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Sample records for hormone fragment 1-34

  1. Cellular effects and delivery propensity of penetratin is influenced by conjugation to parathyroid hormone fragment 1-34 in synergy with pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; Nielsen, Line Hagner; Zor, Kinga

    2018-01-01

    The cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin, has demonstrated potential as a carrier for transepithelial delivery of cargo peptides, such as the therapeutically relevant part of parathyroid hormone, i.e. PTH(1-34). The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the relevance of modifying the pH...... evaluated by using the Real-Time-GLO assay as well as by microscopy following Tryphan blue staining. Morphological Caco-2 cell changes were studied exploiting the impedance-based xCELLigence system as well as optically using the oCelloscope setup. Finally, the effect of pH on the folding propensity...... the conjugation approach, the PTH(1-34) permeation was significantly enhanced by lowering the pH from 7.4 to 5, but also associated with a compromised barrier and a lowering of the cellular viability. The negative effects on the cellular viability following cellular incubation with the PTH(1-34)-penetratin...

  2. Comparison of renal and osseous binding of parathyroid hormone and hormonal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demay, M.; Mitchell, J.; Goltzman, D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors compared receptor binding and adenylate cyclase stimulation of intact bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH)-(1-84) and the synthetic amino-terminal fragments, bPTH-(1-34) and rat PTH (rPTH)-(1-34). In both canine renal membranes and cloned rat osteosarcoma cells the amino-terminal fragments bound to a single order of sites; the affinity of rPTH-(1-34) exceeded that of bPTH-(1-34), correlating with its higher potency in stimulating adenylate cyclase. In studies with oxidized bPTH-(1--84), the middle and carboxyl regions of intact PTH were found to bind to both tissues but with higher affinity to osteosarcoma cells than to renal membranes. Our results demonstrate that rPTH-(1--34) is the most favorable probe of amino-terminal PTH binding and the most potent of the PTH peptides in stimulating renal and osseous adenylate cyclase. The results also show that midregion and carboxyl determinants within intact PTH contribute to hormone binding, which does not correlate with adenylate cyclase activation and appears more significant for skeletal than for renal binding

  3. The combined effect of Parathyroid hormone (1-34) and whole-body Vibration exercise in the treatment of OSteoporosis (PaVOS)- study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Ryg, Jesper; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    Background: PaVOS is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which aims to address the use of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) in combination with parathyroid hormone 1-34 fragment teriparatide (PTH 1-34) treatment in patients with osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 is an effective but expensive anabolic...... fracture risk. Methods/design: PaVOS is a multicenter, assessor-blinded, superiority, two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT). Postmenopausal women (n = 40, aged 50 years and older) starting taking PTH 1-34 from outpatient clinics will be randomized and assigned to a PTH 1-34 + WBV-exercise group...... (intervention group), or a PTH 1-34-alone group (control group). The intervention group will undergo WBV three sessions a week (12 min each, including 1:1 ratio of exercise: rest, 30 Hz, 1 mm amplitude) for a 12-month intervention period. Both the intervention and the control group will receive PTH 1...

  4. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone related protein 1-34 and 1-84 and their roles in osteoporosis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes patients to increased fracture risk. Parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP is one of the candidates for clinical osteoporosis treatment. In this study, GST Gene Fusion System was used to express recombinant human PTHrP (hPTHrP 1-34 and 1-84. To determine whether the recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 can enhance renal calcium reabsorption and promote bone formation, we examined effects of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 on osteogenic lineage commitment in a primary bone marrow cell culture system and on osteoporosis treatment. Results revealed that both of recombinant hPTHrP1-34 and 1-84 increased colony formation and osteogenic cell differentiation and mineralization in vitro; however, the effect of recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is a little stronger than that of hPTHrP1-34. Next, ovariectomy was used to construct osteoporosis animal model (OVX to test activities of these two recombinants in vivo. HPTHrP1-84 administration elevated serum calcium by up-regulating the expression of renal calcium transporters, which resulted in stimulation of osteoblastic bone formation. These factors contributed to augmented bone mass in hPTHrP1-84 treated OVX mice but did not affect bone resorption. There was no obvious bone mass alteration in hPTHrP1-34 treated OVX mice, which may be, at least partly, associated with shorter half-life of hPTHrP1-34 compared to hPTHrP1-84 in vivo. This study implies that recombinant hPTHrP1-84 is more effective than hPTHrP1-34 to enhance renal calcium reabsorption and to stimulate bone formation in vivo.

  5. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1-34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model.

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    Fanggang Bi

    Full Text Available We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH[1-34]; 60 μg/kg/day can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1-34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1-34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone-implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1-34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1-34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis.

  6. Transient Increased Calcium and Calcitriol Requirements After Discontinuation of Human Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) Replacement Therapy in Hypoparathyroidism.

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    Gafni, Rachel I; Guthrie, Lori C; Kelly, Marilyn H; Brillante, Beth A; Christie, C Michele; Reynolds, James C; Yovetich, Nancy A; James, Robert; Collins, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic human PTH 1-34 (hPTH 1-34) replacement therapy in hypoparathyroidism maintains eucalcemia and converts quiescent bone to high-turnover bone. However, the skeletal and metabolic effects of drug discontinuation have not been reported. Nine subjects with hypoparathyroidism received subcutaneous injections of hPTH 1-34 two to three times daily for 19.8 to 61.3 months and then transitioned back to calcium and calcitriol. Biochemistries and bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were assessed at baseline, while on treatment, and at follow-up 3 to 12 months after drug discontinuation. Two subjects developed hypocalcemia when hPTH 1-34 was abruptly discontinued. Thus, to avoid hypocalcemia, subjects were slowly weaned from hPTH 1-34 over several weeks. When hPTH 1-34 was stopped, subjects were requiring two to three times pretreatment doses of calcitriol and calcium to maintain blood calcium levels. Doses were gradually reduced over many weeks until calcium levels were stable on doses similar to baseline. Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), N-telopeptide (NTX), and osteocalcin (OC) increased significantly with hPTH 1-34; at follow-up, BSAP and NTX had returned to baseline while OC was still slightly elevated. During treatment, BMD was unchanged at the hip and lateral spine but declined at the anterior-posterior (AP) spine, radius, and total body. During weaning, BMD increased, with the hip and lateral spine exceeding pre-hPTH 1-34 values and the whole body returning to baseline. AP spine was increased non-significantly compared to baseline at follow-up. hPTH 1-34 must be gradually weaned in hypoparathyroid patients with high doses of oral medications given to avoid hypocalcemia. The transient increased requirements accompanied by increased BMD after long-term hPTH 1-34 therapy suggest a reversal of the expanded remodeling space favoring bone formation as the skeleton returns to a low-turnover state, reminiscent of the hungry

  7. Carboxyl-terminal parathyroid hormone fragments: role in parathyroid hormone physiopathology.

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    D'Amour, Pierre; Brossard, Jean-Hugues

    2005-07-01

    Carboxyl-terminal parathyroid hormone (C-PTH) fragments constitute 80% of circulating PTH. Since the first 34 amino acids of the PTH structure are sufficient to explain PTH classical biological effects on the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor and since C-PTH fragments do not bind to this receptor, they have long been considered inactive. Recent data suggest the existence of a C-PTH receptor through which C-PTH fragments exert biological effects opposite to those of human PTH(1-84) on the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor. This is why a lot of attention has been paid to these fragments recently. In vivo, synthetic C-PTH fragments are able to decrease calcium concentration, to antagonize the calcemic response to human PTH(1-34) and human PTH(1-84) and to decrease the high bone turnover rate induced by human PTH(1-84). In vitro, they inhibit bone resorption, promote osteocyte apoptosis and exert a variety of effects on bone and cartilaginous cells. These effects are opposite to those of human PTH(1-84) on the PTH/PTHrP type I receptor. This suggests that the molecular forms of circulating PTH may control bone participation in calcium homeostasis via two different receptors. Clinically, the accumulation of C-PTH fragments in renal failure patients may cause PTH resistance and may be associated with adynamic bone disease. Rare parathyroid tumors, without a set point error, overproduce C-PTH fragments. The implication of C-PTH fragments in osteoporosis is still to be explored. C-PTH fragments represent a new field of investigation in PTH biology. More studies are necessary to disclose their real importance in calcium and bone homeostasis in health and disease.

  8. Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 Might Not Improve Early Bone Healing after Sinus Augmentation in Healthy Rabbits

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    Jisun Huh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the effect of administering intermittent parathyroid hormone [PTH (1-34, henceforth PTH] on the early-stage bone healing of maxillary sinus augmentation in healthy rabbits. Materials and Methods. Bovine bone mineral was grafted on the sinuses of 20 female New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, PTH (n=10 or saline (n=10, in which either PTH or saline was injected subcutaneously 5 days a week for 2 weeks. Half of the animals in each group were killed at 2 weeks postoperatively and the other half were killed at 4 weeks postoperatively. The dosage of PTH was 10 μg/kg/day. Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. Result. The new bone area (NBA did not differ significantly between the PTH and saline groups. The NBA in the PTH group in the total augmented area and in the demarcated window, center, and Schneiderian membrane regions increased significantly from 2 to 4 weeks. The number of osteoclasts decreased significantly from 2 to 4 weeks in both groups, with no difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Intermittent PTH might not stimulate new bone formation in healthy rabbits during the first 4 weeks of healing.

  9. Radioimmunological assay of the biologically active fragment of the human parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplan, C.; Jullienne, A.; Raulais, D.; Rivaille, P.; Barlet, J.P.; Moukthar, M.S.; Milhaud, G.

    1977-01-01

    The authors describe a RIA of the biologically active fraction (N-terminal) of human parathyroid hormone. This homologous test uses antibodies obtained in goats against a N-terminal 1-34 fragment of hPTH synthetised according to the method of Niall and Coll. In this system, natural hPTH of different origin (extracts from parathyroid adenomas, adenomal culture medium, hyperparathyroid plasma, adsorption chromatography extract of normal human plasma) behaved in the same manner as the synthetic reference hormone 1-34 hPTHN. The RIA detected PTH in 65% of the normal subjects and distinguished the normal values from the values of hyperparathyroid patients, which makes it suitable for clinical practice. (AJ) [de

  10. In vitro and preclinical assessment of an intranasal spray\\ud formulation of parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 for the treatment of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Allan J.; Jordan, Faron; King, Gareth; Lewis, Andrew L.; Illum, Lisbeth; Masud, Tahir; Perkins, Alan C.; Pearson, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis treatment with PTH 1-34 injections significantly reduces the incidence of bone fracture. Potential further reductions in fracture rate should be observed through nasal spray delivery to address the poor compliance associated with patient dislike of repeated PTH 1-34 subcutaneous injections. In vitro human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cell intracellular cAMP levels were used to define PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation bioactivity. The chemically synthesised PTH 1-34 had an EC50 of 0.76nM...

  11. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-34) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound have contrasting additive effects during fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Stuart J; Komatsu, David E; Rydberg, Johanna; Bond, Julie L; Hassett, Sean M

    2009-03-01

    Fracture healing is thought to be naturally optimized; however, recent evidence indicates that it may be manipulated to occur at a faster rate. This has implications for the duration of morbidity associated with bone injuries. Two interventions found to accelerate fracture healing processes are recombinant human parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH) and low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS). This study aimed to investigate the individual and combined effects of PTH and LIPUS on fracture healing. Bilateral midshaft femur fractures were created in Sprague-Dawley rats, and the animals treated 7 days/week with PTH (10 microg/kg) or a vehicle solution. Each animal also had one fracture treated for 20 min/day with active-LIPUS (spatial-averaged, temporal-averaged intensity [I(SATA)]=100 mW/cm(2)) and the contralateral fracture treated with inactive-LIPUS (placebo). Femurs were harvested 35 days following injury to permit micro-computed tomography, mechanical property and histological assessments of the fracture calluses. There were no interactions between PTH and LIPUS indicating that their effects were additive rather than synergistic. These additive effects were contrasting with LIPUS primarily increasing total callus volume (TV) without influencing bone mineral content (BMC), and PTH having the opposite effect of increasing BMC without influencing TV. As a consequence of the effect of LIPUS on TV but not BMC, it decreased volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) resulting in a less mature callus. The decreased maturity and persistence of cartilage at the fracture site when harvested offset any beneficial mechanical effects of the increased callus size with LIPUS. In contrast, the effect of PTH on callus BMC but not TV resulted in increased callus vBMD and a more mature callus. This resulted in PTH increasing fracture site mechanical strength and stiffness. These data suggest that PTH may have utility in the treatment of acute bone fractures, whereas LIPUS at an I(SATA) of

  12. In vitro and preclinical assessment of an intranasal spray formulation of parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 for the treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan J; Jordan, Faron; King, Gareth; Lewis, Andrew L; Illum, Lisbeth; Masud, Tahir; Perkins, Alan C; Pearson, Richard G

    2018-01-15

    Osteoporosis treatment with PTH 1-34 injections significantly reduces the incidence of bone fracture. Potential further reductions in fracture rate should be observed through nasal spray delivery to address the poor compliance associated with patient dislike of repeated PTH 1-34 subcutaneous injections. In vitro human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cell intracellular cAMP levels were used to define PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation bioactivity. The chemically synthesised PTH 1-34 had an EC 50 of 0.76nM. Absorption enhancers polyethylene glycol (15)-hydroxystearate (Solutol ® HS15), poloxamer 407, chitosan or sodium hyaluronate did not diminish the bioactivity of PTH 1-34 within an in vitro cell culture model (p >0.05). We also demonstrated the effectiveness of the transmucosal absorption enhancer Solutol ® HS15 in a nasal spray formulation using a preclinical pharmacokinetic model. In Sprague-Dawley rats without the absorption enhancer the uptake of PTH 1-34 into the blood via intranasal delivery produced a Cmax of 2.1±0.5ng/ml compared to 13.7±1.6ng/ml with Solutol ® HS15 enhancer (p=0.016) and a Cmax14.8±8ng/ml in subcutaneous injections. Together these data illustrate that the nasal spray formulation bioactivity in vitro is not affected by the nasal spray absorption enhancers investigated, and the Solutol ® HS15 nasal spray formulation had an equivalent pharmacokinetic profile to subcutaneous injection in the rat model. The Solutol ® HS15 formulation therefore demonstrated potential as a PTH 1-34 nasal spray formulation for the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effects of Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 on Bone Differentiation in Stromal Precursor Antigen-1 Positive Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

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    Xiaoxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the most common cause of tooth loss and bone destruction in adults worldwide. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs may represent promising new therapeutic biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Stromal precursor antigen-1 (STRO-1 has been shown to have roles in adherence, proliferation, and multipotency. Parathyroid hormone (PTH has been shown to enhance proliferation in osteoblasts. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the functions of STRO-1(+ and STRO-1(− hPDLSCs and to investigate the effects of PTH on the osteogenic capacity of STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs in order to evaluate their potential applications in the treatment of periodontitis. Our data showed that STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs expressed higher levels of the PTH-1 receptor (PTH1R than STRO-1(− hPDLSCs. In addition, intermittent PTH treatment enhanced the expression of PTH1R and osteogenesis-related genes in STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs. PTH-treated cells also exhibited increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization ability. Therefore, STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs represented a more promising cell resource for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Intermittent PTH treatment improved the capacity for STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs to repair damaged tissue and ameliorate the symptoms of periodontitis.

  14. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Vaamonde, D.; Silva-Grigoletto, M.E. Da; Fernandez, J.M.; Algar-Santacruz, C.; García-Manso, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present case study analyzes semen quality, nutritional patterns, and hormonal and oxidative status of an international high-level triathlete with a low-volume, high-intensity training load. Method: The athlete was 26 years old, having participated in competitions since he was 13 years old, and practiced professional triathlon for the last five years. The qualitative sperm parameters analyzed were volume, sperm count, motility, morphology, and DNA fragmentation (additional testi...

  15. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woo-Seop [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z(T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z(T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T{sub 1} and the lower transition temperature T{sub 2} of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T{sub θ} and the folding temperature T{sub f} , respectively.

  16. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  17. Relationship of leptin administration with production of reactive oxygen species, sperm DNA fragmentation, sperm parameters and hormone profile in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasihormozi, Shima; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Kouhkan, Azam; Cheraghi, Javad; Akhlaghi, Ali Asghar; Kheimeh, Abolfazl

    2013-06-01

    Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived hormone, plays an important role in energy homeostasis and metabolism, and in the neuroendocrine and reproductive systems. The function of leptin in male reproduction is unclear; however, it is known to affect sex hormones, sperm motility and its parameters. Leptin induces mitochondrial superoxide production in aortic endothelia and may increase oxidative stress and abnormal sperm production in leptin-treated rats. This study aims to evaluate whether exogenous leptin affects sperm parameters, hormone profiles, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adult rats. A total of 65 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three treated groups and a control group. Treated rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of 5, 10 and 30 μg/kg of leptin administered for a duration of 7, 15, and 42 days. Control rats were given 0.1 mL of 0.9 % normal saline for the same period. One day after final drug administration, we evaluated serum specimens for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), free testosterone (FT), and total testosterone (TT) levels. Samples from the rat epididymis were also evaluated for sperm parameters and motility characteristics by a Computer-Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) system. Samples were treated with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) and analyzed using flow cytometry and TUNEL to determine the impact of leptin administration on sperm DNA fragmentation. According to CASA, significant differences in all sperm parameters in leptin-treated rats and their age-matched controls were detected, except for TM, ALH and BCF. Serum FSH and LH levels were significantly higher in rats that received 10 and 30 μg/kg of leptin compared to those treated with 5 μg/kg of leptin in the same group and control rats (P control group (P hormone profile modulation.

  18. Findings on sperm alterations and DNA fragmentation, nutritional, hormonal and antioxidant status in an elite triathlete. Case report

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    D. Vaamonde

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In this high-intensity endurance athlete, sperm parameters, mainly sperm morphology and DNA fragmentation, are altered. Further knowledge is needed with regards nutritional antioxidant intake and other dietetic strategies oriented toward avoiding oxidative damage in semen of high-performance triathletes. Moreover, adequate nutritional strategies must be found and nutritional advice given to athletes so as to palliate or dampen the effects of exercise on semen quality.

  19. Characterization of a bioactive 15 kDa fragment produced by proteolytic cleavage of chicken growth hormone.

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    Arámburo, C; Carranza, M; Reyes, M; Luna, M; Martinez-Coria, H; Berúmen, L; Scanes, C G

    2001-07-01

    There is evidence for a cleaved form of GH in the chicken pituitary gland. A 25 kDa band of immunoreactive-(ir-)GH, as well as the 22 kDa monomeric form and some oligomeric forms were observed when purified GH or fresh pituitary extract were subjected to SDS-PAGE under nonreducing conditions. Under reducing conditions, the 25 kDa ir-GH was no longer observed, being replaced by a 15 kDa band, consistent with reduction of the disulfide bridges of the cleaved form. The type of protease involved was investigated using exogenous proteases and monomeric cGH. Cleaved forms of chicken GH were generated by thrombin or collagenase. The site of cleavage was found in position Arg133-Gly134 as revealed by sequencing the fragments produced. The NH2-terminal sequence of 40 amino acid residues in the 15 kDa form was identical to that of the rcGH and analysis of the remaining 7 kDa fragment showed an exact identity with positions 134-140 of cGH structure. The thrombin cleaved GH and the 15 kDa form showed reduced activity (0.8% and 0.5% of GH, respectively) in a radioreceptor assay employing a chicken liver membrane preparation. However, this fragment had a clear bioactivity in an angiogenic bioassay and was capable to inhibit the activity of deiodinase type III in the chicken liver.

  20. Long-term effects of intermittent equine parathyroid hormone fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in healthy horses.

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    Weisrock, Katharina U; Winkelsett, Sarah; Martin-Rosset, William; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Parvizi, Nahid; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an anabolic therapy for osteoporotic conditions in humans. This study evaluated the effects of equine PTH fragment (ePTH-1-37) administration on bone metabolism in 12 healthy horses. Six horses each were treated once daily for 120days with subcutaneous injections of 0.5μg/kg ePTH-1-37 or placebo. Blood was collected to determine ionized calcium (Ca(++)), total Ca (Ca(T)), inorganic phosphorus, serum equine osteocalcin (eOC), carboxy-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and carboxy-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined with dual X-ray absorptiometry of the metacarpus and calcaneus. Significantly higher blood Ca(++) and plasma Ca(T) concentrations were measured 5h after ePTH-1-37 administration compared to placebo. Higher serum eOC concentrations were found for ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 90 (P<0.05) and 120 (P=0.05). Significantly higher serum ICTP levels were observed with ePTH-1-37 treatment at days 60 and 90. For both study groups, BMD increased significantly in the calcaneus. Long-term use of ePTH-1-37 seemed to have no negative effects on bone metabolism in healthy horses. The absence of undesirable side effects is the premise to ensure safety for further clinical investigations in horses with increased bone resorption processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analyses of insulin-potentiating fragments of human growth hormone by computative simulation; essential unit for insulin-involved biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, K; Hori, H

    2000-07-01

    We analyzed the structural features of insulin-potentiating fragments of human growth hormone by computative simulations. The peptides were designated from the N-terminus sequences of the hormone positions at 1-15 (hGH(1-15); H2N-Phe1-Pro2-Thr3-Ile4-Pro5-Leu6-Ser7-Arg8-L eu9-Phe10-Asp11-Asn12-Ala13-Met14-Leu15 -COOH), 6-13 (hGH(6-13)), 7-13 (hGH(7-13)) and 8-13 (hGH(8-13)), which enhanced insulin-producing hypoglycemia. In these peptide molecules, ionic bonds were predicted to form between 8th-arginyl residue and 11th-aspartic residue, and this intramolecular interaction caused the formation of a macrocyclic structure containing a tetrapeptide Arg8-Leu9-Phe10-Asp11. The peptide positions at 6-10 (hGH(6-10)), 9-13 (hGH(9-13)) and 10-13 (hGH(10-13)) did not lead to a macrocyclic formation in the molecules, and had no effect on the insulin action. Although beta-Ala13hGH(1-15), in which the 13th-alanine was replaced by a beta-alanyl residue, had no effect on insulin-producing hypoglycemia, the macrocyclic region (Arg8-Leu9-Phe10-Asp11) was observed by the computative simulation. An isothermal vibration analysis of both of beta-Ala13hGH(1-15) and hGH(1-15) peptide suggested that beta-Ala13hGH(1-15) is molecule was more flexible than hGH(1-15); C-terminal carboxyl group of Leu15 easily accessed to Arg8 and inhibited the ionic bond formation between Arg8 and Asp11 in beta-Ala13hGH(1-15). The peptide of hGH(8-13) dose-dependently enhanced the insulin-involved fatty acid synthesis in rat white adipocytes, and stabilized the C6-NBD-PC (1-acyl-2-[6-[(7-nitro-2,1,3benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]-caproyl]-sn- glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine) model membranes. In contrast, hGH(9-13) had no effect both on the fatty acid synthesis and the membrane stability. In the same culture conditions as the fatty acid synthesis assay, hGH(8-13) had no effect on the transcript levels of glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT 1, 4) and hexokinase isozymes (HK I, II) in rat white adipocytes. Judging from

  2. Regional myocardial blood flow distribution during intracoronary infusion of parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crass, M.F. III; Lust, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Although low doses of the biologically-active fragment of parathyroid hormone PTH-(1-34), have been shown to produce potent dilation of the coronary circulation specific regional and transmural (endo/epi) myocardial blood flow (MBF) responses to the hormone have not been described. Anesthetized open-chest mongrel dogs were instrumented to quantitate coronary blood flow and other cardiodynamic parameters. PTH-(1-34) was infused into the left circumflex artery (.008 nmol kg -1 min -1 ). Using the reference withdrawal method, radionuclide-labeled microspheres were injected before (basal flow), during (8 min after new steady-state flow), and after (restoration of basal flow) a 20 min infusion of PTH-(1-34). MFB increased from 76 +- 1.9 to 152 +- 3.5 ml min -1 100 g -1 (P < .001) during PTH-(1-34) infusion. No differences in endo/epi flow ratio or regional coronary blood flow within the left ventricle were detected. Thus, in anesthetized dogs, the increase in MBF observed secondary to the PTH-(1-34)-induced decrease in coronary resistance appeared to be uniform transmurally and regionally, and is probably not the result of a shunting or steal phenomenon

  3. Teriparatide (recombinant human parathyroid hormone 1-34 in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Fernandes Moça Trevisani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is defined as a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of the bone tissue microarchitecture. Teriparatide stimulates the formation and action of osteoblasts, which are responsible for bone formation, thus promoting bone tissue increase. The aim was to assess the effectiveness and safety of teriparatide for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. RESULTS: 1 Teriparatide 20 µg or 40 µg versus placebo: there was a benefit from teriparatide, considering the following outcomes: reduction in the number of new vertebral and non-vertebral fractures, and increased whole-body, lumbar and femoral bone mineral density. 2 Teriparatide 40 µg versus alendronate 10 mg/day for 14 months: there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of new vertebral or non-vertebral fractures, although in the group that received teriparatide there was greater bone mineral density increase in the whole body, lumbar column and femur. 3 Estrogen plus teriparatide 25 µg versus estrogen: there was a benefit, considering the following outcomes: reduction in the number of new vertebral fractures, and increased whole-body, lumbar and femoral bone mineral density after three years. CONCLUSIONS: When teriparatide is intermittently administered in low doses, it reduces the incidence of vertebral fractures (67% and non-vertebral fractures (38% and increases bone mineral density in the lumbar column and femur. There is a need for studies with longer observation in order to allow conclusions regarding the safety and duration of the therapeutic effects.

  4. Acute regulation of circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) molecular forms by calcium: utility of PTH fragments/PTH(1-84) ratios derived from three generations of PTH assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Räkel, Agnès; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Rousseau, Louise; Albert, Caroline; Cantor, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative evaluation of circulating PTH peaks revealed by PTH assays after HPLC separation constitutes the best way to study the behavior of PTH molecular forms, but it is also impractical. The objective of the study was to investigate the regulation of circulating PTH molecular forms by calcium through the use of PTH fragments/PTH (1-84) ratios derived from PTH assays with different specificities before and after HPLC separation of circulating PTH. CaCl2 and Na citrate were infused in eight volunteers. PTH was measured in serum and HPLC fractions at different calcium concentrations in PTH assays reacting with regions 1-2 (CA), 12-18 (T), and 65-69 (C) of the PTH structure. From hypo- to hypercalcemia, the C/CA ratio had the highest range (1.92 to 9.75; P < 0.001), and the C/T ratio had a higher range (1.69 to 6.11; P < 0.01) than the T/CA ratio (1.15 to 1.86). Human (h) PTH (1-84) represented 32.7 and 4.3% of circulating PTH in hypo- and hypercalcemic HPLC profiles, respectively. These numbers were 5 and 0.9% for amino-terminal (N)-PTH, an amino-terminal form of PTH distinct from hPTH (1-84), 7.3 and 6.8% for non-(1-84) PTH or large C-PTH fragments with a partially preserved N structure, and 54.9 and 88.1% for C-PTH fragments missing a N structure. The HPLC C-PTH fragments to hPTH (1-84) ratio had the most extensive range (1.67 to 20.58). Despite their quantitative differences, all ratios identified identical behavior of PTH fragments relative to PTH (1-84). PTH assay ratios are an adequate tool to investigate the modulation of PTH molecular forms, even if all PTH assays show some undesirable cross-reactivity with certain circulating forms of PTH.

  5. New aspects of radioimmunochemical measurement of human parathyroid hormone using the labelled antibody technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesch, R.D.; McIntosh, C.H.S.; Woodhead, J.S.; Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff

    1975-01-01

    Two forms of heterogeneity of parathyroid hormone (PTH) have given rise to conflicting results: one due to the heterogeneity of the secreted species from the gland and their peripheral metabolism and the other representing the immunochemical heterogeneity of the available antibodies. We have developed sequence specific assays using the technique of labelled antibodies. Therefore, results of assays measuring the C-terminal part and the (1-34)-N-terminal part of the molecule could be compared to those of an assay for hormone bearing both N- and C-terminal antigenic determinants. This assay is supposed to detect predominantly (1-84)-intact hormone. The immunoradiometric assay of (1-34)-PTH has a sensitivity of 0.04 ng/ml. This technique avoids the critical iodination of the hormone fragment containing no tyrosine. There is the expected overlap between normal subjects and patients with primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most important finding are results from patients undergoing neck catheterization. We demonstrated nonuniform secretion of different species of PTH by parathyroid adenomata and normal glands. This supports the hypothesis of cleavage of the (1-84)-molecule in the gland. (orig.) [de

  6. Jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1985-10-01

    The paper reviews studies on jet fragmentation. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: fragmentation models, charged particle multiplicity, bose-einstein correlations, identified hadrons in jets, heavy quark fragmentation, baryon production, gluon and quark jets compared, the string effect, and two successful models. (U.K.)

  7. Hypoparathyroidism: Replacement Therapy with Parathyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rejnmark

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT is characterized by low serum calcium levels caused by an insufficient secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH. Despite normalization of serum calcium levels by treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and calcium supplementation, patients are suffering from impaired quality of life (QoL and are at increased risk of a number of comorbidities. Thus, despite normalization of calcium levels in response to conventional therapy, this should only be considered as an apparent normalization, as patients are suffering from a number of complications and calcium-phosphate homeostasis is not normalized in a physiological manner. In a number of recent studies, replacement therapy with recombinant human PTH (rhPTH(1-84 as well as therapy with the N-terminal PTH fragment (rhPTH(1-34 have been investigated. Both drugs have been shown to normalize serum calcium while reducing needs for activated vitamin D and calcium supplements. However, once a day injections cause large fluctuations in serum calcium. Twice a day injections diminish fluctuations, but don't restore the normal physiology of calcium homeostasis. Recent studies using pump-delivery have shown promising results on maintaining normocalcemia with minimal fluctuations in calcium levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether this may improve QoL and lower risk of complications. Such data are needed before replacement with the missing hormone can be recommended as standard therapy.

  8. The Role of Cyclic AMP and Its Relationship to Parathyroid Hormone Response in an In Vitro Model of Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    factors on bone and cartilage cell equilibria and differentiation will enhance our understanding of bone metabolism in health and disease . A. Parathyroid...1984. Difference between 1-84 parathyroid hormone and the 1-34 fragment on renal tubular calcium transport in the dog . Miner. Electrolyte Metab., ]A...general dentist during a four-year tour. In June 1989, Dr. Semba entered the Postdoctoral Periodontics program at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio in conjunction with Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center.

  9. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  10. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34) therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Kohei; Mietus, Zachary; Beck, Christopher A; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi; Awad, Hani A; Ehrhart, Nicole; Schwarz, Edward M

    2017-01-01

    Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34) effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20) received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1) Placebo (n = 5; daily saline), 2) Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op), or 3) Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op). Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT) was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05). These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR) on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05). Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05). Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01). In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  11. High dose teriparatide (rPTH1-34 therapy increases callus volume and enhances radiographic healing at 8-weeks in a massive canine femoral allograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Nishitani

    Full Text Available Small animal studies have demonstrated significant high-dose recombinant parathyroid hormone1-34 (rPTH1-34 effects on intercalary allograft healing. Towards a human adjuvant therapy to decrease non-unions, we evaluated rPTH1-34 safety and efficacy in a clinically relevant canine femoral allograft model. Adult female mongrel hounds (n = 20 received a 5cm mid-diaphyseal osteotomy reconstructed with a plated allograft, and were randomized to: 1 Placebo (n = 5; daily saline, 2 Continuous rPTH1-34 (n = 7; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 1-55 post-op, or 3 Delayed rPTH1-34 (n = 8; 5 μg/kg/day s.c. from day 14-28 post-op. Safety was assessed by physical behavior and blood calcium monitoring. Cone beam CT (CB-CT was performed on days 14, 28 and 56 post-op to assess 2D cortical healing, 3D bone volume, and Union Ratio. Biomechanical testing and dynamic histomorphometry were also performed. The high drug dose was poorly tolerated, as most dogs receiving rPTH1-34 had to be given intravenous saline, and one dog died from hypercalcemia. Continuous rPTH1-34 significantly increased 2D healing and callus volumes at 4-weeks versus Placebo, and sustained the significant increase in cortical union at 8-week (p<0.05. These rPTH1-34 effects were confirmed by histomorphometry, revealing significant increases in mineral apposition rates (MAR on host bone and graft-host junctions (p<0.05. Delayed rPTH1-34 significantly increased callus volume and MAR at 8 weeks (p<0.05. Although no biomechanical differences were observed, as expected for early healing, the results demonstrated that 2D RUST scoring significantly correlated with torsional biomechanics (p<0.01. In conclusion, 8-weeks of intermittent high-dose rPTH1-34 treatment significantly increases callus formation and accelerates bony union of intercalary massive allografts in a clinically relevant canine model, but with serious side-effects from hypercalcemia.

  12. Controlled fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to natural fragmentation, controlled fragmentation offers the possibility to adapt fragment parameters like size and mass to the performance requirements in a very flexible way. Known mechanisms like grooves inside the casing, weaken the structure. This is, however, excluded for applications with high accelerations during launch or piercing requirements for example on a semi armor piercing penetrator. Another method to achieve controlled fragmentation with an additional grid layer is presented with which the required grooves are produced 'just in time' inside the casing during detonation of the high explosive. The process of generating the grooves aided by the grid layer was studied using the hydrocode HULL with respect to varying grid designs and material combinations. Subsequent to this, a large range of these theoretically investigated combinations was contemplated in substantial experimental tests. With an optimised grid design and a suitable material selection, the controlled fragment admits a very flexible adaptation to the set requirements. Additional advantages like the increase of perforation performance or incendiary amplification can be realized with the grid layer

  13. Chameleon fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Upadhye, Amol, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: aupadhye@anl.gov [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha University, International Education, Building #601, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ{sup 4} and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments.

  14. Chameleon fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Upadhye, Amol

    2014-01-01

    A scalar field dark energy candidate could couple to ordinary matter and photons, enabling its detection in laboratory experiments. Here we study the quantum properties of the chameleon field, one such dark energy candidate, in an ''afterglow'' experiment designed to produce, trap, and detect chameleon particles. In particular, we investigate the possible fragmentation of a beam of chameleon particles into multiple particle states due to the highly non-linear interaction terms in the chameleon Lagrangian. Fragmentation could weaken the constraints of an afterglow experiment by reducing the energy of the regenerated photons, but this energy reduction also provides a unique signature which could be detected by a properly-designed experiment. We show that constraints from the CHASE experiment are essentially unaffected by fragmentation for φ 4 and 1/φ potentials, but are weakened for steeper potentials, and we discuss possible future afterglow experiments

  15. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The PhD project Bespoke Fragments is investigating the space emerging in the exploration of the relationship between digital drawing and fabrication, and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Through a series of different experiments, the project situates itself in a shuttli...

  16. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  17. Engraftment and bone mass are enhanced by PTHrP 1-34 in ectopically transplanted vertebrae (vossicle model) and can be non-invasively monitored with bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Blake Eason; Williams, Michelle M; Dembek, Katarzyna A; Hernon, Krista M; Rosol, Thomas J; Toribio, Ramiro E

    2015-12-01

    Evidence exists that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) 1-34 may be more anabolic in bone than parathyroid hormone 1-34. While optical imaging is growing in popularity, scant information exists on the relationships between traditional bone imaging and histology and bioluminescence (BLI) and fluorescence (FLI) imaging. We aimed to evaluate the effects of PTHrP 1-34 on bone mass and determine if relationships existed between radiographic and histologic findings in bone and BLI and FLI indices. Vertebrae (vossicles) from mice coexpressing luciferase and green fluorescent protein were implanted subcutaneously into allogenic nude mice. Transplant recipients were treated daily with saline or PTHrP 1-34 for 4 weeks. BLI, FLI, radiography, histology, and µCT of the vossicles were performed over time. PTHrP 1-34 increased bioluminescence the most after 2 weeks, fluorescence at all time points, and decreased the time to peak bioluminescence at 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.027), the latter of which suggesting enhanced engraftment. PTHrP 1-34 maximized vertebral body volume at 4 weeks (P bone observed histologically increased in both groups at 2 and 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.002); however, PTHrP 1-34 exceeded time-matched controls (P ≤ 0.044). A positive linear relationship existed between the percentage of trabecular bone and (1) total bioluminescence (r = 0.595; P = 0.019); (2) total fluorescence (r = 0.474; P = 0.074); and (3) max fluorescence (r = 0.587; P = 0.021). In conclusion, PTHrP 1-34 enhances engraftment and bone mass, which can be monitored non-invasively by BLI and FLI.

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  20. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  1. Fragmentation based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Gaining the understanding of mobile agent architecture and the security concerns, in this paper, we proposed a security protocol which addresses security with mitigated computational cost. The protocol is a combination of self decryption, co-operation and obfuscation technique. To circumvent the risk of malicious code execution in attacking environment, we have proposed fragmentation based encryption technique. Our encryption technique suits the general mobile agent size and provides hard and thorny obfuscation increasing attacker’s challenge on the same plane providing better performance with respect to computational cost as compared to existing AES encryption.

  2. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , investigating levels of control and uncertainty encountering with these. Through tangible experiments, the project discusses materiality and digitally controlled fabrications tools as direct expansions of the architect's digital drawing and workflow. The project sees this expansion as an opportunity to connect...... architectural designs, tectonics and aesthetics. In this Ph.D.-project a series a physical, but conceptual, experiment plays the central role in the knowledge production. The experiments result in materialised architectural fragments and tangible experiences. However, these creations also become the driving...

  3. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary industrialized architecture based on advanced information technology and highly technological production processes, implies a radically different approach to architecture than what we have experienced in the past. Works of architecture composed of prefabricated building components......, contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... tries to develop a strategy for the architect dealing with industrially based architecture; a strategy which exploits architectural potentials in industrial building, which recognizes the rules of mass production and which redefines the architect’s position among the agents of building. If recent...

  4. Investigation of peptidyl synthase activity of the Y Carboxypeptidase: influence of the primary structure of the substrate C-terminal fragment and application to radio-marking (3H or 14C) of three neuro hypophysis hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Loic

    1989-01-01

    As radio-marking of peptides of biological interest induced significant advances in the metabolism study, radio-immunology and molecular endocrinology, this research thesis reports investigation performed on hormonal peptides released by the post-hypophysis. The ultimate objective is to substitute in these hormones the C-terminal Gly-NH2 by its tritiated radioactive homologue to provide these peptides with a R.A.S equal to that of the tritiated Gly-NH2 in order to study reaction mechanisms and to generalize this method to a larger number of peptides

  5. 17 CFR 1.34 - Monthly record, “point balance”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Recordkeeping § 1.34 Monthly record, “point balance”. (a) Each... statement commonly known as a “point balance,” which accrues or brings to the official closing price, or... contracts long and short in the customers' accounts are in balance with those in the carrying futures...

  6. Structure of non-(1-84) PTH fragments secreted by parathyroid glands in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Pierre; Brossard, Jean-Hugues; Rousseau, Louise; Nguyen-Yamamoto, Loan; Nassif, Edgard; Lazure, Claude; Gauthier, Dany; Lavigne, Jeffrey R; Zahradnik, Richard J

    2005-09-01

    Non-(1-84) parathyroid hormone (PTH) fragments are large circulating carboxyl-terminal (C) fragments with a partially preserved amino-terminal (N) structure. hPTH (7-84), a synthetic surrogate, has been demonstrated to exert biologic effects in vivo and in vitro which are opposite to those of hPTH (1-34) on the PTH/PTHrP type I receptor through a C-PTH receptor. We wanted to determine the N structure of non-(1-84) PTH fragments. Parathyroid cells isolated from glands obtained at surgery from three patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and three patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism were incubated with 35S-methionine to internally label their secretion products. Incubations were performed for 8 hours at the patient-ionized calcium concentration and in the presence of various protease inhibitors. The supernatant was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fractions were analyzed with PTH assays having (1 to 4) and (12 to 23) epitopes, respectively. The serum of each patient was similarly analyzed. Peaks of immunoreactivity identified were submitted to sequence analysis to recover the 35S-methionine residues in positions 8 and 18. Three regions of interest were identified with PTH assays. They corresponded to non-(1-84) PTH fragments (further divided in regions 3 and 4), a peak of N-PTH migrating in front of hPTH (1-84) (region 2) and a peak of immunoreactivity corresponding to the elution position of hPTH (1-84) (region 1). The last corresponded to a single sequence starting at position 1. Region 2 gave similar results in all cases (a major signal starting at position 1) but also sometimes minor sequences starting at position 4 or 7. Regions 3 and 4 always identified a major sequence starting at positions 7 and minor sequences starting at positions 8, 10, and 15. Surprisingly, a major signal starting at position 1 was also present in region 3. The HPLC profile obtained from a given patient's parathyroid cells was qualitatively

  7. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  8. Parathyroid hormone in sodium-dependent hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doris, P.A.; Harvey, S.; Pang, P.K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Plasma parathyroid hormone (pPTH) levels have been assessed in three separate radioimmunoassay systems in samples from Wistar-Kyoto rats. The animals were subjected to one of three dietary regimens throughout the study period: Group 1 animals consumed normal rat chow and drank tap water; Group 2 animals consumed normal rat chow and tap water was replaced with 0.05% saline solution; Group 3 animals consumed normal rat chow to which 2.5% CaCO 3 had been added and also drank 0.5% saline solution. Three assay systems were used to measure pPTH levels from trunk blood samples obtained by guillotine decapitation. One assay used an antiserum directed toward the vasoactive N terminal fragment 1-34 and produced pPTH measurements of 0.74 +/- 0.05 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 1.04 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 1.12 +/- 0.08 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. This pattern was consistent with that obtained by another antiserum which had been raised against the intact 1-84 PTH molecule and produced values of 0.25 +/- 0.03 ng/ml in Gp 1 animals, 0.55 +/- 0.07 ng/ml in Gp 2 animals and 0.74 +/- 0.04 ng/ml in Gp 3 animals. Antiserum raised against the C-terminal did not show any difference in pPTH across groups. The authors conclude that saline consumption may increase some portions of circulating PTH. 26 references, 2 tables

  9. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  10. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  11. Monitoring of intermittent PTH(1-34) treatment by serum PINP in adult ovariectomized osteopenic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halleen, Jussi; Peng, ZhiQi; Fagerlund, Katja

    -operated control group receiving vehicle, and OVX-operated groups receiving daily subcutaneous injections of 1.2, 4.0, 12.0, 40.0 and 120.0 µg/kg human PTH(1-34). Each group contained 12 animals that were 6 months of age at the time of the operations. Dosing was started at 7 weeks after OVX and continued for 6...... weeks. Before the start of treatment, the animals were randomized to groups based on their body weights and trabecular bone mineral density values obtained by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). PINP values were determined from serum samples collected before the start of treatment, at 2...

  12. Conjugation of a cell-penetrating peptide to parathyroid hormone affects its structure, potency, and transepithelial permeation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mie; de Groot, Anne Marit; Berthelsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    hormone, i.e. PTH(1-34), and to evaluate the effect with regards to secondary structure, potency in Saos-2 cells, immunogenicity, safety as well as the transepithelial permeation across monolayers by using the Caco-2 cell culture model. Further, co-administration of CPP and PTH(1-34) as an alternative...

  13. Role of PTHrP(1-34) Pulse Frequency Versus Pulse Duration to Enhance Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jennifer; Ortel, Marlen; Hagmann, Sebastien; Hoeflich, Andreas; Richter, Wiltrud

    2016-12-01

    Generation of phenotypically stable, articular chondrocytes from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is still an unaccomplished task, with formation of abundant, hyaline extracellular matrix, and avoidance of hypertrophy being prime challenges. We recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a promising factor to direct chondrogenesis of MSCs towards an articular phenotype, since intermittent PTHrP application stimulated cartilage matrix production and reduced undesired hypertrophy. We here investigated the role of frequency, pulse duration, total exposure time, and underlying mechanisms in order to unlock the full potential of PTHrP actions. Human MSC subjected to in vitro chondrogenesis for six weeks were exposed to 2.5 nM PTHrP(1-34) pulses from days 7 to 42. Application frequency was increased from three times weekly (3 × 6 h/week) to daily maintaining either the duration of individual pulses (6 h/day) or total exposure time (18 h/week; 2.6 h/day). Daily PTHrP treatment significantly increased extracellular matrix deposition regardless of pulse duration and suppressed alkaline-phosphatase activity by 87%. High total exposure time significantly reduced cell proliferation at day 14. Pulse duration was critically important to significantly reduce IHH expression, but irrelevant for PTHrP-induced suppression of the hypertrophic markers MEF2C and IBSP. COL10A1, RUNX2, and MMP13 expression remained unaltered. Decreased IGFBP-2, -3, and -6 expression suggested modulated IGF-I availability in PTHrP groups, while drop of SOX9 protein levels during the PTHrP-pulse may delay chondroblast formation and hypertrophy. Overall, the significantly optimized timing of PTHrP-pulses demonstrated a vast potential to enhance chondrogenesis of MSC and suppress hypertrophy possibly via superior balancing of IGF- and SOX9-related mechanisms. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2673-2681, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Universal elements of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovsky, V. V.; Tur, A. V.; Kuklina, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    A fragmentation theory is proposed that explains the universal asymptotic behavior of the fragment-size distribution in the large-size range, based on simple physical principles. The basic principles of the theory are the total mass conservation in a fragmentation process and a balance condition for the energy expended in increasing the surface of fragments during their breakup. A flux-based approach is used that makes it possible to supplement the basic principles and develop a minimal theory of fragmentation. Such a supplementary principle is that of decreasing fragment-volume flux with increasing energy expended in fragmentation. It is shown that the behavior of the decreasing flux is directly related to the form of a power-law fragment-size distribution. The minimal theory is used to find universal asymptotic fragment-size distributions and to develop a natural physical classification of fragmentation models. A more general, nonlinear theory of strong fragmentation is also developed. It is demonstrated that solutions to a nonlinear kinetic equation consistent with both basic principles approach a universal asymptotic size distribution. Agreement between the predicted asymptotic fragment-size distributions and experimental observations is discussed.

  15. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  16. Universality of fragment shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domokos, Gábor; Kun, Ferenc; Sipos, András Árpád; Szabó, Tímea

    2015-03-16

    The shape of fragments generated by the breakup of solids is central to a wide variety of problems ranging from the geomorphic evolution of boulders to the accumulation of space debris orbiting Earth. Although the statistics of the mass of fragments has been found to show a universal scaling behavior, the comprehensive characterization of fragment shapes still remained a fundamental challenge. We performed a thorough experimental study of the problem fragmenting various types of materials by slowly proceeding weathering and by rapid breakup due to explosion and hammering. We demonstrate that the shape of fragments obeys an astonishing universality having the same generic evolution with the fragment size irrespective of materials details and loading conditions. There exists a cutoff size below which fragments have an isotropic shape, however, as the size increases an exponential convergence is obtained to a unique elongated form. We show that a discrete stochastic model of fragmentation reproduces both the size and shape of fragments tuning only a single parameter which strengthens the general validity of the scaling laws. The dependence of the probability of the crack plan orientation on the linear extension of fragments proved to be essential for the shape selection mechanism.

  17. The metabolism of parathyroid hormone in kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanao, Yasuhisa

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanism and localization of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the degradation and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation in kidney, bovine PTH (b-PTH 1 - 84) and its synthetic N-terminal peptide (b-PTH 1 - 34) labeled with 125 I by Chloramine T methods ( 125 I-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125 I-b-PTH 1 - 34) or labeled with horse radish peroxidase ( 125 I-POX-b-PTH 1 - 84 and 125 I-POX-bPTH 1-34) were used to study the disappearance from the blood stream and degradation and retention in the kidney after intravenous injections in male Wistar rats, weighing approximately 350 - 450 g. Degradation of PTH was studied in vitro, using isolated cells and homogenates of the kidney, and the effects of calcium ion to PTH degradation were furthermore studied, using our kidney perfusion system. PTH labeled with 125 I and POX was less degraded by the kidney than PTH labeled with 125 I alone. PTH 1 - 34 was more delayed in blood stream than PTH 1 - 84. Isolated intact kidney cells degrade PTH less efficiently than homogenates, indicating the prominance of microsomal degradative system in the kidney. The degradation of PTH in kidney was supposed to be controlled by calcium ion in our kidney perfusion system. (author)

  18. Anomalous nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental data are given, the status of anomalon problem is discussed, theoretical approaches to this problem are outlined. Anomalons are exotic objects formed following fragmentation of nuclei-targets under the effect of nuclei - a beam at the energy of several GeV/nucleon. These nuclear fragments have an anomalously large cross section of interaction and respectively, small free path, considerably shorter than primary nuclei have. The experimental daa are obtained in accelerators following irradiation of nuclear emulsions by 16 O, 56 Fe, 40 Ar beams, as well as propane by 12 C beams. The experimental data testify to dependence of fragment free path on the distance L from the point of the fragment formation. A decrease in the fragment free path is established more reliably than its dependence on L. The problem of the anomalon existence cannot be yet considered resolved. Theoretical models suggested for explanation of anomalously large cross sections of nuclear fragment interaction are variable and rather speculative

  19. Fission fragment angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenne, D. De

    1991-01-01

    Most of the energy released in fission is converted into translational kinetic energy of the fragments. The remaining excitation energy will be distributed among neutrons and gammas. An important parameter characterizing the scission configuration is the primary angular momentum of the nascent fragments. Neutron emission is not expected to decrease the spin of the fragments by more than one unit of angular momentum and is as such of less importance in the determination of the initial fragment spins. Gamma emission is a suitable tool in studying initial fragment spins because the emission time, number, energy, and multipolarity of the gammas strongly depend on the value of the primary angular momentum. The main conclusions of experiments on gamma emission were that the initial angular momentum of the fragments is large compared to the ground state spin and oriented perpendicular to the fission axis. Most of the recent information concerning initial fragment spin distributions comes from the measurement of isomeric ratios for isomeric pairs produced in fission. Although in nearly every mass chain isomers are known, only a small number are suitable for initial fission fragment spin studies. Yield and half-life considerations strongly limit the number of candidates. This has the advantage that the behavior of a specific isomeric pair can be investigated for a number of fissioning systems at different excitation energies of the fragments and fissioning nuclei. Because most of the recent information on primary angular momenta comes from measurements of isomeric ratios, the global deexcitation process of the fragments and the calculation of the initial fragment spin distribution from measured isomeric ratios are discussed here. The most important results on primary angular momentum determinations are reviewed and some theoretical approaches are given. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  20. [Parathyroid hormone and its analogues - molecular mechanisms of action and efficacy of osteoporosis therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorowski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Most medical agents currently applied in osteoporosis therapy act by inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling, i.e. they inhibit the process of bone mass loss by suppressing bone resorption processes. These drugs provide an ideal therapeutic option to prevent osteoporosis progression. They however have a rather limited usefulness when the disease has already reached its advanced stages with distinctive bone architecture lesions. The fracture risk reduction rate, achieved in the course of anti-resorptive therapy, is insufficient for patients with severe osteoporosis to stop the downward spiral of their quality of life (QoL) with a simultaneously increasing threat of premature death. The activity of the N-terminal fragment of 1-34 human parathormone (teriparatide - 1-34 rhPTH), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogue obtained via genetic engineering , is expressed by increased bone metabolism, while promoting new bone tissue formation by stimulating the activity of osteoblasts more than that of osteoclasts. The anabolic activity of PTH includes both its direct effect on the osteoblast cell line, and its indirect actions exerted via its regulatory effects on selected growth factors, e.g. IGF-1 or sclerostin. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the actual anabolic effects of PTH remain mostly still unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic protocols with the application of PTH analogues provide an effective protection against all osteoporotic fracture types in post-menopausal women and in elderly men with advanced osteoporosis. Particular hopes are pinned on the possibility of applying PTH in the therapy of post-steroid osteoporosis, mainly to suppress bone formation, the most important pathological process in this regard. The relatively short therapy period with a PTH analogue (24 months) should then be replaced and continued by anti-resorptive treatment.

  1. Parathyroid hormone and its analogues--molecular mechanisms of action and efficacy in osteoporosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorowski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    Most medical agents currently applied in osteoporosis therapy act by inhibiting bone resorption and reducing bone remodelling, i.e. they inhibit the process of bone mass loss by suppressing bone resorption processes. These drugs provide an ideal therapeutic option to prevent osteoporosis progression. They however have a rather limited usefulness when the disease has already reached its advanced stages with distinctive bone architecture lesions. The fracture risk reduction rate, achieved in the course of anti-resorptive therapy, is insufficient for patients with severe osteoporosis to stop the downward spiral of their quality of life (QoL) with a simultaneously increasing threat of premature death. The activity of the N-terminal fragment of 1-34 human parathormone (teriparatide - 1-34 rhPTH), a parathyroid hormone (PTH) analogue obtained via genetic engineering , is expressed by increased bone metabolism, while promoting new bone tissue formation by stimulating the activity of osteoblasts more than that of osteoclasts. The anabolic activity of PTH includes both its direct effect on the osteoblast cell line, and its indirect actions exerted via its regulatory effects on selected growth factors, e.g. IGF-1 or sclerostin. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the actual anabolic effects of PTH remain mostly still unclear. Clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic protocols with the application of PTH analogues provide an effective protection against all osteoporotic fracture types in post-menopausal women and in elderly men with advanced osteoporosis. Particular hopes are pinned on the possibility of applying PTH in the therapy of post-steroid osteoporosis, mainly to suppress bone formation, the most important pathological process in this regard. The relatively short therapy period with a PTH analogue (24 months) should then be replaced and continued by anti-resorptive treatment.

  2. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  3. Dimensional crossover in fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez, Arezky H.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-11-01

    Experiments in which thick clay plates and glass rods are fractured have revealed different behavior of fragment mass distribution function in the small and large fragment regions. In this paper we explain this behavior using non-extensive Tsallis statistics and show how the crossover between the two regions is caused by the change in the fragments’ dimensionality during the fracture process. We obtain a physical criterion for the position of this crossover and an expression for the change in the power-law exponent between the small and large fragment regions. These predictions are in good agreement with the experiments on thick clay plates.

  4. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  5. Physics of projectile fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamisono, Tadanori

    1982-01-01

    This is a study report on the polarization phenomena of the projectile fragments produced by heavy ion reactions, and the beta decay of fragments. The experimental project by using heavy ions with the energy from 50 MeV/amu to 250 MeV/amu was designed. Construction of an angle-dispersion spectrograph for projectile fragments was proposed. This is a two-stage spectrograph. The first stage is a QQDQQ type separator, and the second stage is QDQD type. Estimation shows that Co-66 may be separated from the nuclei with mass of 65 and 67. The orientation of fragments can be measured by detecting beta-ray. The apparatus consists of a uniform field magnet, an energy absorber, a stopper, a RF coil and a beta-ray hodoscope. This system can be used for not only this purpose but also for the measurement of hyperfine structure. (Kato, T.)

  6. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  7. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavi- ... ment system like radiation pressure balance, the power is given by ... Thus the bubble size has direct relationship with its life and.

  8. Fragment capture device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Lloyd R.; Cole, David L.

    2010-03-30

    A fragment capture device for use in explosive containment. The device comprises an assembly of at least two rows of bars positioned to eliminate line-of-sight trajectories between the generation point of fragments and a surrounding containment vessel or asset. The device comprises an array of at least two rows of bars, wherein each row is staggered with respect to the adjacent row, and wherein a lateral dimension of each bar and a relative position of each bar in combination provides blockage of a straight-line passage of a solid fragment through the adjacent rows of bars, wherein a generation point of the solid fragment is located within a cavity at least partially enclosed by the array of bars.

  9. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  10. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  11. Hormones and absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Tolmacheva, E.A.; Budziszewska, B.; Stein, J.

    2017-01-01

    Hormones have an extremely large impact on seizures and epilepsy. Stress and stress hormones are known to reinforce seizure expression, and gonadal hormones affect the number of seizures and even the seizure type. Moreover, hormonal concentrations change drastically over an individual's lifetime,

  12. Endogenous PTH deficiency impairs fracture healing and impedes the fracture-healing efficacy of exogenous PTH(1-34.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Ren

    Full Text Available Although the capacity of exogenous PTH1-34 to enhance the rate of bone repair is well established in animal models, our understanding of the mechanism(s whereby PTH induces an anabolic response during skeletal repair remains limited. Furthermore it is unknown whether endogenous PTH is required for fracture healing and how the absence of endogenous PTH would influence the fracture-healing capacity of exogenous PTH.Closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were created and stabilized with an intramedullary pin in 8-week-old wild-type and Pth null (Pth(-/- mice. Mice received daily injections of vehicle or of PTH1-34 (80 µg/kg for 1-4 weeks post-fracture, and callus tissue properties were analyzed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-fracture. Cartilaginous callus areas were reduced at 1 week post-fracture, but were increased at 2 weeks post-fracture in vehicle-treated and PTH-treated Pth(-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated and PTH-treated wild-type mice respectively. The mineralized callus areas, bony callus areas, osteoblast number and activity, osteoclast number and surface in callus tissues were all reduced in vehicle-treated and PTH-treated Pth(-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated and PTH-treated wild-type mice, but were increased in PTH-treated wild-type and Pth(-/- mice compared to vehicle-treated wild-type and Pth(-/- mice.Absence of endogenous PTH1-84 impedes bone fracture healing. Exogenous PTH1-34 can act in the absence of endogenous PTH but callus formation, including accelerated endochondral bone formation and callus remodeling as well as mechanical strength of the bone are greater when endogenous PTH is present. Results of this study suggest a complementary role for endogenous PTH1-84 and exogenous PTH1-34 in accelerating fracture healing.

  13. Endogenous PTH deficiency impairs fracture healing and impedes the fracture-healing efficacy of exogenous PTH(1-34).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yongxin; Liu, Bo; Feng, Yuxu; Shu, Lei; Cao, Xiaojian; Karaplis, Andrew; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Although the capacity of exogenous PTH1-34 to enhance the rate of bone repair is well established in animal models, our understanding of the mechanism(s) whereby PTH induces an anabolic response during skeletal repair remains limited. Furthermore it is unknown whether endogenous PTH is required for fracture healing and how the absence of endogenous PTH would influence the fracture-healing capacity of exogenous PTH. Closed mid-diaphyseal femur fractures were created and stabilized with an intramedullary pin in 8-week-old wild-type and Pth null (Pth(-/-)) mice. Mice received daily injections of vehicle or of PTH1-34 (80 µg/kg) for 1-4 weeks post-fracture, and callus tissue properties were analyzed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks post-fracture. Cartilaginous callus areas were reduced at 1 week post-fracture, but were increased at 2 weeks post-fracture in vehicle-treated and PTH-treated Pth(-/-) mice compared to vehicle-treated and PTH-treated wild-type mice respectively. The mineralized callus areas, bony callus areas, osteoblast number and activity, osteoclast number and surface in callus tissues were all reduced in vehicle-treated and PTH-treated Pth(-/-) mice compared to vehicle-treated and PTH-treated wild-type mice, but were increased in PTH-treated wild-type and Pth(-/-) mice compared to vehicle-treated wild-type and Pth(-/-) mice. Absence of endogenous PTH1-84 impedes bone fracture healing. Exogenous PTH1-34 can act in the absence of endogenous PTH but callus formation, including accelerated endochondral bone formation and callus remodeling as well as mechanical strength of the bone are greater when endogenous PTH is present. Results of this study suggest a complementary role for endogenous PTH1-84 and exogenous PTH1-34 in accelerating fracture healing.

  14. Fragmentation of relativistic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cork, B.

    1975-06-01

    Nuclei with energies of several GeV/n interact with hadrons and produce fragments that encompass the fields of nuclear physics, meson physics, and particle physics. Experimental results are now available to explore problems in nuclear physics such as the validity of the shell model to explain the momentum distribution of fragments, the contribution of giant dipole resonances to fragment production cross sections, the effective Coulomb barrier, and nuclear temperatures. A new approach to meson physics is possible by exploring the nucleon charge-exchange process. Particle physics problems are explored by measuring the energy and target dependence of isotope production cross sections, thus determining if limiting fragmentation and target factorization are valid, and measuring total cross sections to determine if the factorization relation, sigma/sub AB/ 2 = sigma/sub AA/ . sigma/sub BB/, is violated. Also, new experiments have been done to measure the angular distribution of fragments that could be explained as nuclear shock waves, and to explore for ultradense matter produced by very heavy ions incident on heavy atoms. (12 figures, 2 tables)

  15. Land fragmentation and production diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciaian, Pavel; Guri, Fatmir; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Paloma, Sergio Gomez Y.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the impact of land fragmentation on production diversification in rural Albania. Albania represents a particularly interesting case for studying land fragmentation as the fragmentation is a direct outcome of land reforms. The results indicate that land fragmentation is an important driver

  16. Heavy fragment radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of collective mode excitation in heavy fragment radioactivity (HFR) is explored and discussed in the light of current experimental data. It is found that the coupling and resonance effects in fragment interaction and also the proper angular momentum effects may lead to an important enhancing of the emission process. New useful procedures are proposed for the study of nuclear decay properties. The relations between different decay processes are investigated in detail. We are also trying to understand and explain in a unified way the reaction mechanisms in decay phenomena. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.; Hinsberg, N.P. van; Abadjieva, E.

    2013-01-01

    An analytical model that describes the PELE fragmentation dynamics is presented and compared with experimental results from literature. The model accounts for strong shock effects and detailed interactions taking place between the filling – the inner core of the ammunition – and the target

  18. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pzooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pzooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (P0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pzooxanthellae are the most sensitive element in the coral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fragments of the Past

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Szende; Annie Holcombe

    2016-01-01

    With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  20. Synthesis of arabinoxylan fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underlin, Emilie Nørmølle; Böhm, Maximilian F.; Madsen, Robert

    , or production of commercial chemicals which are mainly obtained from fossil fuels today.The arbinoxylan fragments have a backbone of β-1,4-linked xylans with α-L-arabinose units attached at specific positions. The synthesis ultilises an efficient synthetic route, where all the xylan units can be derived from D...

  1. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    stories. We argue that meaning by story making is not always created by coherence and causality; meaning is created by different types of fragmentation: discontinuities, tensions and editing. The objective of this article is to develop and advance antenarrative practice analysis of work stories...

  2. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  3. 1.34 µm picosecond self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 watt-level laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Peng, Jiying; Li, Zuohan; Cao, Qiuyuan; Yuan, Ruixia

    2017-01-01

    With a simple linear configuration, a diode-pumped, self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 µm is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Based on the aberrationless theory of self-focusing and thermal lensing effect, through designing and optimizing the resonator, a pulse width as short as 9.1 ps is generated at a repetition rate of 2.0 GHz and the average output power is 2.51 W. The optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency for the stable mode-locked operation are approximately 16.7% and 19.2%, respectively.

  4. LD end pumped mode locked and cavity dumped Nd:YAP laser at 1.34 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Meister, S.

    2011-06-01

    We report a LD end pumped actively mode locked, passively Q switched and cavity dumped Nd:YAP laser at 1.34 μm. The dumped output pulse energy of 160 μJ is obtained at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Passing through a LD end pumped, double-passed Nd:YAP amplifier the pulse energy is amplified to 1.44 mJ. The corresponding amplification factor is 9. Stimulated Raman scattering experiment is taken with a 9 mm long PbWO4 Raman crystal. Maximum of 20% Raman conversion is reached.

  5. Menopause and Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  6. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  7. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  8. Hormonal effects in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001911.htm Hormonal effects in newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hormonal effects in newborns occur because in the womb, babies ...

  9. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  10. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frequency of BB homozygous genotype was the lowest (average = 0.03) whereas, AA genotype showed the highest frequency among all loci. The amplified fragment in GH locus was characterized by a deletion of approximately 118 bp. Deletion of 118 bp fragment not only reduced the expected size of the PCR product, ...

  11. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...... that is presented; how do we understand such films and to what extent is it even possible to make sense of a film that has no real beginning, middle or end?...

  12. Fragmentation of atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, J.L.; Fano, U.

    1996-01-01

    We report recent progress toward a nonperturbative formulation of many-body quantum dynamics that treats all constituent particles on an equal footing. This formulation is capable of detailing the evolution of a system toward the diverse fragments into which it can break up. We illustrate the general concept with the simple example of the simultaneous excitation of both electrons in a helium atom. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Modelling the fragmentation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Durand, D.; Gulminelli, F.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of high amplitude collective motion in the nuclear fragmentation by using semi-classical macroscopic, as well as, microscopic simulations (BUU). These studies are motivated by the search of instabilities responsible for nuclear fragmentation. Two cases were examined: the bubble formation following the collective expansion of the compressed nucleus in case of very central reactions and, in the case of the semi-central collisions, the fast fission of the two partners issued from a binary reaction, in their corresponding Coulomb field. In the two cases the fragmentation channel is dominated by the inter-relation between the Coulomb and nuclear fields, and it is possible to obtain semi-quantitative predictions as functions of interaction parameters. The transport equations of BUU type predicts for central reactions formation of a high density transient state. Of much interest is the mechanism subsequent to de-excitation. It seems reasonable to conceive that the pressure stocked in the compressional mode manifests itself as a collective expansion of the system. As the pressure is a increasing function of the available energy one can conceive a variety of energy depending exit channels, starting from the fragmentation due the amplification of fluctuations interior to the spinodal zone up to the complete vaporization of the highly excited system. If the reached pressure is sufficiently high the reaction final state may preserve the memory of the entrance channel as a collective radial energy superimposed to the thermal disordered motion. Distributions of particles in the configuration space for both central and semi-central reactions for the Pb+Au system are presented. The rupture time is estimated to the order of 300 fm/c, and is strongly dependent on the initial temperature. The study of dependence of the rupture time on the interaction parameters is under way

  14. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  15. Excited nuclei fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, C.

    1986-11-01

    Experimental indications leading to the thought of a very excited nucleus fragmentation are resumed. Theoretical approaches are briefly described; they are used to explain the phenomenon in showing off they are based on a minimum information principle. This model is based on time dependent Thomas-Fermi calculation which allows the mean field effect description, and with a site-bound percolation model which allows the fluctuation description [fr

  16. Azimuthal Anisotropies in Nuclear Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.

    2002-01-01

    The directed and elliptic flow of fragments emitted from the excited projectile nuclei has been observed for 158 AGeV Pb collisions with the lead and plastic targets. For comparison the flow analysis has been performed for 10.6 AGeV Au collisions with the emulsion target. The strong directed flow of heaviest fragments is found. Light fragments exhibit directed flow opposite to that of heavy fragments. The elliptic flow for all multiply charged fragments is positive and increases with the charge of the fragment. The observed flow patterns in the fragmentation of the projectile nucleus are practically independent of the mass of the target nucleus and the collision energy. Emission of fragments in nuclear multifragmentation shows similar, although weaker, flow effects. (author)

  17. Universality of projectile fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Presently projectile fragmentation reaction is an important area of research as it is used for the production of radioactive ion beams. In this work, the recently developed projectile fragmentation model with an universal temperature profile is used for studying the charge distributions of different projectile fragmentation reactions with different projectile target combinations at different incident energies. The model for projectile fragmentation consists of three stages: (i) abrasion, (ii) multifragmentation and (iii) evaporation

  18. Desensitization of parathyroid hormone receptors on cultured bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pun, K.K.; Ho, P.W.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Administration of excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the treatment of osteoporosis can reverse the beneficial effects of a low-dose, intermittent regime. To investigate the direct actions and the possible cellular mechanisms of PTH in inducing desensitization of PTH receptors, we studied the effects of desensitization on rat osteoblastic UMR-106 cells. When the osteoblasts were preincubated with bPTH-(1-34), complete refractoriness to a subsequent challenge with the hormone developed within 1 h and at hormone concentrations as low as 5 nM. When osteoblasts thus desensitized were incubated in hormone-free medium, recovery of the cAMP responses began within 2 h and reached maximum after 16 h. Cycloheximide did not affect the process of desensitization. [Nle8,Nle18,Tyr34]bPTH-(3-34)amide significantly impaired the desensitization process by PTH-(1-34) but did not have stimulatory effect on cAMP responses. No significant heterologous desensitization was obvious after preincubation with isoprenaline (50 microM), prostaglandin E1 (50 microM), or prostaglandin E2 (50 microM) for 2 h. Binding experiments with [125I]PLP-(1-36)amide after desensitization revealed that there was an approximate twofold decrease in receptor affinities as analyzed by Scatchard analysis, showing that the decrease in affinity was prominent in the process of desensitization. When the cells were treated with monensin during desensitization, PTH challenge after desensitization produced significantly lower cyclic AMP responses. Recovery after desensitization occurred over a period of 16 h. Inclusion of monensin, but not cycloheximide, impaired the recovery. The results show that homologous desensitization of rat osteoblasts to PTH is brought about by the occupancy of receptors by PTH-(1-34) but not by cAMP generation itself

  19. Virtual fragment preparation for computational fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) has become an important component of the drug discovery process. The use of fragments can accelerate both the search for a hit molecule and the development of that hit into a lead molecule for clinical testing. In addition to experimental methodologies for FBDD such as NMR and X-ray Crystallography screens, computational techniques are playing an increasingly important role. The success of the computational simulations is due in large part to how the database of virtual fragments is prepared. In order to prepare the fragments appropriately it is necessary to understand how FBDD differs from other approaches and the issues inherent in building up molecules from smaller fragment pieces. The ultimate goal of these calculations is to link two or more simulated fragments into a molecule that has an experimental binding affinity consistent with the additive predicted binding affinities of the virtual fragments. Computationally predicting binding affinities is a complex process, with many opportunities for introducing error. Therefore, care should be taken with the fragment preparation procedure to avoid introducing additional inaccuracies.This chapter is focused on the preparation process used to create a virtual fragment database. Several key issues of fragment preparation which affect the accuracy of binding affinity predictions are discussed. The first issue is the selection of the two-dimensional atomic structure of the virtual fragment. Although the particular usage of the fragment can affect this choice (i.e., whether the fragment will be used for calibration, binding site characterization, hit identification, or lead optimization), general factors such as synthetic accessibility, size, and flexibility are major considerations in selecting the 2D structure. Other aspects of preparing the virtual fragments for simulation are the generation of three-dimensional conformations and the assignment of the associated atomic point charges.

  20. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  1. Role of gastrointestinal hormones in postprandial reduction of bone resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Dennis B; Alexandersen, Peter; Bjarnason, Nina H

    2003-01-01

    Collagen type I fragments, reflecting bone resorption, and release of gut hormones were investigated after a meal. Investigations led to a dose escalation study with glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in postmenopausal women. We found a dose-dependent effect of GLP-2 on the reduction of bone...

  2. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrain, R.

    1984-08-01

    Projectile and nuclear fragmentation are defined and processes referred to are recalled. The two different aspects of fragmentation are considered but the emphasis is also put on heavy ion induced reactions. The preliminary results of an experiment performed at GANIL to study peripheral heavy ions induced reactions at intermediate energy are presented. The results of this experiment will illustrate the characteristics of projectile fragmentation and this will also give the opportunity to study projectile fragmentation in the transition region. Then nuclear fragmentation is considered which is associated with more central collisions in the case of heavy ion induced reactions. This aspect of fragmentation is also ilustrated with two heavy ion experiments in which fragments emitted at large angle have been observed

  3. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  4. Fragment-based lead generation: identification of seed fragments by a highly efficient fragment screening technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Lars; Ritscher, Allegra; Müller, Gerhard; Hafenbradl, Doris

    2009-08-01

    For the detection of the precise and unambiguous binding of fragments to a specific binding site on the target protein, we have developed a novel reporter displacement binding assay technology. The application of this technology for the fragment screening as well as the fragment evolution process with a specific modelling based design strategy is demonstrated for inhibitors of the protein kinase p38alpha. In a fragment screening approach seed fragments were identified which were then used to build compounds from the deep-pocket towards the hinge binding area of the protein kinase p38alpha based on a modelling approach. BIRB796 was used as a blueprint for the alignment of the fragments. The fragment evolution of these deep-pocket binding fragments towards the fully optimized inhibitor BIRB796 included the modulation of the residence time as well as the affinity. The goal of our study was to evaluate the robustness and efficiency of our novel fragment screening technology at high fragment concentrations, compare the screening data with biochemical activity data and to demonstrate the evolution of the hit fragments with fast kinetics, into slow kinetic inhibitors in an in silico approach.

  5. Fragmented medial coronoid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Cs.; Juhasz, T.

    1997-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process: (FCP) is often considered to be part of the osteochondrosis dissecans complex, but trauma and growth discrepancies between the radius and ulna are proposed as causes. There is little to clinically differentiate FCP, from osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of the elbow. Pain on, flexion-extension of the elbow and lateral rotation of the paw is a little more consistent in FCP. Radiographic examination of the elbow is important despite the, fact that radiographic signs of the FCP are often nonspecific. Excessive osteoarthrosis and superimposition of the radial head and coronoid process make identification of the FCP difficult. Craniocaudal, flexed mediolateral and 25 degree craniocaudal-lateromedial views are necessary for diagnosis. Osteophyte production is more dramatic with FCP than with OCD and suggests therefore the occurrence of OCP in many cases. Although the detached process may be seen on any view, the oblique projection offers the least obstructed view. Exposure of the joint is identical to that for OCD, that means a medial approach with osteotomy of the epicondyle. In most cases the process is loose enough to be readily apparent, but in some it is necessary to exert force on the process in order to find the cleavage plane. It is necessary to remove the osteophytes as well and to inspect and irrigate the joint carefully to remove cartilage fragments before closure. Confinement is advisable for 4 weeks before returning the dog to normal activity. The outlook for function is good if the FCP is removed before secondary degenerative joint disease is well established

  6. Fractal statistics of brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Davydova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of fragmentation statistics of brittle materials that includes four types of experiments is presented. Data processing of the fragmentation of glass plates under quasi-static loading and the fragmentation of quartz cylindrical rods under dynamic loading shows that the size distribution of fragments (spatial quantity is fractal and can be described by a power law. The original experimental technique allows us to measure, apart from the spatial quantity, the temporal quantity - the size of time interval between the impulses of the light reflected from the newly created surfaces. The analysis of distributions of spatial (fragment size and temporal (time interval quantities provides evidence of obeying scaling laws, which suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmentation.

  7. Fluctuations in the fragmentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botet, R.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    Some general framework of sequential fragmentation is presented, as provided by the newly proposed Fragmentation - Inactivation - Binary model, and to study briefly its basic and universal features. This model includes as particular cases most of the previous kinetic fragmentation models. In particular it is discussed how one arrives in this framework to the critical behaviour, called the shattering transition. This model is then compared to recent data on gold multifragmentation at 600 MeV/nucl. (authors) 20 refs., 5 figs

  8. Radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartalena, L.; Mariotti, S.; Pinchera, A.

    1987-01-01

    For many years, methods based on iodine content determination have represented the only techniques available for the estimation of total thyroid hormone concentrations in serum. Subsequently, simple, sensitive, and specific radioligand assays for thyroid hormones have replaced these chemical methods. For the purpose of this chapter, iodometric techniques are only briefly summarized for their historical importance, whereas attention is focused on radioligand assays

  9. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  10. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  11. Adult growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD is being recognized increasingly and has been thought to be associated with premature mortality. Pituitary tumors are the commonest cause for AGHD. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD has been associated with neuropsychiatric-cognitive, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, metabolic, and skeletal abnormalities. Most of these can be reversed with growth hormone therapy. The insulin tolerance test still remains the gold standard dynamic test to diagnose AGHD. Growth hormone is administered subcutaneously once a day, titrated to clinical symptoms, signs and IGF-1 (insulin like growth factor-1. It is generally well tolerated at the low-doses used in adults. Pegylated human growth hormone therapy is on the horizon, with a convenient once a week dosing.

  12. Heart, lipids and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolf

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in general population. Besides well-known risk factors such as hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, growing evidence suggests that hormonal changes in various endocrine diseases also impact the cardiac morphology and function. Recent studies highlight the importance of ectopic intracellular myocardial and pericardial lipid deposition, since even slight changes of these fat depots are associated with alterations in cardiac performance. In this review, we overview the effects of hormones, including insulin, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and cortisol, on heart function, focusing on their impact on myocardial lipid metabolism, cardiac substrate utilization and ectopic lipid deposition, in order to highlight the important role of even subtle hormonal changes for heart function in various endocrine and metabolic diseases.

  13. Aging changes in hormone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004000.htm Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  14. Hormonal changes in secondary impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, F.M.; El-Shabrawy, N.O.; Nosseir, S.A.; Abo El-Azayem, Naglaa.

    1985-01-01

    Impotence is one of the problems which is still obscure both in its aetiology and treatment. The present study deals with the possible hormonal changes in cases of secondary infertility. The study involved 25 patients diagnosed as secondary impotence. Hormonal assay was performed for the following hormones: 1. Prolaction hormone. 2. Luteinising hormone (L.H.). 3. Testosterone. 4. Follicle stimulating hormone (F.S.H.). The assay was carried out by radioimmunoassay using double antibody technique. Results are discussed

  15. Structural and physical properties of Mg3-xZnxSb2 (x=0-1.34)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2007-01-01

    The Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 phases with x=0-1.34 were prepared by direct reactions of the elements in tantalum tubes. According to the X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction, the Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 phases crystallize in the same P3-bar m1 space group as the parent Mg 3 Sb 2 phase. The Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 structure is different from the other substituted structures of Mg 3 Sb 2 , such as (Ca, Sr, Ba) Mg 2 Sb 2 or Mg 5.23 Sm 0.77 Sb 4 , in a way that in Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 the Mg atoms on the tetrahedral sites are replaced, while in the other structures Mg on the octahedral sites is replaced. Thermoelectric performance for the two members of the series, Mg 3 Sb 2 and Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 , was evaluated from low to room temperatures through resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements. In contrast to Mg 3 Sb 2 which is a semiconductor, Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 is metallic and exhibits an 18-times larger dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, at room temperature. However, thermoelectric performance of Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 is still poor and it is mostly due to its large electrical resistivity. - Graphical abstract: The Mg atoms in Mg 3 Sb 2 were successfully substituted with Zn, with Zn going exclusively into the tetrahedral sites. Zn substitution increases the electrical conductivity in Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 by closing the band gap. This change combined with a decrease in the thermal conductivity improves the ZT value

  16. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nadine [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden); School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Sjöstrand, Torbjörn [Theoretical Particle Physics, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University,Sölvegatan 14A, Lund, SE-223 62 (Sweden)

    2017-01-31

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  17. Polymer fragmentation in extensional flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroja, Armando M.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Ciesla, Michal; Longa, Lech

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of fragmentation of dilute polymer solutions in extensional flow. The transition rate is investigated both from theoretical and computational approaches, where the existence of a Gaussian distribution for the breaking bonds has been controversial. We give as well an explanation for the low fragmentation frequency found in DNA experiments.

  18. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  19. Fracture mechanics model of fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Gommerstadt, B.Y.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    A model of the fragmentation process is developed, based on the theory of linear elastic fracture mechanics, which predicts the average fragment size as a function of strain rate and material properties. This approach permits a unification of previous results, yielding Griffith's solution in the low-strain-rate limit and Grady's solution at high strain rates

  20. Mass spectrometry for fragment screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2017-11-08

    Fragment-based approaches in chemical biology and drug discovery have been widely adopted worldwide in both academia and industry. Fragment hits tend to interact weakly with their targets, necessitating the use of sensitive biophysical techniques to detect their binding. Common fragment screening techniques include differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ligand-observed NMR. Validation and characterization of hits is usually performed using a combination of protein-observed NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography. In this context, MS is a relatively underutilized technique in fragment screening for drug discovery. MS-based techniques have the advantage of high sensitivity, low sample consumption and being label-free. This review highlights recent examples of the emerging use of MS-based techniques in fragment screening. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  1. Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durell, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission

  2. Fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyfant, Eric; Cross, Jason B; Paris, Kevin; Tsao, Désirée H H

    2011-01-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD), which is comprised of both fragment screening and the use of fragment hits to design leads, began more than 15 years ago and has been steadily gaining in popularity and utility. Its origin lies on the fact that the coverage of chemical space and the binding efficiency of hits are directly related to the size of the compounds screened. Nevertheless, FBDD still faces challenges, among them developing fragment screening libraries that ensure optimal coverage of chemical space, physical properties and chemical tractability. Fragment screening also requires sensitive assays, often biophysical in nature, to detect weak binders. In this chapter we will introduce the technologies used to address these challenges and outline the experimental advantages that make FBDD one of the most popular new hit-to-lead process.

  3. Fragmentation cross sections outside the limiting-fragmentation regime

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2003-01-01

    The empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX, has been successfully applied to estimate fragment production cross sections in reactions of heavy ions at high incident energies. It is checked whether a similar parametrization can be found for proton-induced spallation around 1 GeV, the range of interest for ISOL-type RIB facilities. The validity of EPAX for medium-energy heavy-ion induced reactions is also checked. Only a few datasets are available, but in general EPAX predicts the cross sections rather well, except for fragments close to the projectile, where the experimental cross sections are found to be larger.

  4. Hormones and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role in the start and continuation of primary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is due to other diseases such as kidney ... the body can greatly improve or even cure secondary hypertension. Resources • Find-an-Endocrinologist: www.hormone.org or ...

  5. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called acromegaly . In children it is called gigantism . Too little growth hormone can cause a slow ... growth due to excess GH during childhood, called gigantism. (A special test is done to confirm this ...

  6. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Evsey Fridlyand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is produced by the hypothalamus and stimulates growth hormone synthesis and release in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition GHRH is an important regulator of cellular functions in many cells and organs. Expression of GHRH G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GHRHR has been demonstrated in different peripheral tissues and cell types including pancreatic islets. Among the peripheral activities, recent studies demonstrate a novel ability of GHRH analogs to increase and preserve insulin secretion by beta-cells in isolated pancreatic islets, which makes them potentially useful for diabetes treatment. This review considers the role of GHRHR in the beta-cell and addresses the unique engineered GHRH agonists and antagonists for treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We discuss the similarity of signaling pathways activated by GHRHR in pituitary somatotrophs and in pancreatic beta-cells and possible ways as to how the GHRHR pathway can interact with glucose and other secretagogues to stimulate insulin secretion. We also consider the hypothesis that novel GHRHR agonists can improve glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes by preserving the function and survival of pancreatic beta-cells. Wound healing and cardioprotective action with new GHRH agonists suggesting that they may prove useful in ameliorating certain diabetic complications. These findings highlight the future potential therapeutic effectiveness of modulators of GHRHR activity for the development of new therapeutic approaches in diabetes and its complications.

  7. Fragmentation functions approach in pQCD fragmentation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolli, S.

    1996-07-01

    Next-to-leading order parton fragmentation functions into light mesons are presented. They have been extracted from real and simulated e + e - data and used to predict inclusive single particle distributions at different machines

  8. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  9. Heterogeneity of protein hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosselin, G; Bataille, D; Laburthe, M; Duran-Garcia, S [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1975-12-01

    Radioimmunoassay measures antigenic determinants of hormonal molecules in the plasmas and tissues. These estimations carried out after fractionation in biological fluids, have revealed several immunological forms of the same hormone. The main problem is in the relationship of the various immunoreactive forms to the same hormonal sequence. The similar immunoreactive forms of high molecular weight usually have low biological activity and suggest the presence of prohormone; the suggestion of prohormonal nature depends on the chronology of the incorporation of labelled leucine and enzymatic transformation of prohormone with low biological into active hormone. The forms with high molecular weight and similar immunological activity may be of another nature. Thus, it has been shown that the biosynthetic nature of a compound such as big big insulin in the rat is doubtful owing to the absence of specific incorporation of labelled leucine into the immunoprecipitate of this fraction. The significance of low molecular weight form is still little known. An example of these forms is supplied by the existence of an alpha sub-unit of gonadotrophin present in the plasma of menopausal women. The interest of analytical methods by radio-receptor, simulation of cyclase activity in the identification of biological activity of immunoreactive forms, is discussed in relation to immunological forms ofenteroglucagon. An unusual aspect of the evolutive and adaptative character of hormonal heterogeneity is given by the gastro-intestinal hormones.

  10. Kinetics of thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Mitsuo; Nishikawa, Mitsushige; Naito, Kimikazu; Ishii, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of thyroid hormones were outlined, and recent progress in metabolism of these hormones was also described. Recently, not only T 4 and T 3 but also rT 3 , 3,3'-T 2 , 3',5'-T 2 , and 3,5-T 2 can be measured by RIA. To clarify metabolic pathways of these hormones, metabolic clearance rate and production rate of these hormones were calculated. As single-compartment analysis was insufficient to clarify disappearance curves of thyroid hormones in blood such as T 3 and T 2 of which metabolic speed was so fast, multi-compartment analysis or non-compartment analysis were also performed. Thyroid hormones seemed to be measured more precisely by constant infusion method. At the first step of T 4 metabolism, T 3 was formed by 5'-monodeiodination of T 4 , and rT 3 was formed by 5-monodeiodination of T 4 . As metabolic pathways of T 3 and rT 3 , conversion of them to 3,3'-T 2 or to 3',5'-T 2 and 3,5-T 2 was supposed. This subject will be an interesting research theme in future. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. A model for projectile fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G; Mallik, S; Gupta, S Das

    2013-01-01

    A model for projectile fragmentation is developed whose origin can be traced back to the Bevalac era. The model positions itself between the phenomenological EPAX parametrization and transport models like 'Heavy Ion Phase Space Exploration' (HIPSE) model and antisymmetrised molecular dynamics (AMD) model. A very simple impact parameter dependence of input temperature is incorporated in the model which helps to analyze the more peripheral collisions. The model is applied to calculate the charge, isotopic distributions, average number of intermediate mass fragments and the average size of largest cluster at different Z bound of different projectile fragmentation reactions at different energies.

  12. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-01

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10 -10 sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass

  13. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-10-15

    The gamma radiation from the fragments of the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U has been investigated, and the preliminary data are presented here with suggestions for further lines of research and some possible interpretations of the data. The data have direct bearing on the fission process and the mode of fragment de-excitation. The parameters measured are the radiation decay curve for the time interval (1 - 7) x 10{sup -10} sec after fission, the photon yield, the total gamma ray energy yield, and the average photon energy. The last three quantities are measured as a function of the fragment mass.

  14. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    High-resolution measurements on γ rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author)

  16. The dynamics of fragment formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, D.

    1994-09-01

    We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac's BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to 4 He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy

  17. Chemical Production using Fission Fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J. K.; Moseley, F.

    1960-01-01

    Some reactor design considerations of the use of fission recoil fragment energy for the production of chemicals of industrial importance have been discussed previously in a paper given at the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy [A/Conf. 15/P.76]. The present paper summarizes more recent progress made on this topic at AERE, Harwell. The range-energy relationship for fission fragments is discussed in the context of the choice of fuel system for a chemical production reactor, and the experimental observation of a variation of chemical effect along the length of a fission fragment track is described for the irradiation of nitrogen-oxygen mixtures. Recent results are given on the effect of fission fragments on carbon monoxide-hydrogen gas mixtures and on water vapour. No system investigated to date shows any outstanding promise for large-scale chemical production. (author) [fr

  18. QGP and Modified Jet Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-01-01

    Recent progresses in the study of jet modification in hotmedium and their consequences in high-energy heavy-ion collisions are reviewed. In particular, I will discuss energy loss for propagating heavy quarks and the resulting modified fragmentation function. Medium modification of the parton fragmentation function due to quark recombination are formulated within finite temperature field theory and their implication on the search for deconfined quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  19. Robust Object Tracking Using Valid Fragments Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Bo; Tian, Peng; Luo, Gang

    Local features are widely used in visual tracking to improve robustness in cases of partial occlusion, deformation and rotation. This paper proposes a local fragment-based object tracking algorithm. Unlike many existing fragment-based algorithms that allocate the weights to each fragment, this method firstly defines discrimination and uniqueness for local fragment, and builds an automatic pre-selection of useful fragments for tracking. Then, a Harris-SIFT filter is used to choose the current valid fragments, excluding occluded or highly deformed fragments. Based on those valid fragments, fragment-based color histogram provides a structured and effective description for the object. Finally, the object is tracked using a valid fragment template combining the displacement constraint and similarity of each valid fragment. The object template is updated by fusing feature similarity and valid fragments, which is scale-adaptive and robust to partial occlusion. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is accurate and robust in challenging scenarios.

  20. Recent progress on perturbative QCD fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, K.

    1995-05-01

    The recent development of perturbative QCD (PQCD) fragmentation functions has strong impact on quarkonium production. I shall summarize B c meson production based on these PQCD fragmentation functions, as well as, the highlights of some recent activities on applying these PQCD fragmentation functions to explain anomalous J/ψ and ψ' production at the Tevatron. Finally, I discuss a fragmentation model based on the PQCD fragmentation functions for heavy quarks fragmenting into heavy-light mesons

  1. Hormonal control of euryhalinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  2. Headache And Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons to suggest a link between headache and hormones. Migraine is three times common in women as compared to men after puberty, cyclic as well as non-cyclic fluctuations in sex hormone levels during the entire reproductive life span of a women are associated with changes in frequency or severity of migraine attack, abnormalities in the hypothalamus and pineal gland have been observed in cluster headache, oestrogens are useful in the treatment of menstrual migraine and the use of melatonin has been reported in various types of primary headaches. Headache associated with various endocrinological disorders may help us in a better understanding of the nociceptive mechanisms involved in headache disorders. Prospective studies using headache diaries to record the attacks of headache and menstrual cycle have clarified some of the myths associated with menstrual migraine. Although no change in the absolute levels of sex hormones have been reported, oestrogen withdrawal is the most likely trigger of the attacks. Prostaglandins, melatonin, opioid and serotonergic mechanisms may also have a role in the pathogenesis of menstrual migraine. Guidelines have been published by the IHS recently regarding the use of oral contraceptives by women with migraine and the risk of ischaemic strokes in migraineurs on hormone replacement therapy. The present review includes menstrual migraine, pregnancy and migraine, oral contraceptives and migraine, menopause and migraine as well as the hormonal changes in chronic migraine.

  3. [Hormones and hair growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, R M

    2010-06-01

    With respect to the relationship between hormones and hair growth, the role of androgens for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and hirsutism is best acknowledged. Accordingly, therapeutic strategies that intervene in androgen metabolism have been successfully developed for treatment of these conditions. Clinical observations of hair conditions involving hormones beyond the androgen horizon have determined their role in regulation of hair growth: estrogens, prolactin, thyroid hormone, cortisone, growth hormone (GH), and melatonin. Primary GH resistance is characterized by thin hair, while acromegaly may cause hypertrichosis. Hyperprolactinemia may cause hair loss and hirsutism. Partial synchronization of the hair cycle in anagen during late pregnancy points to an estrogen effect, while aromatase inhibitors cause hair loss. Hair loss in a causal relationship to thyroid disorders is well documented. In contrast to AGA, senescent alopecia affects the hair in a diffuse manner. The question arises, whether the hypothesis that a causal relationship exists between the age-related reduction of circulating hormones and organ function also applies to hair and the aging of hair.

  4. Response of induced bone defects in horses to collagen matrix containing the human parathyroid hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Kristin C; Bertone, Alicia L; Wisner, Erik R; Weisbrode, Stephen E

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) gene in collagen matrix could safely promote bone formation in diaphyseal or subchondral bones of horses. 8 clinically normal adult horses. Amount, rate, and quality of bone healing for 13 weeks were determined by use of radiography, quantitative computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis. Diaphyseal cortex and subchondral bone defects of metacarpi were filled with hPTH(1-34) gene-activated matrix (GAM) or remained untreated. Joints were assessed on the basis of circumference, synovial fluid analysis, pain on flexion, lameness, and gross and histologic examination. Bone volume index was greater for cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM, compared with untreated defects. Bone production in cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM positively correlated with native bone formation in untreated defects. In contrast, less bone was detected in hPTH(1-34) GAM-treated subchondral bone defects, compared with untreated defects, and histology confirmed poorer healing and residual collagen sponge. Use of hPTH(1-34) GAM induced greater total bone, specifically periosteal bone, after 13 weeks of healing in cortical defects of horses. The hPTH(1-34) GAM impeded healing of subchondral bone but was biocompatible with joint tissues. Promotion of periosteal bone formation may be beneficial for healing of cortical fractures in horses, but the delay in onset of bone formation may negate benefits. The hPTH(1-34) GAM used in this study should not be placed in articular subchondral bone defects, but contact with articular surfaces is unlikely to cause short-term adverse effects.

  5. The Interaction of Steroid Hormones and Oncogene in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    fragment [3] at the 5’ end of our regulator under the control of the MMTV promoter and the bovine growth hormone polyadenylation signal (Figure 6A...appeared swollen exhibiting a classic case of mastitis due to the failure to release milk that is produced. A couple of unique wart-like structures... mastitis ). As previously mentioned, it was most likely that the levels of int- 2/fgf-3 expression are enormously higher than that needed for

  6. Stress and hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Ranabir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern environment one is exposed to various stressful conditions. Stress can lead to changes in the serum level of many hormones including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, growth hormone and prolactin. Some of these changes are necessary for the fight or flight response to protect oneself. Some of these stressful responses can lead to endocrine disorders like Graves′ disease, gonadal dysfunction, psychosexual dwarfism and obesity. Stress can also alter the clinical status of many preexisting endocrine disorders such as precipitation of adrenal crisis and thyroid storm.

  7. Fragmentation of rotating protostellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohline, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    We examine, with a three-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code, the behavior of rotating, isothermal gas clouds as they collapse from Jeans unstable configurations, in order to determine whether they are susceptible to fragmentation during the initial dynamic collapse phase of their evolution. We find that a gas cloud will not fragment unless (a) it begins collapsing from a radius much smaller than the Jeans radius (i.e., the cloud initially encloses many Jeans masses) and (b) irregularities in the cloud's initial structure (specifically, density inhomogeneities) enclose more than one Jeans mass of material. Gas pressure smooths out features that are not initially Jeans unstable while rotation plays no direct role in damping inhomogeneities. Instead of fragmenting, most of our models collapse to a ring configuration (as has been observed by other investigators in two-dimensional, axisymmetric models). The rings appear to be less susceptible to gragmentation from arbitrary perturbations in their structure than has previously been indicated in other work. Because our models, which include the effects of gas pressure, do not readily fragment during a phase of dynamic collapse, we suggest that gas clouds in the galactic disk undergo fragmentation only during quasi-equilibrium phases of their evolution

  8. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  9. Response of the agile antechinus to habitat edge, configuration and condition in fragmented forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Johnstone

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation and degradation seriously threaten native animal communities. We studied the response of a small marsupial, the agile antechinus Antechinus agilis, to several environmental variables in anthropogenically fragmented Eucalyptus forest in south-east Australia. Agile antechinus were captured more in microhabitats dominated by woody debris than in other microhabitats. Relative abundances of both sexes were positively correlated with fragment core area. Male and female mass-size residuals were smaller in larger fragments. A health status indicator, haemoglobin-haematocrit residuals (HHR, did not vary as a function of any environmental variable in females, but male HHR indicated better health where sites' microhabitats were dominated by shrubs, woody debris and trees other than Eucalyptus. Females were trapped less often in edge than interior fragment habitat and their physiological stress level, indicated by the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, was higher where fragments had a greater proportion of edge habitat. The latter trend was potentially due to lymphopoenia resulting from stress hormone-mediated leukocyte trafficking. Using multiple indicators of population condition and health status facilitates a comprehensive examination of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation and degradation, on native vertebrates. Male agile antechinus' health responded negatively to habitat degradation, whilst females responded negatively to the proportion of edge habitat. The health and condition indicators used could be employed to identify conservation strategies that would make habitat fragments less stressful for this or similar native, small mammals.

  10. Memory effects in nuclear fragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Guarnera, A.

    1994-01-01

    A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The dominant mode at the instability point is determined from the knowledge of the mean properties (density and temperature) of the system at that point. For spinodal instabilities the dependence of fragment structures on the dynamical conditions is studied changing the beam energy and the considered equation of state. An important competition between two dynamical effects, expansion of the system and growth of fluctuations, is revealed. It is shown that in heavy-ion central collisions at medium energies memory effects of the configuration formed at the instability time could be observed in the final fragmentation pattern. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. ((orig.))

  11. Fragmentation properties of 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, R.G.; Kruppa, A.T.; Beck, R.; Dickmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    The α+d and t+τ cluster structure of 6 Li is described in a microscopic α+d cluster model through quantities that enter into the description of cluster fragmentation processes. The states of the separate clusters α, d, t and τ are described as superpositions of Os Slater determinants belonging to different potential size parameters. To describe both the 6 Li and fragment state realistically, nucleon-nucleon forces optimized for the used model state spaces were constructed. The fragmentation properties predicted by them slightly differ from those calculated with some forces of common use provided the latter are modified so as to reproduce the α, d and 6 Li energies. (author) 61 refs.; 9 figs

  12. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tadashi

    1975-01-01

    Low acid pepsin treated gamma-globulin was applied to ammonium sulfate salting out method, which was a method to separate bound fraction from free one in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone, and the effect of the separation and the standard curve were examined. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin was prepared in pH 1.5 to 5.5 and then the pepsin was completely removed. It had an effect to accelerate the precipitation in radioimmunoassay of steroid hormone labelled with 3 H. The effect of pepsin treated gamma-globulin to adhere free steroid hormone and to slat out bound one was compared with that of human gamma-globulin. Pepsin treated gamma-globulin, which was water soluble, could easier reach its optimal concentration, and the separation effect was better than human gamma-globulin. The standard curve of it was steeper, particularly in a small dose, and the reproducibility was also better. It could be applied not only to aldosterone and DOC, but also to the steroid hormones, such as progesterone and DHEA, and it seemed suitable for routine measurement method. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  15. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  16. Hormones and postpartum cardiomyopathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clapp, C.; Thebault, S.C.; Martinez de la Escalera, G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin, a hormone fundamental for lactation, was recently shown to mediate postpartum cardiomyopathy, a life-threatening disease in late-term and lactating mothers. The detrimental effect of prolactin results from myocardial upregulation of cathepsin-D, which in turn cleaves prolactin to a 16 kDa

  17. Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-08

    Jun 8, 1974 ... with Addison's disease, diarrhoea or salt-losing nephritis. (asymptomatic hyponatraemia).~ Schwartz et al.3 stud;ed two patients with anaplastic bronchus carcinoma and hyponatraemia in 1957, and they suggested that there was an inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is now well ...

  18. Radioimmunoassay of protein hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Fingerova, H.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the history of RIA methods for FSH, LH, HCG, HPL and prolactin determinations with special regard to the double antibody method in a kinetic system. Problems are shown in 125 I-labelling protein hormones in preparing own antisera. (L.O.)

  19. Fragmentation processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, G.; Roesel, F.; Trautmann, D.; Shyam, R.

    1983-10-01

    Fragmentation processes in nuclear collisions are reviewed. The main emphasis is put on light ion breakup at nonrelativistic energies. The post- and prior-form DWBA theories are discussed. The post-form DWBA, appropriate for the ''spectator breakup'' describes elastic as well as inelastic breakup modes. This theory can also account for the stripping to unbound states. The theoretical models are compared to typical experimental results to illustrate the various possible mechanisms. It is discussed, how breakup reactions can be used to study high-lying single particle strength in the continuum; how it can yield information about momentum distributions of fragments in the nucleus. (orig.)

  20. Refolding Technologies for Antibody Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Arakawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Refolding is one of the production technologies for pharmaceutical grade antibody fragments. Detergents and denaturants are primarily used to solubilize the insoluble proteins. The solubilized and denatured proteins are refolded by reducing the concentration of the denaturants or detergents. Several refolding technologies have been used for antibody fragments, comprising dilution, dialysis, solid phase solvent exchange and size exclusion chromatography, as reviewed here. Aggregation suppressor or folding-assisting agents, including arginine hydrochloride, ionic liquids and detergents or denaturants at low concentrations, are included in the refolding solvent to enhance refolding yield.

  1. SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Send Us Your Feedback ... As Testosterone-estrogen Binding Globulin TeBG Formal Name Sex Hormone Binding Globulin This article was last reviewed ...

  2. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization......, or differentiated maturation of the prohormone. By a combination of these mechanisms, more than 100 different hormonally active peptides are released from the gut. Gut hormone genes are also widely expressed in cells outside the gut, some only in extraintestinal endocrine cells and neurons but others also in other...

  3. Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICSH - blood test; Luteinizing hormone - blood test; Interstitial cell stimulating hormone - blood test ... to temporarily stop medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ...

  4. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  5. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of spin-glass material DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); College of Physics and Electronic Information Engineering, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641100 (China); Mudryk, Y., E-mail: slavkomk@ameslab.gov [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Pathak, A.K.; Feng, W. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Pecharsky, V.K. [The Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Spin-glass state is observed in the DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.4} compound. • Random Ni/Si distribution in the AlB{sub 2}-type structure leads to magnetic frustration. • Magnetic frustration affects magnetic field dependence of magnetocaloric effect. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34} were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. X-ray powder diffraction pattern shows that DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34} crystallizes in the AlB{sub 2}-type hexagonal structure (space group: P6/mmm, No. 191, a = b = 3.9873(9) Å, and c = 3.9733(1) Å). The compound is a spin-glass with the freezing temperature T{sub G} = 6.2 K. The ac magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm magnetic frustration in DyNi{sub 0.67}Si{sub 1.34}. The maximum value of the magnetic entropy change determined from M(H) data is −16.1 J/kg K at 10.5 K for a field change of 70 kOe.

  6. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  7. Radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones and enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    General principles of radioimmunoassay are reviewed. Detailed procedures are reviewed for the following hormones: insulin, pituitary hormones, gonadotropins, parathyroid hormone, ACTH, glucagon, gastrin, and peptide hormones. Radioimmunoassay of enzymes is also discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  9. Fission fragment driven neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lowell G.; Young, Robert C.; Brugger, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    Fissionable uranium formed into a foil is bombarded with thermal neutrons in the presence of deuterium-tritium gas. The resulting fission fragments impart energy to accelerate deuterium and tritium particles which in turn provide approximately 14 MeV neutrons by the reactions t(d,n).sup.4 He and d(t,n).sup.4 He.

  10. Developments in SPR Fragment Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanieu, Alain; Pugnière, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have played an increasing role alongside high-throughput screening in drug discovery for 15 years. The label-free biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is now sensitive and informative enough to serve during primary screens and validation steps. In this review, the authors discuss the role of SPR in fragment screening. After a brief description of the underlying principles of the technique and main device developments, they evaluate the advantages and adaptations of SPR for fragment-based drug discovery. SPR can also be applied to challenging targets such as membrane receptors and enzymes. The high-level of immobilization of the protein target and its stability are key points for a relevant screening that can be optimized using oriented immobilized proteins and regenerable sensors. Furthermore, to decrease the rate of false negatives, a selectivity test may be performed in parallel on the main target bearing the binding site mutated or blocked with a low-off-rate ligand. Fragment-based drug design, integrated in a rational workflow led by SPR, will thus have a predominant role for the next wave of drug discovery which could be greatly enhanced by new improvements in SPR devices.

  11. Nuclear fragmentation by nucleation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleation model is used to simulate nuclear fragmentation processes. The critical value of the effective interaction radius is shown to vary linearly with the expansion factor α. The calculated mass and charge distributions are compared with some experimental data. (author)

  12. Neutron multiplicity of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, Y S [Physics department, mu` rah university Al-Karak, (Jordan)

    1995-10-01

    The total average neutron multiplicity of the fission fragments produced by the spontaneous fission of {sup 248} Cm has been measured. This measurement has been done by using a new experimental technique. This technique mainly depends on {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence using a very high resolution high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. 2 figs.

  13. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  14. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  15. Research of nuclear fragmentation characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richert, J.

    1989-01-01

    Motivations for the study of nuclear fragmentation are presented. Different models and methods which were developed in the past are reviewed, critically discussed and confronted in connection with the experimental information gathered over the past years. Specific aspects related to the onset of the process, its characteristics and the mechanism which governs it are discussed [fr

  16. FRAGMENTED IDENTITIES: THE CULTURAL COLLISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Born in the former French and German colony of. Togo, Komla-Ebri ... of how cultural barriers not only lead to isolation and fragmented identities, but also ..... and, in recreating bits of Italy, in the form of music, cinema and food, absorbs parts of ...

  17. Phthalocyanides sensitized fragmentation of proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klementová, S.; Tothová, D.; Revaková, R.; Kasková, M.; Wagnerová, Dana Marie

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2001), s. 13-18 ISSN 0972-0626 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : phthalocyanides * photosensitied fragmentation of proteins Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  18. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone is associated with higher assisted reproduction use after vasectomy reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Wayland; Sultan, Raymond; Lee, Richard; Goldstein, Marc

    2011-06-01

    Of men with vasectomy 6% elect to have more children. When considering vasectomy reversal vs in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, an elucidation of preoperative factors that predict surgical success would help determine appropriate management. We tested the hypothesis that preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone 10 U/l or greater predict a lower paternity rate after vasectomy reversal. Using preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone levels we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent vasectomy reversal. Follicle-stimulating hormone was measured in cases suspicious for impaired spermatogenesis. The final analysis included 206 men, who were divided by follicle-stimulating hormone less than 10 U/l (normal in 155) and 10 U/l or greater (high in 51). Nominal logistic regression was performed to evaluate assisted reproduction predictors. Mean ± SD follicle-stimulating hormone in the normal and high groups was 5.1 ± 2.2 and 16.2 ± 6.2 U/l, respectively. Postoperative semen parameters were similar. However, in the high hormone group there was greater use of any type of assisted reproduction (78.4% vs 54.8%, p = 0.0028). On multivariate analysis follicle-stimulating hormone 10 U/l or greater (OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.34-6.83) and vasoepididymostomy that was bilateral or to a solitary testis (OR 3.26, 95% CI 1.09-9.69) was associated with greater assisted reproduction use. We evaluated preoperative follicle-stimulating hormone as a predictor of reproductive outcome in men with suspected subfertility who underwent vasectomy reversal. Increased follicle-stimulating hormone was associated with a higher rate of assisted reproduction even after controlling for confounding covariates. Thus, men with increased follicle-stimulating hormone should be counseled on the increased likelihood of needing assisted reproduction to achieve pregnancy after vasectomy reversal. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  19. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic fragmentation of gall stones and extraction of fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.; Klose, K.; Schmidt, H.D.; Staritz, M.; Mainz Univ.; Mainz Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts at percutaneous removal have been made in 13 patients with solitary and multiple intra- and extra-hepatic biliary duct stones measuring 5 to 30 mm. The stones were fragmented with a Dormia basket and the fragments removed transhepatically. In ten patients the procedure was successful, including one patient with multiple intra-hepatic stones. The procedure can be recommended for cases of calculous obstruction of biliary anastomoses or of stones which could not be removed by endoscopy, or where there is already biliary drainage being carried out, or in patients with a high opertive risk. In two patients, dilatation of the papilla was also carried out, in four patients a stenosis was dilated and in a further two patients, electro-incision of a stenosis was performed. (orig.) [de

  1. Sex Hormones and Tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The risk of overuse and traumatic tendon and ligament injuries differ between women and men. Part of this gender difference in injury risk is probably explained by sex hormonal differences which are specifically distinct during the sexual maturation in the teenage years and during young adulthood....... The effects of the separate sex hormones are not fully elucidated. However, in women, the presence of estrogen in contrast to very low estrogen levels may be beneficial during regular loading of the tissue or during recovering after an injury, as estrogen can enhance tendon collagen synthesis rate. Yet...... has also been linked to a reduced responsiveness to relaxin. The present chapter will focus on sex difference in tendon injury risk, tendon morphology and tendon collagen turnover, but also on the specific effects of estrogen and androgens....

  2. Does last week's alcohol intake affect semen quality or reproductive hormones?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M L; Thulstrup, A M; Bonde, J P

    2012-01-01

    The association between last 5 days of alcohol intake, semen quality and reproductive hormones was estimated in this cross-sectional study among 347 men. Conventional semen characteristics, DNA fragmentation index and reproductive hormones (testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin...... (SHBG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B) were determined. There was a tendency towards lower semen characteristics at higher intake of alcohol past 5 days, albeit with no statistically significant dose-response association. The ratio between free estradiol...... and free testosterone was higher at higher alcohol intake during the 5 days preceding semen sampling. In conclusion, alcohol intake was associated with impairment of most semen characteristics but without a coherent dose-response pattern. The study indicates an association between recent alcohol intake...

  3. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  4. Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    This performance autoethnography shows the author's struggle in finding his place, scholarship, voice, and body, into the academic setting. Mixing together memories of his lived experience with sugar cane workers, notes, and leftovers of different fieldworks, plus 6 years of life as grad student at the University of Illinois, the author looks for…

  5. Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  6. Thyroid hormone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, S.; Richmond, M.; Quesada, S.; Lahaman, S.; Ramirez, A.; Herrera, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (AIEA) is carrying out the ARCAL VIII Program 'Thiroid Hormone Readioimmunoassay'. The Immunoassay Laboratory of INCIENSA is in charge of this program, with the participation of four National Hospital System laboratories, which carried out Thyroxine (T4). Triodothyroxine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) assays with NETRIA Reagents (North East Thames Region Immunoassay Unit). The variability was shown to be between 9-20 per cent for T4, 12-22 per cent for TSH and 22-36 per cent for T3. The study also evaluated the quality of a tracer (T3-l125 and T4 l125) produced at INCIENSA. In this case the intrassay variability was 8,4 per cent for T3 and 6,8 per cent for T4 in 32 determinations evaluated during 6 months. It was concluded that the T4 and TSH tests but not the T3 test are valid and reproducible when NETRIA Ragents are used. The tracer made at INCIENSA can be used up to 6 weeks after the radioiodination with l125. A successful thyroid-related hormones quality control was defined in Costa Rica by taking advantage of the support of a prestigious international agency, the IAEA. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs

  7. The effect of ovarian steroid feedback upon radioimmunoreactive luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanaihara, Takumi; Arai, Kiyoshi; Kanazawa, Motomi; Okinaga, Shoichi; Yanaihara, Noboru

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing hormone (RH) utilizing rabbit antiserum against synthetic (Glu 1 )-LH-RH coupled with human serum albumin at the N-terminus, is described. This assay system for LH-RH also cross-reacted with several LH-RH analogues or fragments, but not with pituitary trophic hormones. The assay was performed on the hypothalamic extracts of adult ovariectomized rats and female immature rats which had been treated with estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary gland and serum of the same animals were determined by RIA. The radioimmunoreactive LH-RH content of the stalk median eminence markedly increased seven days after ovariectomy. The serum levels and the pituitary contents of FSH and LH of the same rats were also significantly augmented. In immature rats, the hypothalamic content of LH-RH, as measured by RIA, was significantly increased one hour after the injection of estradiol. The FSH and LH levels in the pituitary showed a significant rise after 7 hours. (auth.)

  8. Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24, [Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25]ACTH1-25 amide, and [Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25]ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of [Phe2,Nle4]ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells

  9. Energy production using fission fragment rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.; Matsuda, Y.

    1991-08-01

    Fission fragment rockets are nuclear reactors with a core consisting of thin fibers in a vacuum, and which use magnetic fields to extract the fission fragments from the reactor core. As an alternative to ordinary nuclear reactors, fission fragment rockets would have the following advantages: Approximately twice as efficient if one can directly convert the fission fragment energy into electricity; by reducing the buildup of a fission fragment inventory in the reactor one could avoid a Chernobyl type disaster; and collecting the fission fragments outside the reactor could simplify the waste disposal problem. 6 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion

  11. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  12. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, Laura; Erdelyi, Bela; Hausmann, Marc; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Nolen, Jerry; Portillo, Mauricio; Sherrill, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  13. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet [Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India); Kaur, Varinderjit, E-mail: drvarinderjit@gmail.com [Mata Gujri College, Fatehgarh Sahib-140406, Punjab (India)

    2016-05-06

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping At{sub otal} fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of {sup 197}Au+{sup 27}Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  14. Fragmentation of percolation cluster perimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debierre, Jean-Marc; Bradley, R. Mark

    1996-05-01

    We introduce a model for the fragmentation of porous random solids under the action of an external agent. In our model, the solid is represented by a bond percolation cluster on the square lattice and bonds are removed only at the external perimeter (or `hull') of the cluster. This model is shown to be related to the self-avoiding walk on the Manhattan lattice and to the disconnection events at a diffusion front. These correspondences are used to predict the leading and the first correction-to-scaling exponents for several quantities defined for hull fragmentation. Our numerical results support these predictions. In addition, the algorithm used to construct the perimeters reveals itself to be a very efficient tool for detecting subtle correlations in the pseudo-random number generator used. We present a quantitative test of two generators which supports recent results reported in more systematic studies.

  15. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species with different size and mobility can be regulated by different processes at the same spatial scale, a principle that may contribute to diversity. Differences in species richness between local commu...

  16. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al. , 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al. , 1990; Ouellette et al. , 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  17. Intermittency in 197Au fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Cherry, M.L.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jones, W.V.; Sengupta, K.; Wefel, B.

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  19. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  20. Parathyroid hormone: radioimmunoassay and clinical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawker, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH), which has had widespread clinical use for five years, is described in detail. The iPTH results in large groups of patients are reported, and are discussed in relation to the specificity of the assay and in relation to other assays. The assay has excellent precision and is highly proficient in discrimination of groups of patients. Ninety-three percent of 412 patients with surgically proven primary hyperparathyroidism were confidently separated from normal subjects or patients with hypercalcemia owing to other causes, while 86 percent of 160 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism had iPTH values more than 2 S.D. above the normal mean. Results in patients with ectopic hyperparathyroidism were lower than in primary hyperparathyroidism although these groups showed considerable overlap. The antiserum used in this assay for iPTH appears to be specific for the carboxy-terminal region of the secreted or intact form of PTH but recognizes predominantly the secreted form rather than carboxy-terminal fragments believed to be in the circulation. It does not recognize amino terminal fragments. The assay is useful in selective venous catheterization for preoperative localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue

  1. Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi.hattori@riken.jp [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Theoretical Research Division, Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); McLerran, Larry, E-mail: mclerran@bnl.gov [RIKEN BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 (United States); Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States); Physics Dept., China Central Normal University, Wuhan (China); Schenke, Björn, E-mail: bschenke@bnl.gov [Physics Dept., Bdg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY-11973 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.

  2. Evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccopieri, F.A.; Bacchetta, A.

    2007-03-01

    We consider dihadron fragmentation functions, describing the fragmentation of a parton in two unpolarized hadrons, and in particular extended dihadron fragmentation functions, explicitly dependent on the invariant mass, M h , of the hadron pair. We first rederive the known results on M h -integrated functions using Jet Calculus techniques, and then we present the evolution equations for extended dihadron fragmentation functions. Our results are relevant for the analysis of experimental measurements of two-particle-inclusive processes at different energies. (orig.)

  3. Polarization and alignment of nucleus fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabanov, A.L.; Grechukhin, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Correlation of fragment orientation with orientation axis of fissile nucleus and with n-vector f vector of fragment divergence is considered. Estimations of polarization and alignment of fission fragments of preliminarily oriented nuclei in correlation (with n-vector f recording) and integral (with n-vector f averaging) experiments were conducted. It is shown that high sensitivity of polarization and fragment alignment to the character of nucleus movement at the stage of descent from barrier to rupture point exists

  4. A nonpeptidyl growth hormone secretagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Cheng, K; Schoen, W R; Pong, S S; Hickey, G; Jacks, T; Butler, B; Chan, W W; Chaung, L Y; Judith, F

    1993-06-11

    A nonpeptidyl secretagogue for growth hormone of the structure 3-amino-3-methyl-N-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2-oxo-1-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5 -yl) (1,1'-biphenyl)-4-yl]methyl)-1H-1-benzazepin-3(R)-yl)-butanamid e (L-692,429) has been identified. L-692,429 synergizes with the natural growth hormone secretagogue growth hormone-releasing hormone and acts through an alternative signal transduction pathway. The mechanism of action of L-692,429 and studies with peptidyl and nonpeptidyl antagonists suggest that this molecule is a mimic of the growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide His-D-Trp-Ala-Trp-D-Phe-Lys-NH2 (GHRP-6). L-692,429 is an example of a nonpeptidyl specific secretagogue for growth hormone.

  5. Photon-hadron fragmentation: theoretical situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1983-07-01

    Using a selection of new experimental results models of hadronic fragmentation and their phenomenological comparison are presented. Indeed a convenient theory of hadronic fragmentation -for instance based on Q.C.D.- does not exist: low transverse momentum fragmentation involves the badly known hadronic long-range forces. Models should clarify the situation in the prospect of an eventual future theory

  6. Scaling and critical behaviour in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, X.

    1990-09-01

    These notes review recent results on nuclear fragmentation. An analysis of experimental data from exclusive experiments is made in the framework of modern theories of fragmentation of finite size objects. We discuss the existence of a critical regime of fragmentation and the relevance of scaling and finite size scaling

  7. Remarks about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Remarks are made about the hypothesis of limiting fragmentation. In particular, the concept of favored and disfavored fragment distribution is introduced. Also, a sum rule is proved leading to a useful quantity called energy-fragmentation fraction. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Quark fragmentation in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oddone, P.

    1984-12-01

    This brief review of new results in quark and gluon fragmentation observed in e + e - collisions concentrates mostly on PEP results and, within PEP, mostly on TPC results. The new PETRA results have been reported at this conference by M. Davier. It is restricted to results on light quark fragmentation since the results on heavy quark fragmentation have been reported by J. Chapman

  9. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  10. Neighbouring charge fragmentations in low energy fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, M.

    1986-10-01

    Shell and odd-even effects in fission have been largely studied until now. The structure in fragment mass, charge and kinetic energy distributions of fragments were interpreted as shell and even-odd effects. In this paper, we want to show that the discret change of fragment charge symmetry should produce also structures in those distribution. 19 refs

  11. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-06-13

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Missed hormonal contraceptives: new recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Edith; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Senikas, Vyta

    2008-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance for women and their health care providers on the management of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptive doses in order to prevent unintended pregnancy. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published in English, from 1974 to 2007, about hormonal contraceptive methods that are available in Canada and that may be missed or delayed. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate reproductive health and family planning organizations were also reviewed. The quality of evidence is rated using the criteria developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This committee opinion will help health care providers offer clear information to women who have not been adherent in using hormonal contraception with the purpose of preventing unintended pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Instructions for what women should do when they miss hormonal contraception have been complex and women do not understand them correctly. (I) 2. The highest risk of ovulation occurs when the hormone-free interval is prolonged for more than seven days, either by delaying the start of combined hormonal contraceptives or by missing active hormone doses during the first or third weeks of combined oral contraceptives. (II) Ovulation rarely occurs after seven consecutive days of combined oral contraceptive use. (II) RECOMMENDATIONS: 1. Health care providers should give clear, simple instructions, both written and oral, on missed hormonal contraceptive pills as part of contraceptive counselling. (III-A) 2. Health care providers should provide women with telephone/electronic resources for reference in the event of missed or delayed hormonal contraceptives. (III-A) 3. In order to avoid an increased risk of unintended pregnancy, the hormone-free interval should not exceed seven days in combined hormonal contraceptive users. (II-A) 4. Back-up contraception should

  13. Fission fragment excited laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, David A.; Tollefsrud, Philip B.

    1976-01-01

    A laser system and method for exciting lasing action in a molecular gas lasing medium which includes cooling the lasing medium to a temperature below about 150 K and injecting fission fragments through the lasing medium so as to preferentially excite low lying vibrational levels of the medium and to cause population inversions therein. The cooled gas lasing medium should have a mass areal density of about 5 .times. 10.sup.-.sup.3 grams/square centimeter, relaxation times of greater than 50 microseconds, and a broad range of excitable vibrational levels which are excitable by molecular collisions.

  14. Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.

    1996-07-08

    Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).

  15. Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.

  16. Models of fragmentation with composite power laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Z.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-06-01

    Some models for binary fragmentation are introduced in which a time dependent transition size produces two regions of fragment sizes above and below the transition size. In the first model we assume a fixed rate of fragmentation for the largest fragment and two different rates of fragmentation in the two regions of sizes above and below the transition size. The model is solved exactly in the long time limit to reveal stable time-invariant solutions for the fragment size and mass distributions. These solutions exhibit composite power law behaviours; power laws with two different exponents for fragments in smaller and larger regions. A special case of the model with no fragmentation in the smaller size region is also examined. Another model is also introduced which have three regions of fragment sizes with different rates of fragmentation. The similarities between the stable distributions in our models and composite power law distributions from experimental work on shock fragmentation of long thin glass rods and thick clay plates are discussed.

  17. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  18. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....

  19. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  20. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction of parathyoid hormone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A method of acutely reducing the plasma level of PTH of a patient having an elevated PTH comprising the administration of a pharmaceutical composition comprising a GLP-2, or a variant, an analogue, or derivative of GLP-2 having the ability to bind and activate a GLP-2 receptor such as GLP-2 1-34...

  2. Structures of endothiapepsin-fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschmann, Franziska U; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-05-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein-ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin-fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity.

  3. Structures of endothiapepsin–fragment complexes from crystallographic fragment screening using a novel, diverse and affordable 96-compound fragment library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschmann, Franziska U.; Linnik, Janina; Sparta, Karine; Ühlein, Monika; Wang, Xiaojie; Metz, Alexander; Schiebel, Johannes; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard; Weiss, Manfred S.; Mueller, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Crystallographic screening of the binding of small organic compounds (termed fragments) to proteins is increasingly important for medicinal chemistry-oriented drug discovery. To enable such experiments in a widespread manner, an affordable 96-compound library has been assembled for fragment screening in both academia and industry. The library is selected from already existing protein–ligand structures and is characterized by a broad ligand diversity, including buffer ingredients, carbohydrates, nucleotides, amino acids, peptide-like fragments and various drug-like organic compounds. When applied to the model protease endothiapepsin in a crystallographic screening experiment, a hit rate of nearly 10% was obtained. In comparison to other fragment libraries and considering that no pre-screening was performed, this hit rate is remarkably high. This demonstrates the general suitability of the selected compounds for an initial fragment-screening campaign. The library composition, experimental considerations and time requirements for a complete crystallographic fragment-screening campaign are discussed as well as the nine fully refined obtained endothiapepsin–fragment structures. While most of the fragments bind close to the catalytic centre of endothiapepsin in poses that have been observed previously, two fragments address new sites on the protein surface. ITC measurements show that the fragments bind to endothiapepsin with millimolar affinity. PMID:27139825

  4. Revisiting the Lund Fragmentation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Nilsson, A.

    1992-10-01

    We present a new method to implement the Lund Model fragmentation distributions for multi-gluon situations. The method of Sjoestrand, implemented in the well-known Monte Carlo simulation program JETSET, is robust and direct and according to his findings there are no observable differences between different ways to implement his scheme. His method can be described as a space-time method because the breakup proper time plays a major role. The method described in this paper is built on energy-momentum space methods. We make use of the χ-curve, which is defined directly from the energy momentum vectors of the partons. We have shown that the χ-curve describes the breakup properties and the final state energy momentum distributions in the mean. We present a method to find the variations around the χ-curve, which also implements the basic Lund Model fragmentation distributions (the area-law and the corresponding iterative cascade). We find differences when comparing the corresponding Monte Carlo implementation REVJET to the JETSET distributions inside the gluon jets. (au)

  5. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  6. 16.4 W laser output at 1.34 μm with twin Nd:YVO4 crystals and double-end-pumping structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C; Gong, M; Liu, Q; Huang, L; He, F

    2008-01-01

    High-power high-beam-quality 1.34 μm continuous-wave laser with twin Nd:YVO 4 crystals pumped by four fiber-coupled laser diodes, which constructed a double-end-pumping structure, is reported. With total 60 W pumping power incident, the highest 16.4 W output laser power was generated, the slope efficiency and optical efficiency were measured as better than 30.0% and 27.3%, respectively. With 12 W laser output, the beam quality was measured to be better than two times diffraction-limit and the instability of laser output was determined to be better than 1% over an hour time

  7. High Power Continuous-Wave Diode-End-Pumped 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO4 Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rui, Zhou; Shuang-Chen, Ruan; Chen-Lin, Du; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2008-01-01

    A high power cw all-solid-state 1.34-μm Nd:GdVO 4 laser is experimentally demonstrated. With a diode-double-end-pumped configuration and a simple plane-parallel cavity, a maximum output power of 27.9W is obtained at incident pump power of 96 W, introducing a slope efficiency of 35.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of diode-end-pumped 1.3-μm laser. With the experimental data, the thermal-stress-resistance figure of merit of Nd:GdVO 4 crystal with 0.3 at% Nd 3+ doped level is calculated to be larger than 9.94 W/cm

  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  9. Knowledge-based Fragment Binding Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Grace W.; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    Target-based drug discovery must assess many drug-like compounds for potential activity. Focusing on low-molecular-weight compounds (fragments) can dramatically reduce the chemical search space. However, approaches for determining protein-fragment interactions have limitations. Experimental assays are time-consuming, expensive, and not always applicable. At the same time, computational approaches using physics-based methods have limited accuracy. With increasing high-resolution structural data for protein-ligand complexes, there is now an opportunity for data-driven approaches to fragment binding prediction. We present FragFEATURE, a machine learning approach to predict small molecule fragments preferred by a target protein structure. We first create a knowledge base of protein structural environments annotated with the small molecule substructures they bind. These substructures have low-molecular weight and serve as a proxy for fragments. FragFEATURE then compares the structural environments within a target protein to those in the knowledge base to retrieve statistically preferred fragments. It merges information across diverse ligands with shared substructures to generate predictions. Our results demonstrate FragFEATURE's ability to rediscover fragments corresponding to the ligand bound with 74% precision and 82% recall on average. For many protein targets, it identifies high scoring fragments that are substructures of known inhibitors. FragFEATURE thus predicts fragments that can serve as inputs to fragment-based drug design or serve as refinement criteria for creating target-specific compound libraries for experimental or computational screening. PMID:24762971

  10. Fragmentation of Ceramics in Rapid Expansion Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Spandan; Geubelle, Philippe H.; Rangaswamy, Krishnan

    The study of the fragmentation process goes back to more than a century, motivated primarily by problems related to mining and ore handling (Grady and Kipp, 1985). Various theories have been proposed to predict the fragmentation stress and the fragment size and distribution. But the investigations are generally case specific and relate to only a narrow set of fragmentation processes. A number of theoretical studies of dynamic fragmentation in a rapidly expanding body can be found in the literature. For example, the study summarized in (Grady, 1982) presents a model based on a simple energy balance concept between the surface energy released due to fracture and the kinetic energy of the fragments. Subsequent refinements of the energy balance model have been proposed by (Glenn and Chudnovsky, 1986), which take into account the strain energy of the fragments and specify a threshold stress below which no fragmentation occurs. These models assume that the fracture events are instantaneous and occur simultaneously. Evidently, these assumptions are quite restrictive and these models can not take into account the transient nature of the fragmentation process after the onset of fracture in the material. A more recent model proposed by (Miller et al., 1999) however takes into account this time-dependent nature of the fragmentation event and the distribution of flaws of various strengths in the original material.

  11. Dynamic effects in fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G. F.; Esbensen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fragmentation reactions offer a useful tool to study the spectroscopy of halo nuclei, but the large extent of the halo wave function makes the reaction theory more difficult. The simple reaction models based on the eikonal approximation for the nuclear interaction or first-order perturbation theory for the Coulomb interaction have systematic errors that they investigate here, comparing to the predictions of complete dynamical calculations. They find that stripping probabilities are underpredicted by the eikonal model, leading to extracted spectroscopy strengths that are two large. In contrast, the Coulomb excitation is overpredicted by the simple theory. They attribute this to a screening effect, as is well known in the Barkas effect on stopping powers. The errors decrease with beam energy as E(sub beam)(sup -1), and are not significant at beam energies above 50 MeV/u. At lower beam energies, the effects should be taken into account when extracting quantitative spectroscopic strengths

  12. Impact failure and fragmentation properties of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E. [Applied Research Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kipp, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    In the present study we describe the development of an experimental fracture material property test method specific to dynamic fragmentation. Spherical test samples of the metals of interest are subjected to controlled impulsive stress loads by acceleration to high velocities with a light-gas launcher facility and subsequent normal impact on thin plates. Motion, deformation and fragmentation of the test samples are diagnosed with multiple flash radiography methods. The impact plate materials are selected to be transparent to the x-ray method so that only test metal material is imaged. Through a systematic series of such tests both strain-to-failure and fragmentation resistance properties are determined through this experimental method. Fragmentation property data for several steels, copper, aluminum, tantalum and titanium have been obtained to date. Aspects of the dynamic data have been analyzed with computational methods to achieve a better understanding of the processes leading to failure and fragmentation, and to test an existing computational fragmentation model.

  13. Fragmentation and flow in central collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.; Doss, K.G.R.; Gustafsson, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation of the fragmentation mechanism requires the measurement of complicated observables. To identify what part of the reacting system gives rise to the fragments, it would be useful to tag them as participants or spectators. A large acceptance for all the reaction products and an event-by-event measurement of the fragment multiplicity is required to distinguish fragment formation via sequential emission from a large equilibrated system and multifragmentation. In order to address whether fragments are formed early or late in the collision, information about the dynamical evolution of the reaction is necessary. This can be provided by study of the global properties of the events. This paper discusses experimental techniques applicable to studying fragmentation processes. 25 refs., 8 figs

  14. Gallstone fragmentation by control electrohydraulic lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, G.A.; Mueller, P.R.; Brink, J.A.; Saini, S.; Picus, D.; Simeone, J.F.; Ferrucci, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have performed in vitro contact electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) of 100 gallstones > 10 mm in diameter to identify physical and technical factors that affect fragmentation success. Ninety-one of 100 stones were fragmented with a 3-F electrode (average, seven shocks; range, 1--42); only 12 stones were fragmented with a single shock. Of the nine stones refractory to 50 shocks, four were > 30 mm in diameter and five stones were densely calcified. The most important variable determining power requirements for fragmentation was gallstone size (R = .58), but radiographic calcification of gallstones was also important (R = .47). Stones < 15 mm tended to produce fragments of left-angle 2 mm; stones right-angle 20 mm tended to produce two to five large discrete fragments (P , .05). In addition, lithotripsy could be conducted equally well in 1:1 dilute diatrizoate contrast agent as in 1:6 normal saline, suggesting that contact EHL could be performed under fluoroscopy

  15. Complex fragment emission from hot compound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    The experimental evidence for compound nucleus emission of complex fragments at low energies is used to interpret the emission of the same fragments at higher energies. The resulting experimental picture is that of highly excited compound nuclei formed in incomplete fusion processes which decay statistically. In particular, complex fragments appear to be produced mostly through compound nucleus decay. In the appendix a geometric-kinematic theory for incomplete fusion and the associated momentum transfer is outlined. 10 refs., 19 figs

  16. Fragment Size Distribution of Blasted Rock Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jug, Jasmin; Strelec, Stjepan; Gazdek, Mario; Kavur, Boris

    2017-12-01

    Rock mass is a heterogeneous material, and the heterogeneity of rock causes sizes distribution of fragmented rocks in blasting. Prediction of blasted rock mass fragmentation has a significant role in the overall economics of opencast mines. Blasting as primary fragmentation can significantly decrease the cost of loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Blast fragmentation chiefly depends on the specific blast design (geometry of blast holes drilling, the quantity and class of explosive, the blasting form, the timing and partition, etc.) and on the properties of the rock mass (including the uniaxial compressive strength, the rock mass elastic Young modulus, the rock discontinuity characteristics and the rock density). Prediction and processing of blasting results researchers can accomplish by a variety of existing software’s and models, one of them is the Kuz-Ram model, which is possibly the most widely used approach to estimating fragmentation from blasting. This paper shows the estimation of fragmentation using the "SB" program, which was created by the authors. Mentioned program includes the Kuz-Ram model. Models of fragmentation are confirmed and calibrated by comparing the estimated fragmentation with actual post-blast fragmentation from image processing techniques. In this study, the Kuz-Ram fragmentation model has been used for an open-pit limestone quarry in Dalmatia, southern Croatia. The resulting calibrated value of the rock factor enables the quality prognosis of fragmentation in further blasting works, with changed drilling geometry and blast design parameters. It also facilitates simulation in the program to optimize blasting works and get the desired fragmentations of the blasted rock mass.

  17. Fragmentation of neck-like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, C.; Bowman, D.R.; Peaslee, G.F.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for intermediate mass fragment emission from neck-like structures joining projectile- and target-like residues has been observed for peripheral 129 Xe+ nat Cu collisions at E/A=50 MeV. These framents are emitted primarily at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile and the target. Relative to the charge distribution for fragments evaporated from the projectile-like residue, the distribution for ''neck'' emission shows an enhanced emission for fragments with 4 f < 8. (orig.)

  18. Interactions between hormones and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, Erik; Sveberg, Line; Svalheim, Sigrid

    2015-05-01

    There is a complex, bidirectional interdependence between sex steroid hormones and epilepsy; hormones affect seizures, while seizures affect hormones thereby disturbing reproductive endocrine function. Both female and male sex steroid hormones influence brain excitability. For the female sex steroid hormones, progesterone and its metabolites are anticonvulsant, while estrogens are mainly proconvulsant. The monthly fluctuations in hormone levels of estrogen and progesterone are the basis for catamenial epilepsy described elsewhere in this issue. Androgens are mainly anticonvulsant, but the effects are more varied, probably because of its metabolism to, among others, estradiol. The mechanisms for the effects of sex steroid hormones on brain excitability are related to both classical, intracellularly mediated effects, and non-classical membrane effects due to binding to membrane receptors. The latter are considered the most important in relation to epilepsy. The different sex steroids can also be further metabolized within the brain to different neurosteroids, which are even more potent with regard to their effect on excitability. Estrogens potentiate glutamate responses, primarily by potentiating NMDA receptor activity, but also by affecting GABA-ergic mechanisms and altering brain morphology by increasing dendritic spine density. Progesterone and its main metabolite 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one (3α-5α-THP) act mainly to enhance postsynaptic GABA-ergic activity, while androgens enhance GABA-activated currents. Seizures and epileptic discharges also affect sex steroid hormones. There are close anatomical connections between the temporolimbic system and the hypothalamus controlling the endocrine system. Several studies have shown that epileptic activity, especially mediated through the amygdala, alters reproductive function, including reduced ovarian cyclicity in females and altered sex steroid hormone levels in both genders. Furthermore, there is an asymmetric

  19. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy used was to stimulate GH secretion in 8 young ... treatment with two oral doses of 50 mg atenolol (to inhibit .... had normal baseline thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ..... production rate of 14% per decade has been documented.'".

  20. Fragment-based approaches to TB drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Chiara; Chan, Daniel S H; Coyne, Anthony G; Abell, Chris

    2018-02-01

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity worldwide, particularly in developing countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) urgently demands the development of new drug leads to tackle resistant strains. Fragment-based methods have recently emerged at the forefront of pharmaceutical development as a means to generate more effective lead structures, via the identification of fragment molecules that form weak but high quality interactions with the target biomolecule and subsequent fragment optimization. This review highlights a number of novel inhibitors of Mtb targets that have been developed through fragment-based approaches in recent years.

  1. Gluon fragmentation in T(1S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienlein, J.K.

    1983-05-01

    In T(1S) decays most observables (sphericity, charged multiplicity, photonic energy fraction, inclusive spectra) can be understood assuming that gluons fragment like quarks. New results from LENA use the (axis-independent) Fox-Wolfram moments for the photonic energy deposition. Continuum reactions show 'standard' Field-Feynman fragmentation. T(1S) decays show a significant difference in the photonic energy topology. It is more isotropic than with the Field-Feynman fragmentation scheme. Gluon fragmentation into isoscalar mesons (a la Peterson and Walsh) is excluded. But if one forces the leading particle to be isoscalar, one gets good agreement with the data. (orig.)

  2. Measuring the temperature of hot nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschel, S.; Bonasera, A.; May, L.W.; Souliotis, G.A.; Tripathi, R.; Galanopoulos, S.; Kohley, Z.; Hagel, K.; Shetty, D.V.; Huseman, K.; Soisson, S.N.; Stein, B.C.; Yennello, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    A new thermometer based on fragment momentum fluctuations is presented. This thermometer exhibited residual contamination from the collective motion of the fragments along the beam axis. For this reason, the transverse direction has been explored. Additionally, a mass dependence was observed for this thermometer. This mass dependence may be the result of the Fermi momentum of nucleons or the different properties of the fragments (binding energy, spin, etc.) which might be more sensitive to different densities and temperatures of the exploding fragments. We expect some of these aspects to be smaller for protons (and/or neutrons); consequently, the proton transverse momentum fluctuations were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the source.

  3. Kinetics of fragmentation-annihilation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, JAN; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the kinetics of systems in which particles of one species undergo binary fragmentation and pair annihilation. In the latter, nonlinear process, fragments react at collision to produce an inert species, causing loss of mass. We analyze these systems in the reaction-limited regime by solving a continuous model within the mean-field approximation. The rate of fragmentation for a particle of mass x to break into fragments of masses y and x-y has the form x(lambda-1) (lambda > 0), a...

  4. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey’s Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Gómez, José D.; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santillán-Doherty, Ana M.; Valdez, Ricardo A.; Romano, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging) and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation) variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels–hormones associated with animal health and fitness–of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys. PMID:26901767

  5. Proximal and Distal Predictors of the Spider Monkey's Stress Levels in Fragmented Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D Ordóñez-Gómez

    Full Text Available The rapid loss, fragmentation and degradation of tropical forests threaten the survival of many animal species. However, the way in which these phenomena affect animal health has been poorly explored, thus limiting the design of appropriate conservation strategies. To address this, here we identified using linear mixed models the effect of proximal (diet, activity pattern, hunting and logging and distal (sum of the basal areas of fruiting-tree species [SBAFS], landscape forest cover and degree of forest fragmentation variables over fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM levels-hormones associated with animal health and fitness-of six groups of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi inhabiting six landscapes with different spatial structures in Mexico. Proximal variables showed a stronger predictive power over fGCMs than distal. In this sense, increases in travel time, the occurrence of hunting, and reductions in rest time and fruit consumption resulted in higher fGCM levels. Regarding distal variables, increases in SBAFS were negatively related to fGCM levels, thus suggesting that food scarcity increases stress hormone levels. Nevertheless, contrary to theoretical expectations, spider monkeys living in smaller tracts of forest spent less time travelling, but the same time feeding on fruit as those in more forested areas. The lower net energy return associated with this combination of factors would explain why, contrary to theoretical expectations, increased forest cover was associated with increased levels of fGCMs in these groups. Our study shows that, at least in the short term, spider monkeys in fragmented landscapes do not always present higher levels of stress hormones compared to those inhabiting continuous forest, and the importance of preserving fruit sources and controlling hunting for reducing the levels of stress hormones in free ranging spider monkeys.

  6. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...... = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through...

  7. HORMONAL TREATMENT IN UROGYNECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolf Lukanović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hormonal treatment in urogynecology is based on the knowledge, that urinary and reproductive tracts have common embriologic origin and are also linked anatomically and functionally. Both systems are functioning and changing due to sex steroids influence. Decreased estrogen concentrations are connected to metabolic and trophic changes in all organs with estrogen receptors, i.e. also in urogenital tract. Atrophy of urogenital system in postmenopause is a common causative factor for stress urinary incontinence (SUI and urge incontinence (UUI. In both estrogen replacement treatment have been introduced, but meta-analyses of the available literature indicate that estrogen therapy is effective only if given vaginaly. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI occur in postmenopause often as a consequence of structural changes in urinary and reproductive tract to lowered immune protection and colonization with eneterobacteria. In RUTI too, estrogen replacement treatment have been used with the results similar to those with SUI and UUI. Effectiveness of estrogen treatment was evident only in topically applied vaginaly, while oral administration has the same effectiveness as placebo. Conclusions. Structural changes in urogenital tract in postmenopause are the results of estrogen depletion. Estrogen replacement is effective in cases of SUI, UUI and RUTI if it is applied topicaly, the efffect being influenced by the type of estrogen used and duration of treatment.

  8. Mechanisms Affecting Population Density in Fragmented Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Tischendorf

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a factorial simulation experiment to analyze the relative importance of movement pattern, boundary-crossing probability, and mortality in habitat and matrix on population density, and its dependency on habitat fragmentation, as well as inter-patch distance. We also examined how the initial response of a species to a fragmentation event may affect our observations of population density in post-fragmentation experiments. We found that the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix, which partly determines the emigration rate, is the most important determinant for population density within habitat patches. The probability of crossing a boundary from matrix to habitat had a weaker, but positive, effect on population density. Movement behavior in habitat had a stronger effect on population density than movement behavior in matrix. Habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance may have a positive or negative effect on population density. The direction of both effects depends on two factors. First, when the boundary-crossing probability from habitat to matrix is high, population density may decline with increasing habitat fragmentation. Conversely, for species with a high matrix-to-habitat boundary-crossing probability, population density may increase with increasing habitat fragmentation. Second, the initial distribution of individuals across the landscape: we found that habitat fragmentation and inter-patch distance were positively correlated with population density when individuals were distributed across matrix and habitat at the beginning of our simulation experiments. The direction of these relationships changed to negative when individuals were initially distributed across habitat only. Our findings imply that the speed of the initial response of organisms to habitat fragmentation events may determine the direction of observed relationships between habitat fragmentation and population density. The time scale of post-fragmentation

  9. The significance of monitoring sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiuwei; Xu Peizhen; Yu Bin; Zhou Hong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the significance of monitoring serum sex hormones levels after ovarian tissue auto-transplantation. Methods: Twenty-five patients with stage IV recurrent endometriosis after one or two times of conservative surgeries underwent radical surgery. Their ovarian tissue fragments were transplanted to greater omentum. Serum follicle-stimulation hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) levels were measured monthly since fourth month post-operatively. After E 2 was increased, based body temperature was measured and vaginal hormone cytology was examined weekly for maturation index (MI) to assess the ovulatory phase and luteal phase in those with viable ovarian tissues. Serum levels of FSH, LH and E 2 in ovulatory phase and luteal phase were determined 20 women with viable ovarian tissues for three cycles as well as in 20 normal sexually mature women and 20 operative menopausal women. Results: There were 12 cases who had increasing of E 2 at four months post operatively and 8 cases more at six months. The other 5 cases with low serum E 2 levels and high FSH and LH levels at 12 months were designated as failures. The survival rate of transplanted ovarian tissue was 80.0%. There were no significant differences of the serum FSH, LH and E 2 levels in ovulatory phase and luteal phase between women with viable grafted ovarian tissues and normal sexually mature women. Conclusion: Monitoring of sex hormones is a good means to assess the viability of the transplanted ovarian tissue fragments

  10. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  11. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  12. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  13. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child if you see signs of poor self-esteem or sadness that could be related to being ... December 2011 The Hormone Health Network offers free, online resources based on the most advanced clinical and ...

  14. Parton fragmentation and string dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.; Gustafson, G.; Ingelman, G.; Sjoestrand, T.

    1983-01-01

    While much has been learned recently about quark and gluon interactions in the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, the relation between calculated parton properties and observed hadron densities involves models where dynamics and jet empirical rules have to be combined. The purpose of this article is to describe a presently successful approach which is based on a cascade jet model using String dynamics. It can readily lead to Monte Carlo jet programmes of great use when analyzing data. Production processes in an iterative cascade approach, with tunneling in a constant force field, are reviewed. Expected differences between quark and gluon jets are discussed. Low transverse momentum phenomena are also reviewed with emphasis on hyperon polarization. In so far as this approach uses a fragmentation scheme based on String dynamics, it was deemed appropriate to also include under the same cover a special report on the Classical theory of relativistic Strings, seen as the classical limit of the Dual Resonance model. The Equations of motion and interaction among strings are presented. (orig.)

  15. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  16. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  17. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  18. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  19. Thermodynamics of the fuel fragmentation gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.B.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of nuclear reactor safety studies, a program is in progress at ORNL whereby fuel-fragmentation situations are mocked up by the application of high-current capacitor discharges through solid UO 2 samples. The goal of the present work is to predict such quantities as the number of gas and liquid fragments and their energy distributions. The point of view adopted is that upon fragmentation, a cloud of UO 2 vapor is formed containing ''primeval'' liquid fragments which act as condensation centers. In the evolution of time, fragment growth is controlled by nucleation, coagulation and evaporation processes. Eventually, the vapor-droplet system will reach a situation in which clusters (fragments) of various sizes and UO 2 vapor will coexist in an ''association-disassociation'' equilibrium. Thus, the physical model considered here consists of the identification of the fragmentation gas with an ''imperfect'' vapor, made up of interacting UO 2 vapor and liquid fragments. The results of the study are presented

  20. Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, S.; Metz, A.; Pitonyak, D.

    2010-01-01

    Momentum sum rules for fragmentation functions are considered. In particular, we give a general proof of the Schaefer-Teryaev sum rule for the transverse momentum dependent Collins function. We also argue that corresponding sum rules for related fragmentation functions do not exist. Our model-independent analysis is supplemented by calculations in a simple field-theoretical model.

  1. A note on convex renorming and fragmentability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Using the game approach to fragmentability, we give new and simpler proofs of the following known results: (a) If the Banach space admits an equivalent. Kadec norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology. (b) If the Banach space admits an equivalent rotund ...

  2. Temperatures of fragment kinetic energy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation reactions without large compression in the initial state (proton-induced reactions, reverse kinematics, projectile fragmentation) are examined, and it is verified quantitatively that the high temperatures obtained from fragment kinetic energy spectra and lower temperatures obtained from observables such as level population or isotope ratios can be understood in a common framework

  3. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and

  4. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  5. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K W; Choe, K O; Park, C Y; Lee, H; Son, H Y; Huh, K B; Ryu, K J [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  6. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  7. Growth Hormone and Endocrinopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. W.; Choe, K. O.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, H.; Son, H. Y.; Huh, K. B.; Ryu, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    This is an analysis of 39 patients studied at the Yonsei Medical Center from January, 1976 to March 1979. Of these 35 patient were suspected of having hypothalamic insufficiency and subjected to the L-Dopa stimulation test to observe growth hormone secretary function while four acromegaly patient received the glucose loading test and L-Dopa stimulation test. The results are as follows: 1) The basal level of GH in the various disease was as follows: a) The basal level was lower than the control level but was not statistically significant b) In diabetes the mean value tended to higher than the control level but was not significant statistically c) In all four acromegaly patients the GH level was significantly higher than the control level 2) Of 13 patients with diabetes, nine had diabetic retinopathy, and of those nine, six showed increased L-Dopa response. However, of the four non retinopathic DM patients, only one showed increased response to L-Dopa. 3) Two patients out of ten with Sheehan's syndrome responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 4) One Patient of eight with pituitary chromophobe adenoma responded to L-Dopa stimulation. 5) Four acromegaly patients revealed 3 acidophilic adenoma and one chromophobe adenoma histologically. Of patients receiving the L-Dopa stimulation test. Two showed a paradoxical response. Two patients who received the glucose loading test showed suppressed response. 6) Of two craniopharyngioma patients, one showed increased GH response after L-Dopa stimulation. Increased response of GH after L-Dopa stimulation was seen in one two craniopharyngioma patients and also in one of two patients with short structure.

  8. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones...... as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor or a fertility factor. The targets of gastrointestinal hormones are specific G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in the cell membranes also outside the digestive tract. Thus, gut hormones not only regulate digestive functions...

  9. Current fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.

    1975-04-01

    It is argued that the current fragmentation products in deep inelastic electron scattering will not be distributed in a 'one-dimensional' rapidity plateau as in the parton model picture of Feynman and Bjorken. A reaction mechanism with a multiperipheral topology, but which the above configuration might have been achieved, does not in fact populate the current fragmentation plateau; and unless partons are actually observed in the final state, it cannot lead to Bjorken scaling. The basic reason for this failure is shown to be the fact that when a particle is produced in the current fragmentation plateau, the adjacent momentum transfer in the multiperipheral chain becomes large and negative: such processes are inevitably suppressed. Instead, the current fragmentation products are likely to be generated by a fragmentation, or sequential decay process. (author)

  10. The politics of municipal fragmentation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Kuyini Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly debate over the rival merits of local government consolidation and fragmentation is an old but enduring one. However, in this debate very little attention has been focused on the political dimension of council amalgamation and fragmentation – yet political considerations play a central role in both the formulation and outcomes of de-concentration policy. The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the literature by examining local government fragmentation in Ghana from 1988 to 2014. The article does this by identifying the key players and analysing their interests and gains, as well as the tensions arising from the fragmentation exercise. The implications from the Ghanaian case for more general theories of fragmentation are drawn out.

  11. Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.

  12. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  13. Missing Fragments: Detecting Cooperative Binding in Fragment-Based Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is to identify molecular fragments that bind to alternate subsites within a given binding pocket leading to cooperative binding when linked. In this study, the binding of fragments to human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is used to illustrate how (a) current protocols may fail to detect fragments that bind cooperatively, (b) theoretical approaches can be used to validate potential hits, and (c) apparent false positives obtained when screening against cocktails of fragments may in fact indicate promising leads. PMID:24900472

  14. Dual Fragment Impact of PBX Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Peter; Briggs, Richard; Leeming, David; White, Nathan; Cheese, Philip; DE&S MoD UK Team; Ordnance Test Solutions Ltd Team

    2017-06-01

    Fragment impact can pose a significant hazard to many systems containing explosives or propellants. Testing for this threat is most commonly carried out using a single fragment. However, it can be argued that an initial fragment strike (or strikes) could sensitise the energetic material to subsequent impacts, which may then lead to a more violent reaction than would have been predicted based upon single fragment studies. To explore this potential hazard we have developed the capability to launch 2 fragments from the same gun at a range of velocities, and achieve impacts on an acceptor charge with good control over the spatial and temporal separation of the strikes. In this paper we will describe in detail the experimental techniques we have used, both to achieve the dual fragment launch and observe the acceptor charge response. In addition, we will describe the results obtained against PBX filled explosive targets; discuss the mechanisms controlling the target response and their significance for vulnerability assessment. Results of these tests have clearly indicated the potential for detonation upon the second strike, at velocities well below those needed for shock initiation by a single fragment.

  15. Introduction to fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanson, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has emerged in the past decade as a powerful tool for discovering drug leads. The approach first identifies starting points: very small molecules (fragments) that are about half the size of typical drugs. These fragments are then expanded or linked together to generate drug leads. Although the origins of the technique date back some 30 years, it was only in the mid-1990s that experimental techniques became sufficiently sensitive and rapid for the concept to be become practical. Since that time, the field has exploded: FBDD has played a role in discovery of at least 18 drugs that have entered the clinic, and practitioners of FBDD can be found throughout the world in both academia and industry. Literally dozens of reviews have been published on various aspects of FBDD or on the field as a whole, as have three books (Jahnke and Erlanson, Fragment-based approaches in drug discovery, 2006; Zartler and Shapiro, Fragment-based drug discovery: a practical approach, 2008; Kuo, Fragment based drug design: tools, practical approaches, and examples, 2011). However, this chapter will assume that the reader is approaching the field with little prior knowledge. It will introduce some of the key concepts, set the stage for the chapters to follow, and demonstrate how X-ray crystallography plays a central role in fragment identification and advancement.

  16. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  17. POLYMORPHISMS OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN HARINGHATA BLACK CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saikhom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with an aim to investigate the genetic variability of growth hormone gene in Haringhata Black chicken. Blood samples were collected from 82 experimental birds and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified high salt method. Amplification of specific DNA fragment of intron 4 of growth hormone gene yielded a product size of 713 bp and was analyzed for polymorphism using PCR-SSCP technique. The banding pattern of present investigation revealed two SSCP variants AA and BB genotype in all experimental birds. In the analysed flock of Haringhata Black Chicken, the genotype frequencies were found to be 0.915 for AA and 0.085 for BB genotype. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.915 and 0.085 respectively which indicated A allele was predominant in the studied Haringhata Black Chicken population of the farm. The Chi Square Test revealed that studied population was not in accordance with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium with respect to intron 4 of Growth hormone gene.

  18. Fragmentation in the branching coral Acropora palmata (Lamarck): growth, survivorship, and reproduction of colonies and fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirman

    2000-08-23

    Acropora palmata, a branching coral abundant on shallow reef environments throughout the Caribbean, is susceptible to physical disturbance caused by storms. Accordingly, the survivorship and propagation of this species are tied to its capability to recover after fragmentation. Fragments of A. palmata comprised 40% of ramets within populations that had experienced recent storms. While the survivorship of A. palmata fragments was not directly related to the size of fragments, removal of fragments from areas where they settled was influenced by size. Survivorship of fragments was also affected by type of substratum; the greatest mortality (58% loss within the first month) was observed on sand, whereas fragments placed on top of live colonies of A. palmata fused to the underlying tissue and did not experience any losses. Fragments created by Hurricane Andrew on a Florida reef in August 1992 began developing new growth (proto-branches) 7 months after the storm. The number of proto-branches on fragments was dependent on size, but growth was not affected by the size of fragments. Growth-rates of proto-branches increased exponentially with time (1.7 cm year(-1) for 1993-1994, 2.7 cm year(-1) for 1994-1995, 4.2 cm year(-1) for 1995-1996, and 6.5 cm year(-1) for 1996-1997), taking over 4 years for proto-branches to achieve rates comparable to those of adult colonies on the same reef (6.9 cm year(-1)). In addition to the initial mortality and reduced growth-rates, fragmentation resulted in a loss of reproductive potential. Neither colonies that experienced severe fragmentation nor fragments contained gametes until 4 years after the initial damage. Although A. palmata may survive periodic fragmentation, the long-term effects of this process will depend ultimately on the balance between the benefits and costs of this process.

  19. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  20. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  1. Radioimmunological and clinical studies with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LRH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LRH) has been established, tested and applied. Optimal conditions for the performance with regards to incubation time, incubation temperature, concentration of antiserum and radiolabelled LRH have been established. The specificity of the LRH immunoassay was investigated. Problems with direct measurement of LRH in plasmas of radioimmunoassay are encountered. The LRH distribution in various tissues of the rat are investigated. By means of a system for continuous monitoring of LH and FSH in women the lowest effective dose of LRH causing a significant release of LH and FSH could be established. (Auth.)

  2. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  3. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A Symbolic Dynamical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena D. Costa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We recently introduced the concept of heart rate fragmentation along with a set of metrics for its quantification. The term was coined to refer to an increase in the percentage of changes in heart rate acceleration sign, a dynamical marker of a type of anomalous variability. The effort was motivated by the observation that fragmentation, which is consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system of the sino-atrial node, could confound traditional short-term analysis of heart rate variability.Objective: The objectives of this study were to: (1 introduce a symbolic dynamical approach to the problem of quantifying heart rate fragmentation; (2 evaluate how the distribution of the different dynamical patterns (“words” varied with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; and (3 quantify the differences in the fragmentation patterns between the two sample populations.Methods: The symbolic dynamical method employed here was based on a ternary map of the increment NN interval time series and on the analysis of the relative frequency of symbolic sequences (words with a pre-defined set of features. We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter databases of healthy subjects and patients with CAD, provided by the University of Rochester Telemetric and Holter ECG Warehouse (THEW.Results: The degree of fragmentation was significantly higher in older individuals than in their younger counterparts. However, the fragmentation patterns were different in the two sample populations. In healthy subjects, older age was significantly associated with a higher percentage of transitions from acceleration/deceleration to zero acceleration and vice versa (termed “soft” inflection points. In patients with CAD, older age was also significantly associated with higher percentages of frank reversals in heart rate acceleration (transitions from acceleration to

  4. Gluon fragmentation into 3 PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The functions of the gluon fragmentation into 3 P j quarkonium are calculated to order α 2 s . With the recent progress in analysing quarkonium systems in QCD it is possible show how the so called divergence in the limit of the zero-binding energy, which is related to P-wave quarkonia, is treated correctly in the case of fragmentation functions. The obtained fragmentation functions satisfy explicitly at the order of α 2 s the Altarelli-Parisi equation and when z → 0 they behave as z -1 as expected. 19 refs., 7 figs

  5. Origin of fragments in multifragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbiri, K.; Aichelin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics approach we have started analyzing the results of the recent INDRA experiments at GSI facilities. For the first time we could identify a midrapidity source in which fragments are formed from an almost identical fraction of projectile and target nucleons. In smaller systems we have found this source. Nevertheless the fragment spectra at small and large angles is completely determined by the dynamics. We discuss how fragments are formed in the different regions of phase space and what they tell us about the reaction mechanism. (authors)

  6. Bone fragments a body can make

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S.D.; Ross, L.M. Jr. (Department of Anthropology, University of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Data obtained from various analytical techniques applied to a number of small bone fragments recovered from a crime scene were used to provide evidence for the occurrence of a fatality. Microscopic and histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the fragments were from a human skull. X-ray microanalysis of darkened areas on the bone fragments revealed a chemical signature that matched the chemical signature of a shotgun pellet recovered at the scene of the crime. The above findings supported the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint evidence which, along with other evidence, was used to convict a man for the murder of his wife, even though her body was never recovered.

  7. Aspect Ratio Dependence of Impact Fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaoka, H.; Toyosawa, E.; Takayasu, H.; Inaoka, H.

    1997-01-01

    A numerical model of three-dimensional impact fragmentation produces a power-law cumulative fragment mass distribution followed by a flat tail. The result is consistent with an experimental result in a recent paper by Meibom and Balslev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2492 (1996)]. Our numerical simulation also implies that the fragment mass distribution changes from a power law with a flat tail to a power law with a sudden cutoff, depending on the aspect ratio of the fractured object. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Origin of fragments in multifragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbiri, K.; Aichelin, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using the quantum molecular dynamics approach we have started to analyze the results of the recent INDRA experiments at GSI experiments. For the first time we could identify a midrapidity source in which fragments are formed from a almost identical fraction of projectile and target nucleons. In smaller systems we have not found this source. Nevertheless the fragment spectra at small and large angles are completely determined by the dynamics. We discuss how fragments are formed in the different regions of phase space and what they tell us about the reaction mechanism. (author)

  9. Radioimmunoassays specific for the midregion (44-68) of parathyroid hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallette, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    A lot of research has been done for characterization of the regional specificity of radioimunnoassays for Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). The main portion of plasma PTH consists of biologically inactive fragments, with a long half-life compared to active PTH. In this article a midregion-specific radioimmunoassay for PTH is described, the non-specific binding values and plasma creatinine influence are discussed. Finally some plasma measurements of hypo-, hyperparathyroid and hypercalcemic patients are presented. (Auth.)

  10. Electrochemical biosensors for hormone analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-15

    Electrochemical biosensors have a unique place in determination of hormones due to simplicity, sensitivity, portability and ease of operation. Unlike chromatographic techniques, electrochemical techniques used do not require pre-treatment. Electrochemical biosensors are based on amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric, and conductometric principle. Amperometric technique is a commonly used one. Although electrochemical biosensors offer a great selectivity and sensitivity for early clinical analysis, the poor reproducible results, difficult regeneration steps remain primary challenges to the commercialization of these biosensors. This review summarizes electrochemical (amperometric, potentiometric, impedimetric and conductometric) biosensors for hormone detection for the first time in the literature. After a brief description of the hormones, the immobilization steps and analytical performance of these biosensors are summarized. Linear ranges, LODs, reproducibilities, regenerations of developed biosensors are compared. Future outlooks in this area are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormone replacement therapy is associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Close Helen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oestrogen and progestogen have the potential to influence gastro-intestinal motility; both are key components of hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Results of observational studies in women taking HRT rely on self-reporting of gastro-oesophageal symptoms and the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD remains unclear. This study investigated the association between HRT and GORD in menopausal women using validated general practice records. Methods 51,182 menopausal women were identified using the UK General Practice Research Database between 1995–2004. Of these, 8,831 were matched with and without hormone use. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated for GORD and proton-pump inhibitor (PPI use in hormone and non-hormone users, adjusting for age, co-morbidities, and co-pharmacy. Results In unadjusted analysis, all forms of hormone use (oestrogen-only, tibolone, combined HRT and progestogen were statistically significantly associated with GORD. In adjusted models, this association remained statistically significant for oestrogen-only treatment (OR 1.49; 1.18–1.89. Unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between PPI use and oestrogen-only and combined HRT treatment. When adjusted for covariates, oestrogen-only treatment was significant (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.03–1.74. Findings from the adjusted model demonstrated the greater use of PPI by progestogen users (OR 1.50; 1.01–2.22. Conclusions This first large cohort study of the association between GORD and HRT found a statistically significant association between oestrogen-only hormone and GORD and PPI use. This should be further investigated using prospective follow-up to validate the strength of association and describe its clinical significance.

  12. Cholinergic and VIPergic effects on thyroid hormone secretion in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahren, B.

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid gland is known to harbor cholinergic and VIPergic nerves. In the present study, the influences of cholinergic stimulation by carbachol, cholinergic blockade by methylatropine and stimulation with various VIP sequences on basal, TSH-induced and VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion were investigated in vivo in mice. The mice were pretreated with 125 I and thyroxine; the subsequent release of 125 I is an estimation of thyroid hormone secretion. It was found that basal radioiodine secretion was inhibited by both carbachol and methylatropine. Furthermore, TSH-induced radioiodine secretion was inhibited already by a low dose of carbachol. Moreover, a high dose of carbachol could inhibit VIP-induced radioiodine secretion. Methylatropine did not influence TSH- or VIP-stimulated radioiodine secretion, but counteracted the inhibitory action of carbachol on TSH- and VIP-induced radioiodine release. In addition, contrary to VIP, six various synthesized VIP fragments had no effect on basal or stimulated radioiodine release. It is concluded that basal thyroid hormone secretion is inhibited by both cholinergic activation and blockade. Furthermore, TSH-induced thyroid hormone secretion is more sensitive to inhibition with cholinergic stimulation than is VIP-induced thyroid hormone secretion. In addition, the VIP stimulation of thyroid hormone secretion seems to require the full VIP sequence

  13. Dihadron fragmentation function and its evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumder, A.; Wang Xinnian

    2004-01-01

    Dihadron fragmentation functions and their evolution are studied in the process of e + e - annihilation. Under the collinear factorization approximation and facilitated by the cut-vertex technique, the two hadron inclusive cross section at leading order is shown to factorize into a short distance parton cross section and a long distance dihadron fragmentation function. We provide the definition of such a dihadron fragmentation function in terms of parton matrix elements and derive its Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi evolution equation at leading log. The evolution equation for the nonsinglet quark fragmentation function is solved numerically with a simple ansatz for the initial condition and results are presented for cases of physical interest

  14. A Current Logical Framework: The Propositional Fragment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    We present the propositional fragment CLF of the Concurrent Logical Framework (CLF). CLF extends the Linear Logical Framework to allow the natural representation of concurrent computations in an object language...

  15. Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP-cDNA) analysis of differential gene expression from the xerophyte Ammopiptanthus mongolicus in response to cold, drought and cold together with drought.

  16. Integration of fragment screening and library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gregg; Ab, Eiso; Schultz, Jan

    2007-12-01

    With more than 10 years of practical experience and theoretical analysis, fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has entered the mainstream of the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. An array of biophysical techniques has been used to detect the weak interaction between a fragment and the target. Each technique presents its own requirements regarding the fragment collection and the target; therefore, in order to optimize the potential of FBDD, the nature of the target should be a driving factor for simultaneous development of both the library and the screening technology. A roadmap is now available to guide fragment-to-lead evolution when structural information is available. The next challenge is to apply FBDD to targets for which high-resolution structural information is not available.

  17. An improved algorithm for MFR fragment assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontaxis, Georg

    2012-01-01

    A method for generating protein backbone models from backbone only NMR data is presented, which is based on molecular fragment replacement (MFR). In a first step, the PDB database is mined for homologous peptide fragments using experimental backbone-only data i.e. backbone chemical shifts (CS) and residual dipolar couplings (RDC). Second, this fragment library is refined against the experimental restraints. Finally, the fragments are assembled into a protein backbone fold using a rigid body docking algorithm using the RDCs as restraints. For improved performance, backbone nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) may be included at that stage. Compared to previous implementations of MFR-derived structure determination protocols this model-building algorithm offers improved stability and reliability. Furthermore, relative to CS-ROSETTA based methods, it provides faster performance and straightforward implementation with the option to easily include further types of restraints and additional energy terms.

  18. Subcellular localization of estradiol receptor in MCF7 cells studied with nanogold-labelled antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, M M; Qualmann, B; Thole, H H; Sierralta, W D

    1998-01-01

    Ultrastructural localization studies of estradiol receptor in hormone-deprived and hormone-stimulated MCF7 cells were done using F(ab') fragments of three different antibodies (#402, 13H2, HT277) covalently linked to nanogold. These ultra-small, non-charged immunoreagents, combined with a size-enlargement by silver enhancement, localized estradiol receptor in both nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of non-stimulated target cells; stimulation with the steroid induced a predominantly nuclear labelling. In the cytoplasm of resting cells, tagging was often observed at or in the proximity of stress fibers. In the nucleus a large proportion of receptor was found inside the nucleolus, specially with the reagent derived from antibody 13H2. We postulate that different accessibilities of receptor epitopes account for the different labelling densities observed at cytoskeletal elements and the nucleoli.

  19. Some theoretical aspects of hormone receptor determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluiter, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Suitable antisera for determination of hormone receptors are not available for the majority of hormone receptors. Therefore, the determination of hormone receptors is mostly performed in terms of binding capacity for the appropriate hormone, using radioactive hormone labels. Some theoretical aspects of such a receptor determination are discussed including the length of incubation (total or unoccupied receptor concentration), single point or multiple point (Scatchard) analysis (regarding the influence of other specific binders), the correction procedure for non-specific binding and the influence of the circulating hormone level. (Auth.)

  20. Down-regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in cultured bone cells is associated with agonist-specific intracellular processing of PTH-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, A P; Silve, C M; Nyiredy, K O; Arnaud, C D

    1986-02-01

    Exposure of cultured embryonic chicken bone cells to the PTH agonists bovine (b) PTH-(1-34) and [8Nle, 18Nle, 34Tyr]bPTH-(1-34)amide [bPTH-(1-34)A] reduces the subsequent cAMP response to the hormone and decreases the specific binding of 125I-labeled PTH to these cultures. To determine whether PTH receptor down-regulation in cultured bone cells is mediated by cellular internalization of PTH-receptor complexes, we measured the uptake of [125I]bPTH-(1-34) into an acid-resistant compartment. Uptake of radioactivity into this compartment was inhibited by incubating cells at 4 C with phenylarsineoxide and unlabeled bPTH-(1-34). Tracer uptake into the acid-resistant compartment at any time was directly proportional to total cell binding at 22 C. Thus, it is likely that PTH-receptor complexes are internalized by bone cells. This mechanism may explain the loss of cell surface receptors after PTH pretreatment. To determine whether internalized PTH-receptor complexes are reinserted into the plasma membrane, we measured PTH binding and PTH stimulation of cAMP production after cells were exposed to monensin, a known inhibitor of receptor recycling. Monensin (25 microM) had no effect on PTH receptor number or affinity and did not alter PTH-stimulated cAMP accumulation. However, monensin (25 microM) incubated with cells pretreated with various concentrations of bPTH-(1-34) for 1 h potentiated the effect of the hormone to reduce subsequent [125I]bPTH-(1-34) binding and PTH-stimulated cAMP accumulation by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Chloroquine also potentiated PTH-induced down-regulation of PTH receptors. By contrast, neither agent influenced PTH binding or PTH-stimulated cAMP production in cells pretreated with the antagonist bPTH-(3-34)A. Thus, monensin potentiated PTH receptor loss only in cells pretreated with PTH agonists, indicating that antagonist-occupied receptors may be processed differently from agonist-occupied receptors in bone cells. The data further suggest

  1. Advances in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Antonietta; Gava, Giulia; Berra, Marta; Meriggiola Maria, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  2. Advances in male hormonal contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is a basic human right for its role on health, quality of life and wellbeing of the woman and of the society as a whole. Since the introduction of female hormonal contraception the responsibility of family planning has always been with women. Currently there are only a few contraceptive methods available for men, but recently, men have become more interested in supporting their partners actively. Over the last few decades different trials have been performed providing important advances in the development of a safe and effective hormonal contraceptive for men. This paper summarizes some of the most recent trials.

  3. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  4. Hormonal contraception, thrombosis and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-01-01

    : First choice in women below 35 years should be a combined low-risk pill, that is, with a second-generation progestin, with the lowest compliable dose of estrogen. Young women with risk factors of thrombosis such as age above 35 years, genetic predispositions, adiposity, polycystic ovary syndrome......INTRODUCTION: This paper reviews the risk of thrombosis with use of different types of hormonal contraception in women of different ages. AREAS COVERED: Combined hormonal contraceptives with desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone or cyproterone acetate (high-risk products) confer a sixfold increased...

  5. Hormonal Changes and Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Eric S; Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L

    2017-11-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common concern for many patients with cancer after treatment. Hormonal changes as a result of cancer-directed therapy can affect both male and female sexual health. This has the potential to significantly impact patients' quality of life, but is underreported and undertreated in the oncology setting. This review discusses commonly reported sexual issues and the role that hormonal changes play in this dysfunction. Although medical and psychosocial intervention strategies exist, there is a clear need for further research to formally develop programming that can assist people whose sexual health has been impacted by cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Luteinizing hormone in testicular descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toppari, Jorma; Kaleva, Marko M; Virtanen, Helena E

    2007-01-01

    alone is not sufficient for normal testicular descent. The regulation of androgen production is influenced both by placental human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH). There is evidence that the longer pregnancy continues, the more important role pituitary LH may have....... Insulin-like hormone-3 (INSL3) is suggested to be the main regulator of gubernacular development and therefore an apparent regulator of testicular descent. INSL3 production is also related to LH, and reduced INSL3 action is a possible cause for cryptorchidism. Cryptorchid boys have normal testosterone...

  7. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  8. Quark fragmentation into 3PJ quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The functions of parton fragmentation into 3 P J quarkonium at order α 2 s are calculated, where the parton can be a heavy or a light quark. The obtained functions explicitly satisfy the Altarelli-Parisi equation and they are divergent, behaving as z -1 near z = O. However, if one choses the renormalization scale as twice of the heavy quark mass, the fragmentation functions are regular over the whole range of z. 15 refs., 2 figs

  9. The lund Monte Carlo for jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, T.

    1982-03-01

    We present a Monte Carlo program based on the Lund model for jet fragmentation. Quark, gluon, diquark and hadron jets are considered. Special emphasis is put on the fragmentation of colour singlet jet systems, for which energy, momentum and flavour are conserved explicitly. The model for decays of unstable particles, in particular the weak decay of heavy hadrons, is described. The central part of the paper is a detailed description on how to use the FORTRAN 77 program. (Author)

  10. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  11. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  12. Fragman: an R package for fragment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias-Pazaran, Giovanny; Diaz-Garcia, Luis; Schlautman, Brandon; Salazar, Walter; Zalapa, Juan

    2016-04-21

    Determination of microsatellite lengths or other DNA fragment types is an important initial component of many genetic studies such as mutation detection, linkage and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genetic diversity, pedigree analysis, and detection of heterozygosity. A handful of commercial and freely available software programs exist for fragment analysis; however, most of them are platform dependent and lack high-throughput applicability. We present the R package Fragman to serve as a freely available and platform independent resource for automatic scoring of DNA fragment lengths diversity panels and biparental populations. The program analyzes DNA fragment lengths generated in Applied Biosystems® (ABI) either manually or automatically by providing panels or bins. The package contains additional tools for converting the allele calls to GenAlEx, JoinMap® and OneMap software formats mainly used for genetic diversity and generating linkage maps in plant and animal populations. Easy plotting functions and multiplexing friendly capabilities are some of the strengths of this R package. Fragment analysis using a unique set of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) genotypes based on microsatellite markers is used to highlight the capabilities of Fragman. Fragman is a valuable new tool for genetic analysis. The package produces equivalent results to other popular software for fragment analysis while possessing unique advantages and the possibility of automation for high-throughput experiments by exploiting the power of R.

  13. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  14. Fragmentation of molten core material by sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.

    1982-01-01

    A series of scoping experiments was performed to study the fragmentation of prototypic high temperature melts in sodium. The quantity of melt involved was at least one order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. Two modes of contact were used: melt streaming into sodium and sodium into melt. The average bulk fragment size distribution was found to be in the range of previous data and the average size distribution was found to be insensitive to mode of contact. SEM studies showed that the metal component typically fragmented in the molten phase while the oxide component fragmented in the solid phase. For UO 2 -ZrO 2 /stainless steel melts no sigificant spatial separation of the metal and oxide was observed. The fragment size distribution was stratified vertically in the debris bed in all cases. While the bulk fragment size showed generally consistent trends, the individual experiments were sufficiently different to cause different degrees of stratification in the debris bed. For the highly stratified beds the permeability can decrease by as much as a factor of 20 from the bottom to the top of the bed

  15. Fractures Due to Gunshot Wounds: Do Retained Bullet Fragments Affect Union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, John T; Connolly, Keith; Haidukewych, George; Koval, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many types of projectiles, including modern hollow point bullets, fragment into smaller pieces upon impact, particularly when striking bone. This study was performed to examine the effect on time to union with retained bullet material near a fracture site in cases of gunshot injury. All gunshot injuries operatively treated with internal fixation at a Level 1 Trauma Center between March 2008 and August 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Retained bullet load near the fracture site was calculated based on percentage of material retained compared to the cortical diameter of the involved bone. Analyses were performed to assess the effect of the lead-cortical ratio and amount of comminution on time to fracture union. Thirty-two patients (34 fractures) met the inclusion criteria, with an equal number of comminuted (17) and non-comminuted fractures (17). Seventeen of 34 fractures (50%) united within 4 months, 16/34 (47%) developed a delayed union, and 1/34 (3%) developed a nonunion requiring revision surgery. Sixteen of 17 fractures (94%) that united by 4 months had a cumulative amount of bullet fragmentation retained near the fracture site of less than 20% of the cortical diameter. Nine out of 10 fractures (90%) with retained fragments near the fracture site was equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical diameter had delayed or nonunion. Fracture comminution had no effect on time to union. The quantity of retained bullet material near the fracture site was more predictive of the rate of fracture union than was comminution. Fractures with bullet fragmentation equal to or exceeding 20% of the cortical width demonstrated a significantly higher rate of delayed union/nonunion compared to those fractures with less retained bullet material, which may indicate a local cytotoxic effect from lead on bone healing. These findings may influence decisions on timing of secondary surgeries. Level III.

  16. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  17. Interactions between the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the growth hormone axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    The normal secretion and action of the thyroid hormones and the hormones of the GH/IGF-I (growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor I) axis are interdependent. Their interactions often differ in man from animal studies in rodents and sheep. Thus neonates with congenital hypothyroidism are of normal length in humans but IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) in sheep. Postnatally normal GH/IGF-I secretion and action depends on an euthyroid state. Present knowledge on the interactions between the two axes is reviewed in states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism, states of GH/IGF-I deprivation and hypersecretion, as well as the relationship between IGF-I and thyroid cancer. Emphasis is given to data in children and aspects of linear growth and skeletal maturation.

  18. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [ 125 I]hGH or [ 125 I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[ 125 I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Heterologous humoral immune response in patients treated with human growth hormone from different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.I.; Llera, A.S.; Iacono, R.F. (and others) (Inst. de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-07-01

    The existence of homologous anti-human growth hormone (anti-hGH) and heterologous anti-bovine growth hormone (anti-bGH) humoral immune responses in hypopituitary patients under hGH therapy has been reported previously. In order to study the influence of the hormone source, both responses were compared by radiobinding assays performed with [[sup 125]I]hGH or [[sup 125]I]bGH as tracers. 57 hypopituitary patients treated with extractive hGH, recombinant methionyl hGH or authentic recombinant hGH were studied. A very low incidence of heterologous antibodies was found in patients under recombinant hGH therapy, contrary to the high incidence observed in patients treated with extractive hGH preparations. In addition, immunochemical studies performed with a synthetic peptide (hGH 44-128) indicated that this peptide exhibited, in the anti-bGH/[[sup 125]I]bGH radioimmunoassay system, higher reactivity than the native hGH, suggesting that such fragment resembled an altered conformation of the hormone. The high heterologous response elicited only by the extractive hGH along with the behaviour of the hGH 44-128 fragment supports the fact that the extraction and purification procedures in extractive preparations may alter slightly the structure of the hGH molecule and trigger a heterologous immune response. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hypervelocity Impact Test Fragment Modeling: Modifications to the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on test satellites are performed by members of the orbital debris scientific community in order to understand and typify the on-orbit collision breakup process. By analysis of these test satellite fragments, the fragment size and mass distributions are derived and incorporated into various orbital debris models. These same fragments are currently being put to new use using emerging technologies. Digital models of these fragments are created using a laser scanner. A group of computer programs referred to as the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve code uses these digital representations in a multitude of ways that describe, measure, and model on-orbit fragments and fragment behavior. The Dynamic Rotation subroutine generates all of the possible reflected intensities from a scanned fragment as if it were observed to rotate dynamically while in orbit about the Earth. This calls an additional subroutine that graphically displays the intensities and the resulting frequency of those intensities as a range of solar phase angles in a Probability Density Function plot. This document reports the additions and modifications to the subset of the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve concerned with the Dynamic Rotation and Probability Density Function plotting subroutines.

  1. Network identification of hormonal regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, D.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Roelfsema, F.; Greef, J. van der; Hendriks, M.M.W.B.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for

  2. Hormonal signaling in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, L.

    2016-01-01

    Insect hervivores and pathogens are a major problem in agriculture and therefore, control of these pests and diseases is essential. For this, understanding the plant immune response can be instrumental. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play an essential role in defense

  3. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, pcognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  4. Incretin hormones--an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    2001-01-01

    important incretin hormones are glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP, previously known as gastric inhibitory polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the upper and lower small intestinal mucosa, respectively. It has been shown that interference with the incretin function causes...

  5. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  6. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, P.; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-76 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Plant hormones * Extraction * Mass spectrometr Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.263, year: 2014

  7. Parathyroid hormone and bone healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, M; Jørgensen, N R; Schwarz, P

    2010-01-01

    , no pharmacological treatments are available. There is therefore an unmet need for medications that can stimulate bone healing. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the first bone anabolic drug approved for the treatment of osteoporosis, and intriguingly a number of animal studies suggest that PTH could be beneficial...

  8. Hormones and growth factors in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herman-Giddens M. Condylomata acuminata in children and sexual abuse. Genitourin ..... accommodated reasonably easily in the outline of hormone action referred to ... tumours may still respond to hormone manipulation with another type of ...

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  10. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  12. Headaches and Hormones: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headaches and hormones: What's the connection? Being female has some real health advantages, but not when it comes to headaches — particularly ... a relationship between headaches and hormonal changes. The hormones estrogen (ES-truh-jen) and progesterone (pro-JES- ...

  13. Peptide Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasi...

  14. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  15. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  16. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most important hormonal regulator of postnatal longitudinal growth in man. In adults GH is no longer needed for longitudinal growth. Adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are characterised by perturbations in body composition, lipid metabolism, cardiovascular risk...

  17. Correlations Between Seminal Plasma Hormones and Sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: There is a complex relationship between seminal plasma hormone levels and infertility in men. Previous studies had shown no specific pattern in the serum or seminal plasma hormone profiles of men with infertility and it is debatable whether there is a need to perform routine seminal hormone assays in the ...

  18. Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Becú-Villalobos, Damasia; García-Tornadú, Isabel; Shroeder, Guillermo; Salado, Eloy E.; Gagliostro, Gerardo; Delavaud, Carole; Chilliard, Yves; Lacau-Mengido, Isabel M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of fat supplementation on plasma levels of hormones related to metabolism, with special attention to leptin, in cows in early lactation and in feedlot steers. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows received no fat or else 0.5 or 1.0 kg of partially hydrogenated oil per day in addition to their basal diet from day 20 before the expected calving date to day 70 postpartum. In experiment 2, part of the corn in the basal concentrate was replaced with 0.7 kg of the same oil s...

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and cytocompatibility of potential cockle shell aragonite nanocrystals for osteoporosis therapy and hormonal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaji AZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alhaji Zubair Jaji,1,2 Md Zuki Bin Abu Bakar,1,3 Rozi Mahmud,4 Mohamad Yusof Loqman,5 Mohamad Noor Mohamad Hezmee,1 Tijani Isa,3 Fu Wenliang,3 Nahidah Ibrahim Hammadi1 1Department of Veterinary Pre-Clinical Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara, Nigeria; 3Molecular Biomedicine Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Department of Companion Animal Medicine and Surgery, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Calcium carbonate is a porous inorganic nanomaterial with huge potential in biomedical applications and controlled drug delivery. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical properties and in vitro efficacy and safety of cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (ANC as a potential therapeutic and hormonal delivery vehicle for osteoporosis management. Free and human recombinant parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH 1-34-loaded cockle shell aragonite calcium carbonate nanocrystals (PTH-ANC were synthesized and evaluated using standard procedures. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated highly homogenized spherical-shaped aragonite nanocrystals of 30±5 nm diameter. PTH-ANC had a zeta potential of −27.6 ± 8.9 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of the formulation was found to be directly proportional to the concentrations of the drug fed. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed strong crystallizations with no positional change of peaks before and after PTH-ANC synthesis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated no detectable interactions between micron-sized aragonite and surfactant at molecular level. PTH-ANC formulation was stabilized

  20. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  1. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riitters, K.; Wickham, J.; O'Neill, R.; Jones, B.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 ?? 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 ?? 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe - Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types) and Europe - Asia (four types), in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland). The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf. Copyright ?? 2000 by The Resilience Alliance.

  2. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  3. Impact fragmentation of a brittle metal compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Megan; Hooper, Joseph P.

    2018-05-01

    The fragmentation behavior of a metal powder compact which is ductile in compression but brittle in tension is studied via impact experiments and analytical models. Consolidated metal compacts were prepared via cold-isostatic pressing of powder at 380 MPa followed by moderate annealing at 365 °C. The resulting zinc material is ductile and strain-hardening in high-rate uniaxial compression like a traditional metal, but is elastic-brittle in tension with a fracture toughness comparable to a ceramic. Cylindrical samples were launched up to 800 m/s in a gas gun into thin aluminum perforation targets, subjecting the projectile to a complex multiaxial and time-dependent stress state that leads to catastrophic fracture. A soft-catch mechanism using low-density artificial snow was developed to recover the impact debris, and collected fragments were analyzed to determine their size distribution down to 30 μm. Though brittle fracture occurs along original particle boundaries, no power-law fragmentation behavior was observed as is seen in other low-toughness materials. An analytical theory is developed to predict the characteristic fragment size accounting for both the sharp onset of fragmentation and the effect of increasing impact velocity.

  4. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  5. Molten aluminum alloy fuel fragmentation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Cassulo, J.C.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in which molten aluminum alloys were injected into a 1.2 m deep pool of water. The parameters varied were (i) injectant material (8001 aluminum alloy and 12.3 wt% U-87.7 wt% Al), (ii) melt superheat (O to 50 K), (iii) water temperature (313, 343 and 373 K) and (iv) size and geometry of the pour stream (5, 10 and 20 mm diameter circular and 57 mm annular). The pour stream fragmentation was dominated by surface tension with large particles (∼30 mm) being formed from varicose wave breakup of the 10-mm circular pours and from the annular flow off a 57 mm diameter tube. The fragments produced by the 5 mm circular et were smaller (∼ mm), and the 20 mm jet which underwent sinuous wave breakup produced ∼100 mm fragments. The fragments froze to form solid particles in 313 K water, and when the water was ≥343 K, the melt fragments did not freeze during their transit through 1.2 m of water

  6. Supramolecular gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyoshi, Takanori; Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a frequent technique used to separate exceptionally large DNA fragments. In a typical continuous field electrophoresis, it is challenging to separate DNA fragments larger than 20 kbp because they migrate at a comparable rate. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop a novel matrix for the electrophoresis. Here, we describe the electrophoresis of large DNA fragments up to 166 kbp using a supramolecular gel matrix and a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. C 3 -symmetric tris-urea self-assembled into a supramolecular hydrogel in tris-boric acid-EDTA buffer, a typical buffer for DNA electrophoresis, and the supramolecular hydrogel was used as a matrix for electrophoresis to separate large DNA fragments. Three types of DNA marker, the λ-Hind III digest (2 to 23 kbp), Lambda DNA-Mono Cut Mix (10 to 49 kbp), and Marker 7 GT (10 to 165 kbp), were analyzed in this study. Large DNA fragments of greater than 100 kbp showed distinct mobility using a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Simulations of High Speed Fragment Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter; Attaway, Stephen; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Fisher, Travis

    2017-11-01

    Flying shrapnel from an explosion are capable of traveling at supersonic speeds and distances much farther than expected due to aerodynamic interactions. Predicting the trajectories and stable tumbling modes of arbitrary shaped fragments is a fundamental problem applicable to range safety calculations, damage assessment, and military technology. Traditional approaches rely on characterizing fragment flight using a single drag coefficient, which may be inaccurate for fragments with large aspect ratios. In our work we develop a procedure to simulate trajectories of arbitrary shaped fragments with higher fidelity using high performance computing. We employ a two-step approach in which the force and moment coefficients are first computed as a function of orientation using compressible computational fluid dynamics. The force and moment data are then input into a six-degree-of-freedom rigid body dynamics solver to integrate trajectories in time. Results of these high fidelity simulations allow us to further understand the flight dynamics and tumbling modes of a single fragment. Furthermore, we use these results to determine the validity and uncertainty of inexpensive methods such as the single drag coefficient model.

  8. Universal Rim Thickness in Unsteady Sheet Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Dandekar, R.; Bustos, N.; Poulain, S.; Bourouiba, L.

    2018-05-01

    Unsteady fragmentation of a fluid bulk into droplets is important for epidemiology as it governs the transport of pathogens from sneezes and coughs, or from contaminated crops in agriculture. It is also ubiquitous in industrial processes such as paint, coating, and combustion. Unsteady fragmentation is distinct from steady fragmentation on which most theoretical efforts have been focused thus far. We address this gap by studying a canonical unsteady fragmentation process: the breakup from a drop impact on a finite surface where the drop fluid is transferred to a free expanding sheet of time-varying properties and bounded by a rim of time-varying thickness. The continuous rim destabilization selects the final spray droplets, yet this process remains poorly understood. We combine theory with advanced image analysis to study the unsteady rim destabilization. We show that, at all times, the rim thickness is governed by a local instantaneous Bond number equal to unity, defined with the instantaneous, local, unsteady rim acceleration. This criterion is found to be robust and universal for a family of unsteady inviscid fluid sheet fragmentation phenomena, from impacts of drops on various surface geometries to impacts on films. We discuss under which viscous and viscoelastic conditions the criterion continues to govern the unsteady rim thickness.

  9. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajusz, S.; Janaky, T.; Csernus, V.J.; Bokser, L.; Fekete, M.; Srkalovic, G.; Redding, T.W.; Schally, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides

  10. The interrelationships of thyroid and growth hormones: effect of growth hormone releasing hormone in hypo- and hyperthyroid male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, A W; Shulman, D; Root, J; Diamond, F

    1986-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the thyroid hormones interact in the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral tissues. Thyroid hormone exerts a permissive effect upon the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH, and increases pituitary synthesis of this protein hormone. GH depresses the secretion of thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones and increases the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. In the adult male rat experimental hypothyroidism produced by ingestion of propylthiouracil depresses the GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in vivo and in vitro, reflecting the lowered pituitary stores of GH in the hypothyroid state. Short term administration of large amounts of thyroxine with induction of the hyperthyroid state does not affect the in vivo GH secretory response to GH-releasing hormone in this animal.

  11. Large scale meta-analysis of fragment-based screening campaigns: privileged fragments and complementary technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lindvall, Mika K; Wright, S Kirk; Ottl, Johannes; Jacob, Jaison; Scheufler, Clemens; Marzinzik, Andreas; Brooijmans, Natasja; Glick, Meir

    2015-06-01

    A first step in fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) often entails a fragment-based screen (FBS) to identify fragment "hits." However, the integration of conflicting results from orthogonal screens remains a challenge. Here we present a meta-analysis of 35 fragment-based campaigns at Novartis, which employed a generic 1400-fragment library against diverse target families using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. By statistically interrogating the multidimensional FBS data, we sought to investigate three questions: (1) What makes a fragment amenable for FBS? (2) How do hits from different fragment screening technologies and target classes compare with each other? (3) What is the best way to pair FBS assay technologies? In doing so, we identified substructures that were privileged for specific target classes, as well as fragments that were privileged for authentic activity against many targets. We also revealed some of the discrepancies between technologies. Finally, we uncovered a simple rule of thumb in screening strategy: when choosing two technologies for a campaign, pairing a biochemical and biophysical screen tends to yield the greatest coverage of authentic hits. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. The dual role of fragments in fragment-assembly methods for de novo protein structure prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Julia; Knowles, Joshua; Vernon, Robert; Baker, David; Lovell, Simon C.

    2013-01-01

    In fragment-assembly techniques for protein structure prediction, models of protein structure are assembled from fragments of known protein structures. This process is typically guided by a knowledge-based energy function and uses a heuristic optimization method. The fragments play two important roles in this process: they define the set of structural parameters available, and they also assume the role of the main variation operators that are used by the optimiser. Previous analysis has typically focused on the first of these roles. In particular, the relationship between local amino acid sequence and local protein structure has been studied by a range of authors. The correlation between the two has been shown to vary with the window length considered, and the results of these analyses have informed directly the choice of fragment length in state-of-the-art prediction techniques. Here, we focus on the second role of fragments and aim to determine the effect of fragment length from an optimization perspective. We use theoretical analyses to reveal how the size and structure of the search space changes as a function of insertion length. Furthermore, empirical analyses are used to explore additional ways in which the size of the fragment insertion influences the search both in a simulation model and for the fragment-assembly technique, Rosetta. PMID:22095594

  13. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  14. Phenomenological relation between distribution and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Boqiang; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques; Yang Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    We study the relation between the quark distribution function q(x) and the fragmentation function D q (z) based on a general form D q (x)=C(z)z α q(z) for valence and sea quarks. By adopting two known parametrizations of quark distributions for the proton, we find three simple options for the fragmentation functions that can provide a good description of the available experimental data on proton production in e + e - inelastic annihilation. These three options support the revised Gribov-Lipatov relation D q (z)=zq(z) at z→1, as an approximate relation for the connection between distribution and fragmentation functions. The three options differ in the sea contributions and lead to distinct predictions for antiproton production in the reaction p+p→p-bar+X, thus they are distinguishable in future experiments at RHIC-BNL

  15. Projectile rapidity dependence in target fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustein, P.E.; Cumming, J.B.; Hseuh, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The thick-target, thick-catcher technique was used to determine mean kinetic properties of selected products of the fragmentation of Cu by 1 H, 4 He, and 12 C ions (180 to 28,000 MeV/amu). Momentum transfer, as inferred from F/B ratios, is ovserved to occur most efficiently for the lower velocity projectiles. Recoil properties of target fragments vary strongly with product mass, but show only a weak dependence on projectile type. The projectile's rapidity is shown to be a useful variable for quantitative intercomparison of different reactions. These results indicate that E/sub proj//A/sub proj/ is the dominant parameter which governs the mean recoil behavior of target fragments. 20 references

  16. Antiproton Induced Fission and Fragmentation of Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of slow antiprotons with nuclei results in a large highly localized energy deposition primarily on the nuclear surface. \\\\ \\\\ The study of antiproton induced fission and fragmentation processes is expected to yield new information on special nuclear matter states, unexplored fission modes, multifragmentation of nuclei, and intranuclear cascades.\\\\ \\\\ In order to investigate the antiproton-nucleus interaction and the processes following the antiproton annihilation at the nucleus, we propose the following experiments: \\item A)~Measurement of several fragments from fission and from multifragmentation in coincidence with particle spectra, especially neutrons and kaons. \\item B)~Precise spectra of $\\pi$, K, n, p, d and t with time-of-flight techniques. \\item C)~Installation of the Berlin 4$\\pi$ neutron detector with a 4$\\pi$ Si detector placed inside for fragments and charged particles. This yields neutron multiplicity distributions and consequently distributions of thermal excitation energies and...

  17. Fragmentation in central collisions of heavy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claesson, G.; Doss, K.G.R.; Ferguson, R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the goals of heavy ion reaction studies is to understand the fragmentation of hot nuclei. The LBL/GSI Plastic Ball detector system has been used to achieve a very high solid angle for detection of light and medium-heavy fragments emitted in 200 Mev/A Au + Au and Au + Fe reactions. The simultaneous measurement of almost all of the nucleons and nuclei resulting from each collision allows an estimation of the total charged particle multiplicity and hence the impact parameter. By choosing subsets of the data corresponding to a peripheral or central collision, the assumptions inherent in various models of nuclear fragmentation can be tested. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Experiences in fragment-based drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher W; Verdonk, Marcel L; Rees, David C

    2012-05-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become established in both industry and academia as an alternative approach to high-throughput screening for the generation of chemical leads for drug targets. In FBDD, specialised detection methods are used to identify small chemical compounds (fragments) that bind to the drug target, and structural biology is usually employed to establish their binding mode and to facilitate their optimisation. In this article, we present three recent and successful case histories in FBDD. We then re-examine the key concepts and challenges of FBDD with particular emphasis on recent literature and our own experience from a substantial number of FBDD applications. Our opinion is that careful application of FBDD is living up to its promise of delivering high quality leads with good physical properties and that in future many drug molecules will be derived from fragment-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Injured Body: Humiliation and Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Mayet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Simone de Beauvoir’s nouvelles and Titus Andronicus by Shakespeare present us opposite and complementary corporeal nature. In the first case, two women about their sixties are in front of the personal drama of their lost which happen through the years of ageing. It is a kind of fragmentation of existence. Ageing is the most authentic state of the human condition because the human being can only hang on to himself. In Titus Andronicus, are shown mutilations, murderers as fragmentation of biological body and social body. Individualism of modernity doesn’t forgive the bodies deteriorated by the years. In the early modernity, in the times of Elizabeth the First, like in the Ancient Rome, it wasn’t spared humiliations and violence towards the enemy body in order to impose power and authority. In this Shakespeare’s play, the fragmentation of the other’s body and murder are the emergence of social and individual violence.

  20. Analysis of fission-fragment mass distribution within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pardeep; Kaur, Harjeet [Guru Nanak Dev University, Department of Physics, Amritsar (India)

    2016-11-15

    The fission-fragment mass distribution is analysed for the {sup 208}Pb({sup 18}O, f) reaction within the quantum-mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT). The reaction potential has been calculated by taking the binding energies, Coulomb potential and proximity potential of all possible decay channels and a stationary Schroedinger equation has been solved numerically to calculate the fission-fragment yield. The overall results for mass distribution are compared with those obtained in experiment. Fine structure dips in yield, corresponding to fragment shell closures at Z = 50 and N=82, which are observed by Bogachev et al., are reproduced successfully in the present calculations. These calculations will help to estimate the formation probabilities of fission fragments and to understand many related phenomena occurring in the fission process. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of fragment projection hazard: probability distributions for the initial direction of fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-08-30

    The evaluation of the initial direction and velocity of the fragments generated in the fragmentation of a vessel due to internal pressure is an important information in the assessment of damage caused by fragments, in particular within the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of chemical and process plants. In the present study an approach is proposed to the identification and validation of probability density functions (pdfs) for the initial direction of the fragments. A detailed review of a large number of past accidents provided the background information for the validation procedure. A specific method was developed for the validation of the proposed pdfs. Validated pdfs were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal angles of projection and for the initial velocity of the fragments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung; Teixeira, Paula S.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 μm continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 × 2.'0 (0.88 × 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H 2 mass between 0.3-5.7 M ☉ and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n H 2 ≥10 6 cm –3 ), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of ≈17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud (≈35 pc), large-scale clumps (≈1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps (≈0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  3. Dynamical effects in the Colomb expansion following nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.; Donangelo, R.J.; Schechter, H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the Colomb expansion on the fragment Kinetic energy spectrum for a fragmentating hot nuclear system is investigated. In particular, 12 C fragment spectra are calculated and compared with those predicted by the uniform expansion approximation. The results indicate that energy spectra of fragments are quite sensitive to the details of the Coulomb expansion treatment. (Author) [pt

  4. Detection of fission fragments by secondary emission; Detection des fragments de fission par emission secondaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audias, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    This fission fragment detecting apparatus is based on the principle that fragments traversing a thin foil will cause emission of secondary electrons. These electrons are then accelerated (10 kV) and directly detected by means of a plastic scintillator and associated photomultiplier. Some of the advantages of such a detector are, its rapidity, its discriminating power between alpha particles and fission fragments, its small energy loss in detecting the fragments and the relatively great amount of fissionable material which it can contain. This paper is subdivided as follows: a) theoretical considerations b) constructional details of apparatus and some experimental details and c) a study of the secondary emission effect itself. (author) [French] Le detecteur de fragments de fission que nous avons realise est base sur le principe de l'emission secondaire produite par les fragments de fission traversant une feuille mince: les electrons secondaires emis sont acceleres a des tensions telles (de l'ordre de 10 kV), qu'ils soient directement detectables par un scintillateur plastique associe a un photomultiplicateur. L'interet d'un tel detecteur reside: dans sa rapidite, sa tres bonne discrimination alpha, fission, la possibilite de detecter les fragments de fission avec une perte d'energie pouvant rester relativement faible, et la possibilite d'introduire des quantites de matiere fissile plus importantes que dans les autres types de detecteurs. Ce travail comporte: -) un apercu bibliographique de la theorie du phenomene, -) realisation et mise au point du detecteur avec etude experimentale de quelques parametres intervenant dans l'emission secondaire, -) etude de l'emission secondaire (sur la face d'emergence des fragments de fission) en fonction de l'energie du fragment et en fonction de l'epaisseur de matiere traversee avant emission secondaire, et -) une etude comparative de l'emission secondaire sur la face d'incidence et sur la face d'emergence des fragments de

  5. Dynamics and instabilities in nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.; Di Toro, M.; Latora, V.; Smerzi, A.; Catania Univ.

    1993-01-01

    A general procedure to identify instability regions which lead to multifragmentation events is presented. The method covers all possible sources of dynamical instabilities. Informations on the instability point, like the time when the nuclear system enters the critical region, the most unstable modes and the time constant of the exponential growing of the relative variances, are deduced without any numerical bias. Important memory effects in the fragmentation pattern are revealed. Some hints towards a fully dynamical picture of fragmentation processes are finally suggested. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  6. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D' Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  7. Strain-energy effects on dynamic fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.; Chudnovsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    Grady's model of the dynamic fragmentation process, in which the average fragment size is determined by balancing the local kinetic energy and the surface energy, is modified to include the stored elastic (strain) energy. The revised model predicts that the strain energy should dominate for brittle materials, with low fracture toughness and high fracture-initiation stress. This conclusion is not borne out, however, by limited experimental data on brittle steels, even when the kinetic-energy density is small compared with the strain-energy density

  8. Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.

    1995-01-01

    The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)

  9. Complejo Ojosmin: fragment of ophiolite transamazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J.; Pineyro, D. . Email geologia@fagro.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    A preliminary geological survey of a previously unknown basic igneous complex in the Padre Alta Terrane (Pat) is presented. We report petrographic, geochemical and stratigraphic data for more than 200 outcrops. Geological evolution of the complex can be described in terms of four main events: (1) formation Pat units around 2000 Ma; (2) granodiorite thrusting onto possible ophiolite ca 1900 Ma ; (3) granophyric magmatism around 1700 Ma(4) intrusion of trachyte dykes. Data available suggest thrusting onto fragment of oceanic crust. Since the described structure presupposes the existence of pre transamazonian continental fragments in the TPA, it is very important to study the area in detail in the future [es

  10. Radio Frequency Fragment Separator at NSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, D.; Andreev, V.; Becerril, A.; Doleans, M.; Mantica, P.F.; Ottarson, J.; Schatz, H.; Stoker, J.B.; Vincent, J.

    2009-01-01

    A new device has been designed and built at NSCL which provides additional filtering of radioactive beams produced via projectile fragmentation. The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) uses the time micro structure of the beams accelerated by the cyclotrons to deflect particles according to their time-of-flight, in effect producing a phase filtering. The transverse RF (Radio Frequency) electric field of the RFFS has superior filtering performance compared to other electrostatic devices, such as Wien filters. Such filtering is critical for radioactive beams produced on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability, where strong contamination occurs at intermediate energies from 50 to 200 MeV/u.

  11. Case Report: Bone fragment in the third ventricle of a 22 year-old woman [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/58h

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Munakomi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a very rare case of a woman with a bone fragment in the third ventricle of the brain following compound-depressed skull fractures due to a road traffic accident. There are only few case reports of bullets and textiloma being removed from the third ventricle. Following operative removal of the fragment, the patient was started on cortisol, mineralocorticoid and thyroid hormone replacement. However, the patient eventually died of the severe traumatic hypothalamic insult.

  12. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  13. Progress of measurement of hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1977-01-01

    Description was made as to an outline of the theory of radioreceptor assay (RRA) in which hormone receptor was used as specific binding protein, as same as the theory of RIA, and as to its practical use. Meaning of RRA for measurement of hormones in consideration of the site of immunological and biological activation and meaning of difference in measurement values between this method and in RIA in the same materials, were mentioned, and effectiveness of use of this method together with RIA was described. Detection of receptor site, analysis of binding specificity, and numerical calculation were mentioned as receptor analysis by this method. As practical use of these functions, arrangement mechanism of receptor, and analysis of abnormality were mentioned. Especially, analysis of testicular feminization syndrome, insulinresistenter diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and myasthenia gravis, and relationship between these diseases and autoimmune diseases were described, and clinical meaning of this method in internal medicine and surgery was mentioned. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  15. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  16. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  17. The Zero-Degree Detector system for fragmentation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.H.; Christl, M.J.; Howell, L.W.; Kuznetsov, E.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections requires the detection and identification of individual projectile fragments. If light and heavy fragments are recorded in the same detector, it may be impossible to distinguish the signal from the light fragment. To overcome this problem, we have developed the Zero-degree Detector System (ZDDS). The ZDDS enables the measurement of cross-sections for light fragment production by using pixelated detectors to separately measure the signals of each fragment. The system has been used to measure the fragmentation of beams as heavy as Fe at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, Japan

  18. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF RECOMBINANT HORMONES IN DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Vitošević

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant DNA technology has allowed rapid progress in creating biosynthetic gene products for the treatment of many diseases. In this way it can produce large amounts of hormone, which is intended for the treatment of many pathological conditions. Recombinant hormones that are commonly used are insulin, growth hormone and erythropoietin. Precisely because of the availability of these recombinant hormones, it started their abuse by athletes. Experiments in animal models confirmed the potential effects of some of these hormones in increasing physical abilities, which attracted the attention of athletes who push the limits of their competitive capability by such manipulation. The risks of the use of recombinant hormones in doping include serious consequences for the health of athletes. Methods of detection of endogenous hormones from recombined based on the use of a monoclonal antibodies, capillary zone electrophoresis and protein biomarkers

  19. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, plevels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  1. Diverse growth hormone receptor gene mutations in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M A; Argente, J; Chernausek, S; Gracia, R; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hopp, M; Pérez-Jurado, L; Rosenbloom, A; Toledo, S P; Francke, U

    1993-01-01

    To better understand the molecular genetic basis and genetic epidemiology of Laron syndrome (growth-hormone insensitivity syndrome), we analyzed the growth-hormone receptor (GHR) genes of seven unrelated affected individuals from the United States, South America, Europe, and Africa. We amplified all nine GHR gene exons and splice junctions from these individuals by PCR and screened the products for mutations by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). We identified a single GHR gene fragment with abnormal DGGE results for each affected individual, sequenced this fragment, and, in each case, identified a mutation likely to cause Laron syndrome, including two nonsense mutations (R43X and R217X), two splice-junction mutations, (189-1 G to T and 71 + 1 G to A), and two frameshift mutations (46 del TT and 230 del TA or AT). Only one of these mutations, R43X, has been previously reported. Using haplotype analysis, we determined that this mutation, which involves a CpG dinucleotide hot spot, likely arose as a separate event in this case, relative to the two prior reports of R43X. Aside from R43X, the mutations we identified are unique to patients from particular geographic regions. Ten GHR gene mutations have now been described in this disorder. We conclude that Laron syndrome is caused by diverse GHR gene mutations, including deletions, RNA processing defects, translational stop codons, and missense codons. All the identified mutations involve the extracellular domain of the receptor, and most are unique to particular families or geographic areas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8488849

  2. Effect of biochar amendment on soil's retention capacity for estrogenic hormones from poultry manure treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukhjot MANN; Zhiming QI; Shiv O.PRASHER; Lanhai LI; Dongwei GUI; Qianjing JIANG

    2017-01-01

    Most animals,including humans,produce natural sex hormones such as estrogens:17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone (El).These compounds are able to disrupt the reproductive systems of living organisms at trace concentrations (ng.L-1).This experiment tests the hypothesis that 1% slow pyrolysis biochar-amended sandy soil could retain significant amount of estrogens (El,E2) from poultry manure in its second year of application.The experiment was conducted over 46 days and consisted of a series of lysimeters containing sandy soil with biocharamended topsoil.The application rate of poultry manure was kept at 2.47 kg.m-2.The biochar held a significant concentration of hormone during the first year of its application.However,in the following year (current study),there was no significant retention of hormones in the biochar-amended soil.During the first year after application,the biochar was fresh,so its pores were available for hydrophobic interactions and held significant concentration of hormones.As time passed there were several biotic and abiotic changes on the surface of the biochar so that after some physical fragmentation,pores on the surface were no longer available for hydrophobic interactions.The biochar started releasing dissolved organic carbon,which facilitated greater mobility of hormones from poultry manure down the soil profile.

  3. Effective Fragment Potential Method for H-Bonding: How To Obtain Parameters for Nonrigid Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinets, Nikita; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V

    2017-07-20

    Accuracy of the effective fragment potential (EFP) method was explored for describing intermolecular interaction energies in three dimers with strong H-bonded interactions, formic acid, formamide, and formamidine dimers, which are a part of HBC6 database of noncovalent interactions. Monomer geometries in these dimers change significantly as a function of intermonomer separation. Several EFP schemes were considered, in which fragment parameters were prepared for a fragment in its gas-phase geometry or recomputed for each unique fragment geometry. Additionally, a scheme in which gas-phase fragment parameters are shifted according to relaxed fragment geometries is introduced and tested. EFP data are compared against the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations (CCSD(T)) method in a complete basis set (CBS) and the symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). All considered EFP schemes provide a good agreement with CCSD(T)/CBS for binding energies at equilibrium separations, with discrepancies not exceeding 2 kcal/mol. However, only the schemes that utilize relaxed fragment geometries remain qualitatively correct at shorter than equilibrium intermolecular distances. The EFP scheme with shifted parameters behaves quantitatively similar to the scheme in which parameters are recomputed for each monomer geometry and thus is recommended as a computationally efficient approach for large-scale EFP simulations of flexible systems.

  4. Fragment informatics and computational fragment-based drug design: an overview and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunquan; Zhang, Wannian

    2013-05-01

    Fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a promising approach for the discovery and optimization of lead compounds. Despite its successes, FBDD also faces some internal limitations and challenges. FBDD requires a high quality of target protein and good solubility of fragments. Biophysical techniques for fragment screening necessitate expensive detection equipment and the strategies for evolving fragment hits to leads remain to be improved. Regardless, FBDD is necessary for investigating larger chemical space and can be applied to challenging biological targets. In this scenario, cheminformatics and computational chemistry can be used as alternative approaches that can significantly improve the efficiency and success rate of lead discovery and optimization. Cheminformatics and computational tools assist FBDD in a very flexible manner. Computational FBDD can be used independently or in parallel with experimental FBDD for efficiently generating and optimizing leads. Computational FBDD can also be integrated into each step of experimental FBDD and help to play a synergistic role by maximizing its performance. This review will provide critical analysis of the complementarity between computational and experimental FBDD and highlight recent advances in new algorithms and successful examples of their applications. In particular, fragment-based cheminformatics tools, high-throughput fragment docking, and fragment-based de novo drug design will provide the focus of this review. We will also discuss the advantages and limitations of different methods and the trends in new developments that should inspire future research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Relationships between Liquid Atomization and Solid Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 2. Basic Definitions ...expressions for average fragment sizes. These observations are surprising, given the fundamental phenomenological differences between liquid and solid...smaller children droplets in the secondary stage. The basic phenomenology of the second stage is much the same as that of the first stage. For

  6. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the Autodyn explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling and the qualitative fragmentation of the jacket.

  7. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a

  8. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, J

    2014-01-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the Autodyn explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling and the qualitative fragmentation of the jacket.

  9. Diquark fragmentation in leptoproduction of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, D.; Desai, B.R.

    1981-08-01

    In the analysis of the leptoproduction data for the charge ratios of hadrons, the Sukhatme, Lassila and Orava (SLO) model for diquark fragmentation is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis of a diquark acting as a single unit. The baryon contribution to the charge ratio, ignored earlier by SLO, makes a significant effect. (author)

  10. Heavy Flavor Fragmentation and Decay at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plano, Richard M

    1999-02-24

    Results on heavy quark fragmentation obtained using the SLD detector at the SLAC Linear Collider are presented. This talk will cover the ratio of vector to pseudoscalar charmed meson production, the inclusive B hadron energy distribution, the inclusive particle production in heavy jets compared to their production in light jets, and charged and neutral B meson lifetimes.

  11. Probabilistic Role Models and the Guarded Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  12. Probabilistic role models and the guarded fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We propose a uniform semantic framework for interpreting probabilistic concept subsumption and probabilistic role quantification through statistical sampling distributions. This general semantic principle serves as the foundation for the development of a probabilistic version of the guarded fragm...... fragment of first-order logic. A characterization of equivalence in that logic in terms of bisimulations is given....

  13. OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-10

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  14. Continuous fragment of the mu-calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Scott continuous fragment of the modal μ-calculus. We discuss its relation with constructivity, where we call a formula constructive if its least fixpoint is always reached in at most ω steps. Our main result is a syntactic characterization of this continuous

  15. Fragmentation of forest, grassland, and shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2013-01-01

    As humans introduce competing land uses into natural landscapes, the public concerns regarding landcover patterns are expressed through headline issues such as urban sprawl, forest fragmentation, water quality, and wilderness preservation. The spatial arrangement of an environment affects all human perceptions and ecological processes within that environment, but this...

  16. Metagenome Fragment Classification Using -Mer Frequency Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Rosen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of microbial sequencing data is being generated through large-scale projects in ecology, agriculture, and human health. Efficient high-throughput methods are needed to analyze the mass amounts of metagenomic data, all DNA present in an environmental sample. A major obstacle in metagenomics is the inability to obtain accuracy using technology that yields short reads. We construct the unique -mer frequency profiles of 635 microbial genomes publicly available as of February 2008. These profiles are used to train a naive Bayes classifier (NBC that can be used to identify the genome of any fragment. We show that our method is comparable to BLAST for small 25 bp fragments but does not have the ambiguity of BLAST's tied top scores. We demonstrate that this approach is scalable to identify any fragment from hundreds of genomes. It also performs quite well at the strain, species, and genera levels and achieves strain resolution despite classifying ubiquitous genomic fragments (gene and nongene regions. Cross-validation analysis demonstrates that species-accuracy achieves 90% for highly-represented species containing an average of 8 strains. We demonstrate that such a tool can be used on the Sargasso Sea dataset, and our analysis shows that NBC can be further enhanced.

  17. Intraday Price Discovery in Fragmented Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFor many assets, trading is fragmented across multiple exchanges. Price discovery measures summarize the informativeness of trading on each venue for discovering the asset’s true underlying value. We explore intraday variation in price discovery using a structural model with

  18. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  19. Fragmentation and structure of silicon microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuston, B.P.; Kalia, R.K.; Vashishta, P.

    1987-01-01

    It may be possible to determine the magic numbers and fragmentation spectra from the ground-state binding energies and structure, but the relationship between the lowest-energy zero-temperature configurations and the energetics of finite-temperature microclusters is not obvious. Recall fragmentation of Si clusters occurs at temperatures the order of the melting temperature (T∼2000 K). What is needed, a first-principles finite-temperature calculation, allowing the determination of all possible structures, their corresponding binding energies, and fragmentation spectra, is not presently possible. However, a molecular dynamics calculation does allow one to study the nature of fragmentation in addition to determination of the global ground-state structure and all mechanically stable configurations underlying the finite-temperature cluster, once given an interaction potential. The authors present results for such a calculation for Si/sub 2-14/ using the Stillinger-Weber 3-body potential. Their results indicate that the existence of magic numbers is determined by the topology and energetics of high-energy bound structures rather than the structure and ground-state energies at zero temperature

  20. Strategic Targeted Advertising and Market Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Lola Esteban; Jose M. Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    This paper proves that oligopolistic price competition with both targeted advertising and targeted prices can lead to a permanent fragmentation of the market into a local monopoly. However, compared to mass advertising, targeting increases social welfare and turns out to be more beneficial for consumers than for firms.

  1. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... city buildings. These results were supported by multiple statistical analyses including Mantel's test, PCOORDA and AMOVA. Genetic enrichment and epigenetic variation studies can be included in habitat fragmentation analysis and its implications in inducing homogenization and susceptibility in natural plant populations.

  2. Searching Fragment Spaces with feature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Uta; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Lilienthal, Markus; Claussen, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Virtual combinatorial chemistry easily produces billions of compounds, for which conventional virtual screening cannot be performed even with the fastest methods available. An efficient solution for such a scenario is the generation of Fragment Spaces, which encode huge numbers of virtual compounds by their fragments/reagents and rules of how to combine them. Similarity-based searches can be performed in such spaces without ever fully enumerating all virtual products. Here we describe the generation of a huge Fragment Space encoding about 5 * 10(11) compounds based on established in-house synthesis protocols for combinatorial libraries, i.e., we encode practically evaluated combinatorial chemistry protocols in a machine readable form, rendering them accessible to in silico search methods. We show how such searches in this Fragment Space can be integrated as a first step in an overall workflow. It reduces the extremely huge number of virtual products by several orders of magnitude so that the resulting list of molecules becomes more manageable for further more elaborated and time-consuming analysis steps. Results of a case study are presented and discussed, which lead to some general conclusions for an efficient expansion of the chemical space to be screened in pharmaceutical companies.

  3. Element Distribution and Multiplicity of Heavy Fragments

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure the energy and angular distribution of heavy fragments produced in the reactions of |1|2C on several targets between |2|7Al and |2|3|8U at 86~MeV/u. The systematic investigation of a highly excited interaction region (fireball) by means of a clean N and Z identification of heavy tar fragments, may result in a better understanding of temperature concept and of the degree of equilibration of the local interaction region with respect to the total system. For this investigation a large-area position sensitive ionization chamber of 50~msr solid angle in conjunction with a time-of-flight telescope consisting of parallel-plate detectors will be used. \\\\ \\\\ In order to get information on the transverse momentum transfer and the inelasticity of the collision, the energy of the PROJECTILE-FRAGMENTS will be measured at forward angles with a plastic scintillator hodoscope. In addition to this inclusive measurement correlations between heavy fragments will be investigated by means of three pos...

  4. Efficient clustering aggregation based on data fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen J; Zhu, Mingliang; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    Clustering aggregation, known as clustering ensembles, has emerged as a powerful technique for combining different clustering results to obtain a single better clustering. Existing clustering aggregation algorithms are applied directly to data points, in what is referred to as the point-based approach. The algorithms are inefficient if the number of data points is large. We define an efficient approach for clustering aggregation based on data fragments. In this fragment-based approach, a data fragment is any subset of the data that is not split by any of the clustering results. To establish the theoretical bases of the proposed approach, we prove that clustering aggregation can be performed directly on data fragments under two widely used goodness measures for clustering aggregation taken from the literature. Three new clustering aggregation algorithms are described. The experimental results obtained using several public data sets show that the new algorithms have lower computational complexity than three well-known existing point-based clustering aggregation algorithms (Agglomerative, Furthest, and LocalSearch); nevertheless, the new algorithms do not sacrifice the accuracy.

  5. Molecular markers. Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism molecular markers (AFLPs has been developed combining procedures of RFLPs and RAPDs molekular markers, i.e. the first step is restriction digestion of the genomic DNA that is followed by selective amplification of the restricted fragments. The advantage of the AFLP technique is that it allows rapid generation of a large number of reproducible markers. The reproducibility of AFLPs markers is assured by the use of restriction site-specific adapters and adapter-specific primers for PCR reaction. Only fragments containing the restriction site sequence plus the additional nucleotides will be amplified and the more selected nucleotides added on the primer sequence the fewer the number of fragments amplified by PCR. The amplified products are normally separated on a sequencing gel and visualized after exposure to X-ray film or by using fluorescent labeled primers. AFLP shave proven to be extremely proficient in revealing diversity at below the species level. A disadvantage of AFLP technique is that AFLPs are essentially a dominant marker system and not able to identify heterozygotes.

  6. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum properties of QCD string fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorova-Nová Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple quantization concept for a 3-dim QCD string is used to derive properties of QCD flux tube from the mass spectrum of light mesons and to predict observable quantum effects in correlations between adjacent hadrons. The quantized fragmentation model is presented and compared with experimental observations.

  8. Highly potent metallopeptide analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajusz, S; Janaky, T; Csernus, V J; Bokser, L; Fekete, M; Srkalovic, G; Redding, T W; Schally, A V

    1989-08-01

    Metal complexes related to the cytotoxic complexes cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)] and transbis(salicylaldoximato)copper(II) were incorporated into suitably modified luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) analogues containing D-lysine at position 6. Some of the metallopeptides thus obtained proved to be highly active LH-RH agonists or antagonists. For instance, SB-40, a PtCl2-containing metallopeptide in which platinum is coordinated to an N epsilon-(DL-2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine residue [D-Lys(DL-A2pr] at position 6, showed 50 times higher LH-releasing potency than the native hormone. SB-95, [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(pCl)2, D-Pal(3)2, Arg5,D-Lys[DL-A2pr(Sal2Cu)]6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine, Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine, and copper(II) is coordinated to the salicylideneimino moieties resulting from condensation of salicylaldehyde with D-Lys(DL-A2pr)6, caused 100% inhibition of ovulation at a dose of 3 micrograms in rats. Most metallopeptide analogues of LH-RH showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of rat pituitary and human breast cancer cells. Some of these metallopeptides had cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer and prostate cancer cell lines in vitro (this will be the subject of a separate paper on cytotoxicity evaluation). Such cytostatic metallopeptides could be envisioned as targeted chemotherapeutic agents in cancers that contain receptors for LH-RH-like peptides.

  9. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  10. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  11. Interaction between the thyroid hormone receptor and co-factors on the promoter of the gene encoding phospho enol pyruvate carboxykinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, E. D.; van Beeren, M.; Glass, C. K.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Lamers, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Using transient transfection studies we localized a thyroid hormone-responsive element on the promoter of the rat phospho-enol pyruvate carboxykinase gene between 355 and 174 bp upstream of the transcription start site. DNAse 1 footprinting analysis within this region showed that a 28 bp fragment at

  12. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  13. The thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D associated hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid disorders and primary hyperparathyroidism have been known to be associated with increases in blood pressure. The hypertension related to hypothyroidism is a result of increased peripheral resistance, changes in renal hemodynamics, hormonal changes and obesity. Treatment of hypothyroidism with levo-thyroxine replacement causes a decrease in blood pressure and an overall decline in cardiovascular risk. High blood pressure has also been noted in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, is associated with systolic hypertension resulting from an expansion of the circulating blood volume and increase in stroke volume. Increased serum calcium levels associated with a primary increase in parathyroid hormone levels have been also associated with high blood pressure recordings. The mechanism for this is not clear but the theories include an increase in the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and vasoconstriction. Treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism by surgery results in a decline in blood pressure and a decrease in the plasma renin activity. Finally, this review also looks at more recent evidence linking hypovitaminosis D with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly hypertension, and the postulated mechanisms linking the two.

  14. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  15. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    to those who never used hormonal contraception, the RR estimates for users of combined oral contraceptives increased to 1.7 (95% CI, 1.66-1.71). Conclusions and Relevance: Use of hormonal contraception, especially among adolescents, was associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a first......Importance: Millions of women worldwide use hormonal contraception. Despite the clinical evidence of an influence of hormonal contraception on some women's mood, associations between the use of hormonal contraception and mood disturbances remain inadequately addressed. Objective: To investigate...... whether the use of hormonal contraception is positively associated with subsequent use of antidepressants and a diagnosis of depression at a psychiatric hospital. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide prospective cohort study combined data from the National Prescription Register...

  16. Free thyroid hormones in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueber, V.

    1984-01-01

    Several groups of patients with normal and abnormal thyroid function as well as patients with goitre on hormone substitution are discussed with respect to the diagnostic value of the free thyroid hormone methods. The free T 3 technique under investigation separates clearly between euthyroidism and hyperthyroidism, however, during application of contraceptive pills and during pregnancy free T 3 is slightly enhanced. Free T 4 can be found in the normal range even in hypothyroidism, during T 4 substitution free T 4 is useful for control of adequate hormone substitution. Free thyroid hormones are advantageous to be performed with respect to practicability compared to the estimation of total hormone concentrations by enzyme as well as radioimmunoassay. Normally there is no additional demand for measurement of thyroid hormone binding proteins, another rather economical argument for using these parameters in thyroid diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  17. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Fuente, Asunción; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick; Busquet, Gemma; Bontemps, Sylvain; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Di Francesco, James

    2014-01-01

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  18. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fuente, Asunción [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  19. Anticoncepción hormonal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lugones Botell

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los anticonceptivos hormonales con énfasis en aspectos que van desde su descubrimiento, el mecanismo de acción, los diferentes tipos y formas de utilización, así como el esquema de administración terapéutica en algunas entidades, sus indicaciones, ventajas y contraindicaciones: A review of the hormonal contraceptives was carried out, emphasizing on features from their discovery, trigger mechanism, different kinds, and ways to use them, as well as the scheme of the therapeutical administration in some entities, its indications, advantages, and contraindications.

  20. Inhibitors of plant hormone transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Zažímalová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, č. 6 (2016), s. 1391-1404 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15088 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : polar auxin transport * acid-binding protein * gnom arf-gef * equilibrative nucleoside transporter * efflux carrier polarity * plasma-membrane-protein * cultured tobacco cells * arabidopsis-thaliana * gravitropic response * brefeldin-a * Plant hormones * Transport * Inhibitors * Auxin * Cytokinins * Strigolactones * Abscisic acid * Cell biology Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  1. Thyroid hormones and cardiac arrhythmias

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tribulová, N.; Knezl, V.; Shainberg, A.; Seki, S.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3-4 (2010), s. 102-112 ISSN 1537-1891 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0049/09; APVV(SK) 51-059505; APVV(SK) 51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : thyroid hormone * arrhythmias * ion channels * connexin-43 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2010

  2. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  3. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  4. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for luteinizing hormone and prolactin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, M.K.; Deschepper, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A combined radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the measurement of the anterior pituitary proteins luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) is described and compared with individual RIAs for these hormones. The standard curves and the sample values for LH and PRL were identical when determined in a combined or in an individual RIA. This technique may prove useful to a number of laboratories where it is desirable to determine levels of more than one hormone in limited sample volumes

  5. Growth Hormone and Craniofacial Tissues. An update

    OpenAIRE

    Litsas, George

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone is an important regulator of bone homeostasis. In childhood, it determines the longitudinal bone growth, skeletal maturation, and acquisition of bone mass. In adulthood, it is necessary to maintain bone mass throughout life. Although an association between craniofacial and somatic development has been clearly established, craniofacial growth involves complex interactions of genes, hormones and environment. Moreover, as an anabolic hormone seems to have an important role in the ...

  6. Antimüllerian hormone in gonadotropin releasing-hormone antagonist cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce, Joan-Carles; La Marca, Antonio; Mirner Klein, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationships between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian response and treatment outcomes in good-prognosis patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol....

  7. Effects of hormones on platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Antonio López; Modrego, Javier; Zamorano-León, José J

    2014-04-01

    Platelets and their activation/inhibition mechanisms play a central role in haemostasis. It is well known agonists and antagonists of platelet activation; however, during the last years novel evidences of hormone effects on platelet activation have been reported. Platelet functionality may be modulated by the interaction between different hormones and their platelet receptors, contributing to sex differences in platelet function and even in platelet-mediated vascular damage. It has suggested aspects that apparently are well established should be reviewed. Hormones effects on platelet activity are included among them. This article tries to review knowledge about the involvement of hormones in platelet biology and activity.

  8. Hormones and the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Bičíková, Marie; Sosvorová, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Hormones exert many actions in the brain, and brain cells are also hormonally active. To reach their targets in brain structures, hormones must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a unique device selecting desired/undesired molecules to reach or leave the brain, and it is composed of endothelial cells forming the brain vasculature. These cells differ from other endothelial cells in their almost impermeable tight junctions and in possessing several membrane structures such as receptors, transporters, and metabolically active molecules, ensuring their selection function. The main ways how compounds pass through the BBB are briefly outlined in this review. The main part concerns the transport of major classes of hormones: steroids, including neurosteroids, thyroid hormones, insulin, and other peptide hormones regulating energy homeostasis, growth hormone, and also various cytokines. Peptide transporters mediating the saturable transport of individual classes of hormones are reviewed. The last paragraph provides examples of how hormones affect the permeability and function of the BBB either at the level of tight junctions or by various transporters.

  9. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Determinants of Growth Hormone Resistance in Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Pouneh K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    States of under-nutrition are characterized by growth hormone resistance. Decreased total energy intake, as well as isolated protein-calorie malnutrition and isolated nutrient deficiencies result in elevated growth hormone levels and low levels of IGF-I. We review various states of malnutrition and a disease state characterized by chronic under-nutrition -- anorexia nervosa -- and discuss possible mechanisms contributing to the state of growth hormone resistance, including FGF-21 and SIRT1. We conclude by examining the hypothesis that growth hormone resistance is an adaptive response to states of under-nutrition, in order to maintain euglycemia and preserve energy. PMID:24363451

  11. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Zuniga, C. G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Km 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada BC 22860 (Mexico); Frau, P.; Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5p, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: croman@astrosen.unam.mx [Institute of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-10

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M{sub Sun }. The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  12. BARNARD 59: NO EVIDENCE FOR FURTHER FRAGMENTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, João F.

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump at the center of the Barnard 59 (B59) complex is the only region in the Pipe Nebula that has formed a small, stellar cluster. The previous analysis of a high-resolution near-IR dust extinction map revealed that the nuclear region in B59 is a massive, mostly quiescent clump of 18.9 M ☉ . The clump shows a monolithic profile, possibly indicating that the clump is on the way to collapse, with no evident fragmentation that could lead to another group of star systems. In this paper, we present new analysis that compares the dust extinction map with a new dust emission radio-continuum map of higher spatial resolution. We confirm that the clump does not show any significant evidence for prestellar fragmentation at scales smaller than those probed previously.

  13. Fission fragment distributions within dynamical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurek, K. [Institute of Nuclear, Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Nadtochy, P.N. [Omsk State Technical University, Omsk (Russian Federation); Ryabov, E.G.; Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Physics Department, Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The review covers recent developments and achievements in the dynamical description of fission process at high excitation energy. It is shown that the dynamical approach based on multidimensional Langevin equations combined with the statistical description of nuclear decay by particles evaporation is capable of fairly well describing the formation of fission fragment mass-energy, charge, and angular distributions of fission fragments in coincidence with the pre- and post-scission particle emission. The final yields of fission and evaporation residues channels products could be obtained. The detailed description of fission dynamics allows studying different stages of fission process, indicating the most important ingredients governing fission process and studying in detail such fundamental nuclear properties as nuclear viscosity and fission timescale. The tasks and perspectives of multidimensional dynamical approach are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  15. Transport of Calcareous Fragments by Reef Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, J E

    1961-01-13

    The weight of sand, coral scrapings, algal fragments, and other calcareous materials which pass through the intestines of reef fishes was calculated on a hectare-per-year basis. It was found that browsing omnivorous reef fishes which rely, in part, on a plant diet ingested and redeposited at least 2300 kg of such material on a 1-hectare study reef near Bermuda. Reasons are presented why this estimate, certainly in order of magnitude, should be applicable to coral reefs in general.

  16. On the universality of quark jet fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.; Jadach, S.

    1977-01-01

    Universality of inclusive fragmentation density functions in lepton induced processes (ep, γp, e + e - ) and purely hadronic processes is discussed from the point of view of the Topological Expansion/Dual Unitarization Scheme. It is shown that planar, single jet dominated processes have universal inclusive distributions and average multiplicities. In multi-jet processes, treated in a simple approximation, is inversely proportional to the number N of jets and the magnitude of the seagull effect increases as N 2 . (Auth.)

  17. Fragmentation model analysis of EN2700 fireball

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, Pavel; Ceplecha, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 95, 1-4 (2005), s. 477-487 ISSN 0167-9295. [Meteoroids 2004. London, Ontario, 16.08.2004-20.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/1404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : ablation * fireball * fragmentation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2005

  18. Fragmentation in rotating isothermal protostellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper we report briefly the results of an extensive set of 3-D hydrodynamic calculations that have been performed during the past two and one-half years to investigate the susceptibility of rotating clouds to gravitational fragmentation. Because of the immensity of parameter space and the expense of computations, we have chosen to restrict this investigation to strictly isothermal collapse sequences. (orig./WL)

  19. Validating PHITS for heavy ion fragmentation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy-ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy-ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u "4"8Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably. (authors)

  20. Hormones as doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duntas, Leonidas H; Popovic, Vera

    2013-04-01

    Though we may still sing today, as did Pindar in his eighth Olympian Victory Ode, "… of no contest greater than Olympia, Mother of Games, gold-wreathed Olympia…", we must sadly admit that today, besides blatant over-commercialization, there is no more ominous threat to the Olympic games than doping. Drug-use methods are steadily becoming more sophisticated and ever harder to detect, increasingly demanding the use of complex analytical procedures of biotechnology and molecular medicine. Special emphasis is thus given to anabolic androgenic steroids, recombinant growth hormone and erythropoietin as well as to gene doping, the newly developed mode of hormones abuse which, for its detection, necessitates high-tech methodology but also multidisciplinary individual measures incorporating educational and psychological methods. In this Olympic year, the present review offers an update on the current technologically advanced endocrine methods of doping while outlining the latest procedures applied-including both the successes and pitfalls of proteomics and metabolomics-to detect doping while contributing to combating this scourge.

  1. Selective thyroid hormone receptor modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Raparti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH is known to have many beneficial effects on vital organs, but its extrapolation to be used therapeutically has been restricted by the fact that it does have concurrent adverse effects. Recent finding of various thyroid hormone receptors (TR isoforms and their differential pattern of tissue distribution has regained interest in possible use of TH analogues in therapeutics. These findings were followed by search of compounds with isoform-specific or tissue-specific action on TR. Studying the structure-activity relationship of TR led to the development of compounds like GC1 and KB141, which preferentially act on the β1 isoform of TR. More recently, eprotirome was developed and has been studied in humans. It has shown to be effective in dyslipidemia by the lipid-lowering action of TH in the liver and also in obesity. Another compound, 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA, binds to both α- and β-type TRs with relatively low affinity and has been shown to be effective in heart failure (HF. In postinfarction models of HF and in a pilot clinical study, DITPA increased cardiac performance without affecting the heart rate. TR antagonists like NH3 can be used in thyrotoxicosis and cardiac arrhythmias. However, further larger clinical trials on some of these promising compounds and development of newer compounds with increased selectivity is required to achieve higher precision of action and avoid adverse effects seen with TH.

  2. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  3. Hormesis and Female Sex Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvar Theodorsson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement after menopause has in recent years been the subject of intense scientific debate and public interest and has sparked intense research efforts into the biological effects of estrogens and progestagens. However, there are reasons to believe that the doses used and plasma concentrations produced in a large number of studies casts doubt on important aspects of their validity. The concept of hormesis states that a substance can have diametrically different effects depending on the concentration. Even though estrogens and progestagens have proven prone to this kind of dose-response relation in a multitude of studies, the phenomenon remains clearly underappreciated as exemplified by the fact that it is common practice to only use one hormone dose in animal experiments. If care is not taken to adjust the concentrations of estrogens and progestagens to relevant biological conditions, the significance of the results may be questionable. Our aim is to review examples of female sexual steroids demonstrating bidirectional dose-response relations and to discuss this in the perspective of hormesis. Some examples are highlighted in detail, including the effects on cerebral ischemia, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and anxiety. Hopefully, better understanding of the hormesis phenomenon may result in improved future designs of studies of female sexual steroids.

  4. Long acting injectable hormonal contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, I S

    1982-03-01

    Injectable hormonal preparations can be highly effective and satisfactory contraceptives. The two main preparations available today are depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-OEN), but several other approaches are currently under clinical trial. Injectable contraceptives have some unique advantages which give them justifiably wide appeal amongst many groups of women. However, they do have a number of disadvantages including invariable menstrual disturbance and a delay in the return of fertility. One formulation of DMPA, Depo-Provera, is probably the most extensively investigated single hormonal contraceptive ever made. These studies indicate that it is remarkably safe and does not face any more unresolved issues than the combined pill, intrauterine device or tubal sterilization. However, for a number of disparate emotional and political reasons it has attracted the attention of several consumer and feminist groups, who have waged a prolonged and quite unjustified campaign against it. It is to be hoped that future debate will be conducted on a more informed, rational and less emotional basis. Injectable contraceptives should have an important place in the family planning armamentarium of all countries, and current developments should lead to a decrease in concerns about presently available agents. This should further increase the widespread acceptability of this approach to contraception.

  5. Action of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in rat ovarian cells: Hormone production and signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the hypothesis that the breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides may participate in the actions of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) on hormone production in rat granulosa cells. In cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol or ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid (AA), treatment with LHRH increased the formation of radiolabeled inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) and diacylglycerol (DG), and the release of radiolabeled AA. Since IP{sub 3} induces intracellular Ca{sup 2+} mobilization, changes in the cytosolic free calcium ion concentrations ((Ca{sup 2+})i) induced by LHRH were studied in individual cells using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry. Alterations in (Ca{sup 2+})i induced by LHRH were rapid and transient, and could be completely blocked by a LHRH antagonist. Sustained perifusion of LHRH resulted in a desensitization of the (Ca{sup 2+})i response to LHRH. LHRH treatment accelerated (Ca{sup 2+})i depletion in the cells perifused with Ca{sup 2+} free medium, indicating the involvement of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} pool(s) in (Ca{sup 2+})i changes. The actions of LHRH on the regulation of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production were also examined. LHRH increased basal P{sub 4} production and attenuated FSH induced P{sub 4} production. Both basal and FSH stimulated PGE{sub 2} formation were increased by LHRH. Since LHRH also increased the formation of DG that stimulates the activity of protein kinase C, an activator of protein kinase C (12-0-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate: TPA) was used with the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore A23187 and melittin (an activator of phospholipase A{sub 2}) to examine the roles of protein kinase C, Ca{sup 2+} and free AA, respectively, in LHRH action.

  6. Study of fragmentation reactions of light nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toneli, David Arruda; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The decay of the compound nucleus is traditionally calculated using a sequential emission model, such as the Weisskopf-Ewing or Hauser-Feshbach ones, in which the compound nucleus decays through a series of residual nuclei by emitting one particle at a time until there is no longer sufficient energy for further emission. In light compound nucleus, however, the excitation energy necessary to fully disintegrate the system is relatively easy to attain. In such cases, decay by simultaneous emission of two or more particles becomes important. A model which takes into account all these decay is the Fermi fragmentation model. Recently, the equivalence between the Fermi fragmentation model and statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the decay for highly excited fragments for reactions of heavy ions was demonstrated. Due the simplicity of the thermodynamic treatment used in the multifragmentation model, we have adapted it to the calculation of Fermi breakup of light nuclei. The ultimate goal of this study is to calculate the distribution of isotopes produced in proton-induced reactions on light nuclei of biological interest, such as C, O e Ca. Although most of these residual nuclei possess extremely short half-lives and thus represent little long-term danger, they tend to be deficient in neutrons and to decay by positron emission, which allows the monitoring of proton radiotherapy by PET (Positron Emission Tomography). (author)

  7. Commissioning the A1900 projectile fragment separator

    CERN Document Server

    Morrissey, D J; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Wiedenhöver, I

    2003-01-01

    An important part of the recent upgrade of the NSCL facility is the replacement of the A1200 fragment separator with a new high acceptance device called the A1900. The design of the A1900 device represents a third generation projectile fragment separator (relative to the early work at LBL) as it is situated immediately after the primary accelerator, has a very large acceptance, a bending power significantly larger than that of the cyclotron and is constructed from large superconducting magnets (quadrupoles with 20 and 40 cm diameter warm bores). The A1900 can accept over 90% of a large range of projectile fragmentation products produced at the NSCL, leading to large gains in the intensity of the secondary beams. The results of initial tests of the system with a restricted momentum acceptance (+-0.5%) indicate that the A1900 is performing up to specifications. Further large gains in the intensities of primary beams, typically two or three orders of magnitude, will be possible as the many facets of high current...

  8. Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)

  9. Formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, Anaelle

    2009-01-01

    Stars form in molecular clouds, when they collapse and fragment to produce protostellar dense cores. These dense cores are then likely to contract under their own gravity, and form young protostars, that further evolve while accreting their circumstellar mass, until they reach the main sequence. The main goal of this thesis was to study the formation and fragmentation of protostellar dense cores. To do so, two main studies, described in this manuscript, were carried out. First, we studied the formation of protostellar cores by quantifying the impact of protostellar outflows on clustered star formation. We carried out a study of the protostellar outflows powered by the young stellar objects currently formed in the NGc 2264-C proto-cluster, and we show that protostellar outflows seem to play a crucial role as turbulence progenitors in clustered star forming regions, although they seem unlikely to significantly modify the global infall processes at work on clump scales. Second, we investigated the formation of multiple systems by core fragmentation, by using high - resolution observations that allow to probe the multiplicity of young protostars on small scales. Our results suggest that the multiplicity rate of protostars on small scales increase while they evolve, and thus favor dynamical scenarios for the formation of multiple systems. Moreover, our results favor magnetized scenarios of core collapse to explain the small-scale properties of protostars at the earliest stages. (author) [fr

  10. Intermittency in {sup 197}Au fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, A; Holynski, R; Olszewski, A; Szarska, M; Wilczynska, B; Wolter, W; Wosiek, B [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Cherry, M L; Deines-Jones, P; Jones, W V; Sengupta, K; Wefel, B [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Waddington, C J [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy; Pozharova, E A; Skorodko, T Yu [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); KLMM Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    The concept of factorial moments was applied to an analysis of the dynamical fluctuations in the charge distributions of the fragments emitted from gold nuclei with energies 10.6 and < 1.0 GeV/n interacting with emulsion nuclei. Clear evidence for intermittent fluctuations has been found in an analysis using all the particles released from the gold projectile, with a stronger effect observed below 1 GeV/n than at 10.6 GeV/n. For the full data sets, however, the intermittency effect was found to be very sensitive to the singly charged particles, and neglecting these particles strongly reduces the intermittency signal. When the analysis is restricted to the multiply charged fragments, an intermittency effect is revealed only for multifragmentation events, although one that is enhanced as compared to the analysis of all, singly and multiply charged, particles. The properties of the anomalous fractal dimensions suggest a sequential decay mechanism, rather than the existence of possible critical behaviour in the process of nuclear fragmentation. The likely influence of the charge conservation effects and the finite size of decaying systems on the observed intermittency signals was pointed out. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs.

  11. In silico fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konteatis, Zenon D

    2010-11-01

    In silico fragment-based drug design (FBDD) is a relatively new approach inspired by the success of the biophysical fragment-based drug discovery field. Here, we review the progress made by this approach in the last decade and showcase how it complements and expands the capabilities of biophysical FBDD and structure-based drug design to generate diverse, efficient drug candidates. Advancements in several areas of research that have enabled the development of in silico FBDD and some applications in drug discovery projects are reviewed. The reader is introduced to various computational methods that are used for in silico FBDD, the fragment library composition for this technique, special applications used to identify binding sites on the surface of proteins and how to assess the druggability of these sites. In addition, the reader will gain insight into the proper application of this approach from examples of successful programs. In silico FBDD captures a much larger chemical space than high-throughput screening and biophysical FBDD increasing the probability of developing more diverse, patentable and efficient molecules that can become oral drugs. The application of in silico FBDD holds great promise for historically challenging targets such as protein-protein interactions. Future advances in force fields, scoring functions and automated methods for determining synthetic accessibility will all aid in delivering more successes with in silico FBDD.

  12. Integrated delivery systems: the cure for fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enthoven, Alain C

    2009-12-01

    Our healthcare system is fragmented, with a misalignment of incentives, or lack of coordination, that spawns inefficient allocation of resources. Fragmentation adversely impacts quality, cost, and outcomes. Eliminating waste from unnecessary, unsafe care is crucial for improving quality and reducing costs--and making the system financially sustainable. Many believe this can be achieved through greater integration of healthcare delivery, more specifically via integrated delivery systems (IDSs). An IDS is an organized, coordinated, and collaborative network that links various healthcare providers to provide a coordinated, vertical continuum of services to a particular patient population or community. It is also accountable, both clinically and fiscally, for the clinical outcomes and health status of the population or community served, and has systems in place to manage and improve them. The marketplace already contains numerous styles and degrees of integration, ranging from Kaiser Permanente-style full integration, to more loosely organized individual practice associations, to public-private partnerships. Evidence suggests that IDSs can improve healthcare quality, improve outcomes, and reduce costs--especially for patients with complex needs--if properly implemented and coordinated. No single approach or public policy will fix the fragmented healthcare system, but IDSs represent an important step in the right direction.

  13. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH-transgenic...

  14. Fragmentation Point Detection of JPEG Images at DHT Using Validator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Kamaruddin Malik; Deris, Mustafa Mat

    File carving is an important, practical technique for data recovery in digital forensics investigation and is particularly useful when filesystem metadata is unavailable or damaged. The research on reassembly of JPEG files with RST markers, fragmented within the scan area have been done before. However, fragmentation within Define Huffman Table (DHT) segment is yet to be resolved. This paper analyzes the fragmentation within the DHT area and list out all the fragmentation possibilities. Two main contributions are made in this paper. Firstly, three fragmentation points within DHT area are listed. Secondly, few novel validators are proposed to detect these fragmentations. The result obtained from tests done on manually fragmented JPEG files, showed that all three fragmentation points within DHT are successfully detected using validators.

  15. Production of a phage-displayed single chain variable fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To develop specific single chain variable fragments (scFv) against ... libraries. The binding ability of the selected scFv antibody fragments against the IBDV particles was ..... Hermelink H, Koscielniak E. A human recombinant.

  16. Glucoregulatory function of thyroid hormones: role of pancreatic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.J.B.; Burger, A.G.; Ferrannini, E.; Jequier, E.; Acheson, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glucose metabolism was investigated in humans before and 14 days after 300 micrograms L-thyroxine (T4)/day using a sequential clamp protocol during short-term somatostatin infusion (500 micrograms/h, 0-6 h) at euglycemia (0-2.5 h), at 165 mg/dl (2.5-6 h), and during insulin infusion (1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1, 4.5-6 h). T4 treatment increased plasma T4 (+96%) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3, +50%), energy expenditure (+8%), glucose turnover (+32%), and glucose oxidation (Glucox +87%) but decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone (-96%) and nonoxidative glucose metabolism (Glucnonox, -30%) at unchanged lipid oxidation (Lipox). During somatostatin and euglycemia glucose production (Ra, -67%) and disposal (Rd, -28%) both decreased in euthyroid subjects but remained at -22% and -5%, respectively, after T4 treatment. Glucox (control, -20%; +T4, -25%) fell and Lipox increased (control, +42%; +T4, +45%) in both groups, whereas Glucnonox decreased before (-36%) but increased after T4 (+57%). During somatostatin infusion and hyperglycemia Rd (control, +144%; +T4, +84%) and Glucnonox (control, +326%; +T4, +233%) increased, whereas Glucox and Lipox remained unchanged. Insulin further increased Rd (+76%), Glucox (+155%), and Glucnonox (+50%) but decreased Ra (-43%) and Lipox (-43%). All these effects were enhanced by T4 (Rd, +38%; Glucox, +45%; Glucnonox, +35%; Ra, +40%; Lipox, +11%). Our data provide evidence that, in humans, T3 stimulates Ra and Rd, which is in part independent of pancreatic hormones

  17. Towards a population synthesis model of self-gravitating disc fragmentation and tidal downsizing II: the effect of fragment-fragment interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgan, D. H.; Hall, C.; Meru, F.; Rice, W. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    It is likely that most protostellar systems undergo a brief phase where the protostellar disc is self-gravitating. If these discs are prone to fragmentation, then they are able to rapidly form objects that are initially of several Jupiter masses and larger. The fate of these disc fragments (and the fate of planetary bodies formed afterwards via core accretion) depends sensitively not only on the fragment's interaction with the disc, but also with its neighbouring fragments. We return to and revise our population synthesis model of self-gravitating disc fragmentation and tidal downsizing. Amongst other improvements, the model now directly incorporates fragment-fragment interactions while the disc is still present. We find that fragment-fragment scattering dominates the orbital evolution, even when we enforce rapid migration and inefficient gap formation. Compared to our previous model, we see a small increase in the number of terrestrial-type objects being formed, although their survival under tidal evolution is at best unclear. We also see evidence for disrupted fragments with evolved grain populations - this is circumstantial evidence for the formation of planetesimal belts, a phenomenon not seen in runs where fragment-fragment interactions are ignored. In spite of intense dynamical evolution, our population is dominated by massive giant planets and brown dwarfs at large semimajor axis, which direct imaging surveys should, but only rarely, detect. Finally, disc fragmentation is shown to be an efficient manufacturer of free-floating planetary mass objects, and the typical multiplicity of systems formed via gravitational instability will be low.

  18. [The fragmentation of representational space in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plagnol, A; Oïta, M; Montreuil, M; Granger, B; Lubart, T

    2003-01-01

    Existent neurocognitive models of schizophrenia converge towards a core of impairments involving working memory, context processing, action planning, controlled and intentional processing. However, the emergence of this core remains itself difficult to explain and more specific hypotheses do not explain the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. To overcome these limits, we propose a new paradigm based on representational theory from cognitive science. Some recent developments of this theory enable us to describe a subjective universe as a representational space which is displayed from memory. We outline a conceptual framework to construct such a representational space from analogical -representations that can be activated in working memory and are connected to a network of symbolic structures. These connections are notably made through an analytic process of the analogical fragments, which involves the attentional focus. This framework allows us to define rigorously some defense processes in response to traumatic tensions that are expressed on the representational space. The fragmentation of representational space is a consequence of a defensive denial based on an impairment of the analytic process. The fragmentation forms some parasitic areas in memory which are excluded from the main part of the representational space and disturb information processing. The key clinical concepts of paranoid syndromes can be defined in this conceptual framework: mental automatism, delusional intuition, acute destructuration, psychotic dissociation, and autistic withdrawal. We show that these syndromes imply each other, which in return increases the fragmentation of the representational space. Some new concepts emerge naturally in this framework, such as the concept of "suture" which is defined as a link between a parasitic area and the main representational space. Schizophrenia appears as a borderline case of fragmentation of the representational space. This conceptual framework is

  19. Global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity of mammalian carnivore habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Crooks, Kevin R.; Burdett, Christopher L.; Theobald, David M.; Rondinini, Carlo; Boitani, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Although mammalian carnivores are vulnerable to habitat fragmentation and require landscape connectivity, their global patterns of fragmentation and connectivity have not been examined. We use recently developed high-resolution habitat suitability models to conduct comparative analyses and to identify global hotspots of fragmentation and connectivity for the world's terrestrial carnivores. Species with less fragmentation (i.e. more interior high-quality habitat) had larger geographical ranges...

  20. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streibel, T.; Roecher, H.; Huentrup, G.; Heinrich, W.

    1997-01-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  1. Cross sections and kinematics of proton induced fragmentation of carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streibel, T; Roecher, H; Huentrup, G; Heinrich, W [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics

    1997-09-01

    Charge changing fragmentation cross sections for C at a proton energy of about 70 MeV were measured. The discrepancies between measurement and model predictions indicate the necessity of further investigations. We have also measured distributions of fragment emission angles which can be described using a model with a momentum transfer to the fragmenting nucleus. The developed model leads to predictions for momentum distributions of proton induced target fragments of C at small energies. (orig.)

  2. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    OpenAIRE

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ram?rez-Fern?ndez, Jos? D.; Fuchs, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird comm...

  3. In vitro effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE 2 suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE 2 synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release

  4. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  5. Research resource: novel structural insights bridge gaps in glycoprotein hormone receptor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2013-08-01

    The first version of a glycoprotein hormone receptor (GPHR) information resource was designed to link functional with structural GPHR information, in order to support sequence-structure-function analysis of the LH, FSH, and TSH receptors (http://ssfa-gphr.de). However, structural information on a binding- and signaling-sensitive extracellular fragment (∼100 residues), the hinge region, had been lacking. A new FSHR crystal structure of the hormone-bound extracellular domain has recently been solved. The structure comprises the leucine-rich repeat domain and most parts of the hinge region. We have not only integrated the new FSHR/FSH structure and the derived homology models of TSHR/TSH, LHCGR/CG, and LHCGR/LH into our web-based information resource, but have additionally provided novel tools to analyze the advanced structural features, with the common characteristics and distinctions between GPHRs, in a more precise manner. The hinge region with its second hormone-binding site allows us to assign functional data to the new structural features between hormone and receptor, such as binding details of a sulfated tyrosine (conserved throughout the GPHRs) extending into a pocket of the hormone. We have also implemented a protein interface analysis tool that enables the identification and visualization of extracellular contact points between interaction partners. This provides a starting point for comparing the binding patterns of GPHRs. Together with the mutagenesis data stored in the database, this will help to decipher the essential residues for ligand recognition and the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction, extending from the extracellular hormone-binding site toward the intracellular G protein-binding sites.

  6. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  7. High efficiency hydrodynamic DNA fragmentation in a bubbling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling

  8. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  9. Fission fragment mass distributions via prompt γ-ray spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The distribution of fragment masses formed in nuclear fission is one of the most strik- ing features .... 80. 100. 120. 140. 160. 10. 3. 10. 4. Fragment Mass. Relative yield. Sn. Cd. Te. Pd ... the secondary fragment at Z = 50 and N = 82 shells, where the yields are depleted. Both ... More systematic experimental data are required.

  10. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  11. Measuring steroid hormones in avian eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Engelhardt, Nikolaus; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  12. Incretin hormones and the satiation signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that appetite-regulating hormones from the gut may have therapeutic potential. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral and central pathways mediating satiation. Several studies have also indicated that GLP-1...

  13. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  14. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, Nikolaus von; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial levels of various hormones of maternal origin and have recently received a lot of interest, mainly from behavioral ecologists. These studies strongly depend on the measurement of egg hormone levels, but the method of measuring these levels has received little

  15. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  16. Incretin hormones as a target for therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously.......Incretin hormones are responsible for the incretin effect, which is the amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are taken in orally, as opposed to intravenously....

  17. Floral induction, floral hormones and flowering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van de P.A.

    1972-01-01

    The factors, influencing the synthesis and action of floral hormones, and possible differences between floral hormones in different plants were studied. The experimental results are summarized in the conclusions 1-20, on pages 35-36 (Crassulaceae'); 21-39 on pages

  18. Maintaining euthyroidism: fundamentals of thyroid hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thyroid-related pathologies, especially subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, are commonly described in clinical practice. While illnesses related to aberrant thyroid hormone homeostasis are the most prevalent endocrinological conditions diagnosed, important aspects related to thyroid hormone physiology are often ...

  19. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  20. An alternative look at insects hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2015), s. 188-204 ISSN 2325-081X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : juvenile hormone * ecdysteroidal vitamin D6 * corpus allatum hormone Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://blaypublishers.com/2015/10/31/leb-33-2015/

  1. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  2. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  3. Sex hormone binding globulin phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelisse, M M; Bennett, Patrick; Christiansen, M

    1994-01-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is encoded by a normal and a variant allele. The resulting SHBG phenotypes (the homozygous normal SHBG, the heterozygous SHBG and the homozygous variant SHBG phenotype) can be distinguished by their electrophoretic patterns. We developed a novel detection....... This method of detection was used to determine the distribution of SHBG phenotypes in healthy controls of both sexes and in five different pathological conditions characterized by changes in the SHBG level or endocrine disturbances (malignant and benign ovarian neoplasms, hirsutism, liver cirrhosis...... on the experimental values. Differences in SHBG phenotypes do not appear to have any clinical significance and no sex difference was found in the SHBG phenotype distribution....

  4. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  5. Hormonal status can modify radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    In preliminary experiments, we have demonstrated that pregnancy increases chromosome radiosensitivity in the mouse at the end of gestation. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was then exposed to ionizing radiations in vitro. By comparison to non pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakages was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes. Immediately after delivery, this increase of radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase of radiosensitivity. Thus, pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy and the risks of radiation exposure of pregnant women have to be considered not only n relation to the child, but also to their own hypersensitivity. (authors)

  6. Sex hormones and skeletal muscle weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipilä, Sarianna; Narici, Marco; Kjaer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human ageing is accompanied with deterioration in endocrine functions the most notable and well characterized of which being the decrease in the production of sex hormones. Current research literature suggests that low sex hormone concentration may be among the key mechanism for sarcopenia...... and muscle weakness. Within the European large scale MYOAGE project, the role of sex hormones, estrogens and testosterone, in causing the aging-related loss of muscle mass and function was further investigated. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women is shown to diminish age-associated muscle loss, loss...... properties. HRT influences gene expression in e.g. cytoskeletal and cell-matrix proteins, has a stimulating effect upon IGF-I, and a role in IL-6 and adipokine regulation. Despite low circulating steroid-hormone level, postmenopausal women have a high local concentration of steroidogenic enzymes in skeletal...

  7. Thyroid hormones and lipid phosphorus in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakare, U R; Ganatra, R D; Shah, D H [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1978-04-01

    In vivo studies in mice injected intravenously with /sup 125/I-triiodothyronine (T-3) showed a linear relationship between the uptake of the labelled hormone by the tissue and the lipid phosphorous content of the same tissue. However, studies with /sup 125/I-thyroxine failed to show a similar relationship between the lipid phosphorous content of the organ and the uptake of radioactive hormone by the same organ. In vitro studies using equilibrium dialysis technique with isolated lipid extracts of various organs and radioactive thyroid hormones (T-3 and T-4) did not show any relation between the lipid P and the uptake of labelled hormone. On the basis of the observed discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro studies, it is postulated that an organized lipoprotein structure at the cell membrane may be responsible for the entry of the thyroid hormones.

  8. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  9. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  10. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  11. Growth hormone and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, A; Longobardi, S; Fazio, S; Saccà, L

    1999-01-01

    Until a few years ago, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were considered essential only to the control of linear growth, glucose homeostasis, and for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. A large body of evidence recently coming from animal and human studies has unequivocally proven that the heart is a target organ for the GH/IGF-1 axis. Specifically GH exerts both direct and indirect cardiovascular actions. Among the direct effects, the ability of GH to trigger cardiac tissue growth plays a pivotal role. Another direct effect is to augment cardiac contractility, independent of myocardial growth. Direct effects of GH also include the improvement of myocardial energetics and mechanical efficiency. Indirect effects of GH on the heart include decreased peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), expansion of blood volume, increased glomerular filtration rate, enhanced respiratory activity, increased skeletal muscle performance, and psychological well-being. Among them, the most consistently found is the decrease of PVR. GH may also raise preload through its sodium-retaining action and its interference with the hormonal system that regulates water and electrolyte metabolism. Particularly important is the effect of GH on skeletal muscle mass and performance. Taking into account that heart failure is characterized by left ventricular dilation, reduced cardiac contractility, and increase of wall stress and peripheral vascular resistance, GH may be beneficial for treatment of heart failure. Animal studies and preliminary human trials have confirmed the validity of the GH approach to the treatment of heart failure. Larger placebo-controlled human studies represent the main focus of future investigations.

  12. Growth hormone deficiency in a Nigerian child with Turner's syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRORO YARHERE

    Growth hormone treatment early in the course of management of a child with Turner syndrome may help achieve normal final height. Keywords: Turner's syndrome, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, growth hormone ..... cognitive deficit.

  13. Hormone Replacement Therapy: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hormone therapy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hormone Replacement Therapy ... Estrogen overdose Types of hormone therapy Related Health Topics Menopause National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  14. Hormone abuse in sports: the antidoping perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Osquel; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2008-05-01

    Since ancient times, unethical athletes have attempted to gain an unfair competitive advantage through the use of doping substances. A list of doping substances and methods banned in sports is published yearly by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). A substance or method might be included in the List if it fulfills at least two of the following criteria: enhances sports performance; represents a risk to the athlete's health; or violates the spirit of sports. This list, constantly updated to reflect new developments in the pharmaceutical industry as well as doping trends, enumerates the drug types and methods prohibited in and out of competition. Among the substances included are steroidal and peptide hormones and their modulators, stimulants, glucocorticosteroids, beta2-agonists, diuretics and masking agents, narcotics, and cannabinoids. Blood doping, tampering, infusions, and gene doping are examples of prohibited methods indicated on the List. From all these, hormones constitute by far the highest number of adverse analytical findings reported by antidoping laboratories. Although to date most are due to anabolic steroids, the advent of molecular biology techniques has made recombinant peptide hormones readily available. These substances are gradually changing the landscape of doping trends. Peptide hormones like erythropoietin (EPO), human growth hormone (hGH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are presumed to be widely abused for performance enhancement. Furthermore, as there is a paucity of techniques suitable for their detection, peptide hormones are all the more attractive to dishonest athletes. This article will overview the use of hormones as doping substances in sports, focusing mainly on peptide hormones as they represent a pressing challenge to the current fight against doping. Hormones and hormones modulators being developed by the pharmaceutical industry, which could emerge as new doping substances, are also discussed. 2008, Asian

  15. Influence of spin on fission fragments anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Omid N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of selected fission fragment angular distribution when at least one of the spins of the projectile or target is appreciable in induced fission was made by using the statistical scission model. The results of this model predicate that the spins of the projectile or target are affected on the nuclear level density of the compound nucleus. The experimental data was analyzed by means of the couple channel spin effect formalism. This formalism suggests that the projectile spin is more effective on angular anisotropies within the limits of energy near the fusion barrier.

  16. Deciding Security for a Fragment of ASLan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    situations in security such as the interaction between the work ow of a system with its access control policies. While even the transition relation is undecidable for ASLan in general, we show the security problem is decidable for a large and useful fragment that we call TASLan, as long as we bound...... the number of steps of honest participants. The restriction of TASLan is that all messages and predicates must be in a certain sense unambiguous in their interpretation, excluding \\type-confusions" similar to some tagging results for security protocols....

  17. Fragmentation of Relativistic 56Fe Nuclei in Emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, G.M.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gulyamov, U.G.; Navotny, V.Sh.; Petrov, N.V.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Jakobsson, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.

    1983-03-01

    Experimental data on general characteristics of projectile fragments in inelastic interactions of relativistic 56 Fe nuclei in emulsion (multiplicities, transverse momentum distributions, azimuthal correlations) are presented and discussed. A strong dependence on the mass number of the projectile nucleus is observed for the transverse momenta of the emitted projectile fragments. These fragments exhibit an azimuthal asymmetry caused by the transverse motion of the fragmenting residue, but it is shown that this motion can be responsible only for a part of the increase in the average transverse momentum of the fragments with increasing mass of the projectile. (author)

  18. Light particles emitted with the fission fragments of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San-Tsiang, T; Faraggi, H

    1947-01-01

    The traces produced by the fission of thorium with fast neutrons have been recorded photographically and studied. The formation of a light fragment of long range by either quadripartition or tripartition was not observed. The release of a short-range light fragment by bipartition was observed about one hundred times more frequently than was the release of such a fragment by tripartition. The ratio of the range of the two heavy fragments produced by tripartition was 1:2; this compares with a ratio of 1:3 for the heavy fragments produced by bipartition.

  19. Potent agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarandi, M; Serfozo, P; Zsigo, J; Bokser, L; Janaky, T; Olsen, D B; Bajusz, S; Schally, A V

    1992-03-01

    Analogs of the 29 amino acid sequence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) with agmatine (Agm) in position 29 have been synthesized by the solid phase method, purified, and tested in vitro and in vivo. The majority of the analogs contained desaminotyrosine (Dat) in position 1, but a few of them had Tyr1, or N-MeTyr1. Some peptides contained one or more additional L- or D-amino acid substitutions in positions 2, 12, 15, 21, 27, and/or 28. Compared to the natural sequence of GH-RH(1-29)NH2, [Dat1,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-191) and [D-Ala2,Ala15]GH-RH(1-28)Agm (MZ-3-201) were 8.2 and 7.1 times more potent in vitro, respectively. These two peptides contained Met27. Their Nle27 analogs, [Dat1,Ala15,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-2-51), prepared previously (9), and [D-Ala2,Ala15,Nle28]GH-RH(1-28)Agm(MZ-3-195) showed relative in vitro potencies of 10.5 and 2.4, respectively. These data indicate that replacement of Met27 by Nle27 enhanced the GH-releasing activity of the analog when the molecule contained Dat1-Ala2 residues at the N-terminus, but peptides containing Tyr1-D-Ala2 in addition to Nle27 showed decreased potencies. Replacement of Ser28 with Asp in multi-substituted analogs of GH-RH(1-28)Agm resulted in a decrease in in vitro potencies compared to the parent compound. Thus, the Ser28-containing MZ-2-51, and [Dat1,Ala15,D-Lys21,Nle27]GH-RH(1-28)Agm, its Asp28 homolog (MZ-3-149), possessed relative activities of 10.5 and 5.6, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone containing cytotoxic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janáky, T; Juhász, A; Bajusz, S; Csernus, V; Srkalovic, G; Bokser, L; Milovanovic, S; Redding, T W; Rékási, Z; Nagy, A

    1992-02-01

    In an attempt to produce better cytotoxic analogues, chemotherapeutic antineoplastic radicals including an alkylating nitrogen mustard derivative of D-phenylalanine (D-melphalan), reactive cyclopropane, anthraquinone derivatives [2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone and the anticancer antibiotic doxorubicin], and an antimetabolite (methotrexate) were coupled to suitably modified agonists and antagonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). Analogues with D-lysine6 and D-ornithine6 or N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-lysine and N delta-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-ornithine were used as carriers for one or two cytotoxic moieties. The enhanced biological activities produced by the incorporation of D amino acids into position 6 of the agonistic analogues were further increased by the attachment of hydrophobic cytotoxic groups, resulting in compounds with 10-50 times higher activity than LH-RH. Most of the monosubstituted agonistic analogues showed high affinities for the membrane receptors of human breast cancer cells, while the receptor binding affinities of peptides containing two cytotoxic side chains were lower. Antagonistic carriers [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,D-Lys6,D-Ala10] LH-RH [where Nal(2) is 3-(2-naphthyl)alanine], [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Trp3,Arg5,N epsilon-(2,3-diaminopropionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH, and their D-Pal(3)3 homologs [Pal(3) is 3-(3-pyridyl)alanine] as well as [Ac-D-Nal(2)1,D-Phe(4Cl)2,D-Pal(3)3,Tyr5,N epsilon-(2,3-diamino-propionyl)-D-Lys6,D-Ala10]LH-RH were linked to cytotoxic compounds. The hybrid molecules inhibited ovulation in rats at doses of 10 micrograms and suppressed LH release in vitro. The receptor binding of cytotoxic analogues was decreased compared to the precursor peptides, although analogues with 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone hemiglutarate had high affinities. All of the cytotoxic analogues tested inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA in cultures of human breast and prostate cancer cell lines