH assay (IRMA TSH), assay precision determined by intra and interassay variance, assay accuracy determined by dilution and recovery study, were evaluated by using two commercial kit (Abott and Daichi). Normal range of basal serum TSH and TRH stimulated TSH increment were also determined in 234 healthy subjects (male 110, female 124; age 20-70) and 30 volunteers (male 10, female 20; age 21-26). In addition, basal TSH levels of 70 patients with untreated hyperthyroidism, 50 untreated hypothyroidism, and 60 euthyroidism were measured to assess the clinical utility of IRMA TSH. The detection limit of IRMA TSH was 0.04 mU/l and 0.08 mU/l by Abott Kit and Daichi kit respectively. Using Abott kit, intraassay variance were 2.0, 3.1 and 1.4% in mean TSH concentration 2.4, 31.6 and 98.2 mU/l repectively and interassay variance were 2.0 and 3.2% in mean TSH concentration 2.3 and 31.3 mU/l. Mean recovery rate was 92.5% and dilution study showed nearly straight line. When Daichi kit was used, intrasssay variance were 5.6, 5.2 and 6.2% in mean TSH concentration of 2.4, 31.6 and 98.2 mU/1 respectively and interassay variance were 7.1 and 7.4% in mean TSH of 2.3 and 31.3 mU,/l. Mean recovery rate was 89.9%. Normal range of basal TSH and TRH stimulated peak TSH were 0.38-4.02 mU/1 and 2.85-30.8 mU/1 repectively (95% confidence interval, Abott kit used). Sensitivity and specificity of basal TSH levels for diagnosing hypothyroidism as well as specificity for diagnosing hyperthyroidism were 100% by using both kit. Sensitivity of basal TSH level for diagnosing hyperthyroidism was 100% when TSH levels were measured by Abott kit while that was 80.9% when measured by Daichi kit. These results suggest that IRMA TSH was very precise and accurate method and might be used as a first line test in the evaluation of thyroid function

  8. Determination of congenital hypothyroidism in neonatal by immunoradiometric assays of thyrotropin; Determinacion de hipotiroidismo congenito en neonatos por analisis inmunoradiometrico de tirotrofina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras P, E

    1998-06-01

    The congenital hypothyroidism is the endocrine illness more frequent of the childhood, it is the one that produce the devastating effects on the growth and the development. It represent one of the few causes of mental delay that it could be prevented if it is diagnosed and treaty on time. The infants affected with congenital hypothyroidism, could be detected for the apparent presence of some physical abnormalities, which comes the first days of the birth. Unfortunately, in the moment in which the classical manifestations are made present, it is very probable that cerebral damage already exists, for what the affected children should be tried before the three months of life administering them thyroid hormones. In Mexico the incidence of the congenital hypothyroidism is of one for each 1612 births for that is very important in the area of Public Health diagnose in early form and with certainty the congenital hypothyroidism. The TSH hormone or thyrotropin is formed in the hypophysis and intervenes in the synthesis of the thyroid hormones (T3, T4) when the concentration of these is adapted, the formation of TSH is inhibited, for that upon lacking the thyroid hormones the concentration of TSH in the blood is high. For these reasons the shot metabolic state of a newborn could be determined, quantifying the TSH in blood obtained by heel stab of the neonatal, or in coming blood from the umbilical cord, after 48 hours of being born. However because the TSH is similar to other hormones and is in extremely low concentrations, it is made necessary appeal analytic techniques of very sensitive and specific laboratory like the Immunoradiometric assays (Irma) in order to could determine the levels of this hormone in the blood. (Author).

  9. An immunoradiometric assay for procoagulant factor VIII antigen: results in haemophilia, von Willebrand's disease and fetal plasma and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, I.R.; Bloom, A.L.; Giddings, J.C.; Ludlam, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) has been developed based on the inhibitor which arose in a polytransfused severe haemophiliac. The two-site IRMA measured antigens closely associated with the procoagulant parts of the factor VIII complex, which are termed FVIIIC antigens or FVIIICAG. FVIIICAG was present in normal plasma and also, at a slightly lower concentration, in normal serum. In 37 patients with haemophilia A, 36 had FVIIICAG levels of less than 10% of the normal plasma pool. In patients with von Willebrand's disease the levels of FVIIIC and FVIIICAG were in good agreement, both before and after treatment with cryoprecipitate or DDAVP. FVIIICAG was relatively stable in plasma at 37 0 C and could also be detected in cord and fetal serum. The assay is of potential value for detecting reduced levels of factor VIII, for carrier detection and for the prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia. (author)

  10. The effects of variations in the specificities of the antibody components on a two-site immunoradiometric assay for ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.I.; Stagg, B.H.; Niemann, E.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in the sub-unit antigenic structure of ferritins derived from various human tissues are reflected in the differing specificities of antisera raised against these ferritin preparations. In this study it was shown that antibody specificity played an important role in determining the sensitivity and overall binding of labelled antibody in a two-site immunoradiometric assay for ferritin. Homologous assay systems, in which solid phase and radiolabelled antibodies were of similar specificities, were generally less sensitive and showed lower binding than heterologous assay systems, in which solid phase and labelled antibodies were of different specificities. The source of the ferritin which was used as assay standard also played an important part in determining the sensitivity and overall binding in homologous antibody systems, spleen ferritin standards yielding assays superior to those obtained with placenta or liver ferritin standards. However, these differences between standards were not seen in a heterologous system employing solid phase antibodies directed against liver ferritin and labelled antibodies directed against placenta ferritin. The nature of the ferritin used to prepare immunoadsorbant for the purification of antibodies prior to radioiodination also affected the assay characteristics; antibodies prepared on spleen ferritin immunoadsorbant being more reactive than antibodies prepared on placenta ferritin immunoadsorbant, which in turn were more reactive then antibodies prepared on liver ferritin immunoadsorbant. (orig.) [de

  11. Immunoradiometric assay of a novel proliferation marker: tumour polypeptide specific antigen in breast cancer management in north India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phanna-Hazra, P.; Sharma, U.; Gupta, K.K.; Bhatnagar, V.; Idnani, R.; Gangwar, P.K.; Hazra, D.K.

    2004-01-01

    Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) is a novel tumour marker defined by the monoclonal antibody M3 ,discovered by Bjorklund,which is claimed to be a proliferation marker, and belonging to the cytokeratin 8-18 family. M3 defines this antigen in particular out of a group of Tissue Polypeptide antigens (TPA) charecterised by the same Swedish group and was claimed to be a pancarcinoma antigen reportedly being elevated in several different cancers in the European literature.Pancarcinoma markers are of interest in relation to cancer detection as well as for assessing therapy and prognosis.Pancarcinoma antigens are also of interest for radiobioconjugate immunotargetting both for diagnosis as well as for therapy. There were no reports on this marker in an Indian population and therefore this study was initiated at two institutions in Meerut and Agra, both in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh. In addition to 250 healthy controls, 288 cases of breast cancer were studied .In addituion benign disorders were studied: breast fibroadenosis 16, breast fibro adenoma 5, breast abscess 4. TPS levels were determined by an immunoradiometric assay. In controls all but 4 had values less than 80 Units/1,the upper normal level quoted by Bjorklund.The relationship of the serum levels of the markers to histological grade and anatomical stage of the tumour were studied. In addition several of the cases underwent therapy with chemotherapy /radiotherapy/surgery or combinations thereof. The response to treatment during follow up was categorized as Complete emission(CR),Partial Remission (PR)Stable Disease(SD), Progressive Disease(PD)and recurrence (R) by the respective clinicians using standard criteria. In the cancer subjects there was a close correlation of TPS elevation with anatomical stage. 10 cases belonged to stage 1 with TPS levels 176.1+-103.94 Units/L ,61 to stage II(TPS levels 206.45 +-168.23).,79 to stage Ilia (TPS 251.5+-168.53),83 to stage IIIB (TPS 537.35+- 691.71),and 55

  12. Studies on the 2-site immunoradiometric assay of serum ferritin and its applications for diagnosis of iron deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, J.; Niitsu, Y. (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan). Cancer Research Inst.)

    1980-10-01

    The 2-site immunoradiometric assay using paper discs as a solid phase material was established for the measurement of serum ferritin. The standard curve was found the range from 0.5ng -- 500ng ferritin per ml and the sensitivity limit of the assay was 0.1ng ferritin per ml. The clinical value of serum ferritin assay was then investigated for diagnosis of iron deficiency. The mean serum ferritin concentrations of normal subjects were greater for males (119.8+-55.5ng/ml) than for females (56.5+-55.5ng/ml) although this sex difference was not distinct beyond the age of 45. All 15 patients with iron deficient anemia had serum ferritin concentrations below the normal range, whereas in other anemias including anemia associated with chronic inflammation, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, serum ferritin concentrations were normal or elevated. In 116 apparently normal subjects, 13.8% of total females had abnormally low serum ferritin concentrations with normal hemoglobin levels. The cytochrome c oxidase activity of peripheral leucocytes from those subjects were generally depleted. Most of them frequently suffered from easy fatigability, weakness, and dizziness and these complications were clearly relieved by the administration of iron. Measurement of serum ferritin was found to be quite useful for diagnosis and assessment of iron deficient states.

  13. Studies on the 2-site immunoradiometric assay of serum ferritin and its applications for diagnosis of iron deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Junichi; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    1980-01-01

    The 2-site immunoradiometric assay using paper discs as a solid phase material was established for the measurement of serum ferritin. The standard curve was found the range from 0.5ng -- 500ng ferritin per ml and the sensitivity limit of the assay was 0.1ng ferritin per ml. The clinical value of serum ferritin assay was then investigated for diagnosis of iron deficiency. The mean serum ferritin concentrations of normal subjects were greater for males (119.8+-55.5ng/ml) than for females (56.5+-55.5ng/ml) although this sex difference was not distinct beyond the age of 45. All 15 patients with iron deficient anemia had serum ferritin concentrations below the normal range, whereas in other anemias including anemia associated with chronic inflammation, pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia, serum ferritin concentrations were normal oe elevated. In 116 apparently normal subjects, 13.8% of total females had abnormally low serum ferritin concentrations with normal hemoglobin levels. The cytochrome c oxidase activity of peripheral leucocytes from those subjects were generally depleted. Most of them frequently suffered from easy fatiguability, weakness, and dizziness and these complications were clearly relieved by the administration of iron. Measurement of serum ferritin was found to be quite useful for diagnosis and assessment of iron deficient states. (author)

  14. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml

  15. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human thyrotropin and use in an immunoradiometric assay and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkirane, M.; Bon, D.; Bellot, F.; Prince, P.; Delori, P.; Hassoun, J.; Carayon, P.

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were prepared against human thyrotropin. 13 different antibodies were characterized. Ten antibodies were of the IgG1 subclass. The affinities of the antibodies were in the range 10 9 -10 11 mol -1 .l. Four of them were specific for hTSH and did not react with hLH, hFSH, hCG or αhCG. Four reacted with these hormones and recognized the α subunit of hCG. One cross-reacted only with HFSH. The remaining four antibodies recognized the holo-hTSH only, and thus were designated as anti-conformational determinants. Monoclonal antibodies reacting with different antigenic determinants on the hTSH molecule defined seven clusters. Two of them were used to develop a simplified two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay in which one monoclonal antibody was immobilized on tubes (anti-βTSH) and another (anti-α) labelled with 125 I. This assay was highly specific and demonstrated a sensitivity level of 0.1 μIU/ml. Two monoclonal antibodies were used in immunohistochemistry and their quality and specificity was assessed in the detection of hTSH immunoreactivity in human pituitary biological sections. 20 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  17. A new and rapid method for immunoglobulin class and subclass determination of mouse monoclonal antibodies using a solid-phase immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, M.-J.; Lohmann-Matthes, M.-L.

    1984-01-01

    A solid-phase immunoradiometric assay is described for the detection of mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses in unpurified and unconcentrated supernatants of hybridomas. IgG fractions from rabbit antisera specific for mouse immunoglobulin classes and subclasses are used for coating the wells of flexible microtiter plates. Monoclonal antibody present in hybridoma supernatants is bound only to wells that contain the appropriate anti-subclass antibody. The binding of hybridoma antibodies to corresponding IgG subclasses or IgM is then detected by a labeled rabbit anti-mouse antibody binding to all mouse immunoglobulins (heavy and light chains). Thus, only 1 labeled antibody is needed for all assays. The advantages of the method described are the following: results are obtained within a few hours and antibody containing hybridoma supernatants may be used without a concentration step since minute amounts of antibody are detected by the immunoradiometric assay. Cultures producing several subclasses may be early recognized as oligo/polyclonal. (Auth.)

  18. Development of simple immunoradiometric assay kits for measurement of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.; Zarsav, P.; Pourabdi, M.; Moharamzadeh, M.; Mahdiani, B.

    1999-01-01

    The report summarizes our results obtained in the field of PSA IRMA kits development. In these experiments, we used Avidin-Biotin technology for coating of antibodies on beads/tubes and studied various parameters, such as investigation of different types of tubes, incubation time, volume of samples etc., as well as comparing two types of Mabs of PSA (free and total) for coating on the surface of bead/tube and obtaining optimized requirements to achieve reliable and simplified assays of PSA (free and total) in serum. (author)

  19. A new method for the production of a magnetic immunosorbent used in radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, G.; Keszei, V.; Sarandi, I.

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed enabling the direct coupling of first or second antibody to finely dispersed magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ). The immunosorbent thus produced was applied in various radioimmunoassay systems (T3, T4, TSH, Cortisol) for the separation of bound and free antigens. The elimination of the need for 'precoating' the magnetic particles with a polymer as several advantages. One of them lies in the ease of one-step production of the immunosorbent and other is the high antibody/magnetic ratio. The influence of the concentration of the immunosorbent and detergent (TWEEN 20 or TRITON X-100) on the assay parameters (Bo, NSB, etc.) has been systematically investigated and the optimum concentration of the magnetizable particles and detergent has been determined. The reliability of magnetic separation has been validated by comparing it with the conventional PEG separation method. (author) 13 refs.; 17 figs.; 9 tabs

  20. Novel immunoradiometric assay of thyroglobulin in serum with use of monoclonal antibodies selected for lack of cross-reactivity with autoantibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechaczyk, M.; Baldet, L.; Pau, B.; Bastide, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A multisite immunoradiometric assay for measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg), designated Magnogel-IRMA-Tg, has been developed, involving magnetic microbeads (Magnogel). This assay is based on the use of five anti-Tg monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against three antigenic regions on the Tg molecule that are not recognized by anti-Tg autoantibodies (aAbs). Four of these MAbs, directed against two antigenic domains, were coupled to the magnetic beads and were used to trap the serum antigen. Another MAb, directed against the third region, was iodinated and served as the labeled second antibody. The Magnogel-IRMA-Tg technique is reproducible, rapid, and sensitive (lower detection limit, 3 micrograms/L). The assay reliably measures serum Tg in the presence of anti-Tg aAbs

  1. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  2. Immunoassay of blood spot TSH; development of a rapid two-site immunoradiometric assay and comparison with radioimmunoassay as a screening method for neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.M.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyrotropin (TSH) eluted from dried blood filter paper discs is described and compared with a conventional TSH radioimmunoassay (RIA) as a screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. The two-site IRMA involves a primary incubation of excess labelled TSH antibody and the blood disc for 16-18 h at pH 8 and a secondary 3 h incubation under agitation, with solid phase TSH antibody. Bound and free fractions are separated by a semi-automated washing procedure. It is concluded that the two-site TSH IRMA has advantages over conventional RIA in speed, sensitivity, precision and ruggedness and can be recommended as an efficient screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. (Auth.)

  3. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for determination of IgG subclass antibodies in Human Sera (''IgG subclass RAST'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurup, R.; Soendergaard, I.; Weeke, B.; University of Copenhagen, Denmark); Magnusson, C.G.M.

    1984-01-01

    We report the development of a three-layer immunoradiometric assay (TIRA) for measurement of IgG antibodies of all four subclasses in human sera. The first layer consists of diluted human serum, the second layer is monoclonal mouse antibodies to human IgG subclasses, and the third layer is 125 I-labelled rabbit anti-mouse IgG. Monoclonal anti-IgGI, anti-IgG3 and anti-IgG4 reacted only with their complementary IgG subclass, whereas the anti-IgG2 showed slight cross-reactivity to immunoglobins of other subclasses and classes and to light chain proteins. The observed cross-reactivity was found to be without importance, when the TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies. Equipotency was established by use of appropriate dilutions of the monoclonal antibodies, and the assay was calibrated by use of human reference serum. The TIRA therefore permits reliable inter-individual and intra-individual comparisons of the IgG antibody response in all four subclasses. Non-specific binding obtained with pooled normal human serum was below 0.33%. Inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 18 and 27%. The TIRA was applied to measurement of IgG subclass antibodies to timothy grass pollen in sera from grass pollen allergies undergoing immunotherapy. (author)

  4. Plasma erythropoietin by high-detectability immunoradiometric assay in untreated and treated patients with polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneskog, J.; Kutti, J.; Wadenvik, H. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Medicine, Haematology Section (Sweden); Lundberg, P.A.; Lindstedt, G. [Univ. of Goeteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    By using an immunoradiometric method with a stated detection limit of {<=}1 IU/l (stated normal reference limit in adults 3.7-16 IU/l) we determined EDTA-plasma erythropoietin (EPO) in 58 patients with polycythaemia vera (PV) and 49 patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET). At the time of blood sampling, 20 of the PV patients were newly diagnosed and untreated, 23 were treated by phlebotomy only, and 30 also received myelosuppressive treatment (with 32P, hydroxyurea of alpha-interferon). Of the ET patients 24 were untreated and 28 received myelosuppressive therapy. For comparison plasma EPO was also determined in 10 patients with pseudopolycythaemia (PP). In this latter group the results for plasma EPO agreed well with the cited normal reference limits. The majority of untreated PV patients (12/20) had undetectable plasma EPO concentration, and the remainder all had values below the lower normal reference limit. Plasma EPO in PV was not significantly influenced by phlebotomy therapy. Twelve of the 24 untreated ET patients (50%) had plasma EPO values below the reference interval (undetectable in 2 patients). The mean EPO concentration was significantly lower in PV patients receiving phlebotomy therapy than in patients with untreated ET. In the total material of PV and ET treated with myelosuppressive agents the PV patients showed significantly lower values for EPO concentration than did patients with ET. The present results support the view that EPO measurements by high-detectability methods are diagnostically useful and should be included in the panel of new criteria for the diagnosis of PV. (au) 20 refs.

  5. Fluid-phase immunoradiometric assay for the detection of qualitative abnormalities of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor in variants of von Willebrand's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girma, J.P.; Ardaillou, N.; Meyer, D.; Lavergne, J.M.; Larrieu, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Antigenic reactivity of F.VIII/WF in variants of von Willebrand's disease (vWd) was studied with both fluid-phase and solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. Two different (rabbit and goat) 125 I-labeled specific antibodies against purified F.VIII/WF were used in both their divalent (lgG) and their monovalent (Fab fragment) forms. Dose-response curves obtained by reacting a constant amount of antibody with serial dilutions of plasmas from normal or homozygous vWd demonstrated the specificity of the test. The accuracy was significantly higher with 125 I-Fab fragments of goat anti-F.VIII/WF antiserum than intact goat lgG or rabbit lgG or Fab fragments. The significant decrease of the slope of the dose-response curves obtained with plasma from variants of vWd has been interpreted as due to the presence of abnormal F.VIII/WF molecules with decreased antigenic reactivity. A similar anomaly was found in cryosupernatant prepared from normal plasma, paralleling similarities demonstrated between variants of vWd and cryosupernatant. Results of experiments performed by reacting constant plasma dilutions from control or variants of vWd and varying concentrations of anti-F.VIII/WF Fab fragments (rabbit or goat) confirmed the decreased antigenic reactivity of variant F.VIII/WF

  6. The value of the indirect immunoradiometric assay of serum alpha - fetoprotein in detecting liver regeneration and neoplastic transformation in chronic liver disease. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculetz, N.

    1979-07-01

    To investigate the concentration of alphafetoprotein AFP in different liver diseases and above all in liver cancer the immunoradiometric assay was utilized. The results of AFP studies were compared with regeneration index, blastic T lymphocytes transformation as well as other morphological and biochemical data. The results of the investigations indicated that: 38% of chronic benign hepatopathies displayed the values of serum AFP in normal ranges, 54% were in the range of 41 - 200ng/ml, and 8% showed 200 and more ng/ml. The most important conclusion from the work performed was that the elevation of serum AFP level in the evaluation of chronic hepatopathies, especially in cirrhoses, appears as an index of malignancy

  7. Selection of matched pair of monoclonal antibodies for development of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) : our experience with IRMA of TSH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadwad, V.B.; Jyotsna, N.; Sivaprasad, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In immunoradiometricassay (IRMA) two antibodies raised against two different epitopes of the same antigen are used, one bound to a solid phase (capture antibody) and the other labelled with 125 I (detector antibody). The development of any IRMA thus involves proper selection of the capture and detector antibody, preparation of solid phase, labelling of the antibody and assay optimization. Extensive studies have been carried out on these aspects in our laboratory with greater emphasis on the behavior of different pairs of antibodies as sandwich partners : monoclonal-monoclonal and monoclonal-polyclonal antibodies. The parameters studied include the ease of radio-iodination of different monoclonal antibodies, the effect of interchange of capture and detector antibody etc. Keeping TSH antibody as a model, two different monoclonal antibodies, a polyclonal antibody and a tracer from a commercial TSH IRMA kit were used in this study. Based on our studies an assay procedure for in-house IRMA of TSH has been developed with a sensitivity of 0.1 μIU/ml and validated

  8. Ultrasensitive human thyrotropin (h TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) set up, through identification and minimization of non specific bindings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroni, C.N.

    1994-01-01

    An IRMA of h TSH, based on magnetic solid phase separation, was studied especially for what concerns its non specific bindings. These were identified as a product of the interaction between an altered form of radioiodinated anti-h TSH monoclonal antibody ( 125 I-m AB) and the uncoupled magnetizable cellulose particle (matrix). Apparently this form of 125 I-m AB is a type of aggregate that can be partly resolved from the main peak on Sephadex G-200 and further minimized via a single pre-incubation with the same matrix. Solid phase saturation with milk proteins, tracer storage at 4 0 C and serum addition during incubation were also found particularly effective is preventing its formation. These findings were used in order to reproducibly decrease non specific bindings to values 60 /B O ) up to values of 300-500. This way we obtained h TSH radio assays with functional sensitivities of about 0.05 m IU/L and analytical sensitivities of the order of 0.02 m IU/L, which classify them at least as among the best second generation assays and that are excellent indeed for magnetic IRMA s. A more optimistic sensitivity calculation, based on Rodbard's definition, provided values down to 0.008 m IU/L. Such sensitivities, moreover, were obtained in a very reproducible way and all over the useful tracer life. (author). 83 refs, 13 figs, 25 tabs

  9. Tumour associated antigen CA-50, CA-242 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in genitourinary malignancy and gastrointestinal carcinoma early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhizhou.

    1992-04-01

    Tumour markers CA-50 and CA-242 were measured by immunometric assay (IRMA) to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas, biliary tract, liver, breast, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The cutoff points, derived from studies on normal subjects and those with proven benign disease, were 20 u/ml and 12 u/ml for CA-50 and CA-242 respectively. Both markers were found to be generally useful with significant differences between malignant and non malignant disease. The highest positive rates, were found in cancers of the pancreas and gall bladder. The overall rate of false positives was low. It is concluded that measurements of CA-50 and CA-242 are useful in the detection of malignancy, particularly of the pancreas and biliary tract. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Minimization of nonspecific binding to improve the sensitivity of a magnetic immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human thyrotropin (hTSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peroni, C.N.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Bartolini, P.

    1996-01-01

    An IRMA of hTSH, based on magnetic solid phase separation, was studied especially in terms of its nonspecific bindings (B 0 ). These were identified as a product of the interaction between radioiodinated anti-hTSH monoclonal antibody ( 125 I-mAB) and the uncoupled magnetizable cellulose particle (matrix). The negative effects of B 0 on the assay performance were minimized and practically eliminated, in the optimized system, with tracer storage at 4 deg. C, repurification and pre-incubation with the same matrix, serum addition during incubation and solid phase saturation with milk proteins. These findings were used in order to reproducibly decrease non specific binding to values 60 /B 0 ) into values of 300-500. This way, hTSH IRMAs were obtained with functional sensitivities of about 0.05 mlU/L and analytical sensitivities of the order of 0.02 mlU/L, which represent an approximate 10-fold increase in sensitivity when compared with non-optimized system. A more optimistic sensitivity calculation, based on Rodbard's definition, provided values down to 0.008 mlU/L. Such sensitivities, moreover, were obtained in a very reproducible way and all over the useful tracer life. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 8 tabs

  11. Study of antibody immobilization on different magnetic particles utilized for the radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Peroni, C.N.; Bartolini, P.

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out on antibody immobilization on three different types of magnetic particles: plain magnetite (Institute of Isotopes, Hungary), silanized magnetite (Institute of Atomic Energy, China) and Magnetizable cellulose (SCIPAC, UK). For radioimmunoassay (RIA) applications an efficient 2 nd antibody (AB)-coupled magnetic solid phase, utilizing plain magnetite and a purified anti-rabbit IgG antibody (Trilab, Brazil), was prepared. A consistent bias, detected in comparison with a well known commercial magnetic solid phase kit, was practically eliminated by modifying the coupling and saturation procedure. Concerning two-site IRMA application, an extensive study was carried out on the matching and selection of anti-hTSH antibodies that could be used for capture and detection. Very satisfactory results were obtained with the three types of magnetic particles using different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and in particular, two partners anti-hTSH mABs from the National Institute of Health of Thailand. Utilizing also a recombinant hTSH standard preparation, calibrated and distributed by our laboratory (IPEN-CNEN/SP, Brazil), it was possible to obtain a complete set of in-house reagents for hTSH IRMA, prepared and tested under IAEA support. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  12. Radioreceptor assays: plasma membrane receptors and assays for polypeptide and glycoprotein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulster, D.

    1977-01-01

    Receptors for peptide, protein and glycoprotein hormones, and the catecholamines are located on the plasma membranes of their target cells. Preparations of the receptors may be used as specific, high-affinity binding agents for these hormones in assay methodology akin to that for radioimmunoassay. A particular advantage of the radioreceptor assay is that it has a specificity directed towards the biologically active region of the hormone, rather than to some immunologically active region that may have little (or no) involvement in the expression of hormonal activity. Methods for hormone receptor preparation vary greatly, and range from the use of intact cells (as the source of hormone receptor) to the use of purified or solubilized membrane receptors. Receptors isolated from plasma membranes have proved to be of variable stability, and may be damaged during preparation and/or storage. Moreover, since they are present in relatively low concentration in the cell, their preparation in sufficient quantity for use in a radioreceptor assay may present technical problems. In general, there is good correlation between radioreceptor assays and in-vitro bioassays; differences between results from radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays are similar to those noted between in-vitro bioassays and radioimmunoassays. The sensitivity of the method is such that normal plasma concentrations of various hormones have been assayed by this technique. (author)

  13. Application of hormone receptor assay for clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Seiya

    1978-01-01

    A conception of hormone receptors was explained to understand radioreceptor assay (RRA), and various problems in the operation of this method were described mainly. The principle of RRA is the same as that of RIA and CPBA, and measured values by RRA resembled to those by bioassay more closely than those by RIA. However, the sensitivity of RRA was inferior to that of RIA. It was important in using this method especially for measurement of peptide hormone not to deactivate biological the base by radioactivation. As the significance of this method in clinical chemistry, it was mentioned that this method was one kind of experiment to observe the biological activity of hormones, and that properties analysis of receptors, studies on action mechanism, the structure and function of hormone, the pathological analysis of endocrine abnormalities, and the development of drugs and treatment methods for receptors may become possible by this method. The other usefulness of this method was also mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Application of hormone receptor assay for clinical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, S [Kitasato Univ. Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1978-06-01

    A conception of hormone receptors was explained to understand radioreceptor assay (RRA), and various problems in the operation of this method were described mainly. The principle of RRA is the same as that of RIA and CPBA, and measured values by RRA resembled to those by bioassay more closely than those by RIA. However, the sensitivity of RRA was inferior to that of RIA. It was important in using this method especially for measurement of peptide hormone not to deactivate biological the base by radioactivation. As the significance of this method in clinical chemistry, it was mentioned that this method was one kind of experiment to observe the biological activity of hormones, and that properties analysis of receptors, studies on action mechanism, the structure and function of hormone, the pathological analysis of endocrine abnormalities, and the development of drugs and treatment methods for receptors may become possible by this method. The other usefulness of this method was also mentioned.

  15. Assay-specific decision limits for two new automated parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Fayol, Véronique; Sault, Corinne; Lawson-Body, Ethel; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of nonradioactive automated assays for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has made measurement of these two hormones possible in many laboratories. In this study, we compared two new assays for PTH and 25OHD adapted on an automated analyzer, the LIAISON, with two manual immunoassays used worldwide. We studied 228 osteoporotic patients, 927 healthy individuals, 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and 167 hemodialyzed patients. Serum PTH was measured with the Allegro and the LIAISON assays, and 25OHD was measured with DiaSorin RIA and the LIAISON assay. Regression analysis was used to calculate decision thresholds for the LIAISON assays that were equivalent to those of the Allegro PTH and DiaSorin 25OHD assays. The 25OHD concentrations obtained with the LIAISON assay and the RIA in osteoporotic patients were well correlated (r = 0.83; P 50 nmol/L as eligible for the reference population for the LIAISON PTH assay. In this group, the 3rd-97th percentile interval for LIAISON PTH was 3-51 ng/L. Considering upper reference limits of 46 and 51 ng/L for the Allegro and LIAISON assays, respectively, the frequency of above-normal PTH concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was similar in both assays. Regression analysis between serum PTH measured by the Allegro and LIAISON assays in 167 hemodialyzed patients and the corresponding Bland-Altman analysis of these data suggest that the LIAISON PTH assay tends to read higher than the Allegro assay at low concentrations but lower at high concentrations (>300 ng/L). Because clinical decision limits for both PTH and 25OHD should be assay specific, we propose equivalences between these assays and two manual assays used worldwide. These assay-specific decision limits should help potential users of the LIAISON PTH and 25OHD assays.

  16. A three-layer immunoradiometric assay for antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes and its application to the detection of chicken thyroglobulin autoantibodies and of antibodies to sheep erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.C.P. de; Roitt, I.M.; Wick, G.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile solid-phase assay for detection of antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes is described. The assay has been applied to: (1) the detection of IgG and IgM antithyroglobulin autoantibodies in chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis, and (2) the detection of anti-sheep cell antibodies in normal chickens. Thyroglobulin-coated plastic tubes or formaldehyde-fixed sheep erythrocytes were used as the solid phase. Antisera were added in succession to the solid-phase antigen so as to form 3 antibody layers: (1) chicken antibody against the solid-phase antigen; (2) heavy-chain-specific rabbit anti-chicken immunoglobulin; and (3) 125 I-labelled goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin. The assay is suitable for routine determinations on large numbers of samples; its sensitivity enables small volumes of serum to be tested and allows considerable economy in the use of valuable class-specific antisera. The radiolabelled reagent can be readily applied to other assays employing rabbit antisera. (Auth.)

  17. Clinical utility of a two-site immunoradiometric assay for creatine kinase-MB in the detection of perioperative myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePuey, E.G.; Aessopos, A.; Monroe, L.R.; Hall, R.J.; Thompson, W.L.; Sonnemaker, R.E.; Burdine, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    In 144 patients, creatine kinase MB was measured serially at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h using a two-site immunoradionmetric assay (IRMA). Cardiac enzymes were also measured, including SGOT, LDH, total CPK, and CK-MB by electrophoresis. The presence of perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI) was established in 24 patients by the appearance of new electrocardiographic Q waves and/or new wall motion abnormalities detected by radionuclide ventriculography. In patients without poMI, CK-MB (IRMA) was elevated at 0 to 8 h but decreased by 16 h. In patients with poMI, peak values occurred at 16 to 24 h. Using a threshold value of 8.5 EU/I, patients with poMI could be distinguished from those without with 97% accuracy (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 99%). We conclude that the CK-MB (IRMA) can serve as a valuable postoperative screening tet for poMI

  18. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay-cutting the Gordian knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandralekha Tampi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperparathyroidism is treated by surgical excision of the hyperfunctioning parathyroid gland. In case of adenoma the single abnormal gland is removed, while in hyperplasias, a subtotal excision, that is, three-and-a-half of the four glands are removed. This therapeutic decision is made intraoperatively through frozen section evaluation and is sometimes problematic, due to a histological overlap between hyperplasia and the adenoma. The intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH assay, propogated in recent years, offers an elegant solution, with a high success rate, due to its ability to identify the removal of all hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue. Aim: To study the feasibility of using IOPTH in our setting. Materials and Methods: Seven patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism had their IOPTH levels evaluated, along with the routine frozen and paraffin sections. Results: All seven patients showed more than a 50% intraoperative fall in serum PTH after excision of the abnormal gland. This was indicative of an adenoma and was confirmed by histopathological examination and normalization of serum calcium postoperatively. Conclusion: The intraoperative parathyroid hormone is a sensitive and specific guide to a complete removal of the abnormal parathyroid tissue. It can be incorporated without difficulty as an intraoperative guide and is superior to frozen section diagnosis in parathyroid surgery.

  19. Immunoassay of serum polypeptide hormones by using 125I-labelled anti(-immunoglobulin G) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Nicholas, H

    1975-03-01

    1. A technique for indirectly labelling antibodies to polypeptide hormones, by combining them with radioactively labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) is described. (a) 125I-labelled anti-(rabbit immunoglobulin G) and anti-(guinea-pig immunoglobulin G) antibodies with high specific radioactivity were prepared after purification of the antibodies on immunoadsorbents containing the respective antigens. (b) Rabbit immunoglobulin G antibodies to human growth hormone, porcine glucagon and guinea-pig immunoglobulin G antibodies to bovine insulin and bovine parathyroid hormone were combined with immunoadsorbents containing the respective polypeptide hormone antigen. (c) The immunoglobulin G antibodies to the polypeptide hormones were reacted with 125-I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies directed against the appropriate species of immunoglobulin G,and the anti-hormone antibodies were combined with the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent. (d) 125I-labelled anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and anti-hormone antibodies were simultaneously eluted from the hormone-containing immunoadsorbent by dilute HCl, pH 2.0. After elution the anti-(immunoglobulin G) antibodies and antihormone antibodies were allowed to recombine at pH 8.0 and 4 degrees C. 2. The resultant immunoglobulin G-anti-immunoglobulin G complex was used in immunoradiometric (labelled antibody) and two-site assays of the respective polypeptide hormone. 3. By using these immunoassays, concentrations down to 90pg of human growth hormone/ml, 100 pg of bovine insulin/ml, 80 pg of bovine parathyroid hormone/ml and 150 pg of glucagon/ml were readily detected. Assays of human plasma for growth hormone and insulin by these methods showed good agreement with results obtained by using a directly 125I-labelled anti-hormone antibody in an immunoradiometric assay of human growth hormone or by radioimmunoassay of human insulin. 4. The method described allows immunoradiometric or two-site assays to be performed starting with as

  20. Methodologic and clinical aspects of free thyroid hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermans, J.; Baldewyns, P.; Beauduin, M.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnostic value of free thyroid hormones measures depends on used technic. The results gived by two different kits are compared: - Kit Le Petit with chromatographic separation, - Kit Amersham which uses an analogue [fr

  1. Characterisation of monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone, and mapping of antigenic determinants on the hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soos, M.; Siddle, K.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve mouse monoclonal antibodies for human luteinising hormone were produced. The affinities varied from 4 X 10 7 to 1 X 10 10 l/mol. The specificity of each antibody was assessed by determining the relative reactivities with luteinising hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotrophin. Six antibodies bound to the α-subunit as shown by similar reactivity with all hormones, and the remainder to the β-subunit as shown by specificity for luteinising hormone. This latter group of antibodies cross-reacted only weakly with thyroid stimulating hormone (approximately 10%) and follicle stimulating hormone (approximately 3%). Three of these antibodies also showed low reactivity towards chorionic gonadotrophin (<10%), though the others did not (80-300%). The ability of different antibodies to bind simultaneously to luteinising hormone was examined and it was shown that several distinct antigenic determinants existed on both subunits. The characterisation of monoclonal binding sites is discussed in relation to the use of antibodies in two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

  2. Analysis of therapeutic growth hormone preparations: report of an interlaboratory collaborative study on growth hormone assay methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, A F; Jeffcoate, S L

    1992-09-01

    Recombinant DNA-derived human growth hormone (somatotropin) is widely used to treat growth hormone-deficient children. The potency of this product is determined by in-vivo bioassay in hypophysectomized rats, which is imprecise, costly and invasive, and there have been suggestions that it could safely be replaced with in-vitro or physico-chemical alternatives. In this report we present the results of a collaborative study designed to test this proposal. Somatotropin was modified by mild or severe proteolysis, mild or severe oxidation or treatment at high pH, and compared in a multi-centre collaborative study with unmodified somatotropin or with dimerized somatotropin. Participating laboratories included manufacturers and national control laboratories, and pharmacopoeial bioassays were compared with in-house in-vitro and physico-chemical bioassays. Although performing adequately with untreated somatotropin, for degraded samples the in-vivo bioassays were relatively unresponsive to changes in the growth hormone molecule. In contrast, the physico-chemical assays, in particular the reverse-phase HPLC, performed with a high degree of selectivity. We conclude that in the case of somatotropin, the in-vivo bioassay can be removed from the routine product specification with an acceptable degree of security. This however does not obviate the requirement rigorously to demonstrate biological activity in-vivo during product development, nor may the conclusions of this study be applied to other therapeutic recombinant proteins without similar collaborative investigations.

  3. Two new automated, compared with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent, antimüllerian hormone assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Pastuszek, Ewa; Kloss, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Iwona; Liss, Joanna; Lukaszuk, Aron; Plociennik, Lukasz; Lukaszuk, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    To compare new automated antimüllerian hormone (AMH) assay performance characteristics from the new automated Elecsys AMH (Roche; Elecsys) and Access AMH (Beckman Coulter; Access) assays with the existing AMH Gen II ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Gen II; Beckman Coulter) and AMH ELISA (Ansh Labs) assays. Prospective assay evaluation. University-affiliated clinical chemistry laboratory. Patients referred for serum AMH measurement (n = 83) before start of in vitro fertilization cycle between September 2014 and October 2014. None. Serum AMH concentration. Intra-assay coefficients of variation were low; Ansh ≤ 9.0%; Gen II ≤ 5.8%; Access ≤ 10.7%; and Elecsys ≤ 2.8%. The Passing-Bablok regression equations (pmol/L) were y (Access) = 0.128 + (0.781 × Gen II); and y (Access) = 0.302 + (0.742 x Ansh). For y (Elecys) = 0.087 + (0.729 x Gen II) and y (Elecys) = 0.253 + (0.688 x Ansh Labs). For y (Elecys) = 0.943 - (0.037 × Access). For all the assays, AMH exhibited a moderate positive correlation with AFC (r = 0.62-0.64); number of cumulus oocyte complexes (r = 0.60-0.64); and metaphase II oocytes (r = 0.48-0.50). Accuracy of pregnancy prediction, as determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was uniformly low for all assays (0.62-0.63). The novel automated assays exhibit strong concordance in calibration, but derived values are substantially lower than those obtained from pre-existing assays, with assay-specific interpretation required for routine clinical use. These results highlight the need for an international standard of measurement of AMH. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) by radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumrongpisutikul, S.; Tuchinda, S.

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies (TRAb) were determined in 100 patients using radioreceptor assay (RRA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of RRA and ELISA were found to be 70.6% and 88.2% respectively (n=51). The specificity of both assays were 100% (n=16). With RRA as the standard test the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 75.8% and 86.8%. In the untreated hyperthyroid the RRA result which expressed as % specific 125 I-TSH inhibition was 33.6% (n=51), decline to 26.9% in the treated hyperthyroid (n=33) and 14.1% in the euthyroid (n=16). The mean 0.D 492nm of TRAb-ELISA were 0.861 in untreated hyperthyroid, 0.437 in treated hyperthyroid and 0.135 in euthyroid Phi coefficient analysis show that the RRA was 60.4% correlated to hyperthyroidism where as TRAb-ELISA was 80.1%

  5. Heterophilic antibody interference affecting multiple hormone assays: Is it due to rheumatoid factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongolu, Shiva; Armston, Annie E; Mozley, Erin; Nasruddin, Azraai

    2016-01-01

    Assay interference with heterophilic antibodies has been well described in literature. Rheumatoid factor is known to cause similar interference leading to falsely elevated hormone levels when measured by immunometric methods like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex immunoasays (MIA). We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with a history of rheumatoid arthritis referred to our endocrine clinic for investigation of hypogonadism and was found to have high serum levels of LH, FSH, SHBG, Prolactin, HCG and TSH. We suspected assay interference and further tests were performed. We used Heteroblock tubes and PEG precipitation to eliminate the interference and the hormone levels post treatment were in the normal range. We believe the interference was caused by high serum levels of rheumatoid factor. Although he was treated with thyroxine for 3 years, we believe he may have been treated inappropriately as his Free T4 level was always normal despite high TSH due to assay interference. Our case illustrates the phenomenon of heterophilic antibody interference likely due to high levels of rheumatoid factor. It is essential for clinicians and endocrinologists in particular to be aware of this possibility when making treatment decisions in these groups of patients.

  6. Ultrasensitive human thyrotropin (h TSH) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) set up, through identification and minimization of non specific bindings; Ensaio imunoradiometrico ultra-sensivel de tireotrofina humana (hTSH) obtido mediante a identificacao e minimizacao de ligacoes inespecificas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peroni, C N

    1994-12-31

    An IRMA of h TSH, based on magnetic solid phase separation, was studied especially for what concerns its non specific bindings. These were identified as a product of the interaction between an altered form of radioiodinated anti-h TSH monoclonal antibody ({sup 125} I-m AB) and the uncoupled magnetizable cellulose particle (matrix). Apparently this form of {sup 125} I-m AB is a type of aggregate that can be partly resolved from the main peak on Sephadex G-200 and further minimized via a single pre-incubation with the same matrix. Solid phase saturation with milk proteins, tracer storage at 4{sup 0} C and serum addition during incubation were also found particularly effective is preventing its formation. These findings were used in order to reproducibly decrease non specific bindings to values <0.1% (or <70 cpm), increasing thus the signal-to-noise ratio (B{sub 60}/B{sub O}) up to values of 300-500. This way we obtained h TSH radio assays with functional sensitivities of about 0.05 m IU/L and analytical sensitivities of the order of 0.02 m IU/L, which classify them at least as among the best second generation assays and that are excellent indeed for magnetic IRMA s. A more optimistic sensitivity calculation, based on Rodbard`s definition, provided values down to 0.008 m IU/L. Such sensitivities, moreover, were obtained in a very reproducible way and all over the useful tracer life. (author). 83 refs, 13 figs, 25 tabs.

  7. Association of Biotin Ingestion With Performance of Hormone and Nonhormone Assays in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danni; Radulescu, Angela; Shrestha, Rupendra T; Root, Matthew; Karger, Amy B; Killeen, Anthony A; Hodges, James S; Fan, Shu-Ling; Ferguson, Angela; Garg, Uttam; Sokoll, Lori J; Burmeister, Lynn A

    2017-09-26

    Biotinylated antibodies and analogues, with their strong binding to streptavidin, are used in many clinical laboratory tests. Excess biotin in blood due to supplemental biotin ingestion may affect biotin-streptavidin binding, leading to potential clinical misinterpretation. However, the degree of interference remains undefined in healthy adults. To assess performance of specific biotinylated immunoassays after 7 days of ingesting 10 mg/d of biotin, a dose common in over-the-counter supplements for healthy adults. Nonrandomized crossover trial involving 6 healthy adults who were treated at an academic medical center research laboratory. Administration of 10 mg/d of biotin supplementation for 7 days. Analyte concentrations were compared with baseline (day 0) measures on the seventh day of biotin treatment and 7 days after treatment had stopped (day 14). The 11 analytes included 9 hormones (ie, thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and 2 nonhormones (prostate-specific antigen and ferritin). A total of 37 immunoassays for the 11 analytes were evaluated on 4 diagnostic systems, including 23 assays that incorporated biotin and streptavidin components and 14 assays that did not include biotin and streptavidin components and served as negative controls. Among the 2 women and 4 men (mean age, 38 years [range, 31-45 years]) who took 10 mg/d of biotin for 7 days, biotin ingestion-associated interference was found in 9 of the 23 (39%) biotinylated assays compared with none of the 14 nonbiotinylated assays (P = .007). Results from 5 of 8 biotinylated (63%) competitive immunoassays tested falsely high and results from 4 out of 15 (27%) biotinylated sandwich immunoassays tested falsely low. In this preliminary study of 6 healthy adult participants and 11 hormone and nonhormone analytes measured by 37 immunoassays

  8. Flow cytometric measurement of DNA level and steroid hormone receptor assay in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrikhina, G.N.; Kuz'mina, Eh.V.; Bassalyk, L.S.; Murav'eva, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    DNA level measured by flow cytometry and estrogen and progesteron receptors assayed in tissue samples obtained from 85 malignant and 16 benign lesions of the breast. All the benign tumors revealed 2c DNA content and most of them were receptor-negative, while 74.1% of breast carcinomas displayed aneuploidy. Three patients (3.5%) had two lines of aneuploid cells. Many aneuploid tumors were receptor-negative. Preoperative radiation treatmet (14-20 Gy) did not significantly influence the level of steroid hormone receptors in tumors. Estrogen receptor level was higher in menopausal patients than in premenopausal ones

  9. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soos, M.; Siddle, K.

    1982-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were obtained from hybrid myelomas, following fusion of mouse NSI myeloma cells with mouse spleen cells. Ten different antibodies were obtained from 4 separate fusions. Eight antibodies were of the IgG 1 subclass. Affinities of antibodies for TSH were in the range 2 x 10 8 -5 x 10 10 M -1 . Five of the antibodies were specific for TSH and did not react with LH, FSH or hCG. The remaining antibodies reacted with all these hormones and were assumed to recognise their common (α) subunit. The 5 specific antibodies fell into 3 subgroups recognising distinct antigenic determinants, whereas the 5 non-specific antibodies recognised a single determinant or closely related set of sites. It is concluded that these antibodies should be valuable reagents for use in sensitive and specific two-site immunoradiometric assays. (Auth.)

  10. Kinetics of two-site immunoradiometric ('sandwich') assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodbard, D.; Feldman, Y.; Jaffe, M.L.; Miles, L.E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The mathematical model of the ideal two-site IRMA developed in the accompanying report, which assumes that both the first (solid phase) and second (labeled) antisera are 'homogeneous', fails to provide an explanation for the frequent occurrence of a paradoxical fall in the dose-response curve in the high-dose region ('high-dose hook effect'). Accordingly, the model has been extended in an attempt to provide a theoretical basis for these phenomena. Two mechanisms were considered: (A) heterogeneity of the first antiserum (which is bound to the solid phase), i.e. presence of two or more classes of sites with moderately to widely differing affinity constants; and (B) incomplete washing of the solid phase after the first reaction. This leads to an expanded system of five differential equations, five equations for conservation of mass, and fourteen rate constants. In the presence of a heterogeneous first antiserum, a high dose 'hook effect' will occur. Rapid dissociation of the ligand from the low affinity class of sites during the second 'wash' procedure will accentuate this effect. Thus, heterogeneity of binding sites is a sufficient explanation for the high-dose hook effect and is a likely mechanism in practice, since the antisera which are coupled to the solid phase have usually not been fractionated. The present studies also show that, even if dealing with homogeneous first antibody, one may still observe a high-dose hook effect if washing is incomplete after the first incubation with the antigen. Using computer simulation studies, factors affecting the magnitude of the 'high-dose hook effect' have been explored. (author)

  11. Immunoradiometric versus radioimmunoassay: a comparison using alpha-fetoprotein as the model analyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.; Budd, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    With alpha-fetoprotein as a model a formal comparison has been made between inhibition type radioimmunoassay with radioiodinated antigen, liquid-phase incubation and double antibody separation (RIA) and variants of the sandwich immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). 125 I-antibody was prepared (expensively) by labelling the IgG fraction and subsequently undertaking immunopurification to yield a reproducibly-high quality reagent, 70-75% being reactive with antigen. The same antiserum was coupled to Sepharose 4B for use in the IRMA and separation was by the sucrose layer procedure (Hunter, 1980) which obviates the need for centrifugation. The principal basis used for the comparison was computer-generated precision profiles (Ekins, 1976), each of which was derived from 10 assays of each kind. (Auth.)

  12. Radiometric immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-hormone-binding protein antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, E.A.; Dame, M.C.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1986-01-01

    A radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of monoclonal antibodies to hormone-binding proteins has been developed. The assay involves incubating hybridoma supernatants in microtiter wells that have been coated with goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Any mouse IgG in the test supernatant is thus specifically retained in the wells. Radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes are then incubated in the wells. The presence of anti-binding protein antibodies in the supernatant is indicated by specific retention of radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes in the wells. Crude antigen preparations, such as tissue homogenates, can be used to detect antibodies. The assay is capable of detecting antibody at concentrations 20 ng/ml (approx. 100 pM IgG). The RISA has been used successfully to screen for monoclonal antibodies to the intracellular receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 and should be useful for the detection of antibodies to ligand-binding proteins in general

  13. Determination of luteinizing hormone in bovine blood by radioligand receptor assay and comparison with radioimmunological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schams, D.; Menzer, C.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioligand receptor assay (RRA) using rat testis homogenate as the receptor source is described for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH) in bovine blood. Interfering and nonspecific substances in blood were removed by means of ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50. Criteria of validation such as recovery of added LH to plasma or serum, reproducibility, and specificity gave good results. Inhibition curves obtained with bovine plasma and serum were parallel to those obtained with the bovine standard preparation. The range of the dose-response curve was between 0.5-20 ng of bovine LH. The pattern of LH concentrations in purified serum samples under different physiological conditions such as during the oestrous cycle and after administration of GnRH showed a very close correlattion whether measured by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) or receptor assay. Values of RRA-LH were consistently higher than those of RIA-LH. Thus the lower the RIA-LH levels, the more pronounced were the discrepancies between results of both assay systems. The mean ratio of RRA-LH/RIA-LH for basal levels (less than 1 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) was 17.8 as compared to a mean ratio for higher peak values (more than 20 ng RIA-LH/ml plasma) of only 1.2. (author)

  14. Usefulness of a rapid immunometric assay for intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Ohe

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IO-PTH measurements have been proposed to improve operative success rates in primary, secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism (PHP, SHP and THP. Thirty-one patients requiring parathyroidectomy were evaluated retrospectively from June 2000 to January 2002. Sixteen had PHP, 7 SHP and 8 THP. Serum samples were taken at times 0 (before resection, 10, 20 and 30 min after resection of each abnormal parathyroid gland. Samples from 28 patients were frozen at -70ºC for subsequent tests, whereas samples from three patients were tested while surgery was being performed. IO-PTH was measured using the Elecsys immunochemiluminometric assay (Roche, Mannheim, Germany. The time necessary to perform the assay was 9 min. All samples had a second measurement taken by a conventional immunofluorimetric method. We considered as cured patients who presented normocalcemia in PHP and THP, and normal levels of PTH in SHP one month after surgery and who remained in this condition throughout the follow-up of 1 to 20 months. When rapid PTH assay was compared with a routine immunofluorimetric assay, excellent correlation was observed (r = 0.959, P < 0.0001. IO-PTH measurement showed a rapid average decline of 78.8% in PTH 10 min after adenoma resection in PHP and all patients were cured. SHP patients had an average IO-PTH decrease of 89% 30 min after total parathyroidectomy and cure was observed in 85.7%. THP showed an average IO-PTH decrease of 91.9%, and cure was obtained in 87.5% of patients. IO-PTH can be a useful tool that might improve the rate of successful treatment of PHP, SHP and THP.

  15. Functional diagnostics for thyrotropin hormone receptor autoantibodies: bioassays prevail over binding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, Simon David; Schluter, Anke; Banga, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Autoantibodies to the thyrotropin hormone receptor (TSH-R) are directly responsible for the hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease and mediate orbital manifestations in Graves' orbitopathy (otherwise known as thyroid eye disease). These autoantibodies are heterogeneous in their function and collectively referred to as TRAbs. Measurement of TRAbs is clinically important for diagnosis of a variety of conditions and different commercial assays with high sensitivity and specificity are available for diagnostic purposes. This review provides overwhelming evidence that the TRAbs detected in binding assays by mainly the automated electrochemical luminescence immunoassays (ECLIA) do not distinguish TRAbs that stimulate the TSH-R (called TSIs or TSAbs) and TRAbs that just inhibit the binding of TSH without stimulating the TSH-R (called TBAbs). However, TSAbs and TBAbs have divergent pathogenic roles, and depending which fraction predominates cause different clinical symptoms and engender different therapeutic regimen. Therefore, diagnostic distinction of TSAbs and TBAbs is of paramount clinical importance. To date, only bioassays such as the Mc4 TSH-R bioassay (Thyretain TM , Quidel) and the Bridge assay (Immulite 2000, Siemens) can measure TSAbs, with only the former being able to distinguish between TSAbs and TBAbs. On this note, it is strongly recommended to only use the term TSI or TSAb when reporting the results of bioassays, whereas the results of automated TRAb binding assays should be reported as TRAbs (of undetermined functional significance). This review aims to present a technical and analytical account of leading commercial diagnostic methods of anti-TSH-R antibodies, a metaanalysis of their clinical performance and a perspective for the use of cell based TSH-R bioassays in the clinical diagnostics of Graves' disease.

  16. Rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay--more than just a comfort measure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanif, F

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy (MIRP) has been embraced as an acceptable therapeutic approach to primary hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative sestamibi scanning has facilitated this technique. Here we evaluate the addition of a rapid intraoperative parathyroid hormone (iPTH) assay for patients undergoing MIRP. METHODS: A series of 51 patients underwent sestamibi localization of parathyroid glands followed by MIRP for primary hyperparathyroidism. Using peripheral venous samples, iPTH levels were measured prior to gland excision, as well as post-excision at 5, 10, and 15 minutes, taking a 50% reduction in iPTH level as indicative of complete excision. Next, changes in serum iPTH were compared with preoperative and postoperative changes in serum calcium, as well as levels of intraoperative ex-vivo radiation counts taken by hand-held gamma probe. RESULTS: In this series, a drop of greater than 50% in iPTH levels was observed in 94% of patients (n=48). Moreover, a significant drop in iPTH occurred within 10 minutes of excision in the majority (n=42) of cases (P<0.004). Changes in iPTH were comparable with the therapeutic reduction in calcium levels, as well as with the change in intraoperative ex-vivo gamma counts. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the addition of an iPTH assay to MIRP provides a quick and reliable intraoperative diagnostic modality in confirming correct adenoma removal. Moreover, it precludes the requirement of frozen section.

  17. Radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone in women with amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, W.

    1975-01-01

    The radioimmunological and serological assay of the urinary excretion of the luteinizing hormone (LH) was performed in 6 women treated with monopausal gonadotropin - because of amenorrhoe. The observations of the course of treatment demonstrated different concentration of LH in women treated because of primary and secondary amenorrhoe. In cases of primary amenorrhoe increase of the LH concentration appeared in the form of ovulation peak being closely correlated with the first injection of Biogonadyl (HCG) preparation. Different observations were made in the secondary amenorrhoe group, where urinary LH increase proceeded for some hours the adminstration of the exogenous chrionic gonadotropin. This may prove the induction of ovulation without the participation of HCG, as an effect of the menopausal gonadotropin (Menogonadyl) with established 1:1 ratio of FSH:LH. In the examined group of women with secondary amenorrhoe the radioimmunologic assay demonstrated persisting through several days high levels of urinary LH - undetectable by serological methods. In 4 cases corpus luteum appeared in the course of treatment - confirmed by cytologic examination and by determination of urainary pregnandiol activity. (author)

  18. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S133-S140 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enzyme * metabolism * radiometric assay * thyroid hormone Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  19. Multicenter analytical performance evaluation of a fully automated anti-Müllerian hormone assay and reference interval determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anckaert, E.; Öktem, M.; Thies, A.; Cohen-Bacrie, M.; Daan, N. M P; Schiettecatte, J.; Müller, C.; Topcu, D.; Gröning, A.; Ternaux, F.; Engel, C.; Engelmann, S.; Milczynski, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an established biomarker for assessing ovarian reserve and predicting response to controlled ovarian stimulation. Its routine clinical use is hampered by the variability and low-throughput of available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The

  20. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  1. New aspects of radioimmunochemical measurement of human parathyroid hormone using the labelled antibody technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.; McIntosh, C.H.S.; Woodhead, J.S.; Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff

    1975-01-01

    Two forms of heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) have given rise to conflicting results: one due to the heterogeneity of the secreted species from the gland and their peripheral metabolism and the other representing the immunochemical heterogeneity of the available antibodies. We have developed sequence specific assays using the technique of labelled antibodies. Therefore, results of assays measuring the C-terminal part and the (1-34)-N-terminal part of the molecule could be compared to those of an assay for hormone bearing both N- and C-terminal antigenic determinants. This assay is supposed to detect predominantly (1-84)-intact hormone. The immunoradiometric assay of (1-34)-PTH has a sensitivity of 0.04 ng/ml. This technique avoids the critical iodination of the hormone fragment containing no tyrosine. There is the expected overlap between normal subjects and patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most important finding are results from patients undergoing neck catheterization. We demonstrated nonuniform secretion of different species of PTH by parathyroid adenomata and normal glands. This supports the hypothesis of cleavage of the (1-84)-molecule in the gland. (orig.) [de

  2. Study on the internal quality control of thyroid hormones assays in a hospital laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiqiang; Chu Shaolin; Ye Peihong; Lei Qiufang; Chai Luhua; Xia Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: With the aim of providing more reliable information for clinical diagnosis, this study investigated the possible causes of the occasional instability of thyroid hormones (T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 TSH) assays in this laboratory and tried to seek plausible explanation for some seemingly contradictory (mismatching) readings of the laboratory reports. Methods: Regular monitoring and checks were enforced on laboratory equipment from sampling pipet to gamma-counters. Results of separation with PR reagent and solid - phase coated tube were compared for superiority (FT 3 ). Collected specimens were tested in monthly sets; this study consisted of 10 sets with total 964 specimens. Serum T 3 , T 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 levels were measured with RIA. For every hormone tested, values of parameters of the standard cure (B 0 , NSB, a, b, r, ED 20 , ED 50 , ED 80 , ABCV) were recorded in detail, from which the QC (quality control) table was derived. For complementary sake , mean level in patients' sera was noted along with the quality control sera. Shewart control chart was drawn for quick reference. Serum TSH levels were measured with IRMA; the parameters involved were: B 0 NSB, ED 80 , ED 50 , ED 20 , standard point deviation. Results: Among the 964 specimens tested, there were 154 specimens with seemingly contradictory (mismatching) results, of which, the majority (n=145) were not erroneous and were compatible with the clinical manifestations of thyroid dysfunction other than plain simple hyper-or hypothyroidism. Only 9 (5.8% of the 154) were due to technical errors (defective technic in removing the supernatant n=7, lipid blood separated with PR reagent n=2). Conclusion: Faulty technic in separation is the main source of random error. From the data of this laboratory, authors believe that solid-phase separation method is better than the conventional homogenous-phase separation method and is the preferred one. With meticulous adherence to standard laboratory procedures and

  3. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  4. The use of intermediate electron acceptors to enhance MTT bioreduction in a microculture tetrazolium assay for human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C J; Holt, S J; Downes, S; Marshall, N J

    1996-01-01

    We contrast the effects of three intermediate electron acceptors (IEAs) on the highly quantitative ESTA bioassay for human growth hormone. This is a microculture tetrazolium assay based upon the in vitro reduction of the tetrazolium salt MTT, by Nb2 cells which have been activated with hGH. Each of the IEAs influenced MTT-formazan production in a distinctive manner. The two quinonoids, namely menadione and co-enzyme Q0 markedly increased the MTT-formazan produced by hormone activated Nb2 cells and thereby amplified the response of our bioassay for human growth hormone (hGH). The exceptionally low bioassay baseline which is characteristic of the unstimulated Nb2 cells when only MTT is added was retained in the presence of CoQ0, but was greatly increased by menadione. Phenazine methosulphate, which is the most widely used redox intermediary in microculture tetrazolium assays, also increased the baseline, but had only a minimal additional effect on MTT reduction by activated Nb2 cells. We conclude that CoQ0 is the preferred IEA for this ESTA bioassay for hGH.

  5. Persistent Graves' hyperthyroidism despite rapid negative conversion of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assay results: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitazawa, Masaru; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Minagawa, Shinichi; Miyakoshi, Masashi; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2017-02-06

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune thyroid disorder characterized by hyperthyroidism, and patients exhibit thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody. The major methods of measuring circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody include the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays. Although the diagnostic accuracy of these assays has been improved, a minority of patients with Graves' disease test negative even on second-generation and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins. We report a rare case of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin-positive patient with Graves' disease who showed rapid lowering of thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin levels following administration of the anti-thyroid drug thiamazole, but still experienced Graves' hyperthyroidism. A 45-year-old Japanese man presented with severe hyperthyroidism (serum free triiodothyronine >25.0 pg/mL; reference range 1.7 to 3.7 pg/mL) and tested weakly positive for thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulins on second-generation tests (2.1 IU/L; reference range hyperthyroidism for more than 8 years, requiring 15 mg/day of thiamazole to correct. During that period, he tested negative on all first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, but thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse and increased uptake, and thyroid ultrasound and color flow Doppler imaging showed typical findings of Graves' hyperthyroidism. The possible explanations for serial changes in the thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin results in our patient include the presence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, which is bioactive but less reactive on thyroid-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin assays, or the effect of reduced levels of circulating thyroid

  6. Comparison of third and second generation parathyroid hormone assays and their use in chronic hemdialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Muryan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This work’s objective is to compare third and second generation assays in patients with normal kidney function and in chronic hemodialysis patients, and the implications on the latter. Methods: 60 chronic hemodialysis patients and 40 patients with normal kidney function were studied and their PTH levels were measured for both assays. Results: In patients population with normal kidney function the average on PTH was 51.8 and 45.6 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. In chronic hemodialysis patients the average PTH was 193.9 and 137.1 pg/ml with second and third generation assays respectively. The difference between assays was 11.3% and 29.3% in patients with normal kidney function and in hemodialysis patients respectively. Third generation assay caused a variation in the amount of patients that fall over seve ral PTH ranges according to KDIGO guidelines, for a lesser value of 2 times the reference upper limit: it changes from 20 to 25 patients, between 2 and 9 times: it changes from 31 to 32 patients, and more than 9 times: it changes from 9 to 3 patients. Conclusions: When PTH concentration increases the difference between both assays also increases, for this reason we cannot use them indiscriminately in a chronic hemodialysis patient population. With third generation assays 11 patients (18.3% changed their classification according to KDIGO guidelines, which will result in a change of treatment.

  7. Interference by antiruthenium antibodies in the Roche thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, M. M.; Gorgels, J. P. M. C.; Endert, E.

    2011-01-01

    There are many causes of interference in immunoassays causing erratic patient results. A method-specific interference due to antiruthenium antibodies in Roche free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) assays has been described previously. As a result, a new generation fT4 assay has been

  8. Radioimmunoassays of parathyroid hormone: Clinical value of the midregion and c-terminal assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengst, K.; Raidt, H.; Hoegemann, B.; Wagner, H.

    1984-01-01

    PTH was measured by midregion and carboxy-terminal assay in 20 patients suffering from primary hyperparathyroidism, 30 patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, 10 persons with tertiary hyperparathyroidism, 50 patients who underwent transplantation of the kidney, 10 patients with hypoparathyroidism and 10 patients with other hypocalcemia as well as in 50 normal persons. Diagnosing hyperparathyroidism both assays were successful, when serum kreatinine was within the normal range. Especially midregion fragments became elevated, when serum kreatinine was above 2,0 mg. During renal failure diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism is more difficult. In normal renal function, however, the midregion assay is more sensitive for diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism compared to the carboxy-terminal assay. After kidney transplantation midregion levels of PTH are elevated, perhaps because of a failure of the transplanted kidney to eliminate the midregion fragment. (orig.) [de

  9. Radioimmunological assay of the biologically active fragment of the human parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplan, C.; Jullienne, A.; Raulais, D.; Rivaille, P.; Barlet, J.P.; Moukthar, M.S.; Milhaud, G.

    1977-01-01

    The authors describe a RIA of the biologically active fraction (N-terminal) of human parathyroid hormone. This homologous test uses antibodies obtained in goats against a N-terminal 1-34 fragment of hPTH synthetised according to the method of Niall and Coll. In this system, natural hPTH of different origin (extracts from parathyroid adenomas, adenomal culture medium, hyperparathyroid plasma, adsorption chromatography extract of normal human plasma) behaved in the same manner as the synthetic reference hormone 1-34 hPTHN. The RIA detected PTH in 65% of the normal subjects and distinguished the normal values from the values of hyperparathyroid patients, which makes it suitable for clinical practice. (AJ) [de

  10. Effect of iodination on human growth hormone and prolactin: characterized by bioassay, radioimmunoassay, radioreceptor assay, and electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.; Tanaka, T.; Gout, P.W.; Beer, C.T.; Noble, R.L.; Friesen, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    Human GH (hGH) and PRL (hPRL) were iodinated using lactoperoxidase. The iodinated hormones were characterized by RIA, radioreceptor assay (RRA), and bioassay (BA) using the Nb2 Node lymphoma cell line. The proportion of tracer that could bind to rat liver membranes or rabbit antibodies was determined, and the distribution of iodinated hormones was examined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Excess antibody was capable of precipitating 87.9% of the radioactivity associated with the hGH tracer and 86.0% of the hPRL tracer. The maximal specific binding to a liver membrane preparation averaged 67.3% of the [ 125 I]iodo-hGH radioactivity and 48.8% of the [ 125 I]iodo-hPRL radioactivity. The respective BA and RRA activity estimates for [ 125 ]iodo-hGH averaged 90% and 114% of the activity measured by the RIA. For [ 125 I]iodo-hPRL, the values were 75% by BA and 68% by RRA. The bioactivity profiles of iodinated hGH and hPRL shifted anodally on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in comparison to the bioactivity distribution of the respective uniodinated hormones. Iodine incorporation rather than oxidation appeared to be responsible for the shift. After electrophoresis, all eluates which contained significant radioactivity were active in the BA and RIA. Furthermore, specific activities calculated from the bioactive hormone and radioactivity in each electrophoretic segment agreed well with the average specific activity estimated from the amount of iodine incorporated into the protein peak upon gel filtration. These data suggest that hGH and hPRL to a major degree retain biological integrity after iodination

  11. Initial diagnosis and follow-up in thyroid dysfunctions by use of immunoradiometric TSH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, K.

    1985-01-01

    4.245 patient studies with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assay revealed a normal range from 0.1 to 3.5 mU/l. Hyperthyroid patients had TSH values 6.0 mU/l. The results of TRH stimulation after nasal application of 2 mg TRH are strongly related to basal TSH measurement, thus, a demand on TRH tests exists only in basal TSH concentrations 0.1 to 0.3 mU/l and 3.5 to 6.0 mU/l for latent function anomalies. During T 4 therapy basal TSH values below 0.3 mU/l are indicative for sufficient suppression, for proof of overdosage T 3 parameters have to be used. In antithyroid drug therapy basal TSH measurement is important after the initial phase of therapy for precise antithyroid drug dosage. Therefore, the highly sensitive TSH measurement is the most important initial parameter for exclusion or evidence of thyroid function anomaly. (orig.) [de

  12. Similarity criterion analysis of dose-response curves in biological assay and radioimmunoassay of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristakou, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    The difficulties involved in the control of biological and radioimmunological assay systems, and in the maintenance of standard, as well as, the usual heterogeneity of assayed samples require some evidence of similarity between the dose-response curves obtained with the standard and the sample. Nowadays the parallelism test is used to provide such evidence. However, some indications of non-normal errors distribution, such as the presence of out layers, render the parallelism test both conceptually implausible and statistically inefficient. In such a manner we suggest the non-parametric 'frequencial' test as a more sounding option. (author)

  13. Prognostic utility of the 21-gene assay in hormone receptor-positive operable breast cancer compared with classical clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L; Ravdin, Peter M; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A

    2008-09-01

    Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) -positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments.

  14. Two simple cleanup methods combined with LC-MS/MS for quantification of steroid hormones in in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Johan Juhl; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Poulsen, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    Measuring both progestagens, androgens, corticosteroids as well as estrogens with a single method makes it possible to investigate the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the main pathways in the mammalian steroidogenesis. This paper presents two simple methods for the determination...... of the major steroid hormones in biological matrixes using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(2)). A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 steroids in the H295R in vitro assay without the need for solid phase extraction (SPE) purification prior to LC-MS(2) analysis....... The in vitro assay was validated by exposing H295R cells to prochloraz for inhibiting steroid hormone secretion and by exposing cells to forskolin for inducing steroid hormone secretion. The developed method fulfills the recommendations for the H295R assay suggested by the OECD. Furthermore, a simple off...

  15. Technical note: Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay for growth hormone in ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P.; Adamsen, J.; Lund, Regina Teresa

    2003-01-01

    for 4 h at 25degreesC. Plates were then washed six times, incubated for 5 to 10 min with 250 muL of enhancement solution, and fluorescence read with a time-resolved fluorometer. The sensitivity of the assay was 0.1 ng/mL, and the working range was 0.2 to 200 ng/mL. Recovery of quantitative amounts...

  16. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Venâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD and 21-day sleep restriction (SR on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR.

  17. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  18. Value of radioimmuno-assay of triiodothyronine and thyrotropic hormone in the diagnosis of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.; Emrich, D.; Muehlen, A. von zur; Breuel, H.P.; Goettingen Univ.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a purely in-vitro test were compared with previously available methods in 425 patients. For triiodothyronine, a normal range must be differentiated from the so-called euthyroid range (0.8-2.0 ng/ml) for patients with euthyroid goitre. The accuracy for triiodothyronine is then more than 95% and in hyperthyroidism 97.5%. It is, therefore, superior to other in-vitro measurements. But a disadvantage is that it is easily influenced by thyroid and extrathyroid factors. Similar accuracy is obtained for the TRH function test (thyrotropine-releasing hormone). Notable is a 'negative' TRH test in 20% of patients with euthyroid goitre. The significance of triiodothyronine determination is decreased in autonomous adenoma, in which the TRH test has an accuracy of 96.5%. In rare diseases of the thyroid all diagnostic possibilities must be taken into account. In ordinary practice a stepwise course is suggested. RT 3 U, T 4 , T 3 and thyroid scan with sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate are useful as basic tests. PBI is still thought to be important. The second step involves the TRH test rather than 131 I function test. Triiodothyronine determination is best for therapeutic and follow-up purposes, a situation in which TRH test is of limited value. (orig.) [de

  19. Simple assay method for proteins carrying sexual hormones (PTHS); values in men, women, and during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafurt, C.A.; Estrada, R. de.

    1977-01-01

    Starting from the fact that the binding forces between steroid hormones and their carrier proteins are similar to those between antigens and antibodies, the paper describes PTHS determination by a dilution method analogous to antiserum labelling for radioimmunoassay. The method consists of the following steps: 1) Plasma dilution, 2) incubation of the solutions with 20,000 dpm 1,2 3 H testosterone, 3) separation of the tracer fraction bound to PTHS by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, 4) centrifugation and measurement of the supernatant, 5) presentation of the findings in a graphical system with the bound steroid fraction, referred to the free steroid (U/L) as the ordinate and the plasma dilutions as the abscissa. The values represent the label in 50% of the sites. The method offers the highest sensitivity, i.e. the steepest parts of the dilution curves where 50% of the binding sites are located. The method also dispenses with tedious processes such as dialysis. The following PTHS values were obtained: 1/5 in men, 1/93 in women, and 1/360 in pregnant women. There were no cross-reactions. (AJ) [de

  20. Prognostic Utility of the 21-Gene Assay in Hormone Receptor–Positive Operable Breast Cancer Compared With Classical Clinicopathologic Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lori J.; Gray, Robert; Badve, Sunil; Childs, Barrett H.; Yoshizawa, Carl; Rowley, Steve; Shak, Steven; Baehner, Frederick L.; Ravdin, Peter M.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Sledge, George W.; Perez, Edith A.; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Sparano, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant! is a standardized validated decision aid that projects outcomes in operable breast cancer based on classical clinicopathologic features and therapy. Genomic classifiers offer the potential to more accurately identify individuals who benefit from chemotherapy than clinicopathologic features. Patients and Methods A sample of 465 patients with hormone receptor (HR) –positive breast cancer with zero to three positive axillary nodes who did (n = 99) or did not have recurrence after chemohormonal therapy had tumor tissue evaluated using a 21-gene assay. Histologic grade and HR expression were evaluated locally and in a central laboratory. Results Recurrence Score (RS) was a highly significant predictor of recurrence, including node-negative and node-positive disease (P < .001 for both) and when adjusted for other clinical variables. RS also predicted recurrence more accurately than clinical variables when integrated by an algorithm modeled after Adjuvant! that was adjusted to 5-year outcomes. The 5-year recurrence rate was only 5% or less for the estimated 46% of patients who have a low RS (< 18). Conclusion The 21-gene assay was a more accurate predictor of relapse than standard clinical features for individual patients with HR-positive operable breast cancer treated with chemohormonal therapy and provides information that is complementary to features typically used in anatomic staging, such as tumor size and lymph node involvement. The 21-gene assay may be used to select low-risk patients for abbreviated chemotherapy regimens similar to those used in our study or high-risk patients for more aggressive regimens or clinical trials evaluating novel treatments. PMID:18678838

  1. Obtaining of stimulating hormone of the thyroid (hTSH) of Human Hypophysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Jorge H; Carvajal G, Claudia; Anzola V, Cecilia; Gomez de, Myrian

    1993-01-01

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was extracted from human frozen pituitary glands using a method for the integral extraction of most hormones present in the gland. A specific immunoradiometric method (IRMA) was standardized and used for the analysis of TSH content. The immunology potency of the final TSH preparation was 1365 mUI/mg by IRMA. Characterization by SDS-PAGE demonstrated the multicomponent nature of the hormone

  2. Use of immunoradiometric analysis to determine Rickettsia antigens in cell cultures and chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozorovskiy, S.V.; Alekseeva, N.V.; Knyazeva, E.N.; Ignatovich, V.F.; Barkhatova, O.T.

    1984-02-01

    A modification of an immunoradiometric analysis to determine Rickettsia antigens in various biological substrates was studied, using rickettsious diagnostricums, egg and cell cultures of Rickettsia. The method was highly sensitive for the determination of minimal quantities of antigens in these substrates. The method appears to be promising for studies related to the detection of microorganisms and their antigens. 5 references.

  3. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  4. Bioactivity and immunoactivity of growth hormone during dynamic testing of patients with acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, A.L.; Norman, M.; Butler, J.; Aston, R.; Buchanan, C.

    1988-01-01

    We have used the Nb2 cell proliferation bioassay for lactogenic hormones to investigate the biological activity of hGH in sera of patients with acromegaly. The specificity of the assay has been improved by the use of monoclonal antibodies to block the activity of individual lactogenic hormones. Disease activity in patients was assessed by scoring signs and symptoms, and by measuring IGF-I concentrations in some patients. Patients with a wide spectrum of disease activity were studied using a TRH test. hGH concentrations were measured by bioassay, RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) at 0,20 and 60 min after injection of TRH. There was a high degree of correlation between log 10 of all hGH concentrations measured by bioassay and RIA (r = 0.995, P<0.0001), between bioassay and IRMA (r = 0.990, P<0.0001), and between RIA and IRMA (r = 0.995, P<0.0001). In contrast to previous reports, we found no evidence for changes in the bioactivity of hGH secreted after pituitary stimulation. (author)

  5. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  6. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above

  7. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  8. A modified direct insulin lodination for insulin radioreceptor assay in human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnabrawie, F S; Megahed, Y M; Fahim, F A; Ahmed, A M [Middle Eastern Regional radioisotope center for Arab Countries biochemistry dept. Faculty of science Ain Shams university, cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    A substitution of iodine in to the inulin molecule will easily lead to a decreased hormonal activity. Nevertheless it cannot be concluded without further investigation that one or several of the tyrosyl groups are directly involve in the degree of iodination and the loss activity has been demonstrated by many workers, (Frenkel-Conrat 1950, and de Zoeten and van Strik, 1961). On the basis of the Frenkel-Conrat experiments, lee 1957 suggested that a mono-substitution of iodine in two tyrosyl groups is possible without loss of biological activity. In general, iodination is easy to perform as usually carried out at room temperature at PH of 7.5 in a phosphate buffer medium (Megahed et al., 1976, 1979). Reaction between antigen and antibody in radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and radioreceptor assay (RRA), is detected by radiation emitted from a radioisotope incorporated into the antigen or antibody molecule. Ideally the radiolabelled molecule has an immunoreactivity identical to the natural molecule and this behaves in the same way as in the assay procedure. Oxidation of 125 I-iodide gives rise to the 125 I-iodination which in a mildly alkaline PH (7.5) reacts with the phenolic benzene ring of tyrosine and tyrosyl residues by a process of electrophilic attack.

  9. A modified direct insulin lodination for insulin radioreceptor assay in human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnabrawie, F.S.; Megahed, Y.M.; Fahim, F.A.; Ahmed, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A substitution of iodine in to the inulin molecule will easily lead to a decreased hormonal activity. Nevertheless it cannot be concluded without further investigation that one or several of the tyrosyl groups are directly involve in the degree of iodination and the loss activity has been demonstrated by many workers, (Frenkel-Conrat 1950, and de Zoeten and van Strik, 1961). On the basis of the Frenkel-Conrat experiments, lee 1957 suggested that a mono-substitution of iodine in two tyrosyl groups is possible without loss of biological activity. In general, iodination is easy to perform as usually carried out at room temperature at PH of 7.5 in a phosphate buffer medium (Megahed et al., 1976, 1979). Reaction between antigen and antibody in radioimmunoassay (RIA), immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and radioreceptor assay (RRA), is detected by radiation emitted from a radioisotope incorporated into the antigen or antibody molecule. Ideally the radiolabelled molecule has an immunoreactivity identical to the natural molecule and this behaves in the same way as in the assay procedure. Oxidation of 125 I-iodide gives rise to the 125 I-iodination which in a mildly alkaline PH (7.5) reacts with the phenolic benzene ring of tyrosine and tyrosyl residues by a process of electrophilic attack

  10. Comparison of pituitary and recombinant human thyrotropin standards in an immunoradiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanca Fernandez, Silvia; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Julio Cesar; Nisembaum Alas, Amaparo; Sevy Gonzalez, O.

    1998-01-01

    Results of two standards of human thyrotropin of pituitaries (B) and recombinant (C) origen supplied by the Instituto of pesquisas Energeticas y Nucleares, Brazil, were compared in our immunoradiometric reference system that use an human thyrotropin pituitary standard of local production (A). This work was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency for an inter-regional comparison and set up of a reference standard

  11. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  12. Fundamental and clinical study of direct immunoradiometric assay in human renin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimoto, Fumihiko; Horiuchi, Junko; Sakurai, Hyoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Takita, Takashi; Saruta, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    'Renin RIA Pasteur' kit for directly measuring renin concentration in human plasma (PRC) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. A standard curve for PRC was linear in the range of 10 - 640 pg/ml. Reproducibility, recovery, and stability were satisfactory. There was a significantly positive correlation between direct PRC and conventional plasma renin activity (PRA) and indirect PRC. PRC was directly measured in 119 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with primary aldosteronism (4), Cushing's syndrome (6), or non-functioning tumor (5). The basal PRC was 32.4 +- 18.8 pg/ml for men and 37.9 +- 22.6 pg/ml for women. PRC for primary aldosteronism was below detectable levels, and remained unchanged even after the administratin of ACTH. In the case of Cushing's syndrome, mean PRC and PRA were 19 pg/ml and 1.2 ng/ml/hr, and did not respond to ACTH. Although the administration of ATCH was significantly associated with a decreased PRC, there was only tendency toward the decreased PRA in the case of non-functioning tumors. The results indicate the usefulness of the present kit in terms of its ability to directly measure PRC without any complicated procedures. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. A radioreceptor assay of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor and characterization of LHRH binding to pituitary receptors in Shao duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Peixin; Wu Meiwen; Chen Ziyuan

    2000-01-01

    The properties of Shao duck pituitary luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors were analyzed in pituitary membrane preparation and isolated pituitary cells prepared by enzymatic dispersion with collagenase and trypsin, by using a super-agonist analog of (D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. High binding of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH to 10 6 cultured cells of Shao duck was observed after a 90 minute incubation at 4 degree C, while binding was significantly reduced after a 24h incubation. Binding of the radioligand was a function of tissue concentration of Shao duck pituitary membrane preparation, with a positive correlation over the range of 1-2 pituitary per-tube. Specific binding for 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH increased with the increase in the amount of 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. The Scatchard analysis of data revealed a linear relationship between the amount of specific binding and the ratio of specific binding to free 1 '2 5 I(D-Lys 6 )LHRH, indicating a single class of high affinity sites. Equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) was 0.34 nM in pituitary membrane preparation and 0.43 nM in isolated pituitary cells. Both Kd values were near and the maximum binding capacity (B max ) was great in isolated cells, suggesting no significant loss of the LHRH receptor population caused by the enzymatic procedure employed for cell dispersion in the present study. Addition of 9D-Lys 6 ) LHRH displaced bound 125 I-(D-Lys 6 ) LHRH. These results demonstrated the presence and provided characterization of LHRH receptors in Shao duck pituitary

  14. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulin; Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei; Yang Wei; Li Qingge

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. ► The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. ► method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L −1 and became 0.003 mIU L −1 when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L −1 of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  15. Application of europium(III) chelates-bonded silica nanoparticle in time-resolved immunofluorometric detection assay for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yulin [Xiamen Branch of Fujian Newborn Screening Centre and Xiamen Prenatal Diagnosis Centre, Xiamen Maternal and Children' s Health Care Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian 361003 (China); Xia Xiaohu; Xu Ye; Ke Wei [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yang Wei, E-mail: weiyang@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Li Qingge, E-mail: qgli@xmu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Centre of Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory, MOE, Department of Biomedical Sciences and the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and ultrasensitive TSH immunoassay was developed using fluorescent silica nanoparticles-based TrIFA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assay is of high sensitivity with short period time request. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer method can be potentially used at hospitals for daily clinical practice in hTSH screening. - Abstract: Eu(III) chelate-bonded silica nanoparticle was used as a fluorescent label to develop a highly sensitive time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TrIFA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). The limit of detection of the assay calculated according to the 2SD method was 0.0007 mIU L{sup -1} and became 0.003 mIU L{sup -1} when serum-based matrix was used for calibrators, indicating that this TrIFA is comparable with the most sensitive assays. The linear range was from 0.005 to 100 mIU L{sup -1} of hTSH with coefficient of variation between 1.9% and 8.3%. The correlation study using 204 blood spot samples from newborns showed that the results from this new method were coincident with that of the commercial dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) system, with a correlation coefficient of 0.938. The fluorescent nanoparticle label allows directly reading the fluorescent signal, omitting the signal development step required for the DELFIA system, and the whole procedure of this assay is fulfilled within 2 h. Thus, we developed a novel, sensitive, quantitative and simple nanoparticle label-based TrIFA assay, suitable for routine application in hTSH screening of neonatal hypothyroidism.

  16. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of novel flame retardants TBB, TBPH and their metabolites TBBA and TBMEPH using reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Skledar, Darja Gramec; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2016-10-01

    The anti-androgenic and anti-thyroid hormonal activities of the two novel brominated flame retardants, TBB and TBPH and of their metabolites TBBA and TBMEPH have been compared using the luciferase reporter gene assays. Only the parent compounds TBB and TBPH exhibited anti-glucocorticoid activity with IC50 values of 1.9 μM and 0.3 μM. Furthermore, mode of action for these two compounds is by direct competing to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) with IC50 values of 0.03 μM and 0.002 μM. All four tested compounds possess anti-androgenic and anti-thyroid hormonal activities, without agonist activities on the respective receptors. Anti-androgenic activities with IC50 values of 43.5 μM, 0.1 μM, 47.5 μM and 1.3 μM were found for TBB, TBPH, TBBA and TBMEPH. The anti-thyroid hormonal IC50 values of 37.5 μM, 0.1 μM, 22.8 μM and 32.3 μM for TBB, TBPH, TBBA and TBMEPH, together with the above quoted results, indicate that metabolism can modify anti-androgenic, anti-glucocorticoid and anti-thyroid hormonal effects of these novel brominated flame retardants. Furthermore, the parent flame retardants are shown to be able to disrupt the function of the GR as antagonists by direct competition to the receptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of an assay for a biomarker of pregnancy and early fetal loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, R.E.; O'Connor, J.F.; Birken, S.; Krichevsky, A.; Wilcox, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone, secreted by the syncytiotrophoblast cells of the fertilized ovum, that enters the maternal circulation at the time of endometrial implantation. It is composed of two nonidentical subunits; α and β, with molecular weights of 14 kD and 23 kD, respectively. Human chorionic gonadotropin binds to the same receptor as hLH and displays the same biological response, namely, to stimulate the declining function of the corpus luteum to produce progestins and estrogen late in the menstrual cycle. The differences in the structures of hCG and hLH have been exploited to develop antibodies that can measure hCG specifically in the presence of hLH. Two-site antibody binding assays have been developed, based on a surface immunological concept of hCG epitopes, that involve four distinct regions to which antibodies against hCG can bind simultaneously. Antibody cooperative effects, in conjunction with kinetic advantages derived from the concentration factors by use of the sandwich assay technique (immunoradiometric assay, IRMA), have enabled development of extremely sensitive and specific measurement protocols for urinary hCG. The assay described herein permits the detection of pregnancy on an average 25.4 days after the first day of the preceding menses, as opposed to 29.5 days for conventional radioimmunoassay techniques. In addition, the greater sensitivity and specificity of this assay method has permitted the detection of episodes of fetal loss not detected by radioimmunoassay of urine specimens. A large scale epidemiological study is in progress using this assay technique as a way to identify pregnancies that are lost before becoming clinically apparent

  18. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  19. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  20. Preparation of a homogeneous extract of human growth hormone, isohormone B, and its 125I-labelling for utilization in radioligand assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.J. dos.

    1985-01-01

    Non-destructive polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (PAGE) tecnique, with direct UV-densitometry, was set up to permit both qualitative and quantitative studies of human growth hormone (hGH) isohormone purification is presented. This tecnique was used on a preparative scale to obtain milligram amounts of the fundamental form of hGH, isohormone B(Ih-B). Reversed electrophoresis was employed to elute the protein band form the gel. Retention of bio-and immunoactivity was demonstrated via two separate experiments. An 'in vivo' bioassay, based on the weight increase of hypophysectomized rats with a 2 x 2 factorial assay design, was used to compare the true somatotrophic activity of an hGH preparation submitted to the purification process with that of a single control preparation. Retention of immunoactivity was confirmed by studying the antibody binding properties of purified and radioiodinated Ih-B and by determination of its absolute immunopotency against a calibrated secondary standard. Radioimmuno assay curves, determined using Ih-B, as a standard and labelled preparation, showed its applicability in setting up assays based on more homogeneous reagents. (Author) [pt

  1. Evaluation of the amphibian metamorphosis assay: exposure to the goitrogen methimazole and the endogenous thyroid hormone L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine; Marino, Troy; Thomas, Johnson; Currie, Rebecca; Hancock, Gregg; Crofoot, Jackie; McNalley, Lindsay; McFadden, Lisa; Geter, David; Klecka, Gary

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has included an amphibian metamorphosis assay (AMA) to detect thyroid active chemicals in Tier 1 testing of their endocrine screening program. To understand the variability, specificity, and reliability of the key endpoints of this assay, two exposure studies with Xenopus laevis tadpoles were conducted with two known thyroid-active compounds, namely, methimazole or L-thyroxine, for a total of 21 d. In addition, various increased-flow-rate treatments were included in the exposures to evaluate the effects of physical stress on metamorphic development. The endpoints examined in the exposures were wet weight, snout-vent length, hind-limb length, developmental stage, and thyroid and gonadal histopathology. As expected, the results indicated that both methimazole and L-thyroxine were thyroid active in the AMA, hind-limb length and thyroid histopathology being the most sensitive endpoints of thyroid activity. Tadpoles that were exposed to the various physical stressors in these experiments showed no signs of altered metamorphic development, and exposure to the thyroid-active compounds had no effect on the developing gonad of X. laevis. Taken together, these results support the use of the AMA as a Tier 1 endocrine screen for detection of potential thyroid pathway activity; however, the lack of a true negative response (no-effect) during the validation process prevents a full evaluation of this assay's specificity at this time. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  2. Exploiting Nanobodies in the Detection and Quantification of Human Growth Hormone via Phage-Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Murad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMonitoring blood levels of human growth hormone (hGH in most children with short stature deficiencies is crucial for taking a decision of treatment with extended course of daily and expensive doses of recombinant hGH (rhGH or Somatropin®. Besides, misusing of rhGH by sportsmen is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and thus sensitive GH-detecting methods are highly welcome in this field. Nanobodies are the tiniest antigen-binding entity derived from camel heavy chain antibodies. They were successfully generated against numerous antigens including hormones.MethodsA fully nanobody-based sandwich ELISA method was developed in this work for direct measurement of GH in biological samples.ResultsTwo major characteristics of nanobody were exploited for this goal: the robust and stable structure of the nanobody (NbGH04 used to capture hGH from tested samples, and the great ability of tailoring, enabling the display of the anti-GH detector nanobody (NbGH07 on the tip of M13-phage. Such huge, stable, and easy-to-prepare phage-Nb was used in ELISA to provide an amplified signal. Previously, NbGH04 was retrieved on immobilized hGH by phage display from a wide “immune” cDNA library prepared from a hGH-immunized camel. Here, and in order to assure epitope heterogeneity, NbGH07 was isolated from the same library using NbGH04-captured hGH as bait. Interaction of both nanobodies with hGH was characterized and compared with different anti-GH nanobodies and antibodies. The sensitivity (~0.5 ng/ml and stability of the nanobody-base sandwich ELISA were assessed using rhGH before testing in the quantification of hGH in blood sera and cell culture supernatants.ConclusionIn regard to all advantages of nanobodies; stability, solubility, production affordability in Escherichia coli, and gene tailoring, nanobody-based phage sandwich ELISA developed here would provide a valuable method for hGH detection and quantification.

  3. Hormone Receptor Expression Analyses in Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Canine Mammary Tissue by a Bead Based Multiplex Branched DNA Assay: A Gene Expression Study in Fresh Frozen and Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Mohr

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC is currently considered the method of choice for steroid hormone receptor status evaluation in human breast cancer and, therefore, it is commonly utilized for assessing canine mammary tumors. In case of low hormone receptor expression, IHC is limited and thus is complemented by molecular analyses. In the present study, a multiplex bDNA assay was evaluated as a method for hormone receptor gene expression detection in canine mammary tissues. Estrogen receptor (ESR1, progesterone receptor (PGR, prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR gene expressions were evaluated in neoplastic and non-neoplastic canine mammary tissues. A set of 119 fresh frozen and 180 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE was comparatively analyzed and used for assay evaluation. Furthermore, a possible association between the hormone receptor expression in different histological subtypes of canine malignant mammary tumors and the castration status, breed and invasive growth of the tumor were analyzed. The multiplex bDNA assay proved to be more sensitive for fresh frozen specimens. Hormone receptor expression found was significantly decreased in malignant mammary tumors in comparison to non-neoplastic tissue and benign mammary tumors. Among the histological subtypes the lowest gene expression levels of ESR1, PGR and PRLR were found in solid, anaplastic and ductal carcinomas. In summary, the evaluation showed that the measurement of hormone receptors with the multiplex bDNA assay represents a practicable method for obtaining detailed quantitative information about gene expression in canine mammary tissue for future studies. Still, comparison with IHC or quantitative real-time PCR is needed for further validation of the present method.

  4. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  6. Use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone assay as a surrogate for polycystic ovarian morphology: impact on diagnosis and phenotypic classification of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraissinet, Alice; Robin, Geoffroy; Pigny, Pascal; Lefebvre, Tiphaine; Catteau-Jonard, Sophie; Dewailly, Didier

    2017-08-01

    Does the use of the serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) assay to replace or complement ultrasound (U/S) affect the diagnosis or phenotypic distribution of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Combining U/S and the serum AMH assay to define polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) diagnoses PCOS (according to the Rotterdam classification) in more patients than definitions using one or the other of these indicators exclusively. Since 2003, PCOM, as defined by U/S, is one of the three diagnostic criteria for PCOS. As it is closely correlated with follicle excess seen at U/S, an excessive serum AMH level could be used as a surrogate for PCOM. Single-center retrospective study from a database of prospectively collected clinical, laboratory and ultrasound data from patients referred for oligo-anovulation (OA) and/or hyperandrogenism (HA) between January 2009 and January 2016. The standard Rotterdam classification for PCOS was tested against two modified versions that defined PCOM by either excessive serum AMH level alone (AMH-only) or a combination (i.e. 'and/or') of the latter and U/S. The PCOS phenotypes were defined as A (full phenotype, OA+HA+PCOM), B (OA+HA), C (HA+PCOM) and D (OA+PCOM). PCOS was more frequently diagnosed when PCOM was defined as the combination 'positive U/S' and/or 'positive AMH' (n = 639) than by either only U/S-only (standard definition, n = 612) or by AMH-only (n = 601). With this combination, PCOM was recognized in 637 of the 639 cases that met the Rotterdam classification, and phenotype B practically disappeared. In this population, U/S and AMH markers were discordant for PCOM in 103 (16.1%) cases (9% U/S-only, 7.1% AMH-only, P = 0.159). The markers used had no other significant impact on the phenotypic distribution (except for phenotype B). However, the percentage of cases positive by U/S-only was significantly higher in phenotype D than in phenotype A (14.1% vs. 5.8%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the discordant cases, plasma LH levels were

  7. Standardization of human thyrotropin radioimmunoassay and its application to the purification of this hormone to the preparation of the assay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The various steps that are necessary for setting up the thyrotropin radioimmunoassay are presented below. Radioiodination was carried out through the Chloramine T method and the labeled purification performed on Sephadex G-100. Purification of human thyrotropin from side fractions obtained during the purification of growth hormone was carried out in order to obtain a pure reagent for use in the radioimmunoassay. The employment of the hormone obtained was evaluated as the radioimmunoassay tracer in comparison with that prepared from the hormone received from the NIDDKD, U.S.A. The results indicated that although it was not possible to obtain a hormone with a purity degree adequate to be used as the tracer, enough experience was acquired for the isolation of thyrotropin. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempster, W S; Knight, G J [Red Cross War Memorial Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Paediatrics and Child Health; Jacobs, P [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Haematology

    1979-12-22

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6..mu..g/l to greater than 2 000 ..mu..g/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice.

  9. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  10. A study on the CEA and AFP in Serum of Toombak Users and Smokers in Sudan using Immunoradiometric Assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M.; Hassan, A.M.; Shabbo, N.M.; Khalid, M.M.; El-amin, A.M.; Ali, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 42% of the sudanese population use toombak as smokers tobacco. Tobacco specific N-nitroso compounds have been detected at high concentration in toombak. This study focused on the possible carcinogenicity of those compounds through the measurement of serum CEA and serum AFP in both tombak users and smokers. 160 subjects were involved with the average age of 32 years ranging from 20 to 60 years. These 160 subjects were categorized into 3 groups (control, smokers, and tombak users). Serum CEA and AFP were measured using an IRMA technique. The mean AFP level in the control, tombak users and smokers groups were 0.94, 1.98 and 2.34 Ku/1 respectively. There is a significant difference between the means serum AFP level in both smokers and tombak users and control group, p=0.0045 and p=0.0049 respectively. T 13.2%of the tombak users and 23.5% of smokers have had serum AFP levels more than upper limit of the normal range (0-3-28 Ku/1) serum CEA level in control group ranged from 0 to 5.28 μg/1. The mean serum CEA levels of the tombak users and smokers was not differ significantly from that of the control group (p>0.05). But 12.7% of the tombak users and 14.7 of the smokers have had CEA level more than the upper limit of that of control. The relation between the duration of smoking and the level of CEA and AFP as well as the effect of age of subjects on the level of these analyte were studied. The results show no significant correlations where p>0.05

  11. A study on the CEA and AFP in serum of toombak users and smokers in Sudan using immunoradiometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, O.M.; Hassan, A.M; Shabo, N.M.; Khalid, M.M.; El-amin, A.M.; Ali, N.I.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 24% of the Sudanese population use toombak as smokeless tobacco. Tobacco specific N-nitro compounds have been detected at high concentration in toombak. this study focused on the possible carcinogenicity of those compounds through the measurement of serum CEA and serum AFP in both toombak users and smokers. 180 subjects were involved with the average age of 32 years ranging from 20 to 60 years. These 160 subjects were categorized into 3 groups (control, smokers, and toombak users). Serum CEA and AFP were measured using an IRMA technique. The mean AFP level in the control, toombak users and smokers group were 0.94, 1.98 and 2.34 Ku/l respectively. There is a significant difference between the means of serum AFP level in both smokers and toombak users and control group, p=0.0045 and p=0.0049 respectively. 13.2% of the toombak users and 23.5% of smokers have had serum AFP levels more than the upper limit of the normal range (0-3.28 Ku/l). Serum CEA level in control group ranged from 0 to 5.28μg/l. The mean serum CEA levels of the toombak users and smokers was not differ significantly from that of the control group (p>0.05). but 12.7% of the toombak users and 14.7 of the smokers have had CEA level more than the upper limit of that of control. The relation between the duration of smoking and the level of CEA and AFP as well as the effect of age of subjects on the level of these analyte were studied> The results show no significant correlations where p>0.05. (Author)

  12. Diagnostic relevance of radioiron-absorption-measurements and immunoradiometric serum-ferritin-assay in the evaluation of iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Negative iron balance and enhanced iron demand respectively causes deficient iron stores (prelatent iron deficiency) with increased iron absorption, later on decrease of serum iron and increase of transferrin (latent Fe deficiency) and at least iron deficient anemia (manifest iron deficiency). In prelatend iron deficiency diagnostic 59 Fe 2+ absorption is increased and the RES cells do not show storage iron cytochemically. In latent iron deficiency in addition serum iron, transferrin iron saturation and serum ferritin is decreased and hypochromic mikrocytic anemia completes the signs of manifest iron deficiency. Besides rare cases of primary hemochromatosis and marked hyperdasia of ineffective erythropoiesis in homocygotic beta-thalassemia, hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency and some sideroblastic anemias increased 59 Fe 2+ absorption is a reliable measure of exhausted iron stores. In these exceptional cases differential diagnosis between sideroachrestic and siderosensitive iron deficiency anemia can be made by measurement of serum iron and serum ferritin respectively. The etiology of iron deficiency is to be cleared by measurement of 59 Fe absorption from 59 Fe 2+ and 59 Fe-marked meat with consecutive estimation of whole body 59 Fe elimination. Shortly after completion or during oral iron therapy serum ferritin concentration is not suitable to evaluate the content of iron stores. (orig.) [de

  13. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopelius-Feldt, F. von.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL) [de

  14. The study in the relationship between serum calcium and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) by employing the various kits of PTH assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Yoshiyuki; Kiji, Shigeyuki; Ueyoshi, Akitaka; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influences of serum PTH assay in the various concentrations of serum calcium, we divided into three groups which serum calcium had below 8.0 mg/dl, 8.2 mg/dl to 9.8 mg/dl and above 10.0 mg/dl at random samples and assayed PTH in serum sample, using various kits of PTH assay obtained from commercial sources. Our results suggested that the measurement of serum PTH influenced by the concentration of serum calcium and therefore, should be taken an attention of serum calcium in each sample. (author)

  15. A simple assay for the detection of antibodies to endocrine islet cell surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreas, G.; Madsen, O.D.; Vissing, H.; Lernmark, Aa.

    1986-01-01

    A simple and sensitive immunoradiometric assay for the detection of islet cell surface antibodies (CIRMA) has been developed. Live, transformed islet cells derived from a liver metastasis of a transplantable islet cell tumor were grown in removable microtiter wells and incubated with antibody. Cell-bound antibodies were quantitated using 125 I-labelled second antibodies. The assay was used to detect islet cell antibodies present in sera from non-diabetic and diabetic BB rats and proved to be particularly effective for screening hybridoma supernatants in order to identify monoclonal antibodies recognizing islet cell surface antigens. (Auth.)

  16. Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

  17. Acute regulation of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecular forms by calcium: utility of PTH fragments/PTH(1-84) ratios derived from three generations of PTH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Räkel, Agnès; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Rousseau, Louise; Albert, Caroline; Cantor, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of circulating PTH peaks revealed by PTH assays after HPLC separation constitutes the best way to study the behavior of PTH molecular forms, but it is also impractical. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulation of circulating PTH molecular forms by calcium through the use of PTH fragments/PTH (1-84) ratios derived from PTH assays with different specificities before and after HPLC separation of circulating PTH. CaCl2 and Na citrate were infused in eight volunteers. PTH was measured in serum and HPLC fractions at different calcium concentrations in PTH assays reacting with regions 1-2 (CA), 12-18 (T), and 65-69 (C) of the PTH structure. From hypo- to hypercalcemia, the C/CA ratio had the highest range (1.92 to 9.75; P < 0.001), and the C/T ratio had a higher range (1.69 to 6.11; P < 0.01) than the T/CA ratio (1.15 to 1.86). Human (h) PTH (1-84) represented 32.7 and 4.3% of circulating PTH in hypo- and hypercalcemic HPLC profiles, respectively. These numbers were 5 and 0.9% for amino-terminal (N)-PTH, an amino-terminal form of PTH distinct from hPTH (1-84), 7.3 and 6.8% for non-(1-84) PTH or large C-PTH fragments with a partially preserved N structure, and 54.9 and 88.1% for C-PTH fragments missing a N structure. The HPLC C-PTH fragments to hPTH (1-84) ratio had the most extensive range (1.67 to 20.58). Despite their quantitative differences, all ratios identified identical behavior of PTH fragments relative to PTH (1-84). PTH assay ratios are an adequate tool to investigate the modulation of PTH molecular forms, even if all PTH assays show some undesirable cross-reactivity with certain circulating forms of PTH.

  18. Comparison of pituitary and recombinant human thyrotropin standards in an immunoradiometric system; Comparacion de estandares de tirotropina de origen hipofisario y recombinante en un sistema immunoradiometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca Fernandez, Silvia; Rodriguez Gonzalez, Julio Cesar; Nisembaum Alas, Amaparo; Sevy Gonzalez, O [Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-12-31

    Results of two standards of human thyrotropin of pituitaries (B) and recombinant (C) origen supplied by the Instituto of pesquisas Energeticas y Nucleares, Brazil, were compared in our immunoradiometric reference system that use an human thyrotropin pituitary standard of local production (A). This work was supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency for an inter-regional comparison and set up of a reference standard

  19. In vitro assay shows that PCB metabolites completely saturate thyroid hormone transport capacity in blood of wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutleb, Arno C; Cenijn, Peter; Velzen, Martin van; Lie, Elisabeth; Ropstad, Erik; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Malmberg, Tina; Bergman, Ake; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Legler, Juliette

    2010-04-15

    Persistent chemicals accumulate in the arctic environment due to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the most concentrated pollutant class in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Metabolism of PCB and polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants alter their toxicological properties and these metabolites are known to interfere with the binding of thyroid hormone (TH) to transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and humans. In polar bear plasma samples no binding of [125I]-T(4) to TTR was observed after incubation and PAGE separation. Incubation of the plasma samples with [14C]-4-OH-CB107, a compound with a higher binding affinity to TTR than the endogenous ligand T(4) resulted in competitive binding as proven by the appearance of a radio labeled TTR peak in the gel. Plasma incubation with T(4) up to 1 mM, a concentration that is not physiologically relevant anymore did not result in any visible competition. These results give evidence that the binding sites on TTR for T(4) in wild living polar bears are completely saturated. Such saturation of binding sites can explain observed lowered levels of THs and could lead to contaminant transport into the developing fetus.

  20. Calcitonin assay in wash-out fluid after fine-needle aspiration biopsy in patients with a thyroid nodule and border-line value of the hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, F; Dolcino, M; Degrandi, R; Ferone, D; Mussap, M; Minuto, F; Giusti, M

    2009-04-01

    Assaying calcitonin (CT) in the wash-out fluid from fine-needle aspiration biopsies (CT-FNAB) could be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The aim of this study was to correlate serum CT with cytology and CT-FNAB. Twenty-seven subjects (age range 27-75 yr) were studied. FNAB was performed in a thyroid nodule (no.=16) or lymph-node (no.=1 previously operated on for MTC) or in the prevalent nodule of multinodular goiters (no.=10). CT-FNAB values obtained in 37 subjects with normal serum CT (thyroid nodules served as a negative control. In these subjects, CTFNAB values were 8.2+/-6.4 ng/l (range 2-30 ng/l). In patients with a thyroid nodule under evaluation for MTC, serum CT and CT-FNAB values were 14.5+/-3.9 ng/l (range 10-24 ng/l) and 16.4+/-29.8 ng/l (range 2-144 ng/l), respectively. In 4 patients, CT-FNAB values were higher than the highest values found in our negative controls (30 ng/l), but cytology results were compatible with a benign thyroid lesion and pentagastrin testing was negative. In 3 cases with CT-FNAB 100 ng/l. Our data do not show any correlation between CT-FNAB and serum CT. In conclusion, borderline CT values in patients with thyroid nodules are not rare. Our experience suggests that CT-FNAB does not have the same importance as that reported in the literature for thyroglobulin and PTH assay in wash-out fluid after FNAB in malignant thyroid and hyperfunctioning parathyroid lesions.

  1. Radioligand assay in reproductive biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenman, S.G.; Sherman, B.M.

    1975-01-01

    Radioligand assays have been developed for the principal reproductive steroids and peptide hormones. Specific binding reagents have included antibodies, plasma binders, and intracellular receptors. In each assay, problems of specificity, sensitivity, and nonspecific inhibitors were encountered. Many features of the endocrine physiology in childhood, during puberty, and in adulthood have been characterized. Hormonal evaluations of endocrine disorders of reproduction are characterized on the basis of their characteristic pathophysiologic alterations. (U.S.)

  2. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR assays in Stellera chamaejasme subjected to abiotic stresses and hormone treatments based on transcriptome datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Guan, Huirui; Song, Min; Fu, Yanping; Han, Xiaomin; Lei, Meng; Ren, Jingyu; Guo, Bin; He, Wei; Wei, Yahui

    2018-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme Linn, an important poisonous plant of the China grassland, is toxic to humans and livestock. The rapid expansion of S. chamaejasme has greatly damaged the grassland ecology and, consequently, seriously endangered the development of animal husbandry. To draft efficient prevention and control measures, it has become more urgent to carry out research on its adaptive and expansion mechanisms in different unfavorable habitats at the genetic level. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique for studying gene expression at the transcript level; however, qRT-PCR requires reference genes (RGs) as endogenous controls for data normalization and only through appropriate RG selection and qRT-PCR can we guarantee the reliability and robustness of expression studies and RNA-seq data analysis. Unfortunately, little research on the selection of RGs for gene expression data normalization in S. chamaejasme has been reported. In this study, 10 candidate RGs namely, 18S , 60S , CYP , GAPCP1 , GAPDH2 , EF1B , MDH , SAND , TUA1 , and TUA6 , were singled out from the transcriptome database of S. chamaejasme , and their expression stability under three abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and three hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ABA; gibberellin, GA; ethephon, ETH) were estimated with the programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results showed that GAPCP1 and EF1B were the best combination for the three abiotic stresses, whereas TUA6 and SAND , TUA1 and CYP , GAPDH2 and 60S were the best choices for ABA, GA, and ETH treatment, respectively. Moreover, GAPCP1 and 60S were assessed to be the best combination for all samples, and 18S was the least stable RG for use as an internal control in all of the experimental subsets. The expression patterns of two target genes ( P5CS2 and GI ) further verified that the RGs that we selected were suitable for gene expression normalization. This work is the first attempt to

  3. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR assays in Stellera chamaejasme subjected to abiotic stresses and hormone treatments based on transcriptome datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Stellera chamaejasme Linn, an important poisonous plant of the China grassland, is toxic to humans and livestock. The rapid expansion of S. chamaejasme has greatly damaged the grassland ecology and, consequently, seriously endangered the development of animal husbandry. To draft efficient prevention and control measures, it has become more urgent to carry out research on its adaptive and expansion mechanisms in different unfavorable habitats at the genetic level. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a widely used technique for studying gene expression at the transcript level; however, qRT-PCR requires reference genes (RGs as endogenous controls for data normalization and only through appropriate RG selection and qRT-PCR can we guarantee the reliability and robustness of expression studies and RNA-seq data analysis. Unfortunately, little research on the selection of RGs for gene expression data normalization in S. chamaejasme has been reported. Method In this study, 10 candidate RGs namely, 18S, 60S, CYP, GAPCP1, GAPDH2, EF1B, MDH, SAND, TUA1, and TUA6, were singled out from the transcriptome database of S. chamaejasme, and their expression stability under three abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt and three hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ABA; gibberellin, GA; ethephon, ETH were estimated with the programs geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Result Our results showed that GAPCP1 and EF1B were the best combination for the three abiotic stresses, whereas TUA6 and SAND, TUA1 and CYP, GAPDH2 and 60S were the best choices for ABA, GA, and ETH treatment, respectively. Moreover, GAPCP1 and 60S were assessed to be the best combination for all samples, and 18S was the least stable RG for use as an internal control in all of the experimental subsets. The expression patterns of two target genes (P5CS2 and GI further verified that the RGs that we selected were suitable for gene expression normalization. Discussion

  4. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  5. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer

  6. Development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers. RC 9823/RB. Progress report from 12/97 to 06/99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to inform the activities held under the RC 9823/RB from december/1997 to June/1999 with reagents distributed by the coordinator of the project (free and total PSA). The objective of the work was to get the capacity to make reliable diagnosis of PSA and to understand what is being evaluated with PSA reagents, to develop immunoradiometric assays for PSA free and total and to optimize the conditions of these assays so as to be able to be used as a diagnostic tool as well as reference standard

  7. Serum bioactive and immunoreactive luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels in women with cycle abnormalities, with or without polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, B C; Pache, T D; Lamberts, S W; Hop, W C; de Jong, F H; Dahl, K D

    1991-10-01

    Serum steroid, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit levels were assessed in 35 women with cycle abnormalities [11 with and 24 without polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) according to strict clinical and biochemical criteria] and 8 regularly cycling women in the early (cycle day 3 or 4) and mid (cycle day 7 or 8) follicular phase. LH and FSH levels were estimated using two immunological techniques [RIA and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)] and in vitro bioassays (BIO), using mouse Leydig cells and rat granulosa cells, respectively. In PCOD patients mean alpha-subunit, free androgen index [FAI; testosterone x 100/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)], androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol (E2) were significantly elevated compared to levels in the early follicular phase of control cycles and non-PCOD patients. In addition, in PCOD patients mean IRMA-LH and RIA-LH levels were distinctly increased (2.8- to 3.6 fold, respectively; both comparisons, P less than 0.001) compared to control values, but in the same order of magnitude (1.3- to 1.4-fold increments) as that in non-PCOD patients. However, the median BIO-LH level in PCOD patients was 5.9-fold higher than that in non-PCOD patients and 4.0-fold higher than the BIO-LH in the early follicular phase of control women. Consequently, the median BIO/IRMA-LH ratio was 4.8-fold higher in PCOD patients compared to non-PCOD patients. In women with cycle abnormalities, individual BIO/IRMA-LH ratios correlated with BIO-LH (rs = 0.48), FAI (rs = 0.39), free estrogens (E2/SHBG ratios; rs = 0 0.47), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (rs = 0.60) concentrations. Mean IRMA-, RIA-, and BIO-FSH levels and BIO/IRMA-FSH ratios were not significantly different when various groups were compared. Although RIA- and IRMA-LH levels showed good correlation (rs = 0.88), RIA-LH levels were consistently higher, resulting in distinctly higher RIA-LH/FSH ratios (mean, 4.5) compared to IRMA-LH/FSH ratios (median, 1.8) in PCOD patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT

  8. Development of an immunoradiometric method for the measurement of total PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.; Korde, A.; Bapat, K.; Shukla, A.; Pillai, M.R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Development of an IRMA for total-PSA was taken up in our laboratories (Isotope Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India) and efforts were made to obtain monoclonals for PSA at our laboratory. Following the guidelines laid at the first meeting of this CRP we have used the reagents supplied by the Agency as well as our inhouse reagents, and attempted to develop assay procedures for measuring total-PSA in human sera

  9. Random assay in radioimmunoassay: Feasibility and application compared with batch assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hwan Hee; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineNational Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The batch assay has been conventionally used for radioimmunoassay (RIA) because of its technical robustness and practical convenience. However, it has limitations in terms of the relative lag of report time due to the necessity of multiple assays in a small number of samples compared with the random assay technique. In this study, we aimed to verify whether the random assay technique can be applied in RIA and is feasible in daily practice. The coefficients of variation (CVs) of eight standard curves within a single kit were calculated in a CA-125 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the reference of the practically ideal CV of the CA-125 kit. Ten standard curves of 10 kits from 2 prospectively collected lots (pLot) and 85 standard curves of 85 kits from 3 retrospectively collected lots (Lot) were obtained. Additionally, the raw measurement data of both 170 control references and 1123 patients' sera were collected retrospectively between December 2015 and January 2016. A standard curve of the first kit of each lot was used as a master standard curve for a random assay. The CVs of inter-kits were analyzed in each lot, respectively. All raw measurements were normalized by decay and radioactivity. The CA-125 values from control samples and patients' sera were compared using the original batch assay and random assay. In standard curve analysis, the CVs of inter-kits in pLots and Lots were comparable to those within a single kit. The CVs from the random assay with normalization were similar to those from the batch assay in the control samples (CVs % of low/high concentration; Lot1 2.71/1.91, Lot2 2.35/1.83, Lot3 2.83/2.08 vs. Lot1 2.05/1.21, Lot2 1.66/1.48, Lot3 2.41/2.14). The ICCs between the batch assay and random assay using patients' sera were satisfactory (Lot1 1.00, Lot2 0.999, Lot3 1.00). The random assay technique could be successfully applied to the conventional CA-125 IRMA kits. The random assay showed strong agreement with the batch assay. The

  10. Diagnostic value of islet autoantibody assays practised in Russia. 1. Classic immunofluorescence islet cell antibody assay, immunoradiometric glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody assay, and ELISA tyrosine phosphatase antibody and insulin antibody assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Timofeev

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions. We recommend to use ICA, IA-2A and GADA tests surveyed in our study for diagnosis of DM type 1 and differential diagnosis of DM. We don’t recommend IA testing with an Orgentec Anti-Insulin ELISA kit for usage in clinical practice.

  11. Reduced Luteinizing Hormone Induction Following Estrogen and Progesterone Priming in Female-to-Male Transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Funabashi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies have suggested that one of the brain structures involved in gender identity is the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, though this brain structure is probably not the only one to control gender identity. We hypothesized that, if this brain area also affected gonadotropin secretion in humans, transsexual individuals might produce different gonadotropin levels in response to exogenous stimulation. In the present study, we examined whether estrogen combined with progesterone might lead to a change in luteinizing hormone (LH secretion in female-to-male (FTM transsexual individuals. We studied female control subjects (n = 9, FTM transsexual subjects (n = 12, and male-to-female (MTF transsexual subjects (n = 8. Ethinyl estradiol (50 μg/tablet was administered orally, twice a day, for five consecutive days. After the first blood sampling, progesterone (12.5 mg was injected intramuscularly. Plasma LH was measured with an immunoradiometric assay. The combination of estrogen and progesterone resulted in increased LH secretion in female control subjects and in MTF subjects, but this increase appeared to be attenuated in FTM transsexual subjects. In fact, the %LH response was significantly reduced in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. In addition, the peak time after progesterone injection was significantly delayed in FTM subjects (P < 0.05, but not in MTF subjects (P > 0.5, compared to female control subjects. We then compared subjects according to whether the combination of estrogen and progesterone had a positive (more than 200% increase or negative (less than 200% increase effect on LH secretion. A χ2 analysis revealed significantly different (P < 0.05 effects on LH secretion between female controls (positive n = 7, negative n = 2 and FTM transsexual subjects (positive n = 4, negative n = 8, but not between female

  12. Evaluation of a radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-02-01

    A commercial radioreceptor assay for TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb), based on solubilized porcine receptor and purified radio-iodinated bovine TSH, was tested in 264 subjects with a variety of thyroid disorders. The sensitivity of the assay for the detection of hyperthyroid Graves' disease was 91%. The assay specificity for Graves' disease was 95%. With the exception of one patient with Hashimoto's disease and one patient with de Quervain's subacute thyroiditis no subjects other than Graves' patients had detectable TRAb. Thus purely blocking TSII receptor autoantibodies were not detected with the assay. One female with thyroxine-treated idiopathic primary hypothyroidism who had given birth to two children with transiently elevated TSH, was found to have a circulating TSH-binding substance that resulted in an abnormally negative TRAb value, and highly discrepant results when TSH was measured with a double antibody TSH radioimmunoassay and an immunoradiometric assay. The TSH-binding substance was precipitated like a protein, but was not IgG. Similar findings have not previously been reported.

  13. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  14. Kinetic Consideration of AFP irma assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M. A.; Moustafa, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a glycoprotein produced by the yolk sac and later by the fetal liver during pregnancy. When the neural tube is not properly formed, by the fetal liver during pregnancy. When the neural tube is not properly formed, large amounts of AFP pass into the amniotic fluid and reach the mother's blood. During pregnancy, the major interest in AFP determination in maternal serum and amniotic fluid is on the early diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. AFP also used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. There are many different techniques for measuring AFP in blood, but the more accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The kinetics of the interaction between AFP antigen and two matched antibodies, one labeled with radioactive isotope 1 25I (tracer) and the other is unlabelled and attached to a solid support (tube), are studied using the more recently, two sites (sandwich) immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) technique. We present here a method for determining the rate constants, using an advanced computer program (RKY), which based on the nelder-mead optimization principle. The rate constant, at three variable temperatures and three different antigen concentrations, as well as the half time of exchange (t 1/2 ) were calculated

  15. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  16. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  17. Competitive binding thyroid assay with improved bound-free separation step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A competitive binding assay is described for serum thyroid hormone using 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and exogenous thyroid hormone binding protein. The unbound thyroid hormone is separated from thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein using an intermediate base anion exchange resin. This resin comprises tertiary and quaternary amine groups on a polyalkyleneamine lattice and is compressed with microcrystalline cellulose in a tablet form. The assay technique of the present invention employing an intermediate base anion resin was found to give superior results compared with alternative assay techniques used in serum thyroid hormone estimation. (UK)

  18. Assessment of specific IgM antibodies to core antigen of hepatitis B virus in acute and chronic hepatitis B using immunoradiometric assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zichova, M; Vodak, M; Kostrhun, L; Nadvornik, V; Stransky, J

    1987-12-31

    A group of 24 patients with acute viral hepatitis B was assessed for specific antibodies against the ''core'' antigen class IgM (HB/sub c/AB IgM) during 1st-4th week of the illness. These specific antibodies were positive in all patients, the mean titre being 10/sup -5/. The high content of these antibodies persisted for 1-2 months after the onset of the disease. The assessment of specific antibodies against ''core'' antigen class IgM was also made in a group of 39 patients with chronic hepatitis. In these patients positive HB/sub c/Ab IgM with a lower content were found (titre 10/sup -3/) than in the group with acute viral hepatitis B. Based on the results the conclusion is made that specific antibodies HB/sub c/Ab class IgM are, in addition to the estimation of the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HB/sub s/Ag), one more indicator of acute viral hepatitis B. The assessment is diagnostically valuable, in particular in acute hepatitis of obscure etiology, in acute jaundice of obscure etiology for the period of low and short-term antigenemia. (author). 6 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  19. Assessment of specific IgM antibodies to core antigen of hepatitis B virus in acute and chronic hepatitis B using immunoradiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichova, M.; Vodak, M.; Kostrhun, L.; Nadvornik, V.; Stransky, J.

    1986-01-01

    A group of 24 patients with acute viral hepatitis B was assessed for specific antibodies against the ''core'' antigen class IgM (HB c AB IgM) during 1st-4th week of the illness. These specific antibodies were positive in all patients, the mean titre being 10 -5 . The high content of these antibodies persisted for 1-2 months after the onset of the disease. The assessment of specific antibodies against ''core'' antigen class IgM was also made in a group of 39 patients with chronic hepatitis. In these patients positive HB c Ab IgM with a lower content were found (titre 10 -3 ) than in the group with acute viral hepatitis B. Based on the results the conclusion is made that specific antibodies HB c Ab class IgM are, in addition to the estimation of the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (HB s Ag), one more indicator of acute viral hepatitis B. The assessment is diagnostically valuable, in particular in acute hepatitis of obscure etiology, in acute jaundice of obscure etiology for the period of low and short-term antigenemia. (author). 6 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  20. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH) ... interaction with microsomal membrane that shall be beneficial to study hormone receptor interactions of other Bovidae .... adding 1 ml of ice cold assay buffer, followed by 1 ml of 25% (w/v).

  1. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  2. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  3. Concepts for the assay of unbound thyroxine (FT4) and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odstrchel, G.; Hertl, W.; Ward, F.B.; Travis, K.; Lindner, R.E.; Mason, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Two new concepts for the assay of thyroid related substances are presented. One assay (FT 4 ) is based on a kinetic measurement of T 4 as it desorbs from binder proteins onto solid-phase T 4 antibody. This reaction can be described by a second order rate equation; r = k (IMA) (FT 4 ). The assay is rapid (2 hours) and gives good agreement (sigma = 0.92) with equilibrium dialysis and a normal range of 0.9 - 2.3 ng/dl. This assay uses a small sample size (25 μl) and is unaffected by drugs such as aspirin and dilantin. Pregnant and estrogen treated women gave normal FT 4 values. A new method for the measurement of functionally active TEG is also presented. In this case the labeled T 4 is partitioned between bovine serum albumin and the patient's samples. The complex is then removed from solution by solid-phase anti-TBG. A curve remiscent of an immunoradiometric assay is obtained. The assay has a sensitivity of 4 μg/ml and is unaffected by aspirin, dilantin or the patient's T 4 concentrations. Correlation with 'rocket' electrophoresis is 0.90. The normal range was 20 +- 7 μg/ml with pregnant women giving values greater than 30 μg/ml. Five hereditary deficient patients gave a value equivalent to zero TBG concentration. (orig.) [de

  4. Receptor assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K; Ibayashi, H [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-05-01

    This paper summarized present status and problems of analysis of hormone receptor and a few considerations on clinical significance of receptor abnormalities. It was pointed that in future clinical field quantitative and qualitative analysis of receptor did not remain only in the etiological discussion, but that it was an epoch-making field of investigation which contained the possiblity of artificial change of sensitivity of living body on drugs and the development connected directly with treatment of various diseases.

  5. Effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone .... a role in the production, storage and secretion of .... This study was done to assess the effects of oral zinc.

  6. Limitations of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (RIPEGA) for detection of filarial antigens in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, R.G.; Alexander, E.; Adkinson, N.F.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of the radioimmunoprecipitation polyethylene glycol assay (RIPEGA) was examined for quantitation of filarial antigens (Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis) in serum from infected human and animal hosts and non-infected controls. Multiple PEG concentrations were employed to determine the level of non-specific binding (NSB) in non-exposed human sera (NEHS) containing no filarial antigen. The NSB observed when 3 different 125 I-labelled IgG antibodies were added to 26 NEHS varied 3-fold and was correlated significantly with total serum IgM (r = 0.80, P 2 fragment of the 125 I-labelled antibody was used, but the correlation of NSB with total serum IgM remained significant (r = 0.57, P < 0.01). The presence of rheumatoid factor in NEHS sera also significantly increased NSB by an average of 3-fold. These effects eliminated the assay's ability to detect in sera from infected hosts filarial antigen the presence of which could be readily demonstrated by an immunoradiometric assay. The RIPEGA's precision (intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) = 21% at 35% Bsub(max)) and reproducibility (inter-assay CV = 29% at 35% Bsub(max)) are less satisfactory than many alternative immunoassays. (Auth.)

  7. Studies on the radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.R.; Awh, O.D.; Park, K.B.; Kim, Y.S.

    1980-01-01

    To establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ), various experiments such as 125 I labelling, antibody raising, preparation of hormone-free sera and efficient separations of the free hormones from those of antibody bound etc. were conducted. By optimizing many factors, assay systems were successfully established. Some detailed methodological aspects were described. (author)

  8. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  9. Development of radioimmunoassay techniques for measurement of gonadotrophins and other hormones with application in pharmacological studies of the anterior hypophysis in man. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionescu, L.

    1975-01-01

    Human studies were performed on psychiatric patients, patients under thyroidectolmy stress and normal individuals. Radioimmunoassay determined HGH, insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone in basal condition in psychiatric patients and in normal subjects. The same hormones were also measured in untreated psychiatric patients during and acute administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Changes in insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone remained within the limits of variation generally observed in or between individuals. The HGH level was increased paradoxically after CPZ administration in some parapsychiatric untreated patients. Constant increase in prolactin was observed both in chronic treated patients and during acute administration of CPZ. Measuring HGH, insulin, LH, FSH or testosterone during acute administration of CPZ does not appear to be relevant model for studying the influence of this drug on hormone release. The release of GH during thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidia proved similar to release during general surgery, while release of prolactin is lower. The reasons for this are discussed. Radioimmunoassay gave data on GH in infants, children and adolescents. Measurement of GH levels during an acute test (insulin and glucagon) allowed classification of hypostatural children into ''pituitary dwarfism'', ''non-pituitary dwarfism'' and ''limited response dwarfism''. A doubling of LH levels appeared at the 13-14 year age interval for both sexes. The hypophyseal and serum TSH was investigated in male adult rats exposed to cold, under immobilization stress or receiving substances acting as chemical suppressors (methyliouracyls) or neurotropic substances (benzoactamine and amphetamine). The variations were classified in the percentual and multiplicative area in animals receiving neurotropic substances or exposed to metabolic sollicitations, while order of magnitude area of variation was observed after chemical suppression of thyroid function. The TSH determined by radioimmunoassay

  10. Changes of endocrine hormones in simple obese females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Duan Wenruo; Ma Yongxiu; Chen Yanping

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between plasma leptin, adiponectin, insulin, cortisol, aldosterone and BMI in simple obese females, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, cortisol and aldosterone were tested in 48 fat women with BMI ranging 23-24.9 kg/m 2 and another 40 with BMI≥ 25 kg/m 2 by radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay. Besides, 42 healthy women(BMI ranging 18-22.9 kg/m 2 )were also tested as controls. Pearson's correlation and other statistic methods were used in data processing. The results showed that the levels of leptin, insulin, cortisol and aldosterone were linearily postively correlated with BMI in obesity groups, and were higher than those in controls remarkably (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the levels of adiponectin were linearily nagatively correlated with BMI in obesity groups. Our conclusion is that along with increase of BMI, the plasma levels of insulin and leptin increase in obese women, whereas the level of adiponectin decreases. The increasing levels of leptin, insulin, cortisol, aldosterone and decreasing level of adiponectin may be partly indicative of the etiology of diabetes, hyper- tension and nephrosis in obese females. (authors)

  11. A comparative study in three commercial kits of radioligand assay for GAD-Ab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yehua; Zhou Zhiguang; Huang Gan; Yang Feike; Li Zhangwei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To provide data for perfect selection of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) assay commercial kits. Methods: The sera of 88 titer-graded samples by radioligand assay (RLA) were measured with two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and one type of immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) kit for GAD-Ab in order to test their consistency with RLA. Another 140 diabetic sera were measured with RLA and screened by a type of suitable kit to search the cutoff point for discriminating patients who needed rechecking. Results: Compared with RLA, concordance ratio of 3 kits: Medizym kit(75%) > RSR kit(73.9%) > Biomerica kit(62.5%); Kappa value: Medizym kit (0.408, common) > RSR kit (0.405, common) > Biomerica kit (0.185, failing); correlation to RLA index: RSR kit (r= 0.992) > Medizym kit(r= 0. 791 ) > Biomerica kit (r = -0. 055); area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: Medizym kit (0.812) > RSR kit (0. 727 ) > Biomerica kit (0.666). Conclusions: The efficiencies of RSR kit and Medizym kit are good. Serum concentration between 0.25-0.99 U/ml measured by RSR kit is suggested to further recheck by RLA. (authors)

  12. Some important concepts in development of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for hormones, viruses and drugs. [Peptide hormones, non-peptide hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, K B; Mani, R S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Section

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedures for the quantitative measurement of polypeptide and steroid hormones and other substances of medical and biological interest constitute one of the most important and rapidly expanding groups of applications of radioactive tracers in analytical chemistry and the life sciences. The method consists in setting up assays wherein the isotopically tagged substance is allowed to compete with its non-radioactive counterpart for the limited binding sites of a specific antibody. The degree of competitive inhibition of binding of labelled tracer is determined by measuring the radioactivity of the bound or unbound (free) complex, and comparing with the corresponding values for standard solutions of known concentration. This paper outlines the salient features, and specific problems associated with the preparation, purification of immunoreactive labelled tracers, and other suitable RIA reagents, the stability and storage conditions and standardisation of assay procedure. The characteristics of the assay systems have been investigated in detail and regular quality control has been instituted for evaluating various statistical parameters, inter-assay and intra-assay variances, and effective shelf life of the RIA reagents, with specific reference to assays of insulin growth hormones and thyroid and pregnancy hormones.

  13. A complete study on the ethiology of malign renal lithiasis based on the determination of other hormones and functional and metabolic parameters implied in these diases. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberiu, P.

    1979-10-01

    Plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and plasma calcitonin (CT) were measured by radioimmunoassay with commercial radioimmunoassay kits and corresponding biochemical and functional studies were carried out in 55 patients with unilateral or bilateral malignant lithiasis and in a group of 10 control subjects. Plasma PTH levels were found to be normal in 5 of the patients and slightly or markedly elevated in 50, whilst plasma CT levels were found to be normal in 52 and slightly elevated in 3. In a further analysis of the data, plasma PTH levels were found to be slightly elevated in 42 out of the 45 patients suffering from renal failure and markedly elevated in 3. The latter were suspected of primary hyperparathyroidism, but in none was any adenoma discovered, either scintigraphically or by other means. It is concluded that secondary reactive hyperparathyroidism may appear in malignant renal lithiasis, but that primary hyperparathyroidism is unlikely to be implicated in the recurrent nature of the disease, which is more likely to result from residual calculi. The significance of these findings in relation to the management of the disease is discussed

  14. Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Mediated Transcription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TH)-induced TR-mediated transcription. We further examined the effects of methamidophos on TR-thyroid hormone response element (TRE) binding using the liquid chemiluminescent DNA pull-down assay (LCDPA), and found no dissociation of ...

  15. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  16. The 21-gene Recurrence Score® assay predicts distant recurrence in lymph node-positive, hormone receptor-positive, breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant sequential epirubicin- and docetaxel-based or epirubicin-based chemotherapy (PACS-01 trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Filleron, Thomas; Asselain, Bernard; Baehner, Frederick L; Fumoleau, Pierre; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Anderson, Joseph M; Yoshizawa, Carl; Cherbavaz, Diana B; Shak, Steven; Roca, Lise; Sagan, Christine; Lemonnier, Jérôme; Martin, Anne-Laure; Roché, Henri

    2018-05-04

    The 21-gene Recurrence Score (RS) result predicts outcome and chemotherapy benefit in node-negative and node-positive (N+), estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients treated with endocrine therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of RS results in N+, hormone receptor-positive (HR+) patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (6 cycles of FEC100 vs. 3 cycles of FEC100 followed by 3 cycles of docetaxel 100 mg/m 2 ) plus endocrine therapy (ET) in the PACS-01 trial (J Clin Oncol 2006;24:5664-5671). The current study included 530 HR+/N+ patients from the PACS-01 parent trial for whom specimens were available. The primary objective was to evaluate the relationship between the RS result and distant recurrence (DR). There were 209 (39.4%) patients with low RS (< 18), 159 (30%) with intermediate RS (18-30) and 162 (30.6%) with high RS (≥ 31). The continuous RS result was associated with DR (hazard ratio = 4.14; 95% confidence interval: 2.67-6.43; p <  0.001), adjusting for treatment. In multivariable analysis, the RS result remained a significant predictor of DR (p <  0.001) after adjustment for number of positive nodes, tumor size, tumor grade, Ki-67 (immunohistochemical status), and chemotherapy regimen. There was no statistically significant interaction between RS result and treatment in predicting DR (p = 0.79). After adjustment for clinical covariates, the 21-gene RS result is a significant prognostic factor in N+/HR+ patients receiving adjuvant chemoendocrine therapy. Not applicable.

  17. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were drawn from surgically implanted catheters in the caudal aorta and vena cava during normal growth, maintenance (zero) growth and accelerated growth.These samples were assayed for glucose, free fatty acids, glycerol, alanine, lysine, growth hormone, insulin and thyroxine. It was found that during the ...

  18. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Nature of altered growth hormone secretion in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, A; Lizarralde, G; Johnson, M L; Veldhuis, J D

    1991-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by various neuroendocrine regulatory disturbances that affect not only the thyrotropic, but also the gonadotropic, corticotropic, and somatotropic axes. To examine the nature of alterations in neuroendocrine control mechanisms that direct the somatotropic axis in hyperthyroidism, we have applied a novel deconvolution technique designed to estimate the number, amplitude, and mass of significant underlying GH secretory events after the influence of GH metabolic clearance has been removed mathematically. To this end, blood was sampled at 10-min intervals for 24 h in seven hyperthyroid and seven age-matched euthyroid men. The subsequent GH time series were assayed by immunoradiometric assay (sensitivity, 0.08 ng/mL) and submitted to quantitative deconvolution analysis. We found that hyperthyroid compared to euthyroid men 1) had significantly more GH secretory bursts per 24 h (viz. 15 +/- 1.0 vs. 10 +/- 1.1; P = 0.017); 2) secreted 3 times as much GH per burst (3.7 +/- 0.80 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.42 ng/mL distribution vol; P = 0.013); 3) achieved a maximal rate of GH secretion in each burst 2.3-fold higher than that in control men (0.14 +/- 0.028 vs. 0.060 +/- 0.015 ng/mL.min; P = 0.017); and 4) had 3.7-fold higher 24-h endogenous GH production rates (P less than 0.01). Neither hyperthyroid nor euthyroid men had significant interburst (tonic) GH secretion. We conclude that the somatotropic axis in hyperthyroid men is marked by a higher frequency of spontaneous GH secretory bursts, a higher rate of maximal GH secretion attained per burst, and a larger mass of GH released per burst. These neuroregulatory disturbances result in a nearly 4-fold increase in the 24-h production rate of GH in thyrotoxicosis.

  20. Bioprocessing feasibility analysis. [thymic hormone bioassay and electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The biology and pathophysiology of the thymus gland is discussed and a clinical procedure for thymic hormone assay is described. The separation of null lymphocytes from mice spleens and the functional characteristics of the cells after storage and transportation were investigated to develop a clinical procedure for thymic hormone assay, and to determine whether a ground-based approach will provide the desired end-product in sufficient quantities, or whether the microgravity of space should be exploited for more economical preparation of the hormone.

  1. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  2. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  3. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  4. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  5. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  6. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, K [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-04-01

    Measurement method of somatomedian A by radioreceptor assay using the human placenta membrane was described and discussed. Binding rate of /sup 125/I-somatomedin A to its receptors was studied under various conditions of time and temperature of the incubation, and pH of the system. The influence of somatomedin A, porcine insulin, and porcine calcitonin, on /sup 125/I-somatomedin A bound receptors was studied, and these hormones showed the competitive binding to somatomedin A receptors in some level. The specificity, recovery rate, and clinical applications of somatomedin A were also discussed. Radioreceptor assay for somatomedine A provided easier, faster, and more accurate measurements than conventional bioassay. This technique would be very useful to study somatomedin A receptor and functions of insulin.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of canine growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenmann, J.E.; Eigenmann, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) for canine growth hormone (GH) was developed. Antibodies were elicited in rhesus monkeys. One antiserum exhibited a working titer at a dilution of 1:500 000. Radioiodination was performed enzymatically employing lactoperoxidase. Logit-log transformation and least squares fitting resulted in straight line fitting of the standard curve between 0.39 and 50 ng/ml. Formation of large-molecular [ 125 I]GH during storage caused diminished assay sensitivity. Therefore [ 125 I]GH was re-purified by gel chromatography. Using this procedure, high and reproducible assay sensitivity was obtained. Tracer preparations were used for as long as 3 months after iodination. Diluted plasma from normal and acromegalic dogs resulted in a dose-response curve parallel to the standard curve. Canine prolactin exhibited a cross-reactivity of 2%. The within-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3.8 and the between-assay CV was 7.2%. Mean plasma GH concentration in normal dogs was 1.92 +- 0.14 ng/ml (mean +- SEM.) GH levels in acromegalic dogs were appreciably higher. Insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, arginine and ornithine administration resulted in inconsistent and sluggish GH increment. A better response was obtained by injecting a low dose of clonidine. Clonidine administration to hypopituitary dogs resulted in absent or poor GH increment. (author)

  8. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed...

  9. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    fraction of the total IGF-I circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. However, our knowledge of the clinical or physiological value of determination of free IGF-I in serum is limited at present. In adults, the diagnostic value of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3...... determinations in patients suspected of GHD has only been reported in a few studies, whereas no previous reports on the diagnostic value of free IGF-I levels in adults suspected of GHD exist. Serum levels of free IGF-I were determined in 1430 healthy children, adolescents, and adults by a newly developed......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  10. Radioimmunoassay and the hormones of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has provided the tools for wide-reaching investigations that have changed and continue to change many important concepts of thyroid physiology and pathophysiology. The RIA for human thyrotropin (TSH) was developed in 1965; development of the RIA for triiodothyronine (T 3 ), thyroxine(T 4 ), thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), and recently, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) followed. The capacity to measure nanogram and picogram concentrations with relative ease and speed has permitted the demonstration of dynamic relationships of the intrathyroidal and circulating thyroid hormones to each other and to the pituitary and hypothalamic regulating hormones. Evidence for the presence of cross-influences between TRH and other hypothalamic regulating hormones on the secretion of pituitary hormones has accumulated. The impact of the new information on clinical practice is now becoming evident. There is new appreciation of the value of assaying serum T 3 and TSH concentrations in the clinical management of patients with disturbed function of the thyroid, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The necessary components for RIA performance can be purchased separately or in kit form from commercial sources. With appropriate quality-control procedures, precise, sensitive, and reliable data can be generated. Awareness of the specific technical problems relating to the RIA of these hormones is absolutely necessary to assure reliable results. The availability of kits or their components permits the performance of these studies in the community hospital and in reliable commercial-service laboratories. (U.S.)

  11. Awareness of antimullerian hormone assay and its relevance in in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: infertility is a challenging medical disorder affecting 1 in every 6 couples. In-Vitro fertilization(IVF) offers hope for couples to actualize their dreams of procreation. Success with IVF is determined by several factors including ovarian reserve which can be determined by measuring serum levels of Antimullerian ...

  12. Assessment of the relationship between melatonin, hormones of the pituitary-ovarian, -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes, and osteoprotegerin and its ligand sRANKL in girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Ostrowska

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that disturbances in melatonin (MEL secretion might play a role in osteoporosis development in females with anorexia nervosa (AN. It might be hypothesized that changes in the levels of hormones of the pituitary-ovarian, -thyroid and -adrenocortical axes might mediate the potential relationship between MEL and bone tissue.Aim: We investigated whether a relationship existed between MEL and LH, FSH-E2, TSH-FT3, FT4 and ACTH-cortisol axes in girls with AN. We also aimed to establish whether such a relationship might adversely affect the balance of the OPG/sRANKL system.Material/Methods: Eighty-six girls with AN and 21 healthy subjects aged 12.6 to 18.2 years participated in the study. The serum levels of hormones as well as OPG and sRANKL were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA, immunoradiometric assay (IRMA or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA methods.Discussion: Our study participants with AN showed a significant reduction in body mass and body mass index (BMI, a decrease in LH, E2 and FT3 concentrations, increased MEL concentration at 02.00 hours and increased amplitude between its nocturnal and morning levels (Δ MEL2.00/9.00 as well as an increase in cortisol concentration. These changes were associated with a significant increase of OPG and sRANKL levels and a decrease in the OPG/sRANKL ratio. BMI values correlated positively with LH, FSH, E2, FT3 and the OPG/sRANKL ratio while the correlation between BMI and cortisol was negative. Δ MEL2.00/9.00 correlated positively with cortisol and negatively with LH, FSH, E2, FT3 concentrations and the OPG/sRANKL ratio. A positive correlation was observed between LH, E2 and the OPG/sRANKL ratio as well as between cortisol and sRANKL while the correlation between LH and OPG as well as between cortisol and the OPG/sRANKL ratio was negative. E2 and LH were shown to be significant and independent predictors of Δ MEL2.00/9.00. LH turned out to be a

  13. Improved radioimmunoassay for thyroid hormone and reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Improvements in the radioimmunoassay of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine or triiodothyronine, are described. Hydrolyzed cross-linked polyacrylamide particles covalently bonded against the thyroid hormone are employed as solid phase substrates for the thyroid hormone antibodies. The polyacrylamide particles are dyed yellow or blue to facilitate the various manipulative steps during the radioimmunoassay. The particles are characterized by their ability to form stable hydrophilic suspensions. As a result the reaction mixture, during which thyroid hormone is separated from serum proteins and competitive binding in the presence of radioactive tracer with the antibody occurs, requires no agitation to maintain the desired homogeneous condition. This is in contrast to the settling problems experienced with cellulose, dextran and glass particles. In addition, the non-specific binding property of the polyacrylamide particles is so low that the initially separated solid phase particles following incubation can be directly measured for radioactivity levels without any initial washings thus increasing the speed and convenience of the assay procedure. Details of the preparation of the dyed, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles, the coupling of antiserum to these particles and the radioimmunoassay procedure are given. Data obtained from the radioimmunoassays of hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid sera demonstrated the satisfactory performance of the assay. (U.K.)

  14. Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone: past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalow, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    In this report on radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) it was shown that the rate of disappearance of iPTH from plasma differed markedly in patients with primary hyperthyroidism or those with uremia and secondary hyperparathyroidism and that for each patient the rate of disappearance depended on the antiserum used for assay. The heterogeneity of iPTH in plasma was soon rapidly confirmed in many laboratories. (Auth.)

  15. We don't look at hormones the way we used to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Determination of hormones by means of bioassays, among others with the help of 131 iodine, in radioimmunoassays is studied within the frame of a general assay. The necessity of an exact knowledge of the physiology and pathophysiology of the hormones is pointed out. The poor purity of the hormones has disturbing effects on quantitive measurements. Application of radioimmunoassays increases the proofsensity by 200-500 times that obtained when applying bioassays. Assays with radioreceptors allow the purification of new hormones. Other positive characteristics of radioimmunoassays are described in detail. (AJ) [de

  16. Quality control of estrogen receptor assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Jacobson, B

    1980-01-01

    Four types of material have been used for the quality control of routine assays of estrogen receptors in human breast tumors. Pieces of hormone-dependent Nb rat mammary tumors gave a precision about 40%. Rat uteri and rat tumors pulverized at liquid nitrogen temperature and stored as powder yielded precision about 30%. Powdered and lyophilised human tumors appear the best with precision as good as 17%.

  17. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  18. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  19. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  20. Multiplex Immunoassay Profiling of Hormones Involved in Metabolic Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Laurie; Guest, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Multiplex immunoassays are used for rapid profiling of biomarker proteins and small molecules in biological fluids. The advantages over single immunoassays include lower sample consumption, cost, and labor. This chapter details a protocol to develop a 5-plex assay for glucagon-like peptide 1, growth hormone, insulin, leptin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone on the Luminex ® platform. The results of the analysis of insulin in normal control subjects are given due to the important role of this hormone in nutritional programming diseases.

  1. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status

  2. Reciprocal changes in parathyroid hormone and thyroid function after radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.; Nussbaum, S.R.

    1989-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with negative calcium balance, normal to increased serum calcium concentrations, and decreased cortical bone mass. There is no agreement concerning serum PTH levels in such patients. In this study, we measured serum PTH concentrations using a newly developed sensitive 2-site immunoradiometric assay in 17 hyperthyroid patients before and after radioiodine therapy. The mean serum PTH and calcium concentrations were 28 +/- 15 (+/- SD) ng/L (normal range, 12-65 ng/L) and 2.4 +/- 0.5 mmol/L (normal range, 2.1-2.6 mmol/L) before therapy. After therapy serum PTH concentrations increased in 16 of the 17 patients. The increase in serum PTH was greater in the 9 patients who became hypothyroid rapidly (29 +/- 15 to 75 +/- 29 ng/L) compared with that in the 8 patients who became euthyroid gradually (26 +/- 16 to 45 +/- 24 ng/L). Serum PTH rose along with TSH as the patients became hypothyroid after radioiodine, and both serum PTH and TSH fell when L-T4 therapy was given. The reciprocal changes in serum PTH concentrations and thyroid function over time suggest a strong association of bone mineral metabolism and thyroid status.

  3. Prospective assessment of early fetal loss using an immunoenzymometric screening assay for detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Overstreet, J W; Samuels, S J; Boyers, S P; Canfield, R E; O'Connor, J F; Hanson, F W; Lasley, B L

    1992-06-01

    To develop an economical, nonradiometric immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) for the detection of urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in studies of early fetal loss. To be effective, the IEMA must have a sensitivity equal to the standard immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) and sufficient specificity to eliminate the need for screening most nonconceptive cycles with the expensive and labor-intensive IRMA. Two different assays were used to measure hCG in daily early morning urine samples from potential conceptive cycles. Women undergoing donor artificial insemination (AI) were evaluated in a prospective study. Ninety-two women volunteers were selected on the basis of apparent normal reproductive health. Artificial insemination with nonfrozen donor semen was performed by cervical cup twice each menstrual cycle at 48-hour intervals, and daily urine samples were self-collected throughout the menstrual cycle. An IEMA was developed to detect urinary hCG using the same antibodies as in the standard IRMA; a study was designed to determine whether this nonradiometric assay could successfully detect the early fetal loss that was detected by the IRMA. Of 224 menstrual cycles analyzed by both assays, a total of six early fetal losses were detected by the IRMA. When the tentative screening rule was set to allow all six of these losses and 95% of future losses to be detected by the IEMA, an additional 34 false-positive results were detected by the IEMA. The specificity of the IEMA with this rule was calculated to be 84%. An IEMA based on the same antibodies used for the standard IRMA can serve as an efficient screening assay for the detection of early fetal loss. When the IEMA is used in this manner, nearly 80% of screened menstrual cycles can be eliminated without further testing by the IRMA.

  4. Radioimmunoassay of hormones for clinical trials of fertility regulating agents in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The need for accurate hormonal assay is emphasized, and becomes more urgent as hormones, in addition to their conventional medical use are being increasinly used for family planning purposes, particularly in developing countries. Readily available facilities and laboratories for the assay of hormone strength are therefore required, and also for the standardization of methods and techniques for such assays. Radioimmunology appears and excellent tool for this. Analytical techniques in actual use and techniques of potential future use are considered. Techniques for assessing hormone strength, potenty and doses are outlined. Criteria are developed, required for establishing a calibration and standardization laboratory for hormone strength. These criteria include a discussion of the necessary staff, location of such a facility and the material and equipment needed. Help from consultants, staff training, and the growth in sample analysis and corresponding financial aspects are discussed. Finally, the problems are reviewed of creating national laboratories which can be developed as services available for certain geographical regions

  5. Concordance of self-reported hormonal contraceptive use and presence of exogenous hormones in serum among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyra, Maria; Lingappa, Jairam R; Heffron, Renee; Erikson, David W; Blue, Steven W; Patel, Rena C; Nanda, Kavita; Rees, Helen; Mugo, Nelly R; Davis, Nicole L; Kourtis, Athena P; Baeten, Jared M

    2018-04-01

    Studies that rely on self-report to investigate the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and HIV acquisition and transmission, as well as other health outcomes, could have compromised results due to misreporting. We determined the frequency of misreported hormonal contraceptive use among African women with and at risk for HIV. We tested 1102 archived serum samples from 664 African women who had participated in prospective HIV prevention studies. Using a novel high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, we quantified exogenous hormones for injectables (medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethisterone), oral contraceptives (OC) (levonorgestrel or ethinyl estradiol) and implants (levonorgestrel or etonogestrel) and compared them to self-reported use. Among women reporting hormonal contraceptive use, 258/358 (72%) of samples were fully concordant with self-report, as were 642/744 (86%) of samples from women reporting no hormonal contraceptive use. However, 42/253 (17%) of samples from women reporting injectable use, 41/66 (62%) of samples from self-reported OC users and 3/39 (8%) of samples from self-reported implant users had no quantifiable hormones. Among self-reported nonusers, 102/744 (14%) had ≥1 hormone present. Concordance between self-reported method and exogenous hormones did not differ by HIV status. Among African women with and at risk for HIV, testing of exogenous hormones revealed agreement with self-reported contraceptive use for most women. However, unexpected exogenous hormones were identified among self-reported hormonal contraceptive users and nonusers, and an important fraction of women reporting hormonal contraceptive use had no hormones detected; absence of oral contraceptive hormones could be due, at least in part, to samples taken during the hormone-free interval. Misreporting of hormonal contraceptive use could lead to biased results in observational studies of the relationship between contraceptive use and health

  6. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  7. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  8. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  9. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  10. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  11. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Increased specificity in human cardiac-myosin radioimmunoassay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies in a double sandwich assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katus, H.A.; Hurrell, J.G.; Matsueda, G.R.; Ehrlich, P.; Zurawski, V.R. Jr.; Khaw, B.-A.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay that simultaneously measured two different epitopes on the same molecule was devised to differential between cardiac- and skeletal-myosin light chains. Three monoclonal antibodies were examined that were 100% (lC5), 25% (2B9) and 17% (4F10) cross reactive, respectively, between the two antigens. One antibody of the pair to be studied was immobilized to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B while the other was iodinated with 125 I using the lactoperoxidase method. The antigen was mixed with the immobilized antibody, the labeled antibody was added and the precipitate then washed and counted in a gamma counter. When both antibodies of the pair to be studied (immobilized and labeled) were the same (2B9), no radioactivity above background was bound to the precipitate, indicating that the second antibody could not bind to an already occupied epitope. When two different antibodies were employed, the specificity of the assay increased over that of a single antibody. The cross reactivity of a pair approximated the product of the cross reactivities of the individual antibodies. Thus, lC5 and 2B9 were 25% cross reactive together, lC5 and 4F10 17% cross reactive, and 2B9 and 4F10 4.3% cross reactive. (author)

  13. Assessment of the hormonal state of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.; Maleeva, A.; Mikhaylov, M.

    1982-01-01

    Testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations are assayed in 14 men against the background of occupational exposure of medical personnel to small - dose radiations. Low testosterone values, and elevated LH and FSH levels are established. A preliminary conclusion is made according to which in occupationally exposed men in the field of medicine there is a disturbance of hormonal secretion along the hypophysis - target gland axis. Twenty normal men of comparable age are studied for control purpose. (author)

  14. False radioimmunoassay of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the presence of hormone binding autoantibodies in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, J.; Kley, H.K.; Rudorff, K.H.; Kroell, H.J.; Krueskemper, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    Radioimmuno-assay of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in a 14-year-old girl with primary hypothyroidism and nodular goitre as a result of Hashimoto's thyroiditis gave falsely low values due to the presence of hormone-binding antibodies. Such antibodies occur in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid carcinoma. Their presence requires special methods for determining these hormones. (orig.) [de

  15. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH). Tracer (125I-rcGH) was prepared by iodinating beetal rcGH with iodine-125 and its biological activity was analyzed by rabbit anti-rcGH antibodies. Liver microsomal membranes of the Bovidae species ...

  16. Immunoassays for the incretin hormones GIP and GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), using immunologically based assays is made difficult by the fact that the processing of the precursor molecules gives rise to a number of different peptides which cross......-react with antisera raised against the two hormones. For GLP-1, the picture is further complicated because of the necessity to differentiate between the intestinal and pancreatic proglucagon products. Finally, once secreted, both incretins are rapidly degraded by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) to generate....... The use of highly specific assays using well-characterised antisera and careful sample handling is therefore required for a reliable determination of incretin hormone concentrations....

  17. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  18. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  19. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  20. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  2. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawker, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue

  3. The detection of ovulation with a two-hour radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone using the Centria Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.

    1980-01-01

    We describe a rapid (2-h) radioimmunoassay for human plasma luteinizing hormone which utilizes the reagents from a commercially available kit. Standardization of the assay was achieved using plasma standards instead of a buffer system and the Centria radioimmunoassay centrifugal analyzer which allowed simultaneous initiation and termination of reactions in all assay tubes. The specificity, precision, and accuracy of the assay were equal to or better than the conventional 24-h assay. Since this assay is designed to detect the mid-cycle surge of luteinizing hormone, its decreased sensitivity was small price to pay for the speed with which a result could be obtained. (orig.) [de

  4. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Oshima, Ichiyo; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring LH-RH in extracted human plasma. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin and most of LH-RH analogues did not appear to affect the assay. Hypothalamic extract and some of the LH-RH analogues produced displacement curves which were parallel to the curve obtained with the synthetic LH-RH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was about 3 pg per assay tube. The coefficient of variation of intraassays was 6.4%, while that of interassays was 9.6%. Exogenous LH-RH could be quantitatively extracted by acidic ethanol when varying amounts of synthetic LH-RH were added to the plasma. Immunoreactivity of LH-RH was preserved in plasma for 2 hrs in the cold but was gradually reduced thereafter. The plasma levels of LH-RH were 20 pg/ml or less in normal adults and not detectable in children. Aged males over 60 yr and postmenopausal women showed a tendency to have higher levels of plasma LH-RH. The plasma LH-RH level was significantly higher in midcycle than in the follicular or luteal stages. The disappearance rate of LH-RH from the circulation after intravenous injection could be represented as half-times of 4-6 min. Between 0.2-0.4% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr. These results indicate that the determination of LH-RH might be a useful tool for elucidating hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad interactions. (auth.)

  6. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  9. Evaluation of a CLEIA automated assay system for the detection of a panel of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Renato; Viggiani, Valentina; Michienzi, Simona; Longo, Flavia; Tudini, Silvestra; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2013-10-01

    Tumor markers are commonly used to detect a relapse of disease in oncologic patients during follow-up. It is important to evaluate new assay systems for a better and more precise assessment, as a standardized method is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (LUMIPULSE® G1200) and our reference methods using seven tumor markers. Serum samples from 787 subjects representing a variety of diagnoses, including oncologic, were analyzed using LUMIPULSE® G1200 and our reference methods. Serum values were measured for the following analytes: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1). For the determination of CEA, AFP, and PSA, an automatic analyzer based on chemiluminescence was applied as reference method. To assess CYFRA 21-1, CA125, CA19-9, and CA15-3, an immunoradiometric manual system was employed. Method comparison by Passing-Bablok analysis resulted in slopes ranging from 0.9728 to 1.9089 and correlation coefficients from 0.9977 to 0.9335. The precision of each assay was assessed by testing six serum samples. Each sample was analyzed for all tumor biomarkers in duplicate and in three different runs. The coefficients of variation were less than 6.3 and 6.2 % for within-run and between-run variation, respectively. Our data suggest an overall good interassay agreement for all markers. The comparison with our reference methods showed good precision and reliability, highlighting its usefulness in clinical laboratory's routine.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance immunoassay analysis of pituitary hormones in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Juan; Calle, Ana; Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Mellado, Mario; Lechuga, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of four pituitary peptide hormones: human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH), growth hormone (hGH), follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH), and luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been carried out using a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor. A commercial SPR biosensor was employed. The immobilization of the hormones was optimized and monoclonal antibodies were selected in order to obtain the best sensor performance. Assay parameters as running buffer and regeneration solution composition or antibody concentration were adjusted to achieve a sensitive analyte detection. The performance of the assays was assessed in buffer solution, serum and urine, showing sensitivity in the range from 1 to 6 ng/mL. The covalent attachment of the hormones ensured the stability of the SPR signal through repeated use in up to 100 consecutive assay cycles. Mean intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were all <7%, while batch-assay variability using different sensor surfaces was <5%. Taking account both the excellent reutilization performance and the outstanding reproducibility, this SPR immunoassay method turns on a highly reliable tool for endocrine monitoring in laboratory and point-of-care (POC) settings.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  12. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  13. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  14. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  15. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  16. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  17. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  18. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  19. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  20. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  1. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  2. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaihara, Takumi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Motomi; Okinaga, Shoichi; Yanaihara, Noboru

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu 1 )-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  3. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  6. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  7. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  8. Identification of an estrogenic hormone receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimoto, Ai; Fujii, Madoka; Usami, Makoto; Shimamura, Maki; Hirabayashi, Naoko; Kaneko, Takako; Sasagawa, Noboru; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    Changes in both behavior and gene expression occur in Caenorhabditis elegans following exposure to sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone, and to bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine-disrupting compound. However, only one steroid hormone receptor has been identified. Of the 284 known nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) in C. elegans, we selected nhr-14, nhr-69, and nhr-121 for analysis as potential estrogenic hormone receptors, because they share sequence similarity with the human estrogen receptor. First, the genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the affinity of each protein for estrogen was determined using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. All three NHRs bound estrogen in a dose-dependent fashion. To evaluate the specificity of the binding, we performed a solution competition assay using an SPR biosensor. According to our results, only NHR-14 was able to interact with estrogen. Therefore, we next examined whether nhr-14 regulates estrogen signaling in vivo. To investigate whether these interactions actually control the response of C. elegans to hormones, we investigated the expression of vitellogenin, an estrogen responsive gene, in an nhr-14 mutant. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that vitellogenin expression was significantly reduced in the mutant. This suggests that NHR-14 is a C. elegans estrogenic hormone receptor and that it controls gene expression in response to estrogen

  9. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  11. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  14. Influence of gender on the correlation between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jansson, C; Skakkebak, N

    1997-01-01

    A lot of interest has been directed towards the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion instead of plasma GH profiles or provocation tests. We investigated the factors influencing the relationship between 24- and 3-hour plasma GH profiles and urinary GH excretion in a cohort of 113...... than spontaneous GH peaks. The difference in cross-reactivities of molecular GH forms in polyclonal assays may have an impact on the correlation between plasma and urinary GH. Thus, the diagnostic value of urinary GH measurement as compared to serum GH profiles needs to be further evaluated....

  15. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  16. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  17. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  19. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  2. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  3. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  4. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  5. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  6. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  7. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  8. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  9. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  10. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  11. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  12. Preparation of directly iodinated steroid hormones and related directly halogenated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahadevan, V.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of directly iodinated radioactive steroid hormones is described for use in radioimmunoassays or radiolocalization and treatment of human breast tumours. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by reacting a parent steroid hormone with an alkali metal iodide containing radioactive 123 I, 125 I, 130 I or 131 I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide or chloramine-T. The parent steroid hormones include the adrenal corticosteroids, the estrogens, the progestogens, the progestins and the diuretic and antidiuretic agents. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormone is prepared by iodinating the parent steroid hormone directly on the cyclopentanophenanthrene nucleus. The radioactive iodinated steroid hormones have the same antigenicity and receptor site specificity as the parent steroid hormone. The invention is illustrated by 1) the method of iodination of estradiol-17β, 2) results for the percentage labelling of several steroids and steroid hormones, 3) results for the radioimmunoassay of 125 I-estradiol and 4) results for the binding of directly iodinated estradiol-17β in an estrogen receptor assay of human breast cancer. (U.K.)

  13. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.

    1997-01-01

    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  14. Isolation and purification of porcine LH for radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.; Goralska, M.; Krzymowski, T.; Pogorzelski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure of isolation and purification of LH from porcine pituitary glands is described. From 1 kg of pituitary glands 150 mg of LH GPZ-1 preparation of high purity were obtained. Immunization of rabbits with the prepared hormone gave homogeneous antibodies against porcine LH with high affinity and low cross-reactions with FSH. Radioreceptor assay with the use of the prepared porcine LH demonstrated the high capacity of cell membrane receptors of the boar tests for binding this hormone. (author)

  15. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  16. External quality-control surveys of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays in the Federal Republic of Germany. The present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.; Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of quality-control survey (QCS) of hormone assays are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. In the one survey, the participating laboratories are requested to determine seven or eight different hormones in two lyophilized sera that are distributed several times a year. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether they are ''correct'' or subject to systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. In the other survey, the participating laboratories are requested to assay only one given hormone in some 20 deep-frozen sera (including standards in hormone-free sera for derivation of a standard curve) that are distributed at relatively long intervals. The statistical analysis of the data derived from these QCSs allows - together with the methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for discrepancies in the results. (author)

  17. PTH Assays: Understanding What We Have and Forecasting What We Will Have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto H. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays. The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric “sandwich-type”. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids or the “intact” PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other “long” carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 7–84-PTH. Assays for “intact” PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone.

  18. Development of radioimmunoassay techniques for measurement of gonadotrophins and other hormones with application in pharmacological studies of the anterior hypophysis in man. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques. Final report for the period 1 September 1972--30 September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simionescu, L

    1975-01-01

    Human studies were performed on psychiatric patients, patients under thyroidectolmy stress and normal individuals. Radioimmunoassay determined HGH, insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone in basal condition in psychiatric patients and in normal subjects. The same hormones were also measured in untreated psychiatric patients during and acute administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Changes in insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone remained within the limits of variation generally observed in or between individuals. The HGH level was increased paradoxically after CPZ administration in some parapsychiatric untreated patients. Constant increase in prolactin was observed both in chronic treated patients and during acute administration of CPZ. Measuring HGH, insulin, LH, FSH or testosterone during acute administration of CPZ does not appear to be relevant model for studying the influence of this drug on hormone release. The release of GH during thyroidectomy for hyperthyroidia proved similar to release during general surgery, while release of prolactin is lower. The reasons for this are discussed. Radioimmunoassay gave data on GH in infants, children and adolescents. Measurement of GH levels during an acute test (insulin and glucagon) allowed classification of hypostatural children into ''pituitary dwarfism'', ''non-pituitary dwarfism'' and ''limited response dwarfism''. A doubling of LH levels appeared at the 13-14 year age interval for both sexes. The hypophyseal and serum TSH was investigated in male adult rats exposed to cold, under immobilization stress or receiving substances acting as chemical suppressors (methyliouracyls) or neurotropic substances. The variations were classified in the percentual and multiplicative area in animals receiving neurotropic substances or exposed to metabolic sollicitations. The TSH determined by radioimmunoassay are evidence for the hypophysis-thyroidal feedback. The preparation of anti-testosterone sera and anti-HGH sera is described.

  19. Preservation of active incretin hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV suppresses meal-induced incretin secretion in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Wamberg, S; Bie, P

    2002-01-01

    protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given...

  20. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  1. Thyroid Hormones Are Transport Substrates and Transcriptional Regulators of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 2B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Ferreira, Celio; Schaefer, Anima M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Seibert, Isabell; Hamburger, Matthias; Tirona, Rommel G

    2018-07-01

    Levothyroxine replacement therapy forms the cornerstone of hypothyroidism management. Variability in levothyroxine oral absorption may contribute to the well-recognized large interpatient differences in required dose. Moreover, levothyroxine-drug pharmacokinetic interactions are thought to be caused by altered oral bioavailability. Interestingly, little is known regarding the mechanisms contributing to levothyroxine absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we aimed to determine whether the intestinal drug uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) may be involved in facilitating intestinal absorption of thyroid hormones. We also explored whether thyroid hormones regulate OATP2B1 gene expression. In cultured Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II/OATP2B1 cells and in OATP2B1-transfected Caco-2 cells, thyroid hormones were found to inhibit OATP2B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate. Competitive counter-flow experiments evaluating the influence on the cellular accumulation of estrone-3-sulfate in the steady state indicated that thyroid hormones were substrates of OATP2B1. Additional evidence that thyroid hormones were OATP2B1 substrates was provided by OATP2B1-dependent stimulation of thyroid hormone receptor activation in cell-based reporter assays. Bidirectional transport studies in intestinal Caco-2 cells showed net absorptive flux of thyroid hormones, which was attenuated by the presence of the OATP2B1 inhibitor, atorvastatin. In intestinal Caco-2 and LS180 cells, but not in liver Huh-7 or HepG2 cells, OATP2B1 expression was induced by treatment with thyroid hormones. Reporter gene assays revealed thyroid hormone receptor α -mediated transactivation of the SLCO2B1 1b and the SLCO2B1 1e promoters. We conclude that thyroid hormones are substrates and transcriptional regulators of OATP2B1. These insights provide a potential mechanistic basis for oral levothyroxine dose variability and drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 by The American

  2. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  3. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  4. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  5. New Solid Phases for Estimation of Hormones by Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, R.R.; Ayoub, H.S.M.; Shafik, M.

    2013-01-01

    The efforts in this study were initiated to develop and validate new solid phases for estimation of hormones by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The study argued the successful application of different hydroxy apatites (HAP) as new solid phases for estimation of Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) in human serum. Hydroxy apatites have different alkali earth elements were successfully prepared by a well-controlled co-precipitation method with stoichiometric ratio value 1.67. The synthesized barium and calcium hydroxy apatites were characterized using XRD and Ftir and data clarified the preparation of pure structures of both BaHAP and CaHAP with no evidence on presence of other additional phases. The prepared solid phases were applied in various radioimmunoassay systems for separation of bound and free antigens of AFP, TSH and LH hormones. The preparation of radiolabeled tracer for these antigens was carried out using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. The influence of different parameters on the activation and coupling of the used apatite particles with the polyclonal antibodies was systematically investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. The assay was reproducible, specific and sensitive enough for regular estimation of the studied hormones. The intra-and inter-assay variation were satisfactory and also the recovery and dilution tests indicated an accurate calibration. The reliability of these apatite particles had been validated by comparing the results that obtained by using commercial kits. The results finally authenticates that hydroxyapatite particles would have a great potential to address the emerging challenge of accurate quantitation in laboratory medical application

  6. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  7. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  8. Development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    in the programme. Efforts in the CRP were focussed on developing and validating methodologies for solid phase immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) for both total and free PSA. The procedures and protocols developed in the participating laboratories for preparation of the primary reagents needed for the assays, including purified PSA, matched pair anti PSA MoAbs, 125 I labelled MoAb tracer, solid phase bound capture MoAb and PSA standards and the different assay formats standardized, are detailed in the report. This report is expected to serve as a good practical guidebook for any one intending to develop IRMA for free or total PSA

  9. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. A national quality control scheme for serum HGH assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.; McKenzie, I.

    1979-01-01

    In the autumn of 1975 the Supraregional Assay Service established a Quality Control Sub-Committee and the intra-laboratory QC Scheme for Growth Hormone (HGH) assays which is described here has served, in many respects, as a pilot scheme for protein RIA. Major improvements in accuracy, precision and between-laboratory agreement can be brought about by intensively interactive quality control schemes. A common standard is essential and should consist of ampoules used for one or only a small number of assays. Accuracy and agreement were not good enough to allow the overall means to serve as target values but a group of 11 laboratories were sufficiently accurate to provide a 'reference group mean' to so serve. Gross non-specificity was related to poor assay design and was quickly eliminated. Within-laboratory between-batch variability was much worse than that normally claimed for simple protein hormone RIA. A full report on this Scheme will appear shortly in Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. (Auth.)

  11. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  12. Decapeptides as effective agonists from L-amino acids biologically equivalent to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, K.; Bowers, C.Y.; Tang, P.L.; Kubota, M.

    1986-01-01

    Apparently, no agonist has been found that is comparable in potency to the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) for release of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) without substitutions with unnatural or D forms of natural amino acids. Of 139 known agonist analogs of LHRH, two were active in the range of 65%. The four LHRHs known to occur in nature involve a total of six amino acids (Tyr, His, Leu, Trp, Arg, Gln) in positions 5, 7, and 8. There are 16 possible peptides with these six amino acids in positions 5, 7, and 8, of which 4 are the known LHRHs, and 2 more were synthesized. The authors have synthesized the 10 new peptides and assayed 11 in vivo and in vitro, and they found not only 1 but a total of 5 that have activity equivalent to or greater than that of LHRH for the release of LH and/or FSH under at least one assay condition. These five are as follows: [His 5 ,Trp 7 ,Gln 8 ]LHRH; [His 5 ,Trp 7 ,Leu 8 ]LHRH; [His 5 ,Trp 7 ]LHRH; [Trp 7 ]LHRH; [His 5 ]LHRH. These structures are a basis for the design of antagonists without Arg 8 toward avoiding histamine release. Complete inhibition of LH and FSH release in vivo may be induced by joint use of Arg 8 and Gln 8 or Leu 8 antagonists. These potent agonists, related to LHRH, may be therapeutically useful in disorders of reproduction, the central nervous system, and for the control of hormone-dependent carcinomas. Radioreceptor assays and radioimmunoassays were utilized

  13. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  14. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  15. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  16. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  17. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  18. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  19. Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D correlates with serum level of anti-Müllerian hormone in male patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, F F; Soliman, A F; Lashin, F E S

    2018-02-14

    This study was designed to assess the relationship between serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D in chronic kidney disease male patients. For that, serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and anti-Müllerian hormone along with follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, prolactin, total testosterone and estradiol were assayed in 59 patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease and 21 healthy participants. Compared to controls, serum levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were significantly decreased in patients with chronic kidney disease. The decreased anti-Müllerian hormone level correlated positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum levels of testosterone and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Meanwhile, it was negatively correlated with age and serum levels of urea, creatinine, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone and prolactin. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D and luteinising hormone explained the 65.9% variability of anti-Müllerian hormone in a multiple linear regression model. However, anti-Müllerian hormone in crude correlation was more strongly associated with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D than luteinising hormone. In conclusion, serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D might be a determinant factor of anti-Müllerian hormone level, and their relationship might explain in part the dysfunction of Sertoli cells and the impaired testicular functions in chronic kidney disease male patients. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  1. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  2. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  3. Concordance between results of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 111In-DOTA-DPhe1-Tyr3-octreotide and chromogranin A assay in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Gabriel, Michael; Heute, Dirk; Putzer, Daniel; Virgolini, Irene; Griesmacher, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and chromogranin A (CgA) assay have successfully been implemented in the clinical work-up and management of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients. However, there is still a lack of studies comparing results in these patients. Our aim was to compare directly in NET patients SRS and CgA assay results with special regard to tumour features such as grade of malignancy, primary origin, disease extent and function. One hundred twenty consecutive patients with histological confirmed NETs were investigated with 111 In-DOTA-DPhe 1 -Tyr 3 -octreotide ( 111 In-DOTA-TOC) SRS and CgA immunoradiometric assay. Tumours were classified by cell characteristics [well-differentiated NETs, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs)], primary origin (foregut, midgut, hindgut, undetermined), disease extent (limited disease, metastases, primary tumour and metastases) and functionality (secretory, nonsecretory). SRS was positive in 107 (89%) patients; CgA levels were increased in 95 (79%) patients. Overall, concordance between SRS and CgA results was found in 84 patients. Positive SRS but normal CgA level were found in 24 patients, with higher prevalence (p 111 In-DOTA-TOC SRS proved to be more sensitive than CgA in NETs patients. Tumour differentiation, disease extent and presence of liver metastases impact both SRS and CgA results, whereas nonsecretory activity is a negative predictor of only CgA increase. PDNECs and hindgut origin of tumours predispose to discrepancies with negative SRS but increased CgA levels. (orig.)

  4. Concordance between results of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 111In-DOTA-DPhe 1-Tyr 3-octreotide and chromogranin A assay in patients with neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Margarida; Gabriel, Michael; Heute, Dirk; Putzer, Daniel; Griesmacher, Andrea; Virgolini, Irene

    2008-10-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and chromogranin A (CgA) assay have successfully been implemented in the clinical work-up and management of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients. However, there is still a lack of studies comparing results in these patients. Our aim was to compare directly in NET patients SRS and CgA assay results with special regard to tumour features such as grade of malignancy, primary origin, disease extent and function. One hundred twenty consecutive patients with histological confirmed NETs were investigated with (111)In-DOTA-DPhe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((111)In-DOTA-TOC) SRS and CgA immunoradiometric assay. Tumours were classified by cell characteristics [well-differentiated NETs, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs)], primary origin (foregut, midgut, hindgut, undetermined), disease extent (limited disease, metastases, primary tumour and metastases) and functionality (secretory, nonsecretory). SRS was positive in 107 (89%) patients; CgA levels were increased in 95 (79%) patients. Overall, concordance between SRS and CgA results was found in 84 patients. Positive SRS but normal CgA level were found in 24 patients, with higher prevalence (p<0.05) in patients with nonsecretory tumours. Conversely, negative SRS but CgA level increased were seen in 12 patients, with higher proportion (p<0.05) in patients with PDNECs and tumours of hindgut origin. Overall, (111)In-DOTA-TOC SRS proved to be more sensitive than CgA in NETs patients. Tumour differentiation, disease extent and presence of liver metastases impact both SRS and CgA results, whereas nonsecretory activity is a negative predictor of only CgA increase. PDNECs and hindgut origin of tumours predispose to discrepancies with negative SRS but increased CgA levels.

  5. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  6. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  7. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  8. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  9. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  10. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  11. We don't look at hormones the way we used to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Our concepts of hormone quantification or assessment have evolved through four different viewpoints during the past 25 years. Initially, we viewed hormones with monocular vision - via bioassay. As bioassay techniques became sophisticated, discrepancies in potencies arose; two or more different potencies existed for an unknown hormone or analyte and a reference preparation depending seemingly on different bioassays. No way to ascertain which was correct existed. Subsequently, binocular vision developed with the existence of immunoassay techniques. Initially, efforts were directed to validate immunoassays and show they gave potencies similar to bioassays. Later, striking discrepancies developed and it was recognized that the two techniques need not agree. Immunoassays recognized structure, bioassays recognized a biological function. A third viewpoint developed with the advent of receptor assays. These assays depended on binding to cellular receptors, but did not involve parameters of in-vivo distribution, degradation, etc. Examples of three or more different potencies appeared for the same substance; one with bioassays, one with immunoassays, and one with receptor assays; all three different answers could be correct. Currently, a fourth viewpoint exists - structure-function analysis. Here the many molecular forms of single hormones may be defined and quantified and often discrepancies in answers in the four viewpoints of hormone quantification can be explained. (author)

  12. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  13. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  14. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  15. Serum sample containing endogenous antibodies interfering with multiple hormone immunoassays. Laboratory strategies to detect interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endogenous antibodies (EA may interfere with immunoassays, causing erroneous results for hormone analyses. As (in most cases this interference arises from the assay format and most immunoassays, even from different manufacturers, are constructed in a similar way, it is possible for a single type of EA to interfere with different immunoassays. Here we describe the case of a patient whose serum sample contains EA that interfere several hormones tests. We also discuss the strategies deployed to detect interference. Subjects and methods: Over a period of four years, a 30-year-old man was subjected to a plethora of laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures as a consequence of elevated hormone results, mainly of pituitary origin, which did not correlate with the overall clinical picture. Results: Once analytical interference was suspected, the best laboratory approaches to investigate it were sample reanalysis on an alternative platform and sample incubation with antibody blocking tubes. Construction of an in-house ‘nonsense’ sandwich assay was also a valuable strategy to confirm interference. In contrast, serial sample dilutions were of no value in our case, while polyethylene glycol (PEG precipitation gave inconclusive results, probably due to the use of inappropriate PEG concentrations for several of the tests assayed. Conclusions: Clinicians and laboratorians must be aware of the drawbacks of immunometric assays, and alert to the possibility of EA interference when results do not fit the clinical pattern. Keywords: Endogenous antibodies, Immunoassay, Interference, Pituitary hormones, Case report

  16. Radioimmunoassay of human growth hormone and its application in pituitary dysfunction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asolkar, S.V.; Sivaprasad, N.; Shah, K.B.; Mani, R.S.; Deshpande, A.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, specific and sensitive Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been developed for the measurement of Human Growth Hormone (HGH) in serum samples. 123 I-labelled HGH has been used as a tracer and dextran coated charcoal system has been employed to separate antibody bound hormone from the unbound one. The assay offers sensitivity of 0.16 ng/ml with a reproducibility of 7% intraassay and inter-assay variations. Serum HGH levels were measured at fasting-resting state and during insulin stimulation test in (1) 15 normal subjects (controls) and (2) 31 patients with stunted growth, whereas (3) in 7 acromegalic patients the same were measured at fasting-resting state and after oral glucose administration. This procedure has been used to distinguish dwarfs due to growth hormone deficiency from other conditions unrelated to pituitary disease and to confirm acromegaly. (author)

  17. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  18. Recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone used for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proudman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of recombinant-derived chicken growth hormone (rcGH) in an avian growth hormone (GH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure is described. Antiserum to turkey GH bound 125 I-labeled rcGH, and unlabeled rcGH or turkey GH displaced binding in a dose-related manner. The dose-response curves of sera and pituitary extract from chickens and turkeys were parallel to the rcGH standard curve. Sera from hypophysectomized (hypox) chickens and turkeys produced no dose-response and did not inhibit binding of labeled rcGH. Recovery of rcGH added to hypox sera was quantitative. Modification of the homologous turkey GH RIA protocol of Proudman and Wentworth (1) to use rcGH made possible either an increase in assay sensitivity or a 3-day reduction in incubation time

  19. Hormonal contraception use alters stress responses and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Segal, Sabrina K; Worden, Ian V; Yim, Ilona S; Cahill, Larry

    2013-02-01

    Emotionally arousing material is typically better remembered than neutral material. Since norepinephrine and cortisol interact to modulate emotional memory, sex-related influences on stress responses may be related to sex differences in emotional memory. Two groups of healthy women - one naturally cycling (NC women, n=42) and one using hormonal contraceptives (HC women, n=36) - viewed emotionally arousing and neutral images. Immediately after, they were assigned to Cold Pressor Stress (CPS) or a control procedure. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test. Saliva samples were collected and later assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (biomarker for norepinephrine) and cortisol. Compared to NC women, HC women exhibited significantly blunted stress hormone responses to the images and CPS. Recall of emotional images differed between HC and NC women depending on noradrenergic and cortisol responses. These findings may have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of emotional memory disorders, especially those that disproportionately affect women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  1. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  2. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  3. Radiological diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy with reference to clinical features in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebsch, P.; Trattnig, S.; Barton, P.; Seidl, G.

    1989-01-01

    Pathophysiological, histological and radiological findings in renal osteodystrophy are described. Special emphasis is laid on secondary hyperparathyroidism. Preliminary results of the authors' investigations show a good correlation between radiological findings in the phalanges of the hand and the concentration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in 14 patients. The concentration of the hormone in the blood was measured by a new 'two-site' immunoradiometric assay, which is specific for the intact, biologically active hormone. Patients with high concentrations of PTH in the blood tended to have more severe radiological changes. In 4 patients for whom radiographs of the hands revealed no pathologic findings, normal PTH concentrations in the blood were measured by this method, whereas the conventional assay gave elevated hormone concentrations for the same patients. This is due to the lack of specificity of the conventional method for the intact, biologically active hormone. Nevertheless, further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. (orig.) [de

  4. Effects of Hormone Deprivation, 2-Methoxyestradiol Combination Therapy on Hormone-Dependent Prostate Cancer In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Sato

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME has potent anti proliferative effects on cancer cells. Its utility alone or in combination with other therapies for treating prostate cancer, however, has not been fully explored. Androgendependent, independent human prostate cancer cells were examined in vivo for their response to combination therapy. Efficacy was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, measuring microvessel density (MVD in excised tumors. Animals harboring hormonedependent tumors treated with 2-ME alone, androgen deprivation therapy alone, or the combination of the two had a 3.1-fold, 5.3-fold, 10.1-fold increase in apoptosis, respectively. For hormone-independent tumors, treatment with 2-ME resulted in a 2.43-fold increase in apoptosis, a 73% decrease in MVD. 2-ME was most effective against hormone-dependent tumors in vivo, combination therapy resulted in a significant increase in efficacy compared to no treatment controls, trended toward greater efficacy than either 2-ME or androgen deprivation alone. Combination therapy should be investigated further as an additional therapeutic option for early prostate cancer.

  5. Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24, [Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25]ACTH1-25 amide, and [Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25]ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells

  6. A High-Throughput Screening Assay to Detect Thyroperoxidase Inhibitors (Teratology Society)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the Endocrine Disruption Screening Program (EDSP21), the US EPA ToxCast program is developing assays to enable screening for chemicals that may disrupt thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) is critical for TH synthesis and is a known target of thyroid-dis...

  7. Application of radioreceptor assay for chorionic gonadotropin in diagnosis of normal and disturbed pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.; Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Nevinny-Stickel, J.

    1977-01-01

    For diagnoses of normal and disturbed pregnancy, a radioreceptor assay (RRA) for the detection of chorionic gonadotropin (HLG) has been developed. The hormone was labelled with 125 I. Compared with biological and immunological methods, the RRA has a higher sensitivity and a shorter evaluation time. (orig./VJ) [de

  8. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recovery responses of testosterone, growth hormone, and IGF-1 after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Nindl, Bradley C

    2017-03-01

    The complexity and redundancy of the endocrine pathways during recovery related to anabolic function in the body belie an oversimplistic approach to its study. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance exercise (RE) on the recovery responses of three major anabolic hormones, testosterone, growth hormone(s), and insulin-like growth factor 1. Each hormone has a complexity related to differential pathways of action as well as interactions with binding proteins and receptor interactions. Testosterone is the primary anabolic hormone, and its concentration changes during the recovery period depending on the upregulation or downregulation of the androgen receptor. Multiple tissues beyond skeletal muscle are targeted under hormonal control and play critical roles in metabolism and physiological function. Growth hormone (GH) demonstrates differential increases in recovery with RE based on the type of GH being assayed and workout being used. IGF-1 shows variable increases in recovery with RE and is intimately linked to a host of binding proteins that are essential to its integrative actions and mediating targeting effects. The RE stress is related to recruitment of muscle tissue with the glandular release of hormones as signals to target tissues to support homeostatic mechanisms for metabolism and tissue repair during the recovery process. Anabolic hormones play a crucial role in the body's response to metabolism, repair, and adaptive capabilities especially in response to anabolic-type RE. Changes of these hormones following RE during recovery in the circulatory biocompartment of blood are reflective of the many mechanisms of action that are in play in the repair and recovery process. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  11. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  12. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  13. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  14. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  15. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  17. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  18. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. M...

  19. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.

    1997-01-01

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  20. Free thyroid hormones in patients with severe non-thyroidal illness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettger, I.; Schneck, H.W.

    1985-11-01

    Free thyroid hormone radioligand assays and indirect methods for FT/sub 4/ and FT/sub 3/ were applied to measurement in sera of patients with severe NTI (hemodialysis, intensive-care, polytrauma). FT/sub 4/ by different techniques was low-normal to decreased by a kinetic two-tube and a T/sub 4/-analogue tracer single-tube assay whereas another two-tube technique measured normal to low-normal but in some instances increased FT/sub 4/ levels. Indirect parameters behaved in a similar fashion. FT/sub 3/ was decreased in most of the cases as were the indirect parameters, mostly due to affected T/sub 4/-T/sub 3/ conversion. Direct and indirect parameters for free thyroid hormones changed in parallel also during follow-up of NTI. There was no clear protein or albumen effect upon the two-tube FT/sub 4/ and the two-tube FT/sub 3/ assay(s). Supersensitively determined basal TSH was found to be decreased in some cases with severe NTI (polytrauma). The findings taken together are consistent with (pseudo) sedondary hypothyroidism in severe NTI. The data show the free thyroid hormone assays tested to be rather reliable with little or no disturbance by severe NTI or specifically hypoalbumenemia.

  1. Free thyroid hormones in patients with severe non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, I.; Schneck, H.W.; Technische Univ. Muenchen

    1985-01-01

    Free thyroid hormone radioligand assays and indirect methods for FT 4 and FT 3 were applied to measurement in sera of patients with severe NTI (hemodialysis, intensive-care, polytrauma). FT 4 by different techniques was low-normal to decreased by a kinetic two-tube and a T 4 -analogue tracer single-tube assay whereas another two-tube technique measured normal to low-normal but in some instances increased FT 4 levels. Indirect parameters behaved in a similar fashion. FT 3 was decreased in most of the cases as were the indirect parameters, mostly due to affected T 4 -T 3 conversion. Direct and indirect parameters for free thyroid hormones changed in parallel also during follow-up of NTI. There was no clear protein or albumen effect upon the two-tube FT 4 and the two-tube FT 3 assay(s). Supersensitively determined basal TSH was found to be decreased in some cases with severe NTI (polytrauma). The findings taken together are consistent with (pseudo) sedondary hypothyroidism in severe NTI. The data show the free thyroid hormone assays tested to be rather reliable with little or no disturbance by severe NTI or specifically hypoalbumenemia. (orig.)

  2. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  3. Parathyroid hormone in sodium-dependent hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doris, P.A.; Harvey, S.; Pang, P.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma parathyroid hormone (pPTH) levels have been assessed in three separate radioimmunoassay systems in samples from Wistar-Kyoto rats. The animals were subjected to one of three dietary regimens throughout the study period: Group 1 animals consumed normal rat chow and drank tap water; Group 2 animals consumed normal rat chow and tap water was replaced with 0.05% saline solution; Group 3 animals consumed normal rat chow to which 2.5% CaCO 3 had been added and also drank 0.5% saline solution. Three assay systems were used to measure pPTH levels from trunk blood samples obtained by guillotine decapitation. One assay used an antiserum directed toward the vasoactive N terminal fragment 1-34 and produced pPTH measurements of 0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 1.04 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 1.12 +/- 0.08 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. This pattern was consistent with that obtained by another antiserum which had been raised against the intact 1-84 PTH molecule and produced values of 0.25 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 0.55 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 0.74 +/- 0.04 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. Antiserum raised against the C-terminal did not show any difference in pPTH across groups. The authors conclude that saline consumption may increase some portions of circulating PTH. 26 references, 2 tables

  4. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the variability of the micronucleus assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeyens, Ans; Vandersickel, Veerle; Thierens, Hubert; Ridder, Leo De; Vral, Anne

    2005-01-01

    To investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes the micronucleus (MN) assay has been used for many years. The results of these studies suggest the use of the MN assay as a biomarker for cancer predisposition. However, the MN assay has still some limitations associated with the reproducibility and sensitivity. Especially a high intra-individual variability has been observed. An explanation for this high intra-individual variability is not yet available. In literature it is suggested that the high variability among females is attributable to hormonal status. In this study we investigated if the high intra-individual variability in micronucleus formation in lymphocytes of females after in vitro exposure to ionising radiation is caused by variations in hormone levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG). For this, the MN assay was performed on blood samples of 18 healthy women during 7 consecutive weeks while the estradiol and progesterone levels were determined at the same time. The MN assay was also examined in cultures of isolated blood lymphocytes with estradiol or progesterone levels added in vitro. The results demonstrated that estradiol and progesterone levels have no influence on the variations in radiation-induced MN yields observed in blood samples of healthy women. These conclusions were confirmed by the 'in vitro' experiments as no correlation between the MN yields and the concentrations of hormones (estradiol or progesterone) added in vitro to isolated lymphocytes cultures was observed

  5. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  6. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  7. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  8. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  9. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  10. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  11. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  12. In vitro conditions modify immunoassayability of bovine pituitary prolactin and growth hormone: insights into their secretory granule storage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenson, M.Y.

    1985-01-01

    The amount of immunoassayable intracellular bovine (b) PRL and GH varies depending on treatment conditions. The present studies were designed to characterize the mechanisms involved and to compare immunoassayability of both hormones under similar conditions. Pituitary homogenate and secretory granule hormones displayed both time- and temperature-dependent increases when incubated at pH 10.5 with reduced glutathione. Changes in immunoassayability seem to reflect conversion from poorly immunoactive tissue hormone oligomers to monomeric hormone. The data indicate that oligomeric bPRL is stabilized primarily by intermolecular disulfide bonds, although it is also susceptible to urea, SDS, and EDTA; granule thiols may also influence the conversion to monomer. The storage form of bGH appears to be stabilized differently. Maneuvers demonstrated in these studies to influence immunoassayability correlate very well with their previously established effects on hormone release and secretion, strengthening the likelihood that a functional link exists between assayability and secretion

  13. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  14. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  15. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  16. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  17. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Its Clinical Use in Pediatrics with Special Emphasis on Disorders of Sex Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2013-01-01

    Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay and conver......Using measurements of circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in diagnosing and managing reproductive disorders in pediatric patients requires thorough knowledge on normative values according to age and gender. We provide age- and sex-specific reference ranges for the Immunotech assay...

  18. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  19. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  20. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  1. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  2. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  3. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  4. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  5. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  6. Serum level of hormone and metabolites in pregnant rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Brecchia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the hormones and metabolites serum levels and the reproductive performances of nulliparous (n=100 and primiparous pregnant does submitted to artificial insemination (AI 11 days post-partum. On the day of AI, all the does were weighed and the sexual receptivity was evaluated. The kits were weaned at 26 day. Blood samples were collect by punc- ture of the marginal ear vein from one day before AI until few days before the kindling and assayed for hormones and metabolites. The higher sexual receptivity and the fertility in nulliparous than in primiparous does confirmed the negative effect of lactation. Nulliparous does showed higher blood con- centration of leptine than primiparous, and in both the groups such level lowered during pregnancy, probably reflecting the reduction of the fat reserve. The insuline level increased during pregnancy in either groups as a consequence of the growing of the foetuses. In nulliparous does the cortisol, NEFA and T3 concentrations were higher than primiparous does. The glucose levels were similar in both the groups probably due to the homeostatic mechanisms controlling the glycemia. Hormonal and metabo- lite analyses represent a good tool for understanding the physiological mechanisms required to meet higher reproductive performance.

  7. Enzyme-immuno assay for total estrogens and human placental lactogen. Comparison with radio-immuno-assay in normal pregnancy-monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichvarg, D.; Tallet, F.; Lajeunie, E.; Bonnaire, Y.; Danglas, P.

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of estrogens (E) and human placental lactogen (HLP) are estimated in sera by radio immuno-assay (RIA) and enzyme-immuno-assay (EIA). Statistical data indicate mean intra-assay variation coefficients of 7% and 12% for E and HLP tests, respectively. The correlation coefficient (RIA/EIA) are found higher than 0,9% for both hormonal assays. The dilution curves obtained by RIA and EIA are similar. However, Student'test gives a significant difference for E determination. In fact, total E and E 3 only are measured by EIA and RIA, respectively. In most cases biological interferences are negligible except for HLP in presence of higher protein or haemoglobin levels. RIA and EIA are performed to study serum HLP and E levels throughout normal pregnancies. Results allow to use EIA for HLP and E evaluations in pregnancy-monitoring [fr

  8. Rapid, portable detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J Porter; Schinn, Song-Min; Jones, Matthew D; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-12-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are structurally diverse compounds that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors, posing significant risk to human and ecological health. Unfortunately, many conventional biosensors have been too structure-specific, labor-intensive or laboratory-oriented to detect broad ranges of EDC effectively. Recently, several technological advances are providing more rapid, portable, and affordable detection of endocrine-disrupting activity through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions. Here, we overview these recent advances applied to EDC biosensors - including cell lyophilization, cell immobilization, cell-free systems, smartphone-based signal detection, and improved competitive binding assays.

  9. The clinical evaluation of the radioimmunoassay of luteinizing hormone in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieszczyk, S.

    1975-01-01

    The studies comprised 177 persons: 39 healthy males, 20 women in the reproductive age, 35 postmenopausal women and 83 patients with different types of gonadal insufficiency (gonadal dysgenesis; premature ovarian failure, male hypogonadism, pituitary dwarfism). The luteinizing hormone was determined in acetone extracts of the urine by radioimmunnoassay using double antibody technique. The results of urinary LH assays allowed to differentiate the concentration of this hormone in healthy males from postmenopausal women. In a group of patients with primary ganadal deficiency urinary LH was elevated while there was a lack urinary LH in cases of secondary gonadal insufficiency. (author)

  10. The evaluation of CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA for measurement of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Hua; Li Dan; Chen Yiguang; Zhou Huiqin; Xu Liyan

    2005-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), RIA and magnetic solid phase enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay (MSP-ELISA) in measuring thyroid hormones, TT 3 , TT 4 , FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were tested in 40 samples of human serum and in standard samples of thyroid hormones by CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA respectively. The linearity, relativiy, precision, recovery of these three met hods were compared. The result showed that there were no statistical differences between CLIA, RIA and MSP-ELISA in linearity and relativity. CLIA was better than RIA and MSP-ELISA in precision and accuracy. (authors)

  11. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  12. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  13. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  14. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  15. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  16. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  18. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  19. Reproductive Hormones and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Bhasin, Shalender; Chang, Yuefang; Barinas Mitchell, Emma; Matthews, Karen A; Jasuja, Ravi; Santoro, Nanette

    2018-05-18

    Reproductive hormones are understood to be important to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. However, standard estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) assays lack sensitivity at the levels of postmenopausal women. Investigate relations of mass spectrometry-assessed estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and subclinical CVD in women. 304 peri- and postmenopausal women, aged 40-60 years, and free of clinical CVD underwent subclinical CVD measurements. E1, E2, and T were assayed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Free T (FT) was estimated using ensemble allostery models. Associations between hormones and outcomes were analyzed using regression models adjusting for CVD risk factors. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT), inter-adventitial diameter (IAD), plaque; brachial flow mediated dilation (FMD). Higher E1 was related to higher FMD [b(SE)=.77(.37), p=.04], indicating better endothelial function. Higher E2 was related to lower IAD [b(SE)=-.07(.02), p=.004], indicating less carotid remodeling. Higher SHBG was related to higher FMD [b(SE)=1.31(.40), p=.001], yet higher IAD [b(SE)=.15(.06), p=.02] and carotid plaque [OR (95%CI)=1.84(1.16-2.91), p=.009]. Higher FT was associated with lower FMD [b(SE)=-1.58(.52), p=.003], yet lower IAD [b(SE)=-.19(.08), p=.01] and carotid plaque [OR(95%CI)=.49(.28-.88), p=.02]. Thus, higher SHBG and lower FT was associated with better endothelial function, yet greater carotid remodeling and plaque. Endogenous E1 levels were related to endothelial function and E2 to vascular remodeling, suggesting distinct roles of these estrogens. SHBG and free testosterone have a complex role and depend on the vessel under study.

  20. Nuclear Import and Export of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jibo; Roggero, Vincent R; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    The thyroid hormone receptors, TRα1 and TRβ1, are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that forms one of the most abundant classes of transcription factors in multicellular organisms. Although primarily localized to the nucleus, TRα1 and TRβ1 shuttle rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The fine balance between nuclear import and export of TRs has emerged as a critical control point for modulating thyroid hormone-responsive gene expression. Mutagenesis studies have defined two nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs that direct nuclear import of TRα1: NLS-1 in the hinge domain and NLS-2 in the N-terminal A/B domain. Three nuclear export signal (NES) motifs reside in the ligand-binding domain. A combined approach of shRNA-mediated knockdown and coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that nuclear entry of TRα1 is facilitated by importin 7, likely through interactions with NLS-2, and importin β1 and the adapter importin α1 interacting with both NLS-1 and NLS-2. Interestingly, TRβ1 lacks NLS-2 and nuclear import depends solely on the importin α1/β1 heterodimer. Heterokaryon and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching shuttling assays identified multiple exportins that play a role in nuclear export of TRα1, including CRM1 (exportin 1), and exportins 4, 5, and 7. Even single amino acid changes in TRs dramatically alter their intracellular distribution patterns. We conclude that mutations within NLS and NES motifs affect nuclear shuttling activity, and propose that TR mislocalization contributes to the development of some types of cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone syndrome. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Local Production of Luteinizing Hormone Antisera to Be Used In Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Albaqi, W. A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women. (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen Local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for Luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Authors)

  2. Local production of luteinizing hormone antisera to be used in radioimmunoassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Almahi, W. A. A.

    2004-12-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Author)

  3. Stress hormones predict hyperbolic time-discount rates six months later in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Shinada, Mizuho; Inukai, Keigo; Tanida, Shigehito; Takahashi, Chisato; Mifune, Nobuhiro; Takagishi, Haruto; Horita, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yokota, Kunihiro; Kameda, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Stress hormones have been associated with temporal discounting. Although time-discount rate is shown to be stable over a long term, no study to date examines whether individual differences in stress hormones could predict individuals' time-discount rates in the relatively distant future (e.g., six month later), which is of interest in neuroeconomics of stress-addiction association. We assessed 87 participants' salivary stress hormone (cortisol, cortisone, and alpha-amylase) levels and hyperbolic discounting of delayed rewards consisting of three magnitudes, at the time-interval of six months. For salivary steroid assays, we employed a liquid chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) method. The correlations between the stress hormone levels and time-discount rates were examined. We observed that salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were negatively associated with time-discount rates in never-smokers. Notably, salivary levels of stress steroids (i.e., cortisol and cortisone) negatively and positively related to time-discount rates in men and women, respectively, in never-smokers. Ever-smokers' discount rates were not predicted from these stress hormone levels. Individual differences in stress hormone levels predict impulsivity in temporal discounting in the future. There are sex differences in the effect of stress steroids on temporal discounting; while there was no sex defference in the relationship between sAA and temporal discounting.

  4. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  5. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  6. Concordance between results of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide and chromogranin A assay in patients with neuroendocrine tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Margarida [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Hietzing Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Gabriel, Michael; Heute, Dirk; Putzer, Daniel; Virgolini, Irene [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Griesmacher, Andrea [Medical University of Innsbruck, Central Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and chromogranin A (CgA) assay have successfully been implemented in the clinical work-up and management of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients. However, there is still a lack of studies comparing results in these patients. Our aim was to compare directly in NET patients SRS and CgA assay results with special regard to tumour features such as grade of malignancy, primary origin, disease extent and function. One hundred twenty consecutive patients with histological confirmed NETs were investigated with {sup 111}In-DOTA-DPhe{sup 1}-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC) SRS and CgA immunoradiometric assay. Tumours were classified by cell characteristics [well-differentiated NETs, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs)], primary origin (foregut, midgut, hindgut, undetermined), disease extent (limited disease, metastases, primary tumour and metastases) and functionality (secretory, nonsecretory). SRS was positive in 107 (89%) patients; CgA levels were increased in 95 (79%) patients. Overall, concordance between SRS and CgA results was found in 84 patients. Positive SRS but normal CgA level were found in 24 patients, with higher prevalence (p<0.05) in patients with nonsecretory tumours. Conversely, negative SRS but CgA level increased were seen in 12 patients, with higher proportion (p < 0.05) in patients with PDNECs and tumours of hindgut origin. Overall, {sup 111}In-DOTA-TOC SRS proved to be more sensitive than CgA in NETs patients. Tumour differentiation, disease extent and presence of liver metastases impact both SRS and CgA results, whereas nonsecretory activity is a negative predictor of only CgA increase. PDNECs and hindgut origin of tumours predispose to discrepancies with negative SRS but increased CgA levels. (orig.)

  7. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Juan; Comas, Inma; Planas, Jacques; Maldonado, Xavier; Celma, Ana; Placer, José; Ferrer, Roser; Carles, Joan; Regis, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Serum testosterone measurement is recommended to assess the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and to diagnose castration resistance in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). Currently, the accepted castrate level of serum testosterone is 50 ng/dL. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC MSMS) is the appropriate method to measure testosterone, especially at low levels. However, worldwide, chemiluminescent assays (CLIAs) are used in clinical laboratories, despite their lack of accuracy and reproducibility, because they are automatable, fast, sensitive, and inexpensive. We compared serum testosterone levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31.9 ng/dL (range, 10.0-91.6 ng/dL) with CLIA (P  50 ng/dL in 3 patients (2.4%). These ranges were found in 34 (27%), 72 (57.1%), and 20 (15.9%) patients when testosterone was measured using CLIA (P < .001). The castrate level of serum testosterone using LC MSMS and CLIA was 39.8 ng/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.1-43.4 ng/dL) and 66.5 ng/dL (95% CI, 62.3-71.2 ng/dL), respectively. We found that CLIA overestimated the testosterone levels in PCa patients undergoing LHRH agonist therapy. Thus, the castration level was incorrectly considered inadequate with CLIA in almost 15% of patients. The true castration level of serum testosterone using an appropriate method is < 50 ng/dL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intraindividual variation in levels of serum testosterone and other reproductive and adrenal hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Donald J; O'Donnell, Amy B; Matsumoto, Alvin M; McKinlay, John B

    2007-12-01

    Estimates of intraindividual variation in hormone levels provide the basis for interpreting hormone measurements clinically and for developing eligibility criteria for trials of hormone replacement therapy. However, reliable systematic estimates of such variation are lacking. To estimate intraindividual variation of serum total, free and bioavailable testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), SHBG, LH, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), oestrone, oestradiol and cortisol, and the contributions of biological and assay variation to the total. Paired blood samples were obtained 1-3 days apart at entry and again 3 months and 6 months later (maximum six samples per subject). Each sample consisted of a pool of equal aliquots of two blood draws 20 min apart. Men aged 30-79 years were randomly selected from the respondents to the Boston Area Community Health Survey, a study of the health of the general population of Boston, MA, USA. Analysis was based on 132 men, including 121 who completed all six visits, 8 who completed the first two visits and 3 who completed the first four visits. Day-to-day and 3-month (long-term) intraindividual standard deviations, after transforming measurements to logarithms to eliminate the contribution of hormone level to intraindividual variation. Biological variation generally accounted for more of total intraindividual variation than did assay variation. Day-to-day biological variation accounted for more of the total than did long-term biological variation. Short-term variability was greater in hormones with pulsatile secretion (e.g. LH) than those that exhibit less ultradian variation. Depending on the hormone, the intraindividual standard deviations imply that a clinician can expect to see a difference exceeding 18-28% about half the time when two measurements are made on a subject. The difference will exceed 27-54% about a quarter of the time. Given the level of intraindividual variability in hormone

  9. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  10. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  11. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  12. Correlation between the genotoxicity endpoints measured by two different genotoxicity assays: comet assay and CBMN assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Ladeira

    2015-06-01

    The results concerning of positive findings by micronuclei and non significant ones by comet assay, are corroborated by Deng et al. (2005 study performed in workers occupationally exposed to methotrexate, also a cytostatic drug. According to Cavallo et al. (2009, the comet assay seems to be more suitable for the prompt evaluation of the genotoxic effects, for instance, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons mixtures containing volatile substances, whereas the micronucleus test seems more appropriate to evaluate the effects of exposure to antineoplastic agents. However, there are studies that observed an increase in both the comet assay and the micronucleus test in nurses handling antineoplastic drugs, although statistical significance was only seen in the comet assay, quite the opposite of our results (Maluf & Erdtmann, 2000; Laffon et al. 2005.

  13. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  14. The current state of external quality control surveys in the German Federal Republic in the field of peptide hormone radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschner, I.; Scriba, P.C.; Wood, W.G.; Breuer, H.; Jungbluth, D.; Roehle, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two types of quality control surveys (QSC) are performed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the field of hormone assays: 1) The distribution of two lyophilized sera at regular intervals, in which the participants have to determine 7 or 8 different hormones. Because of the lack of reference methods for peptide hormones, the statistical evaluation of the results indicates only whether the results of the participants are 'correct' or contain systematic or nonsystematic errors with respect to the findings of the other participants. 2) The distribution of approximately 20 deep-frozen sera (including a standard curve in hormone-free serum) in which the participant has to assay a single hormone. These 20 sera-QCS are performed only at long intervals for a given hormone. The statistical analysis of the rate of the radioactive counts of the QCS-sera and those of the participants' standard curves allows - together with a methodological inquiry form - detection of probable causes for deviating results. (orig.) [de

  15. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  16. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  17. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  18. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  19. Response of the pigeon crop sac to mammotrophic hormones: Comparison between relaxin and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani, G.; Sacchi, T.B.; Bigazzi, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of relaxin (RLX), a hormone that has previously been demonstrated to have mammotrophic properties, were studied in the pigeon crop sac, a well-known target organ for mammotrophic and lactogenic hormones, and compared with the effects produced by prolactin (PRL). The two hormones were injected directly over the crop at different doses and the response was evaluated after differing times of exposure. RLX causes a dose-related increase in wet and dry weights and [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine uptake by the crop mucosa, as well as morphological changes indicating growth and differentiation of the epithelial cells similar to those occurring during physiological activation in incubation and hatching. At the doses assayed, the effects of RLX were nearly identical to those obtained following PRL in the short-term experiments, but differences in functional responses were found in the long-term experiment

  20. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  1. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  2. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  3. Report of the second research co-ordination meeting of the CRP on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Development of Kits for Immunoradiometric Assays for tumour markers' was started towards the end of 1997. Ten laboratories from different parts of the world with experience in development of immunoassays are participating in this project and the first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was held at the Agency Head Quarters in Vienna during 3-7 December, 1997. Based on the discussions and recommendations made during this meeting, the participants have carried out the project work at their laboratories during the past 18 months. During this period two consignments (November 98 and March 99) of some of the essential reagents, namely the capture Mab (Mab 66; 5 mg), tracer Mabs (Mab 10; 0.5 mg for total PSA and Mab 30; 0.5 mg for free PSA assay) and PSA antigen (1.3 mg, 80% pure) were shipped to each participant to enable them to develop the assays and to assess their own in-house reagents. The second RCM was held at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, to review the results obtained thus far and to discuss the actions to be taken in the next phase of the project. All the participants presented the work done at their respective laboratories and discussed the results obtained. On the whole, it was observed that significant progress has been achieved by all the participants. In the area of production of monoclonal antibodies, significant accomplishment was achieved by Cuba, China and India. All the three laboratories had produced monoclonal antibodies against PSA and had been successful to various extents. Cuba could identify specific antibodies that could be used as capture antibody as well as tracer antibodies for free and total PSA assays. Small aliquots of these were brought and distributed to the participants for individual evaluation. China has also identified the monoclonals for an IRMA for total PSA while India had identified a monoclonal that could be used for coating. The selected antibodies have compared very

  4. Optimized separation procedures for the simultaneous assay of three plant hormones in liquid biofertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overuse of petrochemical-based synthetic fertilizers has caused detrimental effects to soil, water supplies, foods, and animal health. This, in addition to increased awareness of organic farming, has generated considerable interest in the evaluation of renewable biofertilizers. In order to stu...

  5. Hormonal assay in gastric secretion of portal hypertension and peptic ulceration by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, Y.M.; El-Haieg, M.O.; Abdel-Aziz, S.M.; Moustafa, N.A.; Refaat, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper aims to study the relation between the plasma levels and the gastric secretion in cases of portal hypertension and the duodenal ulcer. The relation between gastrin levels and bleeding in case of duodenal ulcer was also studied regarding the role of acidity, gastrin level, and the portal pressure on the pathogenesis of bleeding from oesophageal varices. Finally, the relation between gastrin secretion and state of liver functions was tested. The radioimmunoassay ( RIA ) is the basic test in assessment of the gastrin. The obtained results revealed the following: 1. The fasting serum gastrin was increased in case of liver cirrhosis 2. The level of gastrin was markedly increased in case of peptic ulceration 3. The incidence of peptic ulceration was increased in case of liver cirrhosis.3 tab

  6. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  7. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  8. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  9. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  10. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  11. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  12. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  13. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  14. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  15. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  17. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  18. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  19. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  20. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  1. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  2. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, C.S. [Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I. [Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-03-02

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production.

  3. Alternative complement pathway and factor B activities in rats with altered blood levels of thyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, C.S.; Duarte, C.G.; Azzolini, A.E.C.S.; Assis-Pandochi, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluating the activity of the complement system under conditions of altered thyroid hormone levels might help elucidate the role of complement in triggering autoimmune processes. Here, we investigated alternative pathway (AP) activity in male Wistar rats (180 ± 10 g) after altering their thyroid hormone levels by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3), propylthiouracil (PTU) or thyroidectomy. T3 and thyroxine (T4) levels were determined by chemiluminescence assays. Hemolytic assays were performed to evaluate the lytic activity of the AP. Factor B activity was evaluated using factor B-deficient serum. An anti-human factor B antibody was used to measure factor B levels in serum by radial immunodiffusion. T3 measurements in thyroidectomized animals or animals treated with PTU demonstrated a significant reduction in hormone levels compared to control. The results showed a reduction in AP lytic activity in rats treated with increasing amounts of T3 (1, 10, or 50 µg). Factor B activity was also decreased in the sera of hyperthyroid rats treated with 1 to 50 µg T3. Additionally, treating rats with 25 µg T3 significantly increased factor B levels in their sera (P < 0.01). In contrast, increased factor B concentration and activity (32%) were observed in hypothyroid rats. We conclude that alterations in thyroid hormone levels affect the activity of the AP and factor B, which may in turn affect the roles of AP and factor B in antibody production

  4. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  5. Prospective hormone study of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Shen; Lin, Fang-Jen; Huang, Miau-Ju; Wang, Pei-Wan; Tang, Simon; Leung, Wei-Man; Leung, Wan

    1989-01-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of high dose irradiation (6,500 cGy/36 fractions or higher) to pituitary fossa, a prospective study was carried out in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer by a serial determination of several hormones in the serum, before and after the course of radiation therapy (RT). The radiation treatment field was at least 1 cm above the skull base with bilateral parallel opposing fields. Hormone assays were performed three times on each patient: (1)prior to, (2)one month after, (3)15-18 months after radiation therapy. The study included determination of serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin concentrations and LH-releasing hormone, thyrotrophin-releasing hormone stimulation and insulin tolerance tests were also carried out. Complete profiles were obtained in 24 patients (16 males and 8 females), aged 16-67 years. The results showed a significant decrease in the level of serum peak value of LH in males 18 months after therapy, and also in GH both one month and 18 months after therapy. A significant increase in the peak value of serum TSH was observed after therapy. Decreased serum FSH, cortisol and prolactin levels were noted, but these did not reach statistical significance. The decrease in GH level appeared earlier and was more sensitive than that found for the other hormones, and could prove to be a useful parameter for clinical evaluation. None of the patients showed any clinically recognizable symptoms or signs of hormone deficiency in the 18-33 months following completion of the radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  7. New fluorimetric assay of horseradish peroxidase using sesamol as substrate and its application to EIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Arakawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Horseradish peroxidase (HRP is generally used as a label enzyme in enzyme immunoassay (EIA. The procedure used for HRP detection in EIA is critical for sensitivity and precision. This paper describes a novel fluorimetric assay for horseradish peroxidase (HRP using sesamol as substrate. The principle of the assay is as follow: sesamol (3,4-methylenedioxy phenol is reacted enzymatically in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce dimeric sesamol. The dimer is fluorescent and can be detected sensitively at ex. 347 nm, em. 427 nm.The measurable range of HRP was 1.0×10−18 to 1.0×10−15 mol/assay, with a detection limit of 1.0×10−18 mol/assay. The coefficient of variation (CV, n=8 was examined at each point on the standard curve, with a mean CV percentage of 3.8%. This assay system was applied to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH EIA using HRP as the label enzyme. Keywords: Sesamol, Fluorescence, Enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH

  8. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  9. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L

    2016-08-10

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3',5,5'-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Novel cell-based assay for detection of thyroid receptor beta-interacting environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; Varticovski, Lyuba; Levkova, Ludmila; George, Anuja A.; Davis, Luke; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hager, Gordon L.

    2016-01-01

    Even though the presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with thyroid hormone (TH)-like activities in the environment is a major health concern, the methods for their efficient detection and monitoring are still limited. Here we describe a novel cell assay, based on the translocation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)—tagged chimeric molecule of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the thyroid receptor beta (TRβ) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in the presence of TR ligands. Unlike the constitutively nuclear TRβ, this GFP-GR-TRβ chimera is cytoplasmic in the absence of hormone while translocating to the nucleus in a time- and concentration-dependent manner upon stimulation with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid hormone analogue, TRIAC, while the reverse triiodothyronine (3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine, or rT3) was inactive. Moreover, GFP-GR-TRβ chimera does not show any cross-reactivity with the GR-activating hormones, thus providing a clean system for the screening of TR beta-interacting EDCs. Using this assay, we demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA) and 3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol (TBBPA) induced GFP-GR-TRβ translocation at micro molar concentrations. We screened over 100 concentrated water samples from different geographic locations in the United States and detected a low, but reproducible contamination in 53% of the samples. This system provides a novel high-throughput approach for screening for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interacting with TR beta.

  11. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  12. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijaya Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  13. [Serum hormones that regulate the reproductive axis in men with testicular germ cell cancer and its impact on fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Rodríguez, José María; Chávez-Zúñiga, Irma; Bañuelos-Ávila, Leticia; Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies treat testicular germ cancer as a single disease, the behavior of the two histological types of cancer; seminoma and nonseminoma have differences in reproductive hormone secretion and impair fertility differently. To demonstrate that the serum concentration of pituitary hormones involved in fertility and spermatogenesis in the affected male is different in the two histological types. Were determined by radioimmunoassay or inmunoradiometric assay, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, total testosterone, prolactin, estradiol, human chorionic gonadotropin and alpha fetoprotein in 37 patients with germ cell cancer (15 seminoma and 22 nonseminoma) and 35 controls. We analyzed the semen of patients, and were questioned about paternity before the cancer diagnosis. Age was higher in patients with seminoma cancer, showed decreased luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and testosterone and increased estradiol and prolactin in nonseminoma compared with seminoma. In patients with nonseminoma they had 9 children, 5 were oligozoospermic, 3 azoospermic and 6 normal concentration, 8 did not provide sample, seminoma group they had eight children, only one azoospermic, nine normal concentration, and 5 did not provide sample . The hormonal behavior is different in men with nonseminoma compared with seminoma, so that the negative impact on the reproductive axis and fertility is higher in cases of non-seminoma.

  14. Steroidogenic disruptive effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol in the H295R cell assay and in a recombinant CYP17 assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islin, Julie; Munkboel, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the steroidogenic endocrine disrupting effect of the three most widely used serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, venlafaxine and tramadol, using two in vitro models, the H295R assay and a recombinant CYP17 enzyme assay. Steroid hormones were...... quantified using LC-MS/MS. Duloxetine showed endocrine disrupting effects at 5-20μM with CYP17 being the main target. Venlafaxine also affected the steroidogenesis, mainly by affecting the CYP17 lyase reaction, although at much higher concentrations i.e. 100μM. Tramadol only exerted minor effects...... on the steroidogenesis with the lowest observed effect at 314μM. Based on the H295R results, the inhibition of CYP17 by duloxetine and venlafaxine was investigated in a recombinant CYP17 assay with the use of the 4 major CYP17 substrates pregnenolone, progesterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone and 17α...

  15. Interlaboratory survey for T3 and T4 assays in Italy: results from a two semester period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilo, A.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Chiesa, M.R.; Piro, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of external quality control schemes (EQCS) is generally acknowledged in clinical chemistry; these schemes allow not only the evaluation of the between-laboratory variability of the assay under study, but also make it possible the improvement of the analytical performances of the participants laboratories. Recently interlaboratory surveys have been extended to radioimmunoassays. Starting from january 1980, a national EQCS hormone assays was organized in Italy; triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) have been the first assays considered due to their large diffusion

  16. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maohua Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  17. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  18. Impact of Drinking Water Fluoride on Human Thyroid Hormones: A Case- Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Zohreh; Mirzaei, Masoud; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Mokhtari, Mehdi; Azizi, Reyhane; Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hassan

    2018-02-08

    The elevated fluoride from drinking water impacts on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones. The aim was study impacts of drinking water fluoride on T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones inYGA (Yazd Greater Area). In this case- control study 198 cases and 213 controls were selected. Fluoride was determined by the SPADNS Colorimetric Method. T 3 , T 4 and TSH hormones tested in the Yazd central laboratory by RIA (Radio Immuno Assay) method. The average amount of TSH and T 3 hormones based on the levels of fluoride in two concentration levels 0-0.29 and 0.3-0.5 (mg/L) was statistically significant (P = 0.001 for controls and P = 0.001 for cases). In multivariate regression logistic analysis, independent variable associated with Hypothyroidism were: gender (odds ratio: 2.5, CI 95%: 1.6-3.9), family history of thyroid disease (odds ratio: 2.7, CI 95%: 1.6-4.6), exercise (odds ratio: 5.34, CI 95%: 3.2-9), Diabetes (odds ratio: 3.7, CI 95%: 1.7-8), Hypertension (odds ratio: 3.2, CI 95%: 1.3-8.2), water consumption (odds ratio: 4, CI 95%: 1.2-14). It was found that fluoride has impacts on TSH, T 3 hormones even in the standard concentration of less than 0.5 mg/L. Application of standard household water purification devices was recommended for hypothyroidism.

  19. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, H.; Hassan, AME.; Basama, N. K.; Mohamed, W.A.S.; Eltayeb, N. H.; Elsayed, B. B.

    2012-12-01

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T 4 ) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T 3 ). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T 4 ), tri iodine thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  20. Evidence for a synchronization of hormonal states between humans and dogs during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Thompson, Breanna; Strasser, Rosemary; Santo, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Social interactions with humans have been shown to influence hormonal processes in dogs, but it is unclear how the hormonal states of humans factor into this relationship. In this study, we explored the associations between changes in the cortisol levels of dogs with humans' hormonal changes, behavior, and perceptions of their performance at an agility competition. A total of 58 dogs and their handlers (44 women, 14 men) provided saliva samples before and after competing. Dogs' saliva samples were later assayed for cortisol and humans' samples for cortisol and testosterone. Following the competition, handler-dog interactions were observed for affiliative and punitive behavior towards their dogs, and handlers completed questionnaires that included personal ratings of their performance. Structural equation modeling revealed that elevations in handlers' cortisol levels were associated with increases in their dogs' cortisol levels. Handlers' affiliative and punitive behaviors towards their dogs following competition were associated with their ratings of their performance, but these variables were unrelated to changes in their own cortisol levels and their dogs', implying their behavior did not mediate the relationship. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal states were reflected between humans and their dogs, and this relationship was not due to handlers' perceptions of their performance or the behaviors we observed during post-competition social interactions. This study is one of the first to provide evidence for a synchronization of hormonal changes between species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  2. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  3. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  4. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  5. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  6. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  7. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  8. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  9. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  10. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  11. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  12. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  13. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  14. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  15. Assay strategies and methods for phospholipases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, L.J.; Washburn, W.N.; Deems, R.A.; Dennis, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Of the general considerations discussed, the two issues which are most important in choosing an assay are (1) what sensitivity is required to assay a particular enzyme and (2) whether the assay must be continuous. One can narrow the options further by considering substrate availability, enzyme specificity, assay convenience, or the presence of incompatible side reactions. In addition, the specific preference of a particular phospholipase for polar head group, micellar versus vesicular substrates, and anionic versus nonionic detergents may further restrict the options. Of the many assays described in this chapter, several have limited applicability or serious drawbacks and are not commonly employed. The most commonly used phospholipase assays are the radioactive TLC assay and the pH-stat assay. The TLC assay is probably the most accurate, sensitive assay available. These aspects often outweigh the disadvantages of being discontinuous, tedious, and expensive. The radioactive E. coli assay has become popular recently as an alternative to the TLC assay for the purification of the mammalian nonpancreatic phospholipases. The assay is less time consuming and less expensive than the TLC assay, but it is not appropriate when careful kinetics are required. Where less sensitivity is needed, or when a continuous assay is necessary, the pH-stat assay is often employed. With purified enzymes, when free thiol groups are not present, a spectrophotometric thiol assay can be used. This assay is ∼ as sensitive as the pH-stat assay but is more convenient and more reproducible, although the substrate is not available commercially. Despite the many assay choices available, the search continues for a convenient, generally applicable assay that is both sensitive and continuous

  16. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) enhances the serum levels of luteinising hormone in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Fumiaki; Jikyo, Tamaki; Takeda, Ryosuke; Ogata, Misato

    2014-02-03

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility benefits. This study investigated the effect of Maca on the serum pituitary hormone levels during the pro-oestrus phase. Maca powder was made from the tubers of Lepidium meyenii Walp collected, dried, and reduced to powder at the plantation in Junín Plateau and was purchased from Yamano del Perú SAC. The Maca powder was identified by chemical profiling and taxonomic methods. Two groups of female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided feed with normal feed containing 5%, 25%, or 50% Maca powder ad libitum for 7 weeks. At 1800h of the proestrus stage, the rats were euthanised, and blood samples were collected for serum isolation. The serum pituitary hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No significant differences in feed intake or growth rate were observed among the rats. During the pro-oestrus stage, a 4.5-fold increase (PMaca powder compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in the levels of the other pituitary hormones, including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A dose-dependent increase of LH serum levels was observed within the range of 3-30g Maca/kg. Furthermore, the enhancement of the LH serum levels was specific to the pro-oestrus LH surge. The present study demonstrates that Maca uniquely enhances the LH serum levels of pituitary hormones in female rats during the pro-oestrus LH surge and acts in a pharmacological, dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of Maca to enhance fertility and suggest a potential molecular mechanism responsible for its effects. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Thyroid Hormones on Leptin and Resistin Levels in Hyperthyroid Female Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hindawi Sahar H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis occurs due to excess release of thyroid hormone. These hormones regulate the body’s energy balance and have effects on adipokine level. There are several reports suggesting interrelation between adipokines (resistin and leptin with thyroid dysfunction. Objectives: This study was established to investigate the effect of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism state on the level of some adipokines, leptin and resistin; in comparison with control. Patients and Methods: The present study included 50 Iraqi female patients with hyperthyroidism with age ranged between 30-58 years and 30 healthy controls with age ranged between 30-53 years. Serum samples were collected from study groups. The levels of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3 were determined by using automated Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA analysis system. Detection of leptin hormone and resistin hormone levels in the serum were determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits. Results: The results revealed that serum leptin levels were significantly low (P<0.004 in hyperthyroid patient groups as compared to control, and there were significant negative correlations between T4 and leptin (P<0.0001; also, T3 and leptin (P<0.05. Resistin hormone level increased non-significantly (P˃0.05 than control level; and there was significant negative correlation between TSH and resistin (P<0.035. Conclusion: The study shows that there is complex interrelation between adipocytokines (leptin and resistin with thyroid gland and pituitary gland. Leptin levels were decreased in hyperthyroid patients than control and associated negatively with T4 and T3 levels, while resistin levels were increased non-significantly than control and associated negatively with TSH level. They affect each other in their physiological function in the human body.

  18. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J. [University Coll., Dublin (Ireland); Ven der Kolk, H. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands); Goode, J.A. [Agricultural Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Inst. of Animal Physiology

    1994-12-31

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Development of homologous radioimmunoassays for equine growth hormone and equine prolactin and their application to the detection of circulating levels of hormone in horse plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahill, C.M.; Hayden, T.J.; Ven der Kolk, H.; Goode, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Highly purified and well-characterized preparations of equine prolactin and growth hormone from equine pituitary glands were employed to set up highly sensitive and specific homologous radioimmunoassays (RIA) for the measurement of hormone in horse plasma. The limit of sensitivity of the GH RIA was 1.2 ng/ml with mean intra -and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) of 6.6 and 10%, respectively. The sensitivity of the equine prolactin (ePRL) RIA was 0.5 ng/ml with mean intra and inter-assay CV of 9.1 and 15.6%, respectively. Dose-response curves of a crude pituitary gland extract and plasma samples collected from a mare and foal were parallel to the standards and the PRL RIA was clinically validated by administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Plasma samples taken at 15 min intervals over 24 h from lactating mares gave 24 h mean GH values in the range 5.5 to 7.95 ng/ml. Large intermittent elevations of GH activity were detected. The mean 24 h PRL concentrations were between 3.2-10.4 ng/ml in the lactating animals, with higher concentrations earlier in lactation. Long episodic bursts of PRL were detected. (authors). 48 refs., 9 figs

  20. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....