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Sample records for hormonally induced spermatogenesis

  1. Honey improves spermatogenesis and hormone secretion in testicular ischaemia-reperfusion-induced injury in rats.

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    Gholami, M; Abbaszadeh, A; Khanipour Khayat, Z; Anbari, K; Baharvand, P; Gharravi, A M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to survey the protective effect of pre-treatment with Persian honey during post-ischaemia reperfusion on ischaemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced testis injury. Animals were divided into four groups of IR, honey + ischaemia- reperfusion (HIR), vitamin C + ischaemia- reperfusion (VIR) and carbohydrates + ischaemia- reperfusion (CIR). The testes were examined for spermatogenesis index. Detection of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks at the early stages of apoptosis was performed. Total serum concentration of FSH, LH and testosterone was measured using ELISA. All data were expressed as mean ± SD in each group, and significance was set at p ≤ .05. Spermatogenesis index was significant in the HIR group (p honey decreases the cellular damage and apoptosis during testicular I/R injury, with significant protective effects on reproductive hormone production. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of rejuvenation hormones on spermatogenesis.

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    Moss, Jared L; Crosnoe, Lindsey E; Kim, Edward D

    2013-06-01

    To review the current literature for the effect of hormones used in rejuvenation clinics on the maintenance of spermatogenesis. Review of published literature. Not applicable. Men who have undergone exogenous testosterone (T) and/or anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) therapies. None. Semen analysis, pregnancy outcomes, and time to recovery of spermatogenesis. Exogenous testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids suppress intratesticular testosterone production, which may lead to azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Therapies that protect spermatogenesis involve human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) therapy and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The studies examining the effect of human growth hormone (HGH) on infertile men are uncontrolled and unconvincing, but they do not appear to negatively impact spermatogenesis. At present, routine use of aromatase inhibitors is not recommended based on a lack of long-term data. The use of hormones for rejuvenation is increasing with the aging of the Baby Boomer population. Men desiring children at a later age may be unaware of the side-effect profile of hormones used at rejuvenation centers. Testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids have well-established detrimental effects on spermatogenesis, but recovery may be possible with cessation. Clomiphene citrate, human growth hormone (HGH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and aromatase inhibitors do not appear to have significant negative effects on sperm production, but quality data are lacking. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Protection from radiation-induced damage to spermatogenesis by hormone treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdoglu, B.; Wilson, G.; Parchuri, N.; Ye, W.; Meistrich, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    Infertility caused by killing of the spermatogonial stem cells occurs frequently in men treated for cancer with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We investigated whether pretreatment of rats with testosterone plus estradiol, which reversibly inhibits the completion of spermatogenesis and protects spermatogonial stem cells from procarbazine-induced damage, would also protect these cells from radiation. Adult male LBNF rats were implanted for 6 weeks with capsules containing testosterone and estradiol and then irradiated with doses from 2.5-7.0 Gy. Controls were irradiated with 1.8-3.5 Gy. Implants were removed 1 day after irradiation, and all animals were killed 10 weeks later for assessment of stem cell survival by counting repopulating tubules in histological sections and by sperm head counts. At doses of 2.5 and 3.5 Gy the repopulation indices and sperm head counts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the rats treated with testosterone and estradiol than in the controls. Protection factors calculated from the dose-response curves were in the range of 1.5-2.2. Elucidation of the mechanism of protection is essential to apply it to clinical situations. The fact that the spermatogonia are protected against radiation as well as procarbazine indicates that the mechanism does not involve drug delivery or metabolism. 32 refs., 3 figs

  4. Spermatogenesis Abnormalities following Hormonal Therapy in Transwomen

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    Sirachai Jindarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS and to analyze the association between hormonal therapy duration and infertility severity. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. University hospital. Patients. One-hundred seventy-three transwomen who underwent SRS from January 2000 to December 2015. Interventions. All orchidectomy specimens were retrospectively reviewed and classified. History of hormonal therapy duration was retrieved from medical records. Main Outcome Measures. Histological examinations of orchidectomy specimens were performed to assess spermatogenesis. Results. One-hundred seventy-three orchidectomy specimens were evaluated. Histological examinations showed maturation arrest in 36.4%, hypospermatogenesis in 26%, Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 20.2%, normal spermatogenesis in 11%, and seminiferous tubule hyalinization in 6.4% of the specimens. Spermatogenesis abnormality severity was not associated with the total therapy duration (P=0.81 or patient age at the time of surgery (P=0.88. Testicular volumes and sizes were associated with spermatogenesis abnormality severity (P=0.001 and P=0.026, right testicle and left testicle, resp.. Conclusion(s. Feminizing hormonal treatment leads to reductions in testicular germ cell levels. All transwomen should be warned about this consequence, and gamete preservation should be offered before starting hormonal treatment.

  5. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis: expression of FSJH receptor and androgen receptor genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Blok (Leen)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractFSH and testosterone are the main hormonal regulators of spermatogenesis. The actions of androgens and FSH are mediated by their respective receptors. Receptor gene expression (mRNA and protein). is an important determinant of hormone action. Biochemical aspects of the regulation of

  6. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yandi; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan; Zhang, Pengfei; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  7. Regulation of steroid hormones and energy status with cysteamine and its effect on spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yandi [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Yu, Shuai; Feng, Yanni [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Hongfu [State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Kou, Xin [Shouguang Hongde Farmer Co., Weifang 262700 (China); Chu, Meiqiang; Cui, Liantao; Li, Lan [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Zhang, Pengfei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Shen, Wei [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China); Min, Lingjiang, E-mail: mlj020963@hotmail.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement, Universities of Shandong, Qingdao 266109 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Although it is well known that cysteamine is a potent chemical for treating many diseases including cystinosis and it has many adverse effects, the effect of cysteamine on spermatogenesis is as yet unknown. Therefore the objective of this investigation was to explore the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Sheep were treated with vehicle control, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg cysteamine for six months. After that, the semen samples were collected to determine the spermatozoa motility by computer-assisted sperm assay method. Blood samples were collected to detect the levels of hormones and the activity of enzymes. Spermatozoa and testis samples were collected to study the mechanism of cysteamine's actions. It was found that the effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis were dose dependent. A low dose (10 mg/kg) cysteamine treatment increased ovine spermatozoa motility; however, a higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both spermatozoa concentration and motility. This decrease might be due to a reduction in steroid hormone production by the testis, a reduction in energy in the testis and spermatozoa, a disruption in the blood-testis barrier, or a breakdown in the vital signaling pathways involved in spermatogenesis. The inhibitory effects of cysteamine on sheep spermatogenesis may be used to model its effects on young male patients with cystinosis or other diseases that are treated with this drug. Further studies on spermatogenesis that focus on patients treated with cysteamine during the peripubertal stage are warranted. - Highlights: • Dose dependent effects of cysteamine on spermatogenesis • A low dose (10 mg/kg) increased spermatozoa motility. • A higher dose (20 mg/kg) decreased both concentration and motility of spermatozoa. • Disruption in the blood-testis barrier caused reduction in concentration and motility.

  8. Spermatogenesis, sperm DNA integrity, and testicular hormonal function are differentially affected following cytotoxic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constine, L.S.; Schwartz, C.; Hobbie, W.; Evenson, D.; Hinkle, A.; Palisca, M.; Smudzin, T.; Centola, G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Males treated with irradiation (RT) or certain chemotherapeutic (CT) agents are at risk for testicular damage in the form of germ cell injury and hormonal dysfunction. Sperm DNA structural defects or immaturity may affect reproductive potential both in terms of the likelihood for conception and early fetal loss. Preclinical data provoked our hypothesis that patients with subnormal sperm counts due to cytotoxic therapy could be demonstrated to have defective sperm chromatin; we also questioned whether structural abnormalities might be found in the sperm of patients with normal counts. Although the RT dose threshold for ablation of spermatogenesis is known to be below that for hormonal dysfunction, the relative effects of CT are unclear, which suggested the second component of our investigation. Methods: Eligibility criteria included treatment with CT including an alkylating agent, and/or RT with scattered dose to the testes for a cancer not involving the testes, and remission duration of at least 3 years. Of the 15 study patients, 12 received CT (including cyclophosphamide in 7) and 12 received RT (with peripheral testicular doses of 0-169 cGy, and including 4 also treated to the whole brain with doses below that associated with impaired gonadotropin secretion). Sperm number, motility, morphology and pattern of movement were assessed by computer-assisted spermanalysis, and for chromatin structural integrity and maturation using dual parameter flow cytometric (FC) analysis of acid-induced DNA denaturation. The mean age at tumor diagnosis was 14.4 yrs (range 6.5-36; 12 patients were ≤ 19 years old), and at testing was 25.5 yrs (range 18-46), with a mean interval of 9.7 yrs (range 3-21). Results: Only 3 patients (20%) had normal sperm counts (> 20 million/ml), 2 of whom had not received an alkylating agent but had scattered RT testes doses of 41 cGy and 169 cGy, respectively. These 2 patients had impaired sperm motility (13% and 32%, respectively), and the

  9. [Spermatogenesis of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone infusion versus gonadotropin therapy in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingkun; Mao, Jiangfeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Xi; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2015-05-26

    To compare the efficacies of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) versus human chorionic gonadotropin/human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) for spermatogenesis in male idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). For this retrospective study, a total of 92 male IHH outpatients from May 2010 to October 2014 were recruited and categorized into GnRH (n = 40) and HCG/HMG (n = 52) groups. Each subject selected one specific therapy voluntarily. The gonadotropin levels were measured in the first week and monthly post-treatment in GnRH group. And serum total testosterone (TT), testicular volume (TV) and rate of spermatogenesis were observed monthly post-treatment in two groups. Spermatogenesis, TT and TV were compared between two groups. All IHH patients were treated for over 3 months. The median follow-up periods in GnRH and HCG/HMG groups was 8.2 (3.0-18.4) and 9.2 (3.0-18.6) months respectively (P = 0.413). In GnRH group, LH ((0.5 ± 0.6) vs (3.4 ± 2.4) U/L, P treatment. In GnRH group, at the end of follow-up, TT ((1.0 ± 1.0) vs (7.4 ± 5.2) nmol/L, P treatment time for initial sperm appearance than HCG/HMG group ((6.5 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 3.7) months, P = 0.001). Pulsatile GnRH requires a shorter time for initiation of spermatogenesis than gonadotropin therapy in IHH male patients.

  10. Hormonal stimulation of the recovery of spermatogenesis following chemo- or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meistrich, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs produce prolonged depression of sperm counts in rodents and humans. Previously, three approaches have been developed in experimental animals that have had some success in preventing or reversing this toxicity. These approaches included pretreatment with hormones that suppress spermatogenesis, stimulation of stem cell number, and supplementation with testosterone. A different rationale for the ability of particular hormonal treatments to reverse prolonged azoospermia is presented in this review. In many cases prolonged azoospermia occurs even though the stem spermatogonia survive the toxic insult, but the differentiation of these spermatogonia to produce sperm fails. In the rat, the block appears to be at the differentiation of the A spermatogonia. Hormone treatments with testosterone or with GnRH agonists, which suppress intratesticular testosterone levels, relieve this block and result in the production of differentiating cells. When the hormone treatment is stopped the production of differentiating cells continues, mature sperm are produced, and fertility is restored. If a similar mechanism can be demonstrated to hold in humans, the fertility of men who have been rendered infertile by treatments for testicular and other cancers could be improved. (au)

  11. Induction of spermatogenesis and fertility in hypogonadotropic azoospermic men by intravenous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

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    Blumenfeld, Z; Makler, A; Frisch, L; Brandes, J M

    1988-06-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has only recently become a helpful tool in the medication of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Two azoospermic patients with HH who had previously been treated with hCG/hMG because of delayed puberty and each of whom had fathered a child after previous gonadotropin therapy were referred due to secondary failure of hCG/hMG treatment to induce spermatogenesis and fertility. A pulse study where blood was drawn every 15 minutes for LH, FSH and PRL RIAs was performed in each patient, and afterwards a bolus of i.v. GnRH was injected to assess gonadotropin responsiveness. A portable GnRH pump was connected to each patient so that it administered 5-20 micrograms of GnRH i.v. every 89 minutes. Spermatogenesis was first detected after 42 and 78 days respectively in the 2 treated HH men and 4 1/2 months from the start of treatment their wives became pregnant. No thrombophlebitis or other complications of the i.v. therapy occurred. In the case of the first patient, the semen was washed and concentrated and intra-uterine inseminations were carried out in an attempt to shorten the time needed to achieve fertility. The first pregnancy was successfully terminated at 38 weeks with the delivery of 2 heterozygotic normal male babies. The second pregnancy ended in spontaneous delivery of a healthy female. We conclude that i.v. pulsatile, intermittent GnRH administration is a safe, efficient and highly successful means of treating azoospermic men with HH.

  12. Effects of exogenous hormones on spermatogenesis in the male prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus).

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    Foreman, D

    1998-01-01

    Male prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) breed anually and have complete testicular regression. Changes in the seminiferous tubules during the annual cycle have been described recently (Foreman, 1997). This is the first description of spermatogenesis in such a species. The definition of tubular stages during the cycle allows for evaluation of the effects of exogenous hormones, hemicastration, and hemicryptorchidism on spermatogenesis during the annual cycle. Hemicastration was performed during stages of the annual cycle to determine effects of exogenous hormones on remaining testes. Hemicryptorchidism was also done during stages of the annual cycle. FSH, LH, and testosterone were given in high and low doses for short- or long-term treatment periods during stages of the annual cycle. Testicular weights and counts of cell types in tubules of control and treated testes were made on testis tissues. Hemicastration during the out-of-season period does not cause compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining testis, but during recrudescence, hypertrophy of the remaining testis occurs. Hemicastration does not prevent loss of weight by the remaining testis during regression. The seminiferous epithelium of hemicryptorchid prairie dog testes shows damage during spermatogenic activity but not during testicular inactivity. Similarly, hemicryptorchid 15-day-old rat testes do not show damage from hemicryptorchidism. Long-term treatment with FSH preparations during testicular inactivity increased testis weights, spermatogonial proliferation, and spermatocyte differentiation in conjunction with Sertoli cell differentiation. Short-term treatments with low doses increased spermatogonial proliferation and abnormal meiotic activity. Both long- and short-term treatments with LH caused increased sloughing of germ cells and stimulated Leydig and Sertoli cells. Testosterone propionate injections stimulated Sertoli secretions but not Leydig cell activity. Hemicastration during inactivity does

  13. Differential effects of genetic - and diet - induced obesity on fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome in adult male rats

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    Sharvari Deshpande

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global health issue affecting millions of people of different age groups. The incidence of male obesity induced infertility is rising in couples undergoing ARTs suggesting that obesity is an established risk factor for male infertility. Recent studies demonstrate that paternal diet induced obesity could induce epigenetic disturbances in offspring. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder with predominantly genetic or environmental causes. No studies have compared the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on male reproduction. The present study aims to delineate effects of obesity on male fertility, spermatogenesis and sperm epigenome using two rat models: genetically induced obese (GIO – WNIN/OB and diet induced obese (DIO – High fat diet. Body weights were similar in both groups, but, differential effects on hormonal profiles were observed. Fertility assessment showed decreased litter size mainly due to increased pre- and post-implantation loss in DIO group. However, GIO group were infertile due to decrease in libido. We observed a decrease in sperm counts in GIO group but not in DIO group despite the body weights being similar in both the groups. Flow cytometry and cell type specific marker expression studies in testis revealed that both DIO and GIO affect mitosis and differentiation process by increasing spermatogonial proliferation. In DIO group, no effect was observed on meiosis whereas in GIO group, we observed an effect on meiosis. Spermiogenesis process was affected in both the groups. In order to study the effect of genetic and diet induced obesity on different aspects of spermatogenesis, we performed qRT-PCR to study expression of genes involved in spermatocyte progression, spermiogenesis process, reproductive hormone receptors and leptin signaling in testis. Since epigenetic mechanisms are susceptible to environmental and genetic changes, we analyzed the methylation status of Igf2-H19 DMR in spermatozoa of both the

  14. Neonatal androgenization of hypogonadal (hpg male mice does not abolish estradiol-induced FSH production and spermatogenesis

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    Kerr Jeffrey B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular development is arrested in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse due to a congenital deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH synthesis. Chronic treatment of male hpg mice with estradiol induces FSH synthesis and secretion, and causes testicular maturation and qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. As estradiol negative feedback normally inhibits FSH production in the male, this study tested whether this paradoxical response to estradiol in the male hpg mouse might be due to inadequate masculinisation or incomplete defeminization in the neonatal period. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of hpg mice with testosterone propionate in the immediate neonatal period is necessary to allow full reproductive behaviors to be expressed following suitable endocrine stimulation at adult ages. Methods Hpg mice were treated with 100 μg testosterone propionate or vehicle on postnatal day 2. At 35 days of age, subgroups of these mice were treated with silastic implants containing estradiol or cholesterol. Reproductive behavior was scored in tests with steroid-primed female mice, then testicular development was assessed histologically, and measures of pituitary FSH content made at 85 days of age. Results The neonatal testosterone propionate treatment successfully defeminized female litter mates, as revealed by impaired vaginal opening and deficiencies in lordosis behavior, and it allowed appropriate male reproductive behavior to be expressed in a proportion of the hpg males when tested at an adult age. However, neonatal androgen supplementation did not block or even reduce the subsequent actions of estradiol in increasing pituitary FSH content, nor did it affect the ability of estradiol to induce qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. Conclusion The ability of the hpg male to show a "female" neuroendocrine response to estradiol is not a result of inadequate androgenization during neonatal development, and

  15. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy is associated with earlier spermatogenesis compared to combined gonadotropin therapy in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

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    Jiang-Feng Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Both pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH infusion and combined gonadotropin therapy (human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin [HCG/HMG] are effective to induce spermatogenesis in male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH. However, evidence is lacking as to which treatment strategy is better. This retrospective cohort study included 202 patients with CHH: twenty had received pulsatile GnRH and 182 had received HCG/HMG. Patients had received therapy for at least 12 months. The total follow-up time was 15.6 ± 5.0 months (range: 12-27 months for the GnRH group and 28.7 ± 13.0 months (range: 12-66 months for the HCG/HMG group. The median time to first sperm appearance was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-10.4 in the GnRH group versus 18 months (95% CI: 16.4-20.0 in the HCG/HMG group (P 1 × 10 6 ml−1 was 43.7% ± 20.4% (16 samples in the GnRH group versus 43.2% ± 18.1% (153 samples in the HCG/HMG group (P = 0.921. Notably, during follow-up, the GnRH group had lower serum testosterone levels than the HCG/HMG group (8.3 ± 4.6 vs 16.2 ± 8.2 nmol l−1 , P < 0.001. Our study found that pulsatile GnRH therapy was associated with earlier spermatogenesis and larger testicular size compared to combined gonadotropin therapy. Additional prospective randomized studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  16. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

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    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  17. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis in men: therapeutic aspects in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

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    Pitteloud, Nelly; Dwyer, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    During the first two trimesters of intrauterine life, fetal sex steroid production is driven by maternal human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The HPG axis is activated around the third trimester and remains active for the first 6-months of neonatal life. This so-called mini-puberty is a developmental window that has profound effects on future potential for fertility. In early puberty, GnRH secretion is reactivated first at night and then night and day. Pulsatile GnRH stimulates both LH and FSH, which induce maturation of the seminiferous tubules and Leydig cells. Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) results from GnRH deficiency. Men with CHH lack the mini-pubertal and pubertal periods of Sertoli Cell proliferation and thus present with prepubertal testes (Fertility outcomes with each of these regimens are highly variable. Recently, a randomized, open label treatment study (n=13) addressed the question of whether a sequential treatment with FSH alone prior to LH and FSH (via GnRH pump) could enhance fertility outcomes. All men receiving the sequential treatment developed sperm in the ejaculate, whereas 2/6 men in the other group remained azoospermic. A large, multicenter clinical trial is needed to definitively prove the optimal treatment approach for severe CHH. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Effects of the alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens on spermatogenesis and sex hormones in immature Balb/C mice

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    Farinaz Nasirinezhad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: No special information has been reported about anti-fertility effect of Ruta graveolens. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Ruta graveolens alcoholic extract on fertility of male mice and its contraceptive effects. Methods: 30 immature male Balb/C mice were allocated to three groups of intact control, vehicle, and Ruta graveolens treatment that received Ruta extract. A single sub-LD50 300 mg/kg dose of alcoholic extract of the plant was injected intraperitoneally, every day for a week. A month after the last injection, the animals were deeply anesthetized and dissected. Blood was collected intracardially for hormonal assay. The testes were extruded, weighed and then fixed for histological studies. Results: Administration of 300 mg/kg Ruta graveolens showed no significant changes in weight of testis, but induced a significant decrease in number of type A spermatogonia (df: 2, 27; F=6.51; p=0.005 and number of spermatid cells (df: 2, 27; F=4.28; p=0.02 compared to control. Four weeks after injection of Ruta graveolens serum, testosterone level (df: 2, 27; F=3.43; p=0.047 significantly decreased compared to control animals. However, there were no significant changes in serum follicle stimulating hormone (df: 2, 27; F=3.34; p=0.051 and luteal hormone (df: 2, 27; F=0.15; p=0.87 levels. Conclusion: The results indicated that alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the activity of male reproductive system by reducing spermatogonia and spermatids, but has no effect on serum level of follicle stimulating hormone and luteal hormone, and might be a useful substance for birth control; however, further studies are suggested.

  19. In vitro mouse spermatogenesis with an organ culture method in chemically defined medium.

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    Hiroyuki Sanjo

    Full Text Available We previously reported the successful induction and completion of mouse spermatogenesis by culturing neonatal testis tissues. The culture medium consisted of α-minimum essential medium (α-MEM, supplemented with Knockout serum replacement (KSR or AlbuMAX, neither of which were defined chemically. In this study, we formulated a chemically defined medium (CDM that can induce mouse spermatogenesis under organ culture conditions. It was found that bovine serum albumin (BSA purified through three different procedures had different effects on spermatogenesis. We also confirmed that retinoic acid (RA played crucial roles in the onset of spermatogonial differentiation and meiotic initiation. The added lipids exhibited weak promoting effects on spermatogenesis. Lastly, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, triiodothyronine (T3, and testosterone (T combined together promoted spermatogenesis until round spermatid production. The CDM, however, was not able to produce elongated spermatids. It was also unable to induce spermatogenesis from the very early neonatal period, before 2 days postpartum, leaving certain factors necessary for spermatogenic induction in mice unidentified. Nonetheless, the present study provided important basic information on testis organ culture and spermatogenesis in vitro.

  20. Fetal cyclophosphamide exposure induces testicular cancer and reduced spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle numbers in mice.

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    Comish, Paul B; Drumond, Ana Luiza; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Matin, Angabin; Meistrich, Marvin L; Shetty, Gunapala

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP) is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1) mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2%) and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%). These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i) DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii) increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii) children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan.

  1. Fetal cyclophosphamide exposure induces testicular cancer and reduced spermatogenesis and ovarian follicle numbers in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B Comish

    Full Text Available Exposure to radiation during fetal development induces testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT and reduces spermatogenesis in mice. However, whether DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents elicit these effects in mice remains unclear. Among such agents, cyclophosphamide (CP is currently used to treat breast cancer in pregnant women, and the effects of fetal exposure to this drug manifested in the offspring must be better understood to offer such patients suitable counseling. The present study was designed to determine whether fetal exposure to CP induces testicular cancer and/or gonadal toxicity in 129 and in 129.MOLF congenic (L1 mice. Exposure to CP on embryonic days 10.5 and 11.5 dramatically increased TGCT incidence to 28% in offspring of 129 mice (control value, 2% and to 80% in the male offspring of L1 (control value 33%. These increases are similar to those observed in both lines of mice by radiation. In utero exposure to CP also significantly reduced testis weights at 4 weeks of age to ∼ 70% of control and induced atrophic seminiferous tubules in ∼ 30% of the testes. When the in utero CP-exposed 129 mice reached adulthood, there were significant reductions in testicular and epididymal sperm counts to 62% and 70%, respectively, of controls. In female offspring, CP caused the loss of 77% of primordial follicles and increased follicle growth activation. The results indicate that i DNA damage is a common mechanism leading to induction of testicular cancer, ii increased induction of testis cancer by external agents is proportional to the spontaneous incidence due to inherent genetic susceptibility, and iii children exposed to radiation or DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in utero may have increased risks of developing testis cancer and having reduced spermatogenic potential or diminished reproductive lifespan.

  2. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields can impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Ferreira Filho, Moisés Bonifacio Alves; Jimenez, George Chaves; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Peixoto, Christina Alves; Nogueira, Romildo de Albuquerque; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility is often related to reproductive age couples experiencing fertility-related issues. Men may have fertility problems associated with reversible testicular damage. Considering that men have been increasingly exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the production, distribution and use of electricity, this study analyzed whether 60 Hz and 1 mT magnetic field exposure may impair spermatogenesis recovery after reversible testicular damage induced by heat shock using rats as an experimental model. Adult male rats were subjected to a single testicular heat shock (HS, 43 °C for 12 min) and then exposed to the magnetic field for 15, 30 and 60 d after HS. Magnetic field exposure during the spermatogenesis recovery induced changes in testis components volume, cell ultrastructure and histomorphometrical parameters. Control animals had a reestablished and active spermatogenesis at 60 d after heat shock, while animals exposed to magnetic field still showed extensive testicular degeneration. Magnetic field exposure did not change the plasma testosterone. In conclusion, extremely low-frequency magnetic field may be harmful to fertility recovery in males affected by reversible testicular damage.

  3. Time course of changes in sperm morphometry and semen variables during testosterone-induced suppression of human spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; McLachlan, R I; Baker, H W G

    2005-11-01

    Quantification of changes in semen may give insight into the testosterone (T)-induced disruption of spermatogenesis in man. A model analogous to flushing of sperm from the genital tract after vasectomy was used to quantify the time course of semen changes in subjects participating in male contraceptive trials using 800 mg T-implant (n = 25) or 200 mg weekly intramuscular injection (IM-T; n = 33). A modified exponential decay model allowed for delayed onset and incomplete disruption to spermatogenesis. Semen variables measured weekly during a 91-day period after initial treatment were fitted to the model. Sperm concentration, total count, motility and morphometry exhibited similar average decay rates (5 day half-life). The mean delay to onset of decline in concentration was 15 (IM-T) and 18 (T-implant) days. The significantly longer (P sperm viability (43 and 55 days), and the change of morphometry to smaller more compact sperm heads are consistent with sperm being progressively cleared from the genital tract rather than continued shedding of immature or abnormal sperm by the seminiferous epithelium. A significant negative relationship was found between lag time and baseline sperm concentration, consistent with longer sperm-epididymal transit times associated with lower daily production rates.

  4. Human-specific subcellular compartmentalization of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) granules during germ cell development and spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Fernandes, Maria; He, Nannan; Wang, Fang; Van Iperen, Liesbeth; Eguizabal, Cristina; Matorras, Roberto; Roelen, Bernard A J; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2018-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What is the dynamics of expression of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) proteins in the germline during human fetal development and spermatogenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4 were expressed in a sex-specific fashion in human germ cells (GC) during

  5. The endocannabinoid system and spermatogenesis

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    Paola eGrimaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSpermatogenesis is a complex process in which male germ cells undergo a mitotic phase followed by meiosis and by a morphogenetic process to form mature spermatozoa. Spermatogenesis is under the control of gonadotropins, steroid hormones and it is modulated by a complex network of autocrine and paracrine factors. These modulators ensure the correct progression of germ cell differentiation to form mature spermatozoa. Recently, it has been pointed out the relevance of endocannabinoids as critical modulators of male reproduction. Endocannabinoids are natural lipids able to bind to cannabinoid receptors and whose levels are regulated by specific biosynthetic and degradative enzymes. Together with their receptors and metabolic enzymes, they form the endocannabinoid system (ECS. In male reproductive tracts, they affect Sertoli cell activities, Leydig cell proliferation, germ cell differentiation, sperm motility, capacitation and acrosome reaction. The ECS interferes with the pituitary-gonadal axis, and an intricate crosstalk between ECS and steroid hormones has been highlighted. This mini-review will focus on the involvement of the ECS in the control of spermatogenesis and on the interaction between ECS and steroid hormones.

  6. Nondisjunction induced in mouse spermatogenesis by chloral hydrate, a metabolite of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, A; Pacchierotti, F; Metalli, P

    1984-01-01

    The effects of chloral hydrate (CH), an in vivo metabolite of trichloroethylene, have been evaluated by cytogenetic observations of mouse secondary spermatocytes after ip treatment with 82.7, 165.4, or 413.5 mg/kg bw. Hyper-haploid metaphases have been scored to determine whether previous observations in various nonmammalian organisms about an effect of this drug on the mitotic spindle could be confirmed in mice. At each dose, the frequencies of hyper-haploid cells have been estimated to assess the response of pachytene, preleptotene, premeiotic, and staminal gonial cells. Significant increases above the control value have been observed particularly after treatment of actively dividing gonial cells, confirming the results obtained with the same batch of the drug in a parallel collaborative investigation with Aspergillus nidulans. Thus: a) chloral hydrate has been shown to be effective in inducing nondisjunction in a mammalian system; b) a prevalent action on the mitotic spindle has been confirmed and quantified; and c) the usefulness of parallel investigations with different methods is stressed, particularly to collect information about the mechanisms of induction of nondisjunction events.

  7. The effect of para-nonylphenol on Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) spermatogenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, C.; Takahashi, N.; Michino, F.; Miura, T.

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disrupters have been recognized to interfere with endocrine systems that regulate reproduction, for example, by mimicking or inhibiting the action of endogenous sex steroid hormones including estradiol-17β (E2). In the present study, we examined the effect of an endocrine disrupter, para-nonylphenol (p-NP) on spermatogenesis, and compared it with the action of E2, using an eel testicular organ culture system. p-NP alone stimulated early spermatogonial renewal in the same manner as E2. Neither induced further progress in spermatogenesis. In the presence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), the major androgen in teleosts, p-NP did not prevent the 11-KT-induced progress in spermatogenesis. However, this treatment enlarged the Sertoli cells. Electron microscopic observation revealed that enlarged Sertoli cells contained well-developed organelles. Moreover, the proportion of germ cells appeared to have decreased as a result of Sertoli cell hypertrophy. These results clearly show that p-NP has an effect on Sertoli cells in the presence of an androgen (11-KT), potentially disturbing 11-KT-induced spermatogenesis

  8. Desenvolvimento testicular, espermatogênese e concentrações hormonais em touros Angus Testicular development, spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations in Angus bulls

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    Gyselle Viana Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    and in seminiferous epithelium of Angus bulls between 10 and 38 weeks of age. Samples of testicular parenchyma and blood were collected from 25 animals castrated in 4 week intervals. Traits associated to testicular development and quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations were transformed by logarithm before analyses of variance. Changes in testis and seminiferous tubule diameter and testis weight were more pronounced after 26 weeks of age. The percentage of testicular parenchyma occupied by seminiferous tubules increased from 49.3 to 75.2% from 10 to 38 weeks. Most tubules (>90% had only Sertoli cells at 10 and 14 weeks, but the number of tubules with gonocytes and A spermatogonia increased at 18 (13.8±1.7% and 22 weeks (19±1%. Tubules with B and intermediate spermatogonia became predominant at 26 weeks (24.5±8.2% and those with spermatocytes as the most advanced germ cell type were more evident at 30 weeks (42.3±9.9%. Round spermatids were detected at 26 weeks and at 38 weeks of age, 62.3±1.5% of all tubules had either elongate or mature spermatids. Variations in testis growth (specially testis weight after 26 weeks were coincident with the establishment of meiosis in the seminiferous tubules, morphological alterations in nucleus and nucleolus of the Sertoli cells (indicators of Sertoli cell differentiation, lower levels of androstenedione and significant increases in testosterone and estradiol 17beta. Associations between testis development and concentrations of FSH and LH were less evident.

  9. Effects of Trans-Resveratrol on hyperglycemia-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase signaling in rat testis

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    Abdelali, Ala [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait); Al-Bader, Maie [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait); Kilarkaje, Narayana, E-mail: knarayana@hsc.edu.kw [Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University (Kuwait)

    2016-11-15

    Diabetes induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alters several intracellular signaling pathways in organ systems. This study investigated modulatory effects of Trans-Resveratrol on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signaling in rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day, ip) to Streptozotocin-induced T1DM adult male Wistar rats from day 22–42 resulted in recovery of induced oxidative stress, abnormal spermatogenesis and inhibited DNA synthesis, and led to mitigation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the testis and spermatozoa, and DNA double-strand breaks in the testis. Trans-Resveratrol aggravated T1DM-induced up-regulation of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 expression; however, it did not modify the up-regulated total PARP and down-regulated PARP1 expressions, but recovered the decreased SirT1 (Sirtuin 1) levels in T1DM rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol, when given alone, reduced the poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (pADPr) process in the testis due to an increase in PAR glycohydrolase activity, but when given to T1DM rats it did not affect the pADPr levels. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not induce nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and the formation of 50 kb DNA breaks, suggesting to the lack of caspase-3-independent cell death called parthanatos. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not increase necrotic cell death in the testis. Primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and intra-testicular vessels showed the expression of PARP pathway related proteins. In conclusion, Trans-Resveratrol mitigates T1DM-induced sperm abnormality and DNA damage, but does not significantly modulate PARP signaling pathway, except the SirT1 expression, in the rat testis. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibits diabetes-induced abnormal sperm morphogenesis • Resveratrol recovers

  10. Effects of Trans-Resveratrol on hyperglycemia-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase signaling in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelali, Ala; Al-Bader, Maie; Kilarkaje, Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes induces oxidative stress, DNA damage and alters several intracellular signaling pathways in organ systems. This study investigated modulatory effects of Trans-Resveratrol on type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)-induced abnormal spermatogenesis, DNA damage and alterations in poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signaling in rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol administration (5mg/kg/day, ip) to Streptozotocin-induced T1DM adult male Wistar rats from day 22–42 resulted in recovery of induced oxidative stress, abnormal spermatogenesis and inhibited DNA synthesis, and led to mitigation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation in the testis and spermatozoa, and DNA double-strand breaks in the testis. Trans-Resveratrol aggravated T1DM-induced up-regulation of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2 expression; however, it did not modify the up-regulated total PARP and down-regulated PARP1 expressions, but recovered the decreased SirT1 (Sirtuin 1) levels in T1DM rat testis. Trans-Resveratrol, when given alone, reduced the poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation (pADPr) process in the testis due to an increase in PAR glycohydrolase activity, but when given to T1DM rats it did not affect the pADPr levels. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not induce nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and the formation of 50 kb DNA breaks, suggesting to the lack of caspase-3-independent cell death called parthanatos. T1DM with or without Trans-Resveratrol did not increase necrotic cell death in the testis. Primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and intra-testicular vessels showed the expression of PARP pathway related proteins. In conclusion, Trans-Resveratrol mitigates T1DM-induced sperm abnormality and DNA damage, but does not significantly modulate PARP signaling pathway, except the SirT1 expression, in the rat testis. - Highlights: • Resveratrol inhibits diabetes-induced abnormal sperm morphogenesis • Resveratrol recovers

  11. Molecular control of rodent spermatogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan, Sabrina Z.; Hamer, Geert; Repping, Sjoerd; de Rooij, Dirk G.; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Vormer, Tinke L.

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process that ultimately generates mature spermatozoa. This process involves a phase of proliferative expansion, meiosis, and cytodifferentiation. Mouse models have been widely used to study spermatogenesis and have revealed many genes and molecular

  12. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  13. Gastrointestinal Hormones Induced the Birth of Endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The physiological studies by British physiologists William Maddock Bayliss and Ernest Henry Starling, at the beginning of the last century, demonstrated the existence of specific messenger molecules (hormones) circulating in the blood that regulate the organ function and physiological mechanisms. These findings led to the concept of endocrinology. The first 2 hormones were secretin, discovered in 1902, and gastrin, discovered in 1905. Both hormones that have been described are produced in the gut. This chapter summarizes the history around the discovery of these 2 hormones, which is perceived as the birth of endocrinology. It is noteworthy that after the discovery of these 2 gastrointestinal hormones, many other hormones were detected outside the gut, and thereafter gut hormones faded from both the clinical and scientific spotlight. Only recently, the clinical importance of the gut as the body's largest endocrine organ producing a large variety of hormones has been realized. Gastrointestinal hormones are essential regulators of metabolism, growth, development and behavior and are therefore the focus of a modern pediatric endocrinologist. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Asprosin, a fasting-induced glucogenic protein hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic glucose release into the circulation is vital for brain function and survival during periods of fasting and is modulated by an array of hormones that precisely regulate plasma glucose levels. We have identified a fasting-induced protein hormone that modulates hepatic glucose release. It is t...

  15. Study of protective effect of Avicennia marina hydroethanolic leaf extract on testes tissue and spermatogenesis in male rat induced with carbon tetrachloride

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    Z soleimani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The toxic chemical compounds are widelyused in the world. Carbon tetrachloride which is used in hygiene industries caused tissue disorders. Medicinal plants have protective effects in body tissues. In this study the protective effect of Avicennia marina leaf extract (MLE on spermatogenesis in male rat were induced with ccl4 investigating. Method and materials: The 42 male rats with 220-250 gr body weight were divided randomly in 6 groups(n=7: control (taking normal saline,0.5ml/day, i,p , sham(taking olive oil, 0.5ml/day, i,p single dose,group induced by ccl4(carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose, i,p, treated groups: (1,2 and3 by carbon tetrachloride 1:1 with olive oil,0.5ml single dose and 200mg/Kg, 400mg/Kg and 800mg/kg MLE /day for 96 hrs, i,p. After the examination the blood samples were collected from heart directly and testosterone , FSH, LH , sperm count, sperm motility and GSI were analyzed and the microscopic studies of testes tissue were done. All data were expressed as mean±SEM. and statistical significance differences were accepted at P<0.05. Results: Our results showed that the carbon tetrachloride has necrotic effect in testes. The number of sperm and motility were increased and microscopic study of testes tissue showed the necrosis and inflammation with decrease in spermatogonia and spermatocytes comparedwith ccl4 induced only group significantly (P<0.001 and treated groups were no changed. Conclusion: the Avicennia marina hydroethanolic extract has antioxidant and flavonoids compounds which can protect the testes tissues from toxic chemical agents.

  16. Gonadotrophins, testosterone and spermatogenesis in neonatally irradiated male rates: evidence for a role of the Sertoli cell in follicle-stimulating hormone feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, F.H.; Sharpe, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Peripheral concentrations of FSH in the male rat seem to be regulated in parts by a protein hormone, inhibin, which originates from the testes. In an attempt to ascertain which type of testicular cell secretes inhibin, groups of male rats were irradiated prenatally or on days 4, 6 or 8 of postnatal life, and killed at 21, 51 or 81 days of age together with castrated and intact controls. The concentrations of FSH and LH in the pituitary gland, and FSH, LH and testosterone in the plasma were estimated for each animal, and the numbers of each class of intratubular cell in the testes were calculated. Rats irradiated neonatally had fewer Sertoli cells than controls at all ages studied, while the numbers of Sertoli cells in rats irradiated prenatally were higher than those in controls on day 21. The number of spermatogenic cells was usually decreased in rats irradiated postnatally. In the rats irradiated prenatally normal numbers of spermatogenic cells were found at day 51. Numbers of spermatogenic cells were significantly correlated with the number of Sertoli cells at the ages of 51 and 81 days. The concentration of FSH in the plasma usually increased in the postnatally irradiated animals on days 21 and 51, but not on day 81; prenatal irradiation did not result in altered levels of FSH at any age. Peripheral levels of LH and testosterone were not affected by irradiation. The concentration of FSH in the plasma was negatively correlated with the number of Sertoli cells in all age groups, whereas significant correlations between the levels of FSH and the number of spermatogenic cells were only found at days 51 and 81. It is concluded from these data that the Sertoli cell is the most likely source of inhibin. (author)

  17. Effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism on rat growth hormone release induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kato, Y; Ohgo, S; Iwasaki, Y; Maeda, K

    1976-06-01

    The effect of synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on the release of growth hormone (GH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was investigated in euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid rats under urethane anesthesia. In euthyroid control rats, intravenous injection of TRH (200 ng/100 g BW) resulted in a significant increase in both plasma GH and TSH. In rats made hypothyroid by treatment with propylthiouracil or by thyroidectomy, basal GH and TSH levels were significantly elevated with exaggerated responses to TRH. In contrast, plasma GH and TSH responses to TRH were both significantly inhibited in rats made hyperthyroid by L-thyroxine (T4) treatment. These results suggest that altered thyroid status influences GH release as well as TSH secretion induced by TRH in rats.

  18. The induction of non-disjunction by irradiation in mammalian oogenesis and spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmann, I.; Probeck, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    Test systems to detect non-disjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis are described and the results obtained from a study of radiation effects on non-disjunction presented. It is shown that X-rays may induce non-disjunction in mouse oogenesis and spermatogenesis, thereby increasing the potential risk of aneuploidies among the F1 generation. (C.F.)

  19. Yangjing Capsule Ameliorates Spermatogenesis in Male Mice Exposed to Cyclophosphamide

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    Hongle Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing capsule (YC, a traditional Chinese compound herbal preparation, has been proven as an effective drug to improve spermatogenesis in clinical practice. However, its pharmacological mechanisms were not fully clarified. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of YC on spermatogenesis in the mouse model of spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by cyclophosphamide (CP. The administration of YC significantly increased the epididymal index, sperm count, and sperm motility of model mice. Histopathological changes demonstrated that CP caused obvious structural damage to testis, which were reversed by the administration of YC. Results from TUNEL assay showed that treatment with YC dramatically decreased the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell induced by CP. Moreover, YC treatment could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of Bax to Bcl-2 and also raised expression of AR at both mRNA and protein levels. These data suggest that YC might ameliorate spermatogenesis in male mice exposed to CP through inhibiting the apoptosis of spermatogenic cell and enhancing the actions of testosterone in spermatogenesis.

  20. Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.

  1. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  2. Spermatogenesis in mammals: proteomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocu, Sophie; Calvel, Pierre; Rolland, Antoine D; Pineau, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly sophisticated process involved in the transmission of genetic heritage. It includes halving ploidy, repackaging of the chromatin for transport, and the equipment of developing spermatids and eventually spermatozoa with the advanced apparatus (e.g., tightly packed mitochondrial sheat in the mid piece, elongating of the tail, reduction of cytoplasmic volume) to elicit motility once they reach the epididymis. Mammalian spermatogenesis is divided into three phases. In the first the primitive germ cells or spermatogonia undergo a series of mitotic divisions. In the second the spermatocytes undergo two consecutive divisions in meiosis to produce haploid spermatids. In the third the spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa in a process called spermiogenesis. Paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and endocrine pathways all contribute to the regulation of the process. The array of structural elements and chemical factors modulating somatic and germ cell activity is such that the network linking the various cellular activities during spermatogenesis is unimaginably complex. Over the past two decades, advances in genomics have greatly improved our knowledge of spermatogenesis, by identifying numerous genes essential for the development of functional male gametes. Large-scale analyses of testicular function have deepened our insight into normal and pathological spermatogenesis. Progress in genome sequencing and microarray technology have been exploited for genome-wide expression studies, leading to the identification of hundreds of genes differentially expressed within the testis. However, although proteomics has now come of age, the proteomics-based investigation of spermatogenesis remains in its infancy. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of large-scale proteomic analyses of spermatogenesis, from germ cell development during sex determination to spermatogenesis in the adult. Indeed, a few laboratories have undertaken differential protein profiling

  3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secreting Pheochromocytoma Underlying Glucocorticoid Induced Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil A. Geva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Pheochromocytomas are hormone secreting tumors of the medulla of the adrenal glands found in 0.1–0.5% of patients with hypertension. The vast majority of pheochromocytomas secrete catecholamines, but they have been occasionally shown to also secrete interleukins, calcitonin, testosterone, and in rare cases adrenocorticotropic hormone. Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life threatening event in which high levels of catecholamines cause a systemic reaction leading to organ failure. Case Description. A 70-year-old man was admitted with acute myocardial ischemia following glucocorticoid administration as part of an endocrine workup for an adrenal mass. Cardiac catheterization disclosed patent coronary arteries and he was discharged. A year later he returned with similar angina-like chest pain. During hospitalization, he suffered additional events of chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations following administration of glucocorticoids as preparation for intravenous contrast administration. Throughout his admission, the patient demonstrated both signs of Cushing’s syndrome and high catecholamine levels. Following stabilization of vital parameters and serum electrolytes, the adrenal mass was resected surgically and was found to harbor an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma. This is the first documented case of adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting pheochromocytoma complicated by glucocorticoid induced pheochromocytoma crisis. Conclusion. Care should be taken when administering high doses of glucocorticoids to patients with suspected pheochromocytoma, even in a patient with concomitant Cushing’s syndrome.

  4. Dioxin-induced changes in epididymal sperm count and spermatogenesis Mudanças induzidas por dioxina na contagem epididimal de esperma e espermatogênese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren G. Foster

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A single in utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD on gestation day 15 decreased epididymal sperm count in adult rats and thus was used to establish a tolerable daily intake for TCDD. However, several laboratories have been unable to replicate these findings. Moreover, conflicting reports of TCDD effects on daily sperm production suggest that spermatogenesis may not be as sensitive to the adverse effects of TCDD as previously thought. We performed a PubMed search using relevant search terms linking dioxin exposure with adverse effects on reproduction and spermatogenesis. Developmental exposure to TCDD is consistently linked with decreased cauda epididymal sperm counts in animal studies, although at higher dose levels than those used in some earlier studies. However, the evidence linking in utero TCDD exposure and spermatogenesis is not convincing. Animal studies provide clear evidence of an adverse effect of in utero TCDD exposure on epididymal sperm count but do not support the conclusion that spermatogenesis is adversely affected. The mechanisms underlying decreased epididymal sperm count are unknown; however, we postulate that epididymal function is the key target for the adverse effects of TCDD.Uma única exposição in utero a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD no 15º dia de gestação diminuiu a contagem de esperma epididimal em ratos adultos e por isso foi utilizada para estabelecer uma dosagem diária tolerável para TCDD. No entanto, diversos laboratórios não conseguiram reproduzir esses resultados. Além disso, relatórios conflitantes dos efeitos de TCDD na produção diária de esperma sugere que espermatogênese pode não ser tão sensível aos efeitos adversos do TCDD como antes se pensava. Foi feita uma pesquisa no PubMed usando termos de pesquisa relevantes, relacionados à exposição à dioxina com efeitos adversos na reprodução e na espermatogênese. Exposição em desenvolvimento ao TCDD

  5. Mapping the follicle-stimulating hormone-induced signalling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eGloaguen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH is a central regulator of male and female reproductive function. Over the last decade, there has been a growing perception of the complexity associated with FSH-induced cellular signalling. It is now clear that the canonical Gs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole mechanism that must be considered in FSH biological actions. In parallel, consistent with the emerging concept of biased agonism, several examples of ligand-mediated selective signalling pathway activation by gonadotropin receptors have been reported. In this context, it is important to gain an integrative view of the signalling pathways induced by FSH and how they interconnect to form a network. In this review, we propose a first attempt at building topological maps of various pathways known to be involved in the FSH-induced signalling network. We discuss the multiple facets of FSH-induced signalling and how they converge to the hormone integrated biological response. Despite of their incompleteness, these maps of the FSH-induced signalling network represent a first step towards gaining a system-level comprehension of this hormone’s actions, which may ultimately facilitate the discovery of novel regulatory processes and therapeutic strategies for infertilities and non-steroidal contraception.

  6. Piwil1 mediates meiosis during spermatogenesis in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Chang, Guobin; Ma, Teng; Wang, Hongzhi; Chen, Jing; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Wan, Fang; Ren, Lichen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohong

    2016-03-01

    Piwil1 mediates spermatogenesis and ensures stable cell division rates in germline cells in mammals. However, the involvement of Piwil1 in poultry spermatogenesis and meiosis is poorly understood. In the present study, we used TaqMan RT-qPCR to characterize Piwil1 mRNA expression in different types of spermatogenic cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), spermatogonia cells (Sa), tetraploid cells (Tp), round sperm cells (Rs), mature sperm, and in PGCs treated with retinoic acid. Our results revealed that Piwil1 is differentially expressed during spermatogenesis in chicken. Compared to PGCs, SSCs, Tp, and Sa, Rs cells presented the highest Piwil1 mRNA expression levels. Retinoic acid significantly upregulated Piwil1 and Stra8 mRNA expression as well as Piwil1 levels in chicken PGCs. In addition, retinoic acid induced PGCs to progress through all the meiotic stages, eventually leading to haploid cell formation, which was determined using flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Taken together, our results showed that during spermatogenesis, Piwil1 was first expressed at low levels in germ stem cells, PGCs, and SSCs. Its expression levels increased during later meiosis stages. Finally, no expression was detected in mature sperm after meiosis. Treatment of PGCs with retinoic acid further demonstrated that Piwil1 plays a key role in meiosis during chicken spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human-specific subcellular compartmentalization of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) granules during germ cell development and spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Fernandes, Maria; He, Nannan; Wang, Fang; Van Iperen, Liesbeth; Eguizabal, Cristina; Matorras, Roberto; Roelen, Bernard A J; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2018-02-01

    What is the dynamics of expression of P-element induced wimpy testis-like (PIWIL) proteins in the germline during human fetal development and spermatogenesis? PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4 were expressed in a sex-specific fashion in human germ cells (GC) during development and adulthood. PIWILs showed a mutually exclusive pattern of subcellular localization. PIWILs were present in the intermitochondrial cement and a single large granule in meiotic GC and their expression was different from that observed in mice, highlighting species-differences. In mice, PIWIL proteins play prominent roles in male infertility. PIWIL mouse mutants show either post-meiotic arrest at the round spermatid stage (PIWIL1) or arrest at the zygotene-pachytene stage of meiosis I (PIWIL2 and PIWIL4) in males, while females remain fertile. Recent studies have reported a robust piRNA pool in human fetal ovary. This is a qualitative analysis of PIWILs expression in paraffin-embedded fetal human male (N = 8), female gonads (N = 6) and adult testes (N = 5), and bioinformatics analysis of online available single-cell transcriptomics data of human fetal germ cells (n = 242). Human fetal gonads from elective abortion without medical indication and adult testes biopsies were donated for research with informed consent. Samples were fixed, paraffin-embedded and analyzed by immunofluorescence to study the temporal and cellular localization of PIWIL1, PIWIL2, PIWIL3 and PIWIL4. PIWIL1, PIWIL2 and PIWIL4 showed a mutually exclusive pattern of subcellular localization, particularly in female oocytes. To our surprise, PIWIL1 immunostaining revealed the presence of a single dense paranuclear body, resembling the chromatoid body of haploid spermatocytes, in meiotic oocytes. Moreover, in contrast to mice, PIWIL4, but not PIWIL2, localized to the intermitochondrial cement. PIWIL3 was not expressed in GC during development. The upregulation of PIWIL transcripts correlated with the transcription of markers

  8. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from male Wistar-Kyoto rats that underwent DEMED, ADREX, or sham surgery (SHAM)prior to their exposure to air or ozone (1 ppm),4 h/day for 1 or 2days. Ozone exposure significantly changed the expression of over 2300 genes in lungs of SHAM rats, and these changes were markedly reduced in DEMED and ADREX rats. SHAM surgery but not DEMED or ADREX resulted in activation of multiple ozone-responsive pathways, including glucocorticoid, acute phase response, NRF2, and Pl3K-AKT.Predicted targets from sequencing data showed a similarity between transcriptional changes induced by ozone and adrenergic and steroidal modulation of effects in SHAM but not ADREX rats. Ozone-induced Increases in lung 116 in SHAM rats coincided with neutrophilic Inflammation, but were diminished in DEMED and ADREX rats. Although ozone exposure in SHAM rats did not significantly alter mRNA expression of lfny and 11-4, the IL-4 protein and ratio of IL-4 to IFNy (IL-4/IFNy) proteins increased suggesting a tendency for a Th2 response. This did not occur

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to astaxanthin and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage (ID 1687, 1979), defence against Helicobacter pylori (ID 1686), contribution to normal spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to astaxanthin and protection of the skin from UV-induced damage, defence against Helicobacter pylori, contribution to normal spermatogenesis, contribution to normal muscle function, and “immune system”. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member...

  10. Skin manifestations of growth hormone-induced diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kogia, Christina; Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Chrousos, George P

    2016-09-01

    The human skin is a well-organized organ bearing different types of cells in a well-structured interference to each other including epidermal and follicular keratinocytes, sebocytes, melanocytes, dermal papilla cells and fibroblasts, endothelial cells, sweat gland cells as well as nerves. Several hormones act on different cell types of the skin, while it is also considered an endocrine organ secreting hormones that act at several sites of the organism. GH receptors are found in almost all cell types forming the skin, while IGF-1 receptors' expression is restricted to the epidermal keratinocytes. Both Growth Hormone (GH) excess, as in the case of Acromegaly in adults, or Gigantism in growing children, and GH deficiency states lead to skin manifestations. In case of GH excess the main dermatological findings are skin thickening, coarsening of facial features, acrochordons, puffy hands and feet, oily skin and hyperhidrosis, while GH deficiency, on the contrary, is characterized by thin, dry skin and disorder of normal sweating. Moreover, special disorders associated with GH excess may have specific characteristics, as is the case of café-au-lait spots in Neurofibromatosis, or big café-au-lait skin hyperpigmented regions with irregular margins, as is the case in McCune-Albright syndrome. Meticulous examination of the skin may therefore contribute to the final diagnosis in cases of GH-induced disorders.

  11. Mechanisms of action of nonpeptide hormones on resveratrol-induced antiproliferation of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Hsieh, Meng-Ti; Cheng, Guei-Yun; Lai, Hsuan-Yu; Chin, Yu-Tang; Shih, Ya-Jung; Nana, André Wendindondé; Lin, Shin-Ying; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Chiang, I-Jen; Wang, Kuan

    2017-09-01

    Nonpeptide hormones, such as thyroid hormone, dihydrotestosterone, and estrogen, have been shown to stimulate cancer proliferation via different mechanisms. Aside from their cytosolic or membrane-bound receptors, there are receptors on integrin α v β 3 for nonpeptide hormones. Interaction between hormones and integrin α v β 3 can induce signal transduction and eventually stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Resveratrol induces inducible COX-2-dependent antiproliferation via integrin α v β 3 . Resveratrol and hormone-induced signals are both transduced by activated extracellular-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2); however, hormones promote cell proliferation, while resveratrol induces antiproliferation in cancer cells. Hormones inhibit resveratrol-stimulated phosphorylation of p53 on Ser15, resveratrol-induced nuclear COX-2 accumulation, and formation of p53-COX-2 nuclear complexes. Subsequently, hormones impair resveratrol-induced COX-2-/p53-dependent gene expression. The inhibitory effects of hormones on resveratrol action can be blocked by different antagonists of specific nonpeptide hormone receptors but not integrin α v β 3 blockers. Results suggest that nonpeptide hormones inhibit resveratrol-induced antiproliferation in cancer cells downstream of the interaction between ligand and receptor and ERK1/2 activation to interfere with nuclear COX-2 accumulation. Thus, the surface receptor sites for resveratrol and nonpeptide hormones are distinct and can induce discrete ERK1/2-dependent downstream antiproliferation biological activities. It also indicates the complex pathways by which antiproliferation is induced by resveratrol in various physiological hormonal environments. . © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Chemosterilization: Spermatogenesis, Steroidogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the oxidative stress inducing (i.e., reactive oxygen species generating) ... of fertility is in direct relation to the degree of motility of sperm.[10] ... female. Furthermore, chemical castration had a greater effect on the decrease of aggression than surgical castration.[16]. In 2001, a study was performed to determine the effects.

  13. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  14. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Shuneki

    2003-01-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  15. Neutron induced teratogenesis and spermatogenesis inhibitor fertilysin induced fetal bis-diamine syndrome in the rat. An animal model for DiGeorge and CATCH22 syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    To develop preventive and regenerative medicine measures and to clarify the effect of neutron-irradiation and Fertilysin on vasculogenesis and teratogenesis, we decided to investigate the pathogenesis of these abnormalities in this study and compare them to abnormalities reported in humans. Pregnant rats were exposed to graded doses of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation or Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. The rats were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation, examined for lethality and surviving fetuses, and were microdissected for malformations. Our studies showed that neutron irradiation of rats commonly induced abnormalities whose types included eye, limb and tail defects, transposition of the great arteries, riding aorta, right aortic arch and aortic arch anomalies. These results suggest that maternal exposure to neutron-irradiation may have caused DNA damage and neural crest deficiency in offspring. These results are similar to those found in animal models with Retinoic acid syndrome and human fetuses with DiGeorge syndrome, a condition considered as a pharyngeal arch syndrome related to a cephalic neurocristopathy. In addition, multi-organ malformations associated with the highest incidences of abnormal vasculogenesis, cardiac outflow tracts and aortic arch anomalies such as right aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery were found to be consistently produced following maternal exposure to Fertilysin on day 10 of gestation. Evidently the crucial scenario for administering Fertilysin to cause the cardiovascular defects of all surviving fetuses, in which over 80% of the fetuses were persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and the remainder was tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), is 200 mg for day 10 of gestation. This corresponds in humans to approximately day 21 after conception. A mechanism involving DNA damage, disruption of neural crest cells and growth and transcription factors, as well as growth failure of the branchial arches from apoptosis and neurocristopathy of the third

  16. Male hormonal contraception: concept proven, product in sight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiesson, Kati L; McLachlan, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    Current male hormonal contraceptive (MHC) regimens act at various levels within the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, principally to induce the withdrawal of the pituitary gonadotrophins and in turn intratesticular androgen production and spermatogenesis. Azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia result from the inhibition of spermatogonial maturation and sperm release (spermiation). All regimens include an androgen to maintain virilization, while in many the suppression of gonadotrophins/spermatogenesis is augmented by the addition of another anti-gonadotrophic agent (progestin, GnRH antagonist). The suppression of sperm concentration to 1 x 10(6)/ml appears to provide comparable contraceptive efficacy to female hormonal methods, but the confidence intervals around these estimates remain relatively large, reflecting the limited number of exposure years reported. Also, inconsistencies in the rapidity and depth of spermatogenic suppression, potential for secondary escape of sperm into the ejaculate and onset of fertility return not readily explainable by analysis of subject serum hormone levels, germ cell number or intratesticular steroidogenesis, are apparent. As such, a better understanding of the endocrine and genetic regulation of spermatogenesis is necessary and may allow for new treatment paradigms. The development of an effective, consumer-friendly male contraceptive remains challenging, as it requires strong translational cooperation not only between basic scientists and clinicians but also between public and private sectors. At present, a prototype MHC product using a long-acting injectable testosterone and depot progestin is well advanced.

  17. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van der Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Spermatogenesis was examined in testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease. A modified Johnsen score system was used to determine whether spermatogenesis deteriorates with ageing. The diameter of seminiferous tubules was measured in dogs without testicular

  18. Spermatogenesis and testicular tumours in ageing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M. A.; de rooij, D. G.; Teerds, K. J.; van de Gaag, I.; van Sluijs, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to quantify the changes in canine spermatogenesis that occur during ageing and to study the prevalence of testicular tumours and their effects on spermatogenesis in dogs. Testes from 74 dogs of various breeds without clinically detected testicular disease and from

  19. Understanding spermatogenesis is a prerequisite for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Wolfgang

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Throughout spermatogenesis multiplication, maturation and differentiation of germ cells results in the formation of the male gamete. The understanding of spermatogenesis needs detailed informations about the organization of the germinal epithelium, the structure and function of different types of germ cells, endocrine and paracrine cells and mechanisms, intratesticular and extratesticular regulation of spermatogenesis. Normal germ cells must be discriminated from malformed, apoptotic and degenerating germ cells and tumor cells. Identification of the border line between normal and disturbed spermatogenesis substantiate the diagnosis of impaired male fertility. The profound knowledge of the complicate process of spermatogenesis and all cells or cell systems involved with is the prerequisite to develop concepts for therapy of male infertility or to handle germ cells in the management of assisted reproduction.

  20. Fluoride-induced disruption of reproductive hormones in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Perez, Deogracias; Rodriguez-Martinez, Manuel; Martinez, Flavio; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Castelo, Julio; Grimaldo, J.I.; Cruz, Esperanza de la; Carrizales, Leticia; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride-induced reproductive effects have been reported in experimental models and in humans. However, these effects were found in heavily exposed scenarios. Therefore, in this work our objective was to study reproductive parameters in a population exposed to fluoride at doses of 3-27 mg/day (high-fluoride-exposed group--HFEG). Urinary fluoride levels, semen parameters, and reproductive hormones in serum (LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, inhibin-B, free and total testosterone) were measured. Results were compared with a group of individuals exposed to fluoride at lower doses: 2-13 mg/day (low-fluoride-exposed group-LFEG). A significant increase in FSH (P<0.05) and a reduction of inhibin-B, free testosterone, and prolactin in serum (P<0.05) were noticed in the HFEG. When HFEG was compared to LFEG, a decreased sensitivity was found in the FSH response to inhibin-B (P<0.05). A significant negative partial correlation was observed between urinary fluoride and serum levels of inhibin-B (r=-0.333, P=0.028) in LFEG. Furthermore, a significant partial correlation was observed between a chronic exposure index for fluoride and the serum concentrations of inhibin-B (r=-0.163, P=0.037) in HFEG. No abnormalities were found in the semen parameters studied in the present work, neither in the HFEG, nor in the LFEG. The results obtained indicate that a fluoride exposure of 3-27 mg/day induces a subclinical reproductive effect that can be explained by a fluoride-induced toxic effect in both Sertoli cells and gonadotrophs

  1. The hippocampal formation: morphological changes induced by thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, E; Woolley, C S; McEwen, B S

    1991-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is of considerable interest due to its proposed role in a number of important functions, including learning and memory processes. Manipulations of thyroid, gonadal and adrenal hormones have been shown to influence hippocampal physiology as well as learning and memory. The cellular events which underlie these hormone-induced functional changes are largely unexplored. However, studies suggest that hormonal manipulations during development and in adulthood result in dramatic morphological changes within the hippocampal formation. Because neuronal physiology has been suggested to depend upon neuronal morphology, we have been determining the morphologic sensitivity of hippocampal neurons to thyroid and steroid hormones in an effort to elucidate possible structural mechanisms to account for differences in hippocampal function. In this review, hormone-induced structural changes in the developing and adult hippocampal formation are discussed, with particular emphasis on their functional relevance. Sex differences, as well as the developmental effects of thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids, are described. Moreover, the effects of ovarian steroids, thyroid hormone and glucocorticoids on neuronal morphology in the hippocampal formation of the adult rat are reviewed. These hormone-induced structural changes may account, at least in part, for previously reported hormone-induced changes in hippocampal function.

  2. Contribution of gastroenteropancreatic appetite hormones to protein-induced satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Anita Belza; Ritz, Christian; Sørensen, Mejse Q

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of protein intake on appetite-regulating hormones and their dynamics are unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the satiating effects of meals with varying protein contents and whether there was an effect of dose on appetite-regulating hormones and appetite ratings.Design: Twenty...

  3. Clinical trials in male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2010-11-01

    Research has established the principle of hormonal male contraception based on suppression of gonadotropins and spermatogenesis. All hormonal male contraceptives use testosterone, but only in East Asian men can testosterone alone suppress spermatogenesis to a level compatible with contraceptive protection. In Caucasians, additional agents are required of which progestins are favored. Clinical trials concentrate on testosterone combined with norethisterone, desogestrel, etonogestrel or depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate. The first randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial performed by the pharmaceutical industry demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of testosterone undecanoate and etonogestrel in suppressing spermatogenesis in volunteers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ozone-Induced Pulmonary Injury and Inflammation are Modulated by Adrenal-Derived Stress Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone exposure promotes pulmonary injury and inflammation. Previously we have characterized systemic changes that occur immediately after acute ozone exposure and are mediated by neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Both HPA axis and sympathetic tone alterations induce the rel...

  5. Effects of growth hormone plus a hyperproteic diet on methotrexate-induced injury in rat intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Gomez-de-Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; de Guevara, C L; De-Miguel, E

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether growth hormone treatment reduces injury to the intestinal mucosa induced by methotrexate (MTX). Wistar rats with intestinal injury induced by methotrexate were treated with daily growth hormone, beginning 3 days before MTX treatment until 3 or 4 days after MTX administration. The rats were killed at 3 or 7 days post-MTX administration. The rats were fed with either a normoproteic diet or a hyperproteic diet. Body weight, mortality, bacterial translocation, intestinal morphometry, proliferation and apoptosis and blood somatostatin and IGF-1 were determined. Combined administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet reduces MTX-induced mortality. This effect was accompanied by increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within the crypt. Morphometric data showed complete recovery of the mucosa by day 7 post-MTX administration. These results indicate a synergistic protective action of growth hormone combined with a hyperproteic diet to MTX-induced injury.

  6. Effects of a Model Inducer, Phenobarbital, on Thyroid Hormone Glucuronidation in Rat Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vivo, hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations. This decrease in circulating TH occurs in part through extrathyroidal mechanisms. Specifically, through the induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes...

  7. The effects of growht hormone therapy in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Whitehead, E.; Chapman, A.J.; Beardwell, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy were studied in 6 children, previously treated for brain tumours which did not directly involve the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and who had received cranial irradiation between 2.1 and 10 years earlier. All 6 were short with a standing height standard deviation score (SDS) from -1.7 to -3.3. Impaired growth hormone responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were observed in all 6 and a Bovril stimulation test in 5 children. The remainder of pituitary function was essentially normal. All 6 were prepubertal and 5 had a retarded bone age. Subsequently all received human GH in a dose of 5 units 3 times weekly for 1 year. The growth rate in each was at least 2 cm greater during the treatment year than the pre-treatment year.(author)

  8. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor on growth hormone release in children with radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustig, R.H.; Schriock, E.A.; Kaplan, S.L.; Grumbach, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Five male children who received cranial irradiation for extrahypothalamic intracranial neoplasms or leukemia and subsequently developed severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency were challenged with synthetic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF-44), in an attempt to distinguish hypothalamic from pituitary dysfunction as a cause of their GH deficiency, and to assess the readily releasable GH reserve in the pituitary. In response to a pulse of GRF-44 (5 micrograms/kg intravenously), mean peak GH levels rose to values higher than those evoked by the pharmacologic agents L-dopa or arginine (6.4 +/- 1.3 ng/mL v 1.5 +/- 0.4 ng/mL, P less than .05). The peak GH value occurred at a mean of 26.0 minutes after administration of GRF-44. These responses were similar to those obtained in children with severe GH deficiency due to other etiologies (peak GH 6.3 +/- 1.7 ng/mL, mean 28.0 minutes). In addition, there was a trend toward an inverse relationship between peak GH response to GRF-44 and the postirradiation interval. Prolactin and somatomedin-C levels did not change significantly after the administration of a single dose of GRF-44. The results of this study support the hypothesis that cranial irradiation in children can lead to hypothalamic GRF deficiency secondary to radiation injury of hypothalamic GRF-secreting neurons. This study also lends support to the potential therapeutic usefulness of GRF-44 or an analog for GH deficiency secondary to cranial irradiation

  9. Study of damages induced by fungicide propiconazole on testicular tissue and process of spermatogenesis and protective effects of selenium in male Sprague Dawley rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohsenikouchesfehani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Propiconazole is an herbal fungicide which is used as a tropical and systematic drug for fungal infection and also as an agricultural chemical for protection and preservation of fruits, vegetables and grains. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of fungicides propiconazol and possible protective effects of selenium on testes tissue. Methods: The present expremental trail study was conducted on forty rats which were divided into ten groups of four including control , sham (solvent of propiconazole, distilled water, solvent of selenium (normal saline and seven experimental groups : group 1 received 0.5 mg/kg/day of selenium, groups 2,3,4 received three doses of 10,50,75 mg/kg/day of Propiconazole, and groups 5,6,7 received three doses of 10, 50, 75 mg/kg/day of propiconazole with 0.5 mg/kg/day of selenium toevaluate. The administration was done intrapritoneal for two weeks in an alternatively fashion. After determining the level of LH, FSH, Testosterone, sperm was counted by hemocitometer. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: No significant differences was observed in the level of hormones in the experimental groups2-7 compared with the control group, but the number of sertoli cells, spermatogonia , primary spermatocyte , spermatid and sperm decreased significantly in comparison with the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The decrease in numbers of counted sperm indicates that propiconazole has disrupted the production process of these cells and selenium was unable to improve that.

  10. Induced maturation of eel Anguilla bicolor using different hormone combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Oman Sudrajat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Artificial reproduction of eel Anguilla bicolor is not yet well-established because of insufficient broodstock number. In this research, induction of Indonesian eel gonad maturation was performed by hormonal with a combination of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG antidopamin and recombinant growth hormone (rGH. This research consisted of five treatments namely: control (NaCl 0,9%, PMSG 20 IU/ kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg, PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg + rGH 10 μg/kg dan PMSG 20 IU/kg + HCG 10 IU/kg. Each treatment contained 10 fishes. Hormonal induction was conducted by intramuscular injections, as much as five times at intervals of seven days. Furthermore observations on gonadal development were performed after injection for 21 days. The results showed that the treatment generated pregnancy level of 100%, while control was 0%. The best treatment was PMSG 20 IU/kg + antidopamin 10 ppm/kg+ rGH 10 μg/kg, seen from a more mature phase of the gametes, spermatocytes in male and oocytes with perinukleolar phase in female fish. Eel at the body weight of 120.4 to 207.8 g and at the body length of 40.9 to 43.1 cm was male, at the body weight of 274.8 g and at the body length of 47 cm was in intersexual phase, and at the body weight of 323.4 g and at the body length of 53 cm was female. Keywords: Anguilla bicolor, antidopamin, hormones, PMSG, rGH, HCG  ABSTRAK Pemijahan ikan sidat secara buatan belum dapat dilakukan karena keterbatasan induk matang gonad. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian hormon terhadap percepatan proses perkembangan gonad ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor. Hormon yang digunakan adalah kombinasi dari pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, antidopamin dan recombinant growth hormone (rGH. Induksi hormonal untuk mempercepat perkembangan gonad ikan sidat dilakukan melalui lima perlakuan yaitu yaitu kontrol

  11. Adipokinetic hormone-induced antioxidant response in Spodoptera littoralis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, Josef; Krishnan, N.; Mithöfer, A.; Vogel, H.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 155, č. 2 (2012), s. 389-395 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant response * antioxidant enzymes Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.707, year: 2012

  12. Growth hormone used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang

    2015-08-21

    Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

  13. Ultradian hormone stimulation induces glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pulses of gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A; Wiench, Malgorzata; John, Sam; Conway-Campbell, Becky L; McKenna, Mervyn A; Pooley, John R; Johnson, Thomas A; Voss, Ty C; Lightman, Stafford L; Hager, Gordon L

    2009-09-01

    Studies on glucocorticoid receptor (GR) action typically assess gene responses by long-term stimulation with synthetic hormones. As corticosteroids are released from adrenal glands in a circadian and high-frequency (ultradian) mode, such treatments may not provide an accurate assessment of physiological hormone action. Here we demonstrate that ultradian hormone stimulation induces cyclic GR-mediated transcriptional regulation, or gene pulsing, both in cultured cells and in animal models. Equilibrium receptor-occupancy of regulatory elements precisely tracks the ligand pulses. Nascent RNA transcripts from GR-regulated genes are released in distinct quanta, demonstrating a profound difference between the transcriptional programs induced by ultradian and constant stimulation. Gene pulsing is driven by rapid GR exchange with response elements and by GR recycling through the chaperone machinery, which promotes GR activation and reactivation in response to the ultradian hormone release, thus coupling promoter activity to the naturally occurring fluctuations in hormone levels. The GR signalling pathway has been optimized for a prompt and timely response to fluctuations in hormone levels, indicating that biologically accurate regulation of gene targets by GR requires an ultradian mode of hormone stimulation.

  14. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R.

    1990-01-01

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with [ 3 H]glycerol or [ 3 H]choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in [ 3 H]ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 [ 3 H])phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein

  15. Diacylglycerol production induced by growth hormone in Ob1771 preadipocytes arises from phosphatidylcholine breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalioto, R.M.; Ailhaud, G.; Negrel, R. (Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France))

    1990-12-31

    Growth Hormone has recently been shown to stimulate the formation of diacylglycerol in Ob1771 mouse preadipocyte cells without increasing inositol lipid turnover. Addition of growth hormone to Ob1771 cells prelabelled with ({sup 3}H)glycerol or ({sup 3}H)choline led to a rapid, transient and stoechiometric formation of labelled diacylglycerol and phosphocholine, respectively. In contrast, no change was observed in the level of choline and phosphatidic acid whereas the release of water-soluble metabolites in ({sup 3}H)ethanolamine prelabelled cells exposed to growth hormone was hardly detectable. Stimulation by growth hormone of cells prelabelled with (2-palmitoyl 9, 10 ({sup 3}H))phosphatidylcholine also induced the production of labelled diacyglycerol. Pertussis toxin abolished both diacylglycerol and phosphocholine formation induced by growth hormone. It is concluded that growth hormone mediates diacylglycerol production in Ob1771 cells by means of phosphatidylcholine breakdown involving a phospholipase C which is likely coupled to the growth hormone receptor via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein.

  16. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O'Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C

    2017-10-10

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate change in the wild. Here, we report hormonal and fitness responses of individual wild fish to a recent large-scale sea warming event that caused widespread bleaching on coral reefs. This 14-month monitoring study shows a strong correlation between anemone bleaching (zooxanthellae loss), anemonefish stress response, and reproductive hormones that decreased fecundity by 73%. These findings suggest that hormone stress responses play a crucial role in changes to population demography following climate change and plasticity in hormonal responsiveness may be a key mechanism enabling individual acclimation to climate change.Elevated temperatures can cause anemones to bleach, with unknown effects on their associated symbiotic fish. Here, Beldade and colleagues show that climate-induced bleaching alters anemonefish hormonal stress response, resulting in decreased reproductive hormones and severely impacted reproduction.

  17. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signaling modulates intermittent hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cognitive deficits in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Deepti; Ramesh, Vijay; Li, Richard C; Schally, Andrew V; Gozal, David

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, such as occurs in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), leads to degenerative changes in the hippocampus, and is associated with spatial learning deficits in adult mice. In both patients and murine models of OSA, the disease is associated with suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion, which is actively involved in the growth, development, and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent work showed that exogenous GH therapy attenuated neurocognitive deficits elicited by IH during sleep in rats. Here, we show that administration of the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 attenuates IH-induced neurocognitive deficits, anxiety, and depression in mice along with reduction in oxidative stress markers such as MDA and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and increases in hypoxia inducible factor-1α DNA binding and up-regulation of insulin growth factor-1 and erythropoietin expression. In contrast, treatment with a GHRH antagonist (MIA-602) during intermittent hypoxia did not affect any of the IH-induced deleterious effects in mice. Thus, exogenous GHRH administered as the formulation of a GHRH agonist may provide a viable therapeutic intervention to protect IH-vulnerable brain regions from OSA-associated neurocognitive dysfunction. Sleep apnea, characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with substantial cognitive and behavioral deficits. Here, we show that administration of a GHRH agonist (JI-34) reduces oxidative stress, increases both HIF-1α nuclear binding and downstream expression of IGF1 and erythropoietin (EPO) in hippocampus and cortex, and markedly attenuates water maze performance deficits in mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia during sleep. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, B.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  19. The corticosteroid hormone induced factor: a new modulator of KCNQ1 channels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B

    2006-01-01

    The corticosteroid hormone induced factor (CHIF) is a member of the one-transmembrane segment protein family named FXYD, which also counts phospholemman and the Na,K-pump gamma-subunit. Originally it was suggested that CHIF could induce the expression of the I(Ks) current when expressed in Xenopu...

  20. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production.

  1. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  2. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E 2 ) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E 2 dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E 2 increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hormonal Approaches to Male contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Condoms and vasectomy are male controlled family planning methods but suffer from limitations in compliance (condoms) and limited reversibility (vasectomy); thus many couples desire other options. Hormonal male contraceptive methods have undergone extensive clinical trials in healthy men and shown to be efficacious, reversible and appear to be safe. Recent Findings The success rate of male hormonal contraception using injectable testosterone alone is high and comparable to methods for women. Addition of progestins to androgens improved the rate of suppression of spermatogenesis. Supported by government or non-government organizations, current studies aim to find the best combination of testosterone and progestins for effective spermatogenesis suppression and to explore other delivery methods for these hormones. Translation of these advances to widespread use in the developed world will need the manufacturing and marketing skills of the pharmaceutical industry. Availability of male contraceptives to the developing world may require commitments of governmental and non-governmental agencies. In a time when imbalance of basic resources and population needs are obvious, this may prove to be a very wise investment. Summary Male hormonal contraception is efficacious, reversible and safe for the target population of younger men in stable relationships. Suppression of spermatogenesis is achieved with a combination of an androgen and a progestin. Partnership with industry will accelerate the marketing of a male hormonal contraceptive. Research is ongoing on selective androgen and progesterone receptor modulators that suppress spermatogenesis, minimize potential adverse events while retaining the androgenic actions. PMID:20808223

  4. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. 3 H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since 3 H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis

  5. Gene expression and hormone autonomy in radiation-induced tumors of Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persinger, S.M.; Town, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the molecular genetics of factor controlling plant cell growth, we have isolated a group of radiation-induced tumors from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tumors appeared on plants derived from 60 Co gamma-irradiated seed or seedlings, and are capable of hormone-autonomous growth in culture. We have used vertebrate oncogene probes to explore the hypothesis that the tumors arose by the radiation-induced activation of growth-regulating plant oncogenes. One probe, int-2, was used to isolate cDNA clones representing an mRNA differentially expressed between tumors and hormone-dependent callus tissue. The genomic organization and function of this and other differentially expressed Arabidopsis sequences are being further characterized. A second area of study concerns the hormonal status of individual tumors. Tumor tissue varies in color, texture, and degree of differentiation: while some tumors appear undifferentiated, one consistently produces roots, and others occasionally develop shoots or leaflets. The tumors have characteristic growth rates on hormone-free medium, and growth in response to exogenous hormones differs among the tumors themselves and from wild-type. Characterization of the relationships between hormonal status, morphogenesis, and gene expression should yield valuable insights into the mechanisms regulating plant growth and development

  6. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.R.; Barnes, A.J.; Adrian, T.E.; Polak, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment. (author)

  7. Autoimmunity in diabetics induced by hormonal contaminants of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, S R; Barnes, A J; Adrian, T E; Polak, J M [Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK)

    1979-01-06

    Several commercial insulin preparations were found to contain significant quantities of pancreatic glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (P.P.), vasoactive intestinal peptide (V.I.P.), and somatostatin, though these substances were effectively absent from the new highly purified or monocomponent insulins. Of 448 insulin-dependent diabetics receiving conventional insulins, 63% had circulating antibodies to human P.P., 6% antibodies to V.I.P., 6% to glucagon, and 0.5% to somatostatin. The antibodies were of high affinity and were commonest in the younger diabetics. No antibodies were detected in 167 maturity-onset diabetics, in 125 healthy controls, or in 22 patients treated only with monocomponent insulin. Immuno-cytochemical testing showed that antibody-positive diabetic plasmas reacted specifically against the corresponding hormone-producing pancreatic endocrine cells, against enteroglucagon and somatostatin cells outside the pancreas, and against V.I.P.-containing autonomic nerves throughout the body. The finding of iatrogenic autoimmunity to naturally occurring hormones in large numbers of insulin-dependent diabetics raises important questions about long-term treatment.

  8. Restoration and maintenance of spermatogenesis by HCG therapy in patients with hypothalamo-hypophyseal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levalle, O; Bokser, L; Pacenza, N; Aszenmil, G; Fiszlejder, L; Chervin, A; Guitelman, A

    1984-01-01

    Both gonadotropins are necessary to induce spermatogenesis in man and to recover hypophysectomized males. The patients who suffer from tumoral or traumatic hypothalamo-hypophyseal lesion use to have low endogenous gonadotropins (opposite to hypophysectomized patients), which can produce a minor involution of spermatogenesis. Three patients with postpubertal hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and oligozoospermia were studied. Two of them were operated on for chromophobous adenoma of pituitary, and the other patient had traumatic hypothalamo-hypophyseal lesion. The three patients were treated with 5000 IU HCG/week, associated with testosterone enanthate, in two cases and with bromocryptine in the remaining one. All the patients had normalized spermiogram, but when HCG was interrupted, the sperm count regressed to pretreatment levels in spite of the maintenance of treatment with testosterone or bromocryptine. Minimal amounts of FSH together the testosterone supplied by Leydig cell under the HCG stimulus, are able to recover and maintain the spermatogenesis in these patients.

  9. Chronic alcohol feeding potentiates hormone-induced calcium signalling in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Paula J; Antony, Anil Noronha; Agarwal, Amit; Hilly, Mauricette; Prince, Victoria L; Combettes, Laurent; Hoek, Jan B; Gaspers, Lawrence D

    2017-05-15

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes a spectrum of liver diseases, but the pathogenic mechanisms driving the onset and progression of disease are not clearly defined. We show that chronic alcohol feeding sensitizes rat hepatocytes to Ca 2+ -mobilizing hormones resulting in a leftward shift in the concentration-response relationship and the transition from oscillatory to more sustained and prolonged Ca 2+ increases. Our data demonstrate that alcohol-dependent adaptation in the Ca 2+ signalling pathway occurs at the level of hormone-induced inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP 3 ) production and does not involve changes in the sensitivity of the IP 3 receptor or size of internal Ca 2+ stores. We suggest that prolonged and aberrant hormone-evoked Ca 2+ increases may stimulate the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and contribute to alcohol-induced hepatocyte injury. ABSTRACT: 'Adaptive' responses of the liver to chronic alcohol consumption may underlie the development of cell and tissue injury. Alcohol administration can perturb multiple signalling pathways including phosphoinositide-dependent cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ) increases, which can adversely affect mitochondrial Ca 2+ levels, reactive oxygen species production and energy metabolism. Our data indicate that chronic alcohol feeding induces a leftward shift in the dose-response for Ca 2+ -mobilizing hormones resulting in more sustained and prolonged [Ca 2+ ] i increases in both cultured hepatocytes and hepatocytes within the intact perfused liver. Ca 2+ increases were initiated at lower hormone concentrations, and intercellular calcium wave propagation rates were faster in alcoholics compared to controls. Acute alcohol treatment (25 mm) completely inhibited hormone-induced calcium increases in control livers, but not after chronic alcohol-feeding, suggesting desensitization to the inhibitory actions of ethanol. Hormone-induced inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP 3 ) accumulation and phospholipase C

  10. Role of calcium in gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from the bovine pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kile, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that GnRH acts to release LH by increasing calcium uptake by gonadotroph which in turn stimulates calcium-calmodulin activity and results in LH release from bovine pituitary cells as it does in the rat. Pituitary glands of calves (4-10 months of age) were enzymatically dispersed (0.2% collagenase) and grown for 5 days to confluency in multiwell plates (3 x 10 5 /well). Cells treated with GnRH Ca ++ ionophore A23187, and ouabain all produced significant releases of LH release in a pronounced all or none fashion, while thorough washing of the cells with 0.5 mM EGTA in Ca ++ -free media prevented the action of GnRH. GnRH caused a rapid efflux of 45 Ca ++ . Both GnRH-stimulated 45 Ca efflux and LH release could be partially blocked by verapamil GnRH-induced LH release could also be blocked by nifedipine and tetrodotoxin, although these agents did not affect 45 Ca efflux. The calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium and W7 were found to block GnRH induced LH release, as well as LH release induced by theophylline, KC PGE 2 and estradiol. These data indicated that: (1) calcium is required for GnRH action, but extracellular Ca ++ does not regulate LH release; (2) GnRH elevates intracellular Ca ++ by opening both voltage sensitive and receptor mediated Ca ++ channels; (3) activation of calmodulin is one mechanism involved in GnRH-induced LH release

  11. Growth hormone and nutrition as protective agents against methotrexate induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; de Segura, I A; Vázquez, I; López, J M; De Miguel, E

    2001-03-01

    To determine whether exogenously administered growth hormone can reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucosa injury. The expected results will allow to consider its potential clinical use. Experimental and randomized study. Experimental Surgery Service, La Paz University Hospital. Adult Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g. A chemotherapy protocol with methotrexate (MTX) (120 mg/kg) was employed. Animals fed either with a normoproteic or a hyperproteic liquid diet were treated with either saline or growth hormone (1 mg/kg/day) since three days before until four days after chemotherapy. Animals were sacrificed seven days after MTX administration for tissue sampling. Co-administration of growth hormone and a hyperproteic diet increased intestinal crypt proliferation and reduced MTX-induced apoptosis. Jejunal mucosal structure (morphometry), proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptosis (TUNNEL) were assessed.

  12. Hormone-induced rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Zadeh-Vakili, Azita; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh

    2017-12-15

    Despite polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting reproductive-aged women, the etiopathogenesis and mechanisms of this syndrome remain unclear. Considering the ethical limitations in human studies, animal models that reflect many features of PCOS are crucial resources to investigate this syndrome. We aimed to introduce the most suitable rat model of PCOS that closely mimics the endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances of human PCOS phenotype, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood, in order to further more detailed investigations about PCOS. We searched Pubmed, Science direct, and Web of science between 1990 and 2016, for relevant English manuscripts, using keywords including the "Polycystic Ovary Syndrome AND Rat Model" to generate a subset of citations relevant to our research. Included were those articles that compared at least both ovarian histology or estrous cycle and reproductive hormonal profiles in hormone-induced rat model of PCOS and controls. Differences in the findings between hormone-induced PCOS rats appear to be a result of the degree of transplacental transfer of the steroid administered into the fetus, dose and type of hormone, route of administration and timing and duration of exposure. We conclude that prenatal hormone-induced rat model with a lower dose and shorter time of exposure during the critical period of fetal development that exhibits endocrine, ovarian and metabolic disturbances similar to PCOS in women, while maintaining normal reproductive system morphology in adulthood is more suitable than postnatal hormone-induced rat model to facilitate studies regarding PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone-induced systemic effects are modulated through activation of the neuro-hormonal stress response pathway. Adrenal demedullation (DEMED)or bilateral total adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits systemic and pulmonary effect of acute ozone exposure. To understand the influence of adre...

  14. Inducibility of carbamoylphosphate synthetase (ammonia) in cultures of embryonic hepatocytes: ontogenesis of the responsiveness to hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Zonneveld, D.; Charles, R.

    1984-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids and cyclic AMP induce carbamoylphosphate synthetase (ammonia) (CPS) in rat hepatocytes. Using an enzyme immunoassay applied to hepatocyte cultures fixed in situ, it has been demonstrated that the capacity of hepatocytes to synthesize CPS in the presence of both hormones is

  15. Would male hormonal contraceptives affect cardiovascular risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zitzmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years, a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.

  16. Exercise-induced changes in blood minerals, associated proteins and hormones in women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuster, P A; Kyle, S B; Singh, A; Moser, P B; Bernier, L L; Yu-Yahiro, J A; Schoomaker, E B

    1991-12-01

    The acute effects of prolonged exercise on the body's distribution of trace minerals in women athletes has not been examined. To this end, plasma concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron; erythrocyte zinc (EZn) and copper (ECu); and the associated proteins, ceruloplasmin and transferrin were measured in 38 highly trained women runners under resting conditions and again after running a competitive 26.2 mile marathon. The hormones, cortisol (C), estradiol (E2), prolactin (Prl), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were also measured because of reported effects of hormones on trace mineral distribution. Menstrual status was assessed by questionnaire: 8 women were in the follicular phase, 13 in mid-cycle, 8 in the luteal phase and 9 were amenorrheic (AM). Significant post-race increases were noted for all plasma minerals, associated proteins, and the hormones C and Prl, whereas EZn decreased. No significant changes in ECu, E2, FSH or LH were noted. Menstrual status in terms of cycle phase or amenorrhea did not appear to modify the response. Exercise-induced changes in minerals may reflect release from other tissues and/or changes in the concentration of associated proteins. Whether these changes serve adaptive and/or specific functions during exercise is unknown.

  17. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel W. D.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses w...

  18. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Medina, Ainhoa; Fernández, Iván; Sánchez-Guzmán, María J.; Jung, Sabine C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Pozo, María J.

    2013-01-01

    Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development. PMID:23805146

  19. Hypothalamic mTOR pathway mediates thyroid hormone-induced hyperphagia in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Luis; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Gallego, Rosalía; Vázquez, María J; Roa, Juan; Gándara, Marina; Schoenmakers, Erik; Nogueiras, Rubén; Chatterjee, Krishna; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Diéguez, Carlos; López, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterized in rats by increased energy expenditure and marked hyperphagia. Alterations of thermogenesis linked to hyperthyroidism are associated with dysregulation of hypothalamic AMPK and fatty acid metabolism; however, the central mechanisms mediating hyperthyroidism-induced hyperphagia remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate that hyperthyroid rats exhibit marked up-regulation of the hypothalamic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway associated with increased mRNA levels of agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased mRNA levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), an area where mTOR co-localizes with thyroid hormone receptor-α (TRα). Central administration of thyroid hormone (T3) or genetic activation of thyroid hormone signalling in the ARC recapitulated hyperthyroidism effects on feeding and the mTOR pathway. In turn, central inhibition of mTOR signalling with rapamycin in hyperthyroid rats reversed hyperphagia and normalized the expression of ARC-derived neuropeptides, resulting in substantial body weight loss. The data indicate that in the hyperthyroid state, increased feeding is associated with thyroid hormone-induced up-regulation of mTOR signalling. Furthermore, our findings that different neuronal modulations influence food intake and energy expenditure in hyperthyroidism pave the way for a more rational design of specific and selective therapeutic compounds aimed at reversing the metabolic consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as

  1. A ghrelin-growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M; Burgos-Robles, A; Liu, E; Correia, S S; Goosens, K A

    2014-12-01

    Hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediate many of the bodily responses to stressors, yet there is no clear relationship between the levels of these hormones and stress-associated mental illnesses such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, other hormones are likely to be involved in this effect of stress. Here we used a rodent model of PTSD in which rats repeatedly exposed to a stressor display heightened fear learning following auditory Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our results show that stress-related increases in circulating ghrelin, a peptide hormone, are necessary and sufficient for stress-associated vulnerability to exacerbated fear learning and these actions of ghrelin occur in the amygdala. Importantly, these actions are also independent of the classic HPA stress axis. Repeated systemic administration of a ghrelin receptor agonist enhanced fear memory but did not increase either corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticosterone. Repeated intraamygdala infusion of a ghrelin receptor agonist produced a similar enhancement of fear memory. Ghrelin receptor antagonism during repeated stress abolished stress-related enhancement of fear memory without blunting stress-induced corticosterone release. We also examined links between ghrelin and growth hormone (GH), a major downstream effector of the ghrelin receptor. GH protein was upregulated in the amygdala following chronic stress, and its release from amygdala neurons was enhanced by ghrelin receptor stimulation. Virus-mediated overexpression of GH in the amygdala was also sufficient to increase fear. Finally, virus-mediated overexpression of a GH receptor antagonist was sufficient to block the fear-enhancing effects of repeated ghrelin receptor stimulation. Thus, ghrelin requires GH in the amygdala to exert fear-enhancing effects. These results suggest that ghrelin mediates a novel branch of the stress response and highlight a previously unrecognized role for ghrelin and

  2. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  3. Mammalian spermatogenesis as a biologic dosimeter for radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, U; Schumann, J; Goehde, W; Mueller, K [Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1981-01-01

    Mouse spermatogenesis was used as an in vivo test system obviously suitable as a biologic dosimeter. Ionizing irradiation induced changes in the freqency distribution of the cellular DNA content of whole testis preparations. These changes can be analysed by flow cytometry. Such measurements deliver information on: (1) an increase of the coefficient of variation of the DNA histograms of some spermatogenic cells, (2) induction of diploid mature sperm, and (3) the dose-depending inactivation of the highly sensitive differentiated spermatogonia. In this model especially No. 3 delivers quantitative information on the cytotoxic action of ionizing irradiation and chemical noxae as well, whereas Nos 1 and 2 may be used as qualitative criteria of mutagenic action of physical and chemical agents, No. 2 obviously being more sensitive than No. 1.

  4. THE ECONOMICS OF INDUCED BREEDING OF Heterobranchus longifilis (VALENCIENNES, 1840 USING HORMONAL INDUCTION AND MANUAL STRIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Nwalozie NWACHUKWU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economics of two induced breeding methods-hormonal induction and manual stripping were evaluated. In a 1:1 male: female ratio. Three (3 trials were made in each method using spawners weighing 1.5kg each. In the hormonal trial, 0.5ml ovaprim was injected into each spawner and both placed in a breeding tank containing aerated water 10 cm deep. Spawning occurred overnight and eggs incubated at 260C. In the stripping method, eggs were obtained from the female by gentle pressure on the abdomen and fertilized with milt from the macerated testes of the male partner, incubated in another tank containing aerated water 10 cm deep at 260C. Hatching occurred 25 hours later in both tanks. Fingerlings raised were harvested on the 30th day with mean counts of 509 and 3,032 in the hormonal and stripping methods, respectively. Statistical analysis using the least significant difference test (LSD showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 between the mean effect of the treatments. Economic analysis showed a loss of N9,089.00 and a profit of N64,600.00 with mean cost-returns ratios of 0.30 and 1.6 in the hormonal and stripping methods, respectively. It was therefore recommended that farmers use the stripping method in producing Heterobranchus lonifilis fingerlings. [Read full article] [Citation

  5. The role of Drosophila Merlin in spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelyanchuk Leonid V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila Merlin, the homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2 gene, is important for the regulation of cell proliferation and receptor endocytosis. Male flies carrying a Mer3 allele, a missense mutation (Met177→Ile in the Merlin gene, are viable but sterile; however, the cause of sterility is unknown. Results Testis examination reveals that hemizygous Mer3 mutant males have small seminal vesicles that contain only a few immotile sperm. By cytological and electron microscopy analyses of the Mer3, Mer4 (Gln170→stop, and control testes at various stages of spermatogenesis, we show that Merlin mutations affect meiotic cytokinesis of spermatocytes, cyst polarization and nuclear shaping during spermatid elongation, and spermatid individualization. We also demonstrate that the lethality and sterility phenotype of the Mer4 mutant is rescued by the introduction of a wild-type Merlin gene. Immunostaining demonstrates that the Merlin protein is redistributed to the area associated with the microtubules of the central spindle in telophase and its staining is less in the region of the contractile ring during meiotic cytokinesis. At the onion stage, Merlin is concentrated in the Nebenkern of spermatids, and this mitochondrial localization is maintained throughout sperm formation. Also, Merlin exhibits punctate staining in the acrosomal region of mature sperm. Conclusion Merlin mutations affect spermatogenesis at multiple stages. The Merlin protein is dynamically redistributed during meiosis of spermatocytes and is concentrated in the Nebenkern of spermatids. Our results demonstrated for the first time the mitochondrial localization of Merlin and suggest that Merlin may play a role in mitochondria formation and function during spermatogenesis.

  6. Mll5 is required for normal spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian B Yap

    Full Text Available Mll5 is currently a member of the Mll family of SET domain histone methyltransferase proteins but studies have also showed that it could be part of the SET3 branch of proteins. Recently, constitutive knock out animal studies have shown that Mll5 is required for proper haematopoietic stem cell differentiation, and loss of Mll5 results in synthetic lethality for genome de-methylation. Mll5 deficient male mice are infertile and here we analyse the consequences of Mll5 deficiency for spermatogenesis.Mll5 deficient male mice, but not female mice, are infertile. Here we show using RNA in-situ hybridization that Mll5 is expressed in the germ cells of the testes of wild type mice. Consistent with the expression of Mll5, we demonstrate by electron microscopy, video microscopy and in vitro fertilisation techniques that Mll5 deficient mice have defects in terminal maturation and packaging of sperm. The defects seen include detachment of the acrosomal cap and impaired excess cytoplasm removal. Functional tests of sperm motility show a lack of progressive motility of spermatozoa from Mll5 deficient animals. None of these defects could be rescued by in vitro fertilization. Using microarray analysis we show that transcripts implicated in spermatogenesis are dysregulated.Our data demonstrate a clear role of Mll5 in mammalian spermatogenesis at the level of terminal differentiation providing further support for its classification in the SET3 branch of proteins. Moreover, this study identifies Tlk2, Utx, Gpr64, Sult4a1, Rap2ip, Vstm2 and HoxA10 as possible Mll5 targets that together may account for the observed spermatozoa maturation defects.

  7. Endurance exercise modulates levodopa induced growth hormone release in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Welnic, Jacub; Woitalla, Dirk; Muhlack, Siegfried

    2007-07-11

    Acute levodopa (LD) application and exercise release human growth hormone (GH). An earlier trial showed, that combined stimulus of exercise and LD administration is the best provocative test for GH response in healthy participants. Objective was to show this combined effect of LD application and exercise on GH response and to investigate the impact on LD metabolism in 20 previously treated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured GH- and LD plasma concentrations following soluble 200 mg LD/50 mg benserazide administration during endurance exercise and rest on two separate consecutive days. GH concentrations significantly increased on both days, but GH release was significantly delayed during rest. LD metabolism was not altered due to exercise in a clinical relevant manner. Exercise induced a significant faster LD stimulated GH release in comparison with the rest condition. We did not find the supposed increase of LD induced GH release by endurance exercise. We assume, that only a limited amount of GH is available for GH release in the anterior pituitary following an acute 200 mg LD administration. GH disposal also depends on growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), which is secreted into hypothalamic portal capillaries. During the exercise condition, the resulting higher blood pressure supports blood flow and thus GHRH transport towards the GH producing cells in the pituitary. This might additionally have caused the significant faster GH release during exercise.

  8. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua V Lin

    Full Text Available GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a GPR142-dependent manner. In contrast, Phenylalanine improves in vivo glucose disposal independently of GPR142. Noteworthy, refeeding-induced elevations in insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide are blunted in Gpr142 null mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate GPR142 is a Tryptophan receptor critically required for insulin and incretin hormone regulation and suggest GPR142 agonists may be effective therapies that leverage amino acid sensing pathways for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Erythrocytosis in a Patient Undergoing Hormonal Treatment for Breast Cancer

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    Sri Lakshmi Hyndavi Yeruva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are most commonly used for breast cancer patients with hormone receptor positive disease. Although the side effect profile of aromatase inhibitors is well known, including common side effects like arthralgia, bone pain, arthritis, hot flashes, and more serious problems like osteoporosis, we present a case of an uncommon side effect of these medications. We report the case of a postmenopausal woman on adjuvant hormonal therapy with anastrozole after completing definitive therapy for stage IIIB estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, who was referred to hematology service for evaluation of persistent erythrocytosis. Primary and known secondary causes of polycythemia were ruled out. On further evaluation, we found that her erythrocytosis began after initiation of anastrozole and resolved after it was discontinued. We discuss the pathophysiology of aromatase inhibitor-induced erythrocytosis and reference of similar cases reported in the literature.

  10. Stress-induced cognitive dysfunction: hormone-neurotransmitter interactions in the prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Shansky

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms and neural circuits that drive emotion and cognition are inextricably linked. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis as a result of stress or other causes of arousal initiates a flood of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting the way we think, decide, and behave. This review will focus on factors that influence the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, a brain region that governs higher-level cognitive processes and executive function. The PFC becomes markedly impaired by stress, producing measurable deficits in working memory. These deficits arise from the interaction of multiple neuromodulators, including glucocorticoids, catecholamines, and gonadal hormones; here we will discuss the non- human primate and rodent literature that has furthered our understanding of the circuitry, receptors, and signaling cascades responsible for stress-induced prefrontal dysfunction.

  11. Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Huleihel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS. It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1 provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2 summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3 report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1 and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4 indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitroprimate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man.

  12. Hormonal protection of spermatogenic stem cells during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroonenburgh, M.J.P.G. van.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis it is examined if by hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis the disadvantageous side-effects of radiation therapy on the gonads can be reduced. Therefore a rat model was investigated, where hormonal suppression of spermatogenesis during irradiation was achieved and stem cell survival was measured. Attention was focussed on the stem cell, because this cell is primarily responsible for the late effects of radiation on fertility. Flow cytometrical and histological techniques were used as parameters for measuring stem cell survival. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH and testosterone were measured to evaluate the hormonal suppression. (Auth.)

  13. The Non-Peptide Vasopressin V1b Receptor Antagonist, SSR149415, Ameliorates Spermatogenesis Function in a Mouse Model of Chronic Social Defeat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jian; Zhuang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Liang-Liang; Pu, Jin-Xian; Huang, Yu-Hua; Xia, Fei; Lv, Jin-Xing

    2017-11-01

    To determine the effects of SSR149415 on testis and spermatogenesis in male mice subjected to chronic social defeat stress, C57BL/6 male mice were divided into two groups: Control and Stress. Then Stress group was subdivided into four subgroups administered water, SSR149415 (1 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (10 mg/kg/day), SSR149415 (30 mg/kg/day), respectively. The behavioral alterations revealed by social interaction test and open field test were measured. The physical indices, including body weight and gonad weight (testis and epididymis) as well as testis/body weight and cauda epididymis/body weight were detected. Serum hormones, including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined. Sperm count and abnormality as well as testicular histology structure were assessed. The germ cells apoptosis were also evaluated. Chronic social defeat stress-induced behavioral abnormality, as well as gonad atrophy (testis and epididymis) was significantly alleviated in stressed male mice exposed to SSR149415. Regressed serum testosterone levels and elevated serum FSH and LH levels exhibited by stressed male mice were observably reversed following SSR149415 administration. Chronic social defeat stress-induced damage in testicular histology structure and semen quality were also improved after SSR149415 administration. In addition, SSR149415 significantly reversed chronic social defeat stress-induced germ cells apoptosis. Overall, we provide clear evidence indicating the amelioration of chronic social defeat stress-induced behavioral abnormality and testicular dysfunction via SSR149415, promoting the development of drug-directed therapy against this disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3891-3898, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative damage on lipids, glutathione and DNA in the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredilla, R; Barja, G; López-Torres, M

    2001-10-01

    Oxygen radicals of mitochondrial origin are involved in oxidative damage. In order to analyze the possible relationship between metabolic rate, oxidative stress and oxidative damage, OF1 female mice were rendered hyper- and hypothyroid by chronic administration of 0.0012% L-thyroxine (T4) and 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), respectively, in their drinking water for 5 weeks. Hyperthyroidism significantly increased the sensitivity to lipid peroxidation in the heart, although the endogenous levels of lipid peroxidation were not altered. Thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress also resulted in higher levels of GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA was greater than that to genomic DNA. Hyperthyroidism decreased oxidative damage to genomic DNA. Hypothyroidism did not modify oxidative damage in the lipid fraction but significantly decreased GSSG and GSSG/GSH ratio and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA. These results indicate that thyroid hormones modulate oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, and cellular redox potential in the mouse heart. A higher oxidative stress in the hyperthyroid group is presumably neutralized in the case of nuclear DNA by an increase in repair activity, thus protecting this key molecule. Treatment with PTU, a thyroid hormone inhibitor, reduced oxidative damage in the different cell compartments.

  15. Role of the pituitary-adrenal hormones in the acquisition of schedule-induced polydipsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R; Levine, S

    1989-06-01

    Adrenalectomized female rats failed to develop schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP). Dexamethasone (DEX) injections failed to reinstate SIP in adrenalectomized rats. They did not prevent intact rats from acquiring SIP but interfered with subsequent expression of this behavior. In contrast, corticosterone, the rats' normally occurring glucocorticoid, fully restored the acquisition and subsequent expression of SIP in adrenalectomized rats. This strongly suggests that corticosterone plays an essential role in the normal acquisition and development of this behavior. Data are interpreted in the context of current information concerning adrenal hormone receptors. It is hypothesized SIP acquisition is at least partly regulated by the Type I (mineralocorticoid) receptor.

  16. Model approach for stress induced steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volko, Claus D; Regidor, Pedro A; Rohr, Uwe D

    2016-03-01

    Stress was described by Cushing and Selye as an adaptation to a foreign stressor by the anterior pituitary increasing ACTH, which stimulates the release of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid hormones. The question is raised whether stress can induce additional steroidal hormone cascade changes in severe mental diseases (SMD), since stress is the common denominator. A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, where the steroidal hormone cascade of patients with SMD was compared to the impact of increasing stress on the steroidal hormone cascade (a) in healthy amateur marathon runners with no overtraining; (b) in healthy well-trained elite soldiers of a ranger training unit in North Norway, who were under extreme physical and mental stress, sleep deprivation, and insufficient calories for 1 week; and, (c) in soldiers suffering from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia (SI), and bipolar disorders (BD). (a) When physical stress is exposed moderately to healthy men and women for 3-5 days, as in the case of amateur marathon runners, only few steroidal hormones are altered. A mild reduction in testosterone, cholesterol and triglycerides is detected in blood and in saliva, but there was no decrease in estradiol. Conversely, there is an increase of the glucocorticoids, aldosterone and cortisol. Cellular immunity, but not specific immunity, is reduced for a short time in these subjects. (b) These changes are also seen in healthy elite soldiers exposed to extreme physical and mental stress but to a somewhat greater extent. For instance, the aldosterone is increased by a factor of three. (c) In SMD, an irreversible effect on the entire steroidal hormone cascade is detected. Hormones at the top of the cascade, such as cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), aldosterone and other glucocorticoids, are increased. However, testosterone and estradiol and their metabolites, and other hormones at the lower end of the cascade, seem to be reduced. 1

  17. Parathyroid hormone induces the Nrna family of nuclear orphan receptors in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirih, Flavia Q.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Bezouglaia, Olga; Nervina, Jeanne M.; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2005-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone metabolism, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unknown. Among the transcription factors induced by Pth in osteoblasts are the nerve growth factor-inducible factor B (NR4A; NGFI-B) family of orphan nuclear receptors: Nurr1, Nur77, and NOR-1. PTH induces NR4A members through the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in vitro. We report here that PTH rapidly and transiently induced expression of all three NR4A genes in PTH-target tissues in vivo. In calvaria, long bones, and kidneys, NR4A induction was maximal 0.5-1 h after a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 80 μg/kg PTH. Nur77 demonstrated the highest expression, followed, in order, by Nurr1 and NOR-1. In calvaria and long bone, PTH-induced expression of each NR4A gene was detectable at 10 μg/kg i.p. with maximum induction at 40-80 μg/kg. PTH (3-34) did not induce NR4A mRNA levels in calvaria, long bone, and kidney in vivo, confirming our in vitro results that NR4A genes are induced primarily through the cAMP-PKA pathway. The magnitude of PTH-induced NR4A expression was comparable in vivo and in vitro. However, NR4A mRNA levels peaked and returned to baseline faster in vivo. Both in vivo and in vitro, PTH induced NR4A pre-mRNA levels suggesting that induction of these genes is, at least in part, through activation of mRNA synthesis. The in vivo induction of the NR4A family members by PTH suggests their involvement in, at least some, PTH-induced changes in bone metabolism

  18. Impacts of morphine addiction on spermatogenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Takzare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are numerous investigations on wide range of issues that disrupt regulatory spermatogenesis, individuals who are exposed to drug abuse faced infertility and immature spermatogenesis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the addiction effects of morphine and its derivatives on rats spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods: 40 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 equal groups, which were exposed either with intravenous morphine, naloxone, naloxone and morphine, sham (with normal saline injection and a control group without infusion. Spermatogenesis was assessed after three months via histological sections with hematoxylin and eosin staining, using a light microscope based on measurement of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa. Results: Those rats that received opioids had changes in spermatogenesis function. The population of spermatogenesis cycle cells at spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and spermatozoa stages was significantly decreased in those rats that received opioid in comparison to the control group (p<0.05. Histological studies revealed that changes in different groups of opioid application might affect sperm formation. Sperm count in morphine group was (0±0 and in naloxone group, naloxone+morphine, sham and control were 235±3.77, 220±3.81, 247.12±6.10 and 250±6.54, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: Morphine could affect all spermatogenesis stages

  19. Growth hormone preferentially induces the rapid, transient expression of SOCS-3, a novel inhibitor of cytokine receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, T E; Hansen, J A; Starr, R

    1998-01-01

    Four members (SOCS-1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, and CIS) of a family of cytokine-inducible, negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling have recently been identified. To address whether any of these genes are induced in response to growth hormone (GH), serum-starved 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were incuba...

  20. The effect of chronic administration of ketoconazol on spermatogenesis indices and testis tissue in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E Safavi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketoconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal agent has been employed widely in the treatment of fungal diseases. In addition to being antifungal, studies have indicated that this drug has an inhibitory effect on steroid hormone production including glucocorticoids and sex hormones and also its administration causes reduction in the amount of blood testosterone level and histologic changes in testicular tissue of laboratory animals. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of long term ketoconazole administration on spermatogenesis indices in testicular tissue of mice. In this experimental study 50 male mice were used which were allocated to 5 groups each containing 10 animals. The mice received a 50 mg/kg dose of ketoconazole daily for a period of 15 days, 1, 2 and 3 months orally. One group was used as the control and the other 4 groups received Ketoconazole, testicular tissue samples were collected at the end of the aforementioned time period, and after preparation of tissue sections and staining with hematoxylin and coin the spermiogenesis indices including tubular differentiation index (TDI, spermatogenesis index (SI and repopulation index (RI were studied. The results indicated that SI and RI decreased significantly (p

  1. Detrimental effects of prenatal exposure to filtered diesel exhaust on mouse spermatogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Naoka; Niwata, Yuichiro; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oshio, Shigeru [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukushima (Japan); Ohu University, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Department of Health and Sciences, Oita (Japan); Tsukue, Naomi [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Isamu [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Mycobacterial Reference Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Environmental Health Sciences Division, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2008-11-15

    We recently showed that prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) disrupts spermatogenesis in mouse offspring. This study was undertaken to determine whether filtered DE in which 99.97% of diesel exhaust particles >0.3{mu}m in diameter were removed affects spermatogenesis in growing mice. After prenatal exposure to filtered DE for 2-16 days postcoitum, we examined daily sperm production (DSP), testicular histology, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression of hormone synthesis process-related factors. In the filtered DE exposed group, DSP was markedly reduced at 12 weeks compared with the control group; clean air exposed group. Histological examination showed multinucleated giant cells and partial vacuolation in the seminiferous tubules of the exposed group. Testosterone was elevated significantly at 5 weeks. Moreover, luteinizing hormone receptor mRNA at 5 and 12 weeks, 17{alpha}-hydroxylase/C17-20-lyase and 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs at 12 weeks were significantly elevated. These results suggest that filtered DE retains its toxic effects on the male reproductive system following prenatal exposure. (orig.)

  2. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on spermatogenesis as revealed by flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, U; Schumann, J; Goehde, W [Muenster Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-01-01

    Mice irradiated with doses ranging from 0.1 to 15 Gy using a /sup 60/Co-source and controls were killed at intervals varying from 2 to 35 days after irradiation. The DNA content of the testicular cells in single cell suspensions was measured with the pulse cytophotometer to determine the frequencies of the different stages in the spermatogenesis. The relative amount of S-phase and 4c-cells was reduced initially but increased subsequently to hypernormal values. A decrease of 2c-cells indicated a higher cell-kill of diploid spermatogonia. Gamma ray-induced spermatids with abnormal DNA-values (diploid sperm) were identified. The results suggest that the spermatogenesis can be analysed with flow cytometry and used as a biologic dosimeter even for small doses of ionizing radiation.

  3. Effects of acute gamma-irradiation on spermatogenesis as revealed by flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, U.; Schumann, J.; Goehde, W.

    1980-01-01

    Mice irradiated with doses ranging from 0.1 to 15 Gy using a 60 Co-source and controls were killed at intervals varying from 2 to 35 days after irradiation. The DNA content of the testicular cells in single cell suspensions was measured with the pulse cytophotometer to determine the frequencies of the different stages in the spermatogenesis. The relative amount of S-phase and 4c-cells was reduced initially but increased subsequently to hypernormal values. A decrease of 2c-cells indicated a higher cell-kill of diploid spermatogonia. Gamma ray-induced spermatids with abnormal DNA-values (diploid sperm) were identified. The results suggest that the spermatogenesis can be analysed with flow cytometry and used as a biologic dosimeter even for small doses of ionizing radiation. (Auth.)

  4. Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the seminiferous epithelial cycle, restructuring takes places at the Sertoli–Sertoli and Sertoli–germ cell interface to accommodate spermatogonia/spermatogonial stem cell renewal via mitosis, cell cycle progression and meiosis, spermiogenesis and spermiation since developing germ cells, in particular spermatids, move ‘up and down’ the seminiferous epithelium. Furthermore, preleptotene spermatocytes differentiated from type B spermatogonia residing at the basal compartment must traverse the blood–testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment to prepare for meiosis at Stage VIII of the epithelial cycle, a process also accompanied by the release of sperm at spermiation. These cellular events that take place at the opposite ends of the epithelium are co-ordinated by a functional axis designated the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES)—BTB—basement membrane. However, the regulatory molecules that co-ordinate cellular events in this axis are not known. METHODS Literature was searched at http://www.pubmed.org and http://scholar.google.com to identify published findings regarding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and the regulation of this axis. RESULTS Members of the ICAM family, namely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, and the biologically active soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) are the likely regulatory molecules that co-ordinate these events. sICAM-1 and ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the Sertoli cell tight junction-permeability barrier, involved in Sertoli cell BTB restructuring, whereas ICAM-2 is restricted to the apical ES, regulating spermatid adhesion during the epithelial cycle. Studies in other epithelia/endothelia on the role of the ICAM family in regulating cell movement are discussed and this information has been evaluated and integrated into studies of these proteins in the testis to create a hypothetical model, depicting how ICAMs regulate junction restructuring events during spermatogenesis. CONCLUSIONS ICAMs are crucial

  5. Cat exposure induces both intra- and extracellular Hsp72: the role of adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleshner, Monika; Campisi, Jay; Amiri, Leila; Diamond, David M

    2004-10-01

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsp) play an important role in stress physiology. Exposure to a variety of stressors will induce intracellular Hsp72, and this induction is believed to be beneficial for cell survival. In contrast, Hsp72 released during stress (extracellular Hsp72; eHsp72) activates pro-inflammatory responses. Clearly, physical stressors such as heat, cold, H(2)O(2), intense exercise and tail shock will induce both intra- and extracellular Hsp72. The current study tested whether a psychological stressor, cat exposure, would also trigger this response. In addition, the potential role of adrenal hormones in the Hsp72 response was examined. Adult, male Sprague Dawley rats were either adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham operated. Ten days post-recovery, rats were exposed to either a cat with no physical contact or control procedures (n = 5-6/group) for 2 h. Levels of intracellular Hsp72 were measured in the brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, dorsal vagal complex) and pituitary (ELISA). Levels of eHsp72 (ELISA) and corticosterone (RIA) were measured from serum obtained at the end of the 2-h stress period. Rats that were exposed to a cat had elevated intracellular Hsp72 in hypothalamus and dorsal vagal complex, and elevated eHsp72 and corticosterone in serum. Both the intra- and extracellular Hsp72 responses were blocked or attenuated by ADX. This study demonstrates that cat exposure can stimulate the Hsp72 response and that adrenal hormones contribute to this response.

  6. Treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced toxicity with the pineal hormone melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissoni, P; Tancini, G; Barni, S; Paolorossi, F; Ardizzoia, A; Conti, A; Maestroni, G

    1997-03-01

    Experimental data have suggested that the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) may counteract chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression and immunosuppression. In addition, MLT has been shown to inhibit the production of free radicals, which play a part in mediating the toxicity of chemotherapy. A study was therefore performed in an attempt to evaluate the influence of MLT on chemotherapy toxicity. The study involved 80 patients with metastatic solid tumors who were in poor clinical condition (lung cancer: 35; breast cancer: 31; gastrointestinal tract tumors: 14). Lung cancer patients were treated with cisplatin and etoposide, breast cancer patients with mitoxantrone, and gastrointestinal tract tumor patients with 5-fluorouracil plus folates. Patients were randomised to receive chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus MLT (20 mg/day p.o. in the evening). Thrombocytopenia was significantly less frequent in patients concomitantly treated with MLT. Malaise and asthenia were also significantly less frequent in patients receiving MLT. Finally, stomatitis and neuropathy were less frequent in the MLT group, albeit without statistically significant differences. Alopecia and vomiting were not influenced by MLT. This pilot study seems to suggest that the concomitant administration of the pineal hormone MLT during chemotherapy may prevent some chemotherapy-induced side-effects, particularly myelosuppression and neuropathy. Evaluation of the impact of MLT on chemotherapy efficacy will be the aim of future clinical investigations.

  7. Pre-emptive oral dexmethorphan reduces fentanyl-induced cough as well as immediate postoperative adrenocortico-tropic hormone and growth hormone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fentanyl-induced cough is not always benign and brief and can be remarkably troublesome, spasmodic, and explosive. Dextromethorphan, an opioid derivative with an antitussive action, may be effective in reducing the fentanyl-induced cough. Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl D aspartate receptor antagonist, may have some effect on diminishing the stress response to surgery. This study was undertaken to determine whether preoperative dextromethorphan could effectively attenuate its incidence, severity, and effect on postoperative stress hormone levels. Materials and Methods : Three hundred and twenty patients of American society of anesthesiologists I-II, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendicectomy were randomly allocated into two groups (Group C, control; Group D, dextromethorphan consisting of 160 patients each. Patients in Group D received dextromethorphan 40 mg orally and in Group C received placebo tablets 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 minute after fentanyl injection and graded as none (0, mild (1-2, moderate (3-5, and severe (>5 cough. Blood samples were collected for estimation of stress hormone levels before surgery and again at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively and compared. The appearance of adverse reactions was recorded. Results : The incidence of reflex fentanyl cough was lower in dextromethorphan group (3.9% in comparison to placebo (59.8%. Five patients developed mild and one moderate cough in the dextromethorphan group. In the control group, 31 patients developed mild, 29 moderate, and 32 severe cough. The stress hormones were significantly higher at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively in both groups in comparison to its preoperative values. However, at 1 hour postoperatively, adrenocorticotropic hormone, epinephrine, and growth hormone values were significantly low in the dextromethorphan group (61.5 ± 21.1 pg/ ml, 142.1 ± 11

  8. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.; Fliers, E.; Boelen, A.

    2011-01-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback

  9. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  10. Cellular ontogeny of RBMY during human spermatogenesis and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-12-13

    Dec 13, 2012 ... Genetic analysis of men with infertility and subfertility has led to identification of genes .... USA) that recognizes the N-terminus of human RBMY. (N-RBMY) at a .... During spermatogenesis, quantitative changes in rates of RNA ...

  11. The adverse effects of high fat induced obesity on female reproductive cycle and hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donthireddy, Laxminarasimha Reddy

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for abnormal reproductive cycle and tissue damage in female mice. It leads to earlier puberty, menarche in young females and infertility. There are extensive range of consequences of obesity which includes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and insulin resistance. Obesity is the interaction between dietary intake, genes, life style and environment. The interplay of hormones estrogen, insulin, and leptin is well known on energy homeostasis and reproduction. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of high fat induced obesity on reproductive cycles and its hormonal abnormalities on mice model. Two week, 3 month and 8 month long normal (WT) and very high fat diet (VHFD) diet course is followed. When mice are fed with very high fat diet, there is a drastic increase in weight within the first week later. There was a significant (p<0.001) increase in leptin levels in 6 month VHFD treated animals. 2 week, 3 month and 6 month time interval pap smear test results showed number of cells, length of estrous cycle and phases of the estrous cycle changes with VHFD mice(n=30) compared to normal diet mice(n=10). These results also indicate that the changes in the reproductive cycles in VHFD treated female mice could be due to the changes in hormones. Histo-pathological analyses of kidney, ovary, liver, pancreas, heart and lungs showed remarkable changes in some tissue on exposure to very high fat. Highly deposited fat packets observed surrounding the hepatocytes and nerve cells.

  12. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  13. Pharmacologically Induced Sex Hormone Fluctuation Effects on Resting-State Functional Connectivity in a Risk Model for Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Patrick MacDonald; Larsen, Camilla Borgsted; Beliveau, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Women are at relatively greater lifetime risk for depression than men. This elevated risk in women is partly due to heightened risk during time periods characterized by marked fluctuations in sex hormones, including postpartum and perimenopausal periods. How sex hormone fluctuations contribute...... to heightened risk is not fully understood but may involve intrinsic functional connectivity. We induced a biphasic ovarian sex hormone fluctuation using the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) goserelin to determine, with a randomized placebo-controlled design, intervention effects on or Gn....... Considering the GnRHa group only, the emergence of depressive symptoms following intervention was positively associated with amygdala-right temporal cortex and negatively associated with hippocampus-cingulate rs-FC. A test for mediation suggested that rs-FC changes in these networks marginally mediated...

  14. Thyroid hormone actions on male reproductive system of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo-Neto, Aldo; da Silva Rodrigues, Maira; Habibi, Hamid R; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique

    2018-04-17

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in the regulation of many biological processes of vertebrates, such as growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and reproduction. An increasing number of studies have been focused on the involvement of THs in the male reproductive system of vertebrates, in particular of fish. Therefore, this mini-review aims to summarize the main findings on THs role in male reproductive system of fish, focusing on sex differentiation, testicular development and spermatogenesis. The existing data in the literature have demonstrated that THs exert their roles at the different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In general a positive correlation has been shown between THs and fish reproductive status; where THs are associated with testicular development, growth and maturation. Recently, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of THs in spermatogenesis have been unraveled in zebrafish testis. THs promote germ cell proliferation and differentiation by increasing a stimulatory growth factor of spermatogenesis produced by Sertoli cells. In addition, THs enhanced the gonadotropin-induced androgen release in zebrafish testis. Next to their functions in the adult testis, THs are involved in the gonadal sex differentiation through modulating sex-related gene expression, and testicular development via regulation of Sertoli cell proliferation. In conclusion, this mini-review showed that THs modulate the male reproductive system during the different life stages of fish. The physiological and molecular mechanisms showed a link between the thyroid and reproduction, suggesting a possibly co-evolution and interdependence of these two systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression profiles of mouse spermatogenesis during recovery from irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Fozia J; Tanaka, Masami; Nielsen, John E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irradiation or chemotherapy that suspend normal spermatogenesis is commonly used to treat various cancers. Fortunately, spermatogenesis in many cases can be restored after such treatments but knowledge is limited about the re-initiation process. Earlier studies have described the cell......BACKGROUND: Irradiation or chemotherapy that suspend normal spermatogenesis is commonly used to treat various cancers. Fortunately, spermatogenesis in many cases can be restored after such treatments but knowledge is limited about the re-initiation process. Earlier studies have described...... the cellular changes that happen during recovery from irradiation by means of histology. We have earlier generated gene expression profiles during induction of spermatogenesis in mouse postnatal developing testes and found a correlation between profiles and the expressing cell types. The aim of the present...... work was to utilize the link between expression profile and cell types to follow the cellular changes that occur during post-irradiation recovery of spermatogenesis in order to describe recovery by means of gene expression. METHODS: Adult mouse testes were subjected to irradiation with 1 Gy...

  16. Androgen receptor signalling in Vascular Endothelial cells is dispensable for spermatogenesis and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC do not express androgen receptor (AR suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. Findings AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for targeting VE cells. Immunofluorescent detection revealed expression of YFP (and therefore Cre Recombinase function limited to VE cells and an interstitial population of cells, believed to be macrophages, that did not express AR. Mating of Tie2-Cre males to females carrying a floxed AR gene produced Vascular Endothelial Androgen Receptor Knockout (VEARKO mice and littermate controls. Ablation of AR from all VE cells was confirmed; however, no significant differences in bodyweight or reproductive tissue weights could be detected in VEARKO animals and spermatogenesis and fertility was unaffected. Conclusions We demonstrate the successful generation and empirical validation of a cell-specific knockout of AR from VE cells, and conclude that AR expression in VE cells is not essential for spermatogenesis or male fertility.

  17. Exercise-induced changes in stress hormones and cell adhesion molecules in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinkyung Park,1 Darryn S Willoughby,2 Joon Jin Song,3 Brian C Leutholtz,2 Yunsuk Koh2 1Department of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA; 2Department of Health, Human Performance, Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA; 3Department of Statistical Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA Purpose: The current study examined the relationship between exercise-induced changes in stress hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol and vascular inflammatory markers (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble endothelial selectin [sE-selectin], and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] in obese men over a 24-hour period following exercise at lower and higher intensity.Patients and methods: Fifteen physically inactive, obese, college-aged men performed a single bout of cycling exercise at lower and higher intensities (lower intensity: 50% of maximal heart rate, and higher intensity: 80% of maximal heart rate in random order. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately postexercise (IPE, 1-hour PE (1-h PE, and 24-hour PE. Changes in stress hormones and inflammatory markers were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni multiple comparisons and a linear regression analysis (p<0.05.Results: sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, epinephrine, and norepinephrine did not change over time, while sE-selectin was significantly lower at 1-h PE (10.25±1.07 ng/mL, p=0.04 than at baseline (12.22±1.39 ng/mL. Cortisol and sICAM-1 were negatively related at 1-h PE following lower-intensity exercise (r2=0.34, p=0.02, whereas cortisol and sVCAM-1 were positively related at IPE following higher-intensity exercise (r2=0.36, p=0.02.Conclusion: Regardless of intensity, an acute bout of aerobic exercise may lower sE-selectin in sedentary obese men. Responses of cortisol are dependent on exercise intensity, and cortisol may be a key stress hormone playing a major role in

  18. Hormonal changes in spontaneous and aglépristone-induced parturition in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, M; Taverne, M A M; de Gier, J; Kooistra, H S; Kindahl, H; Dieleman, S J; Okkens, A C

    2008-03-01

    To increase our understanding of the endocrine changes associated with parturition in dogs, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4), 15-ketodihydroprostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM), estradiol-17-beta (E2beta), cortisol, ACTH, prolactin (PRL), LH, and FSH were measured in six spontaneously whelping bitches and in six bitches in which parturition was induced with the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone on day 58 of pregnancy. Expulsion of pups in the induced group took place in the presence of P4 concentrations that were still elevated. PGFM concentrations increased before parturition in both groups, but levels were lower in the induced bitches. PGFM levels reached a maximum in both groups during parturition and quickly decreased in the spontaneously whelping group after parturition, but remained elevated in the induced group. In both groups, cortisol concentrations reached similar maximum levels during the last 30 h before the onset of expulsion. During the 3 days postpartum, cortisol concentrations were higher in the induced group. The highly variable ACTH concentrations did not differ significantly throughout the study within or between groups. In both groups, E2beta concentrations decreased and PRL concentrations increased between the late gestational period and the 30-h period before parturition. Concentrations of both LH (spontaneously whelping group) and FSH (both groups) decreased between late gestation and the postpartum period. The results of this study illustrate the hormonal changes around parturition in the bitch, and reveal that aglépristone-induced parturition is associated with still incomplete luteolysis, an altered PGFM profile, and elevated postpartum cortisol concentrations as compared with spontaneously whelping dogs.

  19. Restoration of hippocampal growth hormone reverses stress-induced hippocampal impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin M. Vander Weele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Though growth hormone (GH is synthesized by hippocampal neurons, where its expression is influenced by stress exposure, its function is poorly characterized. Here, we show that a regimen of chronic stress that impairs hippocampal function in rats also leads to a profound decrease in hippocampal GH levels. Restoration of hippocampal GH in the dorsal hippocampus via viral-mediated gene transfer completely reversed stress-related impairment of two hippocampus-dependent behavioral tasks, auditory trace fear conditioning and contextual fear conditioning, without affecting hippocampal function in unstressed control rats. GH overexpression reversed stress-induced decrements in both fear acquisition and long-term fear memory. These results suggest that loss of hippocampal GH contributes to hippocampal dysfunction following prolonged stress and demonstrate that restoring hippocampal GH levels following stress can promote stress resilience.

  20. Elevated thyroid stimulating hormone in a neonate: Drug induced or disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Kota

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyshormonogenesis is an uncommon cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The most common abnormality is absent or insufficient thyroid peroxidase enzyme. Maternal intake of antithyroid drug can also lead to elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH in a neonate, albeit the scenario is temporary. We report one such interesting case where a clinically euthyroid neonate borne to a mother on antithyroid drug presents on 12 th day of life with reports of elevated TSH and increased tracer uptake in 99mTc thyroid scan. Disproportionately high TSH in comparison to low maternal antithyroid drug dosage and further elevation of TSH after stopping mother′s antithyroid drugs ruled out maternal antithyroid drug-induced congenital hypothyroidism in the baby. Early institution of therapy in these patients can prevent mental retardation and other features of hypothyroidism.

  1. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression

  2. Stress-related hormone norepinephrine induces interleukin-6 expression in GES-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R.; Lin, Q.; Gao, H.B.; Zhang, P. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-02-17

    In the current literature, there is evidence that psychological factors can affect the incidence and progression of some cancers. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is known to be elevated in individuals experiencing chronic stress and is also involved in oncogenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise mechanism of IL-6 induction by the stress-related hormone norepinephrine (NE) is not clear, and, furthermore, there are no reports about the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in gastric epithelial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of NE on IL-6 expression in immortalized human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1 cells). Using real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunoassay, we demonstrated that NE can induce IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in GES-1 cells. The induction is through the β-adrenergic receptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway and mainly at the transcriptional level. Progressive 5′-deletions and site-directed mutagenesis of the parental construct show that, although activating-protein-1 (AP-1), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBP-β), and nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) binding sites are all required in the basal transcription of IL-6, only AP-1 and CREB binding sites in the IL-6 promoter are required in NE-induced IL-6 expression. The results suggest that chronic stress may increase IL-6 secretion of human gastric epithelial cells, at least in part, by the stress-associated hormone norepinephrine, and provides basic data on stress and gastric cancer progression.

  3. Effects of juvenile hormone analogue on ecdysis prevention induced by precocene in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Azambuja

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Precocene II, added to the meal of fourth-instar larvae of Rhodnius prolixus (25 mug/ml of blood, induced an in crease in the duration of the molting cycle. This effect was related to the decrease of both the nuclear area of the prothoracic gland cells and the mitotic activity in epidermal cellS. juvenile hormone analogue applied topically (60 mug/insect together with Precocene II treatment avoided atrophy of the prothoracic glands and induced a higher number of epidermal mitosis accelerating the time of subsequent ecdysis. A possible relationship between juvenile hormone and production of ecdysone is discussed.Adicionado ao sangue alimentar na dose de 25 mug/ml o precoceno II causou um aumento no período de intermuda em ninfas de 4o. estadio de Rhodnius prolixus. Este atraso da muda foi relacionado com a diminuição da área dos núcleos das celulas das glandulas protoracicas e com a queda da atividade mitotica das células da epiderme do inseto. Um análogo de hormônio juvenil aplicado topicamente (60 mug/inseto junto com o tratamento oral com precoceno II preveniu a atrofia das glândulas protorácicas e induziu um aumento no número de mitoses nas células da epiderme, diminuindo o período de intermuda nestes insetos.A possivel relação entre a ação do hormônio juvenil e a producao de ecdisona pelas glândulas protorácicas e discutida.

  4. Effects of mental resilience on neuroendocrine hormones level changes induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyang; Dai, Xuyan; Yang, Tingshu; Song, Hongtao; Yang, Jialin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Liyi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental resilience on the changes of serum rennin, angiotensin, and cortisol level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen. By random cluster sampling, a total of 160 servicemen, aged from 18 to 30, were selected to undergo 24-hour total sleep deprivation and administered the military personnel mental resilience scale after the deprivation procedure. The sleep deprivation procedure started at 8 a.m. on Day 8 and ended at 8 a.m. on Day 9 after 7 days of normal sleep for baseline preparation. Blood samples were drawn from the 160 participants at 8 a.m. respectively on Day 8 and Day 9 for hormonal measurements. All blood samples were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. As hypothesized, serum rennin, angiotensin II, and cortisol level of the participants after sleep deprivation were significantly higher than those before (P problem-solving skill and willpower were the leading influence factors for the increases of serum rennin and cortisol respectively induced by sleep deprivation. We conclude that mental resilience plays a significant role in alleviating the changes of neurohormones level induced by sleep deprivation in servicemen.

  5. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  6. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p anabolic actions of GH.

  7. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  8. Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Low-Level Thyroid Hormone Disruption Induced by Environmental Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate levels of thyroid hormone during critical developmental periods lead to stunted growth, mental retardation, and neurological 'cretinism'. Animal models of developmental thyroid hormone deficiency mirror well the impact of severe insults to the thyroid system. However, ...

  9. Abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce postpartum blues-like behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, Bennard; Fokkema, Dirk S.; Molhoek, Margo; Tanke, Marit A. C.; Postema, Folkert; Korf, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Postpartum blues is thought to be related to hormonal events accompanying delivery. We investigated whether blues-like symptoms depend on the rate of the decline of hormones, by comparing the behavioral consequences of an abrupt versus a gradual decline of gonadal hormones in an animal model.

  10. Progress and prospects in male hormonal contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Testosterone functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Low concentrations of these hormones deprive the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis and results in markedly decreased sperm concentrations and effective contraception in a majority of men. Male hormonal contraception is well tolerated and acceptable to most men. Unfortunately, testosterone-alone regimens fail to completely suppress spermatogenesis in all men, meaning that in some the potential for fertility remains. Recent findings Because of this, novel combinations of testosterone and progestins, which synergistically suppress gonadotropins, have been studied. Two recently published testosterone/progestin trials are particularly noteworthy. In the first, a long-acting injectable testosterone ester, testosterone decanoate, was combined with etonogestrel implants and resulted in 80–90% of subjects achieving a fewer than 1 million sperm per milliliter. In the second, a daily testosterone gel was combined with 3-monthly injections of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate producing similar results. Summary Testosterone-based hormone combinations are able to reversibly suppress human spermatogenesis; however, a uniformly effective regimen has remained elusive. Nevertheless, improvements, such as the use of injectable testosterone undecanoate, may lead to a safe, reversible and effective male contraceptive. PMID:18438174

  11. Long-term recovery of spermatogenesis after radiotherapy in patient with testicular cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.V.; Trykker, H.; Svennkjaer, I.L.; Hvolby, J.

    1990-01-01

    Gonadal function was evaluated before irradiation and by serial analyses after treatment in 27 patients with seminomas and 24 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. During subdiaphragmatic irradiation, a median testicular dose of 1.7 reached the remaining testis. Twenty nonseminoma patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. After orchiectomy, 94% had spermatozoa in semen, 49% had a total sperm count exceeding the reference value, and in 67% serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were normal. The corresponding estimated values 5 and 9 years after treatment were 61%, 13%, 14%, and 84%, 35%, 32%, respectively. A Cox regression analysis of recovery, with azoospermia used as an endpoint, showed that (1) recovery depended on the radiation dose, (2) adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged the recovery period, (3) recovery was decreased in patients with low pretreatment total sperm counts and in patients older than 25 years. A prognostic index was derived from the regression model and radiation dose-response curves were calculated. The authors conlude that a profound, dose-dependent impairment of spermatogenesis is caused by raiation scatter reaching the testis during subdiaphragmal irradiation. An effective gonadal shield should reduce the gonadal dose to a level low enough to preverse spermatogenesis in most patients. (authors). 36 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Long-term recovery of spermatogenesis after radiotherapy in patients with testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P V; Trykker, H; Svennekjaer, I L; Hvolby, J

    1990-06-01

    Gonadal function was evaluated before irradiation and by serial analyses after treatment in 27 patients with seminomas and 24 patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. During subdiaphragmatic irradiation, a median testicular dose of 1.7 Gy (range, 1.2 to 4.8 Gy) reached the remaining testis. Twenty nonseminoma patients were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy using vincristine and bleomycin (OB) or cisplatin/dactinomycin, vinblastine, and bleomycin (P/DVB). After orchiectomy, 94% had spermatozoa in semen, 49% had a total sperm count exceeding the reference value (80 x 10(6], and in 67% serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels were normal. The corresponding estimated values 5 and 9 years after treatment were 61%, 13%, 14%, and 84%, 35%, 32%, respectively. A Cox regression analysis of recovery, with azoospermia used as an endpoint, showed that (1) recovery depended on the radiation dose, (2) adjuvant chemotherapy prolonged the recovery period, (3) recovery was decreased in patients with low pretreatment total sperm counts and in patients older than 25 years. A prognostic index was derived from the regression model and radiation dose-response curves were calculated (+/- chemotherapy). We conclude that a profound, dose-dependent impairment of spermatogenesis is caused by radiation scatter reaching the testis during subdiaphragmal irradiation. An effective gonadal shield should reduce the gonadal dose to a level low enough to preserve spermatogenesis in most patients.

  13. Non-invasive treatments of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for inducing spermiation in American (Bufo americanus) and Gulf Coast (Bufo valliceps) toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Angela D.; Obringer, Amy R.; Roth, Terri L.

    2001-01-01

    As many as 20% of all assessed amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and captive breeding programs are becoming important components of conservation strategies for this taxon. For some species, exogenous hormone administration has been integrated into breeding protocols to improve propagation. However, most treatments are administered by an intraperitoneal injection that can be associated with some risks. The general goal of this study was to identify a non-invasive method of applying luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which reliably induces sperm release in toads. Specific objectives were to 1) test the spermiation response after topical application of different LHRH doses to the abdominal seat region, 2) evaluate the effects of adding the absorption enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and glyceryl monocaprylate (GMC) to the LHRH, 3) assess the spermiation response after oral delivery of LHRH in a mealworm vehicle, and 4) compare sperm characteristics and spermiation responses to treatments in two different toad species. Male American (n = 9) and Gulf Coast (n = 7) toads were rotated systematically through a series of treatments. Urine was collected and evaluated for the presence of sperm at 0, 3, 7, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. There were no statistical differences in spermiation induction or sperm characteristics between American and Gulf Coast toads after the treatments. Oral administration of 100 &mgr;g LHRH was occasionally successful in inducing spermiation, but results appeared largely unreliable. Ventral dermal application of 100 or 10 &mgr;g LHRH in 40% DMSO were more effective (P Zoo Biol 20:63-74, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Adrenal hormones mediate melatonin-induced increases in aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, Gregory E; Polacek, Kelly M; Durazzo, Alfredo; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2004-12-01

    Among the suite of seasonal adaptations displayed by nontropical rodents, some species demonstrate increased territorial aggression in short compared with long day lengths despite basal levels of testosterone. The precise physiological mechanisms mediating seasonal changes in aggression, however, remain largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of melatonin, as well as adrenal hormones, in the regulation of seasonal aggression in male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). In Experiment 1, male Siberian hamsters received either daily (s.c.) injections of melatonin (15 microg/day) or saline 2 h before lights out for 10 consecutive days. In Experiment 2, hamsters received adrenal demedullations (ADMEDx), whereas in Experiment 3 animals received adrenalectomies (ADx); control animals in both experiments received sham surgeries. Animals in both experiments subsequently received daily injections of melatonin or vehicle as in Experiment 1. Animals in all experiments were tested using a resident-intruder model of aggression. In Experiment 1, exogenous melatonin treatment increased aggression compared with control hamsters. In Experiment 2, ADMEDx had no effect on melatonin-induced aggression. In Experiment 3, the melatonin-induced increase in aggression was significantly attenuated by ADx. Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrate that short day-like patterns of melatonin increase aggression in male Siberian hamsters and suggest that increased aggression is due, in part, to changes in adrenocortical steroids.

  15. The thyroid hormone receptor β induces DNA damage and premature senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Alberto; García-Carpizo, Verónica; Gallardo, María Esther; Villamuera, Raquel; Gómez-Ferrería, Maria Ana; Pascual, Angel; Buisine, Nicolas; Sachs, Laurent M; Garesse, Rafael; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-06

    There is increasing evidence that the thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (THRs) can play a role in aging, cancer and degenerative diseases. In this paper, we demonstrate that binding of TH T3 (triiodothyronine) to THRB induces senescence and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage in cultured cells and in tissues of young hyperthyroid mice. T3 induces a rapid activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)/PRKAA (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) signal transduction and recruitment of the NRF1 (nuclear respiratory factor 1) and THRB to the promoters of genes with a key role on mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiration leads to production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which in turn causes oxidative stress and DNA double-strand breaks and triggers a DNA damage response that ultimately leads to premature senescence of susceptible cells. Our findings provide a mechanism for integrating metabolic effects of THs with the tumor suppressor activity of THRB, the effect of thyroidal status on longevity, and the occurrence of tissue damage in hyperthyroidism.

  16. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses were correlated with gains in lean body mass (LBM), muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg press strength. There were no significant correlations between the exercise-induced elevations (area under the curve-AUC) of GH, fT and IGF-1 and gains in LBM or leg press strength. Significant correlations were found for cortisol, usually assumed to be a hormone indicative of catabolic drive, AUC with change in LBM (r = 0.29, P training-induced changes in fibre CSA and LBM (cortisol only), but not with changes in strength.

  17. Asp330 and Tyr331 in the C-terminal cysteine-rich region of the luteinizing hormone receptor are key residues in hormone-induced receptor activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.P. Bruysters (Martijn); M. Verhoef-Post (Miriam); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor plays an essential role in male and female gonadal function. Together with the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors, the LH receptor forms the family of glycoprotein hormone receptors. All glycoprotein

  18. Intestinal upregulation of melanin-concentrating hormone in TNBS-induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Geiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, an evolutionarily conserved appetite-regulating neuropeptide, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Expression of MCH is upregulated in inflamed intestinal mucosa in humans with colitis and MCH-deficient mice treated with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS develop an attenuated form of colitis compared to wild type animals. Zebrafish have emerged as a new animal model of IBD, although the majority of the reported studies concern zebrafish larvae. Regulation MCH expression in the adult zebrafish intestine remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study we induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish by intrarectal administration of TNBS. Follow-up included survival analysis, histological assessment of changes in intestinal architecture, and assessment of intestinal infiltration by myeloperoxidase positive cells and cytokine transcript levels. RESULTS: Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently reduced fish survival. This response required the presence of an intact microbiome, since fish pre-treated with vancomycin developed less severe enterocolitis. At 6 hours post-challenge, we detected a significant influx of myeloperoxidase positive cells in the intestine and upregulation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, and in analogy to human IBD and TNBS-induced mouse experimental colitis, we found increased intestinal expression of MCH and its receptor in TNBS-treated zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these findings not only establish a model of chemically-induced experimental enterocolitis in adult zebrafish, but point to effects of MCH in intestinal inflammation that are conserved across species.

  19. Wolbachia-induced paternal defect in Drosophila is likely by interaction with the juvenile hormone pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jia-Lin; Zheng, Ya; Xiong, En-Juan; Li, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Lin-Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2014-06-01

    Wolbachia are endosymbionts that infect many insect species. They can manipulate the host's reproduction to increase their own maternal transmission. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is one such manipulation, which is expressed as embryonic lethality when Wolbachia-infected males mate with uninfected females. However, matings between males and females carrying the same Wolbachia strain result in viable progeny. The molecular mechanisms of CI are currently not clear. We have previously reported that the gene Juvenile hormone-inducible protein 26 (JhI-26) exhibited the highest upregulation in the 3rd instar larval testes of Drosophila melanogaster when infected by Wolbachia. This is reminiscent of an interaction between Wolbachia and juvenile hormone (JH) pathway in flies. Considering that Jhamt gene encodes JH acid methyltransferase, a key regulatory enzyme of JH biosynthesis, and that methoprene-tolerant (Met) has been regarded as the best JH receptor candidate, we first compared the expression of Jhamt and Met between Wolbachia-infected and uninfected fly testes to investigate whether Wolbachia infection influence the JH signaling pathway. We found that the expressions of Jhamt and Met were significantly increased in the presence of Wolbachia, suggesting an interaction of Wolbachia with the JH signaling pathway. Then, we found that overexpression of JhI-26 in Wolbachia-free transgenic male flies caused paternal-effect lethality that mimics the defects associated with CI. JhI-26 overexpressing males resulted in significantly decrease in hatch rate. Surprisingly, Wolbachia-infected females could rescue the egg hatch. In addition, we showed that overexpression of JhI-26 caused upregulation of the male accessory gland protein (Acp) gene CG10433, but not vice versa. This result suggests that JhI-26 may function at the upstream of CG10433. Likewise, overexpression of CG10433 also resulted in paternal-effect lethality. Both JhI-26 and CG10433 overexpressing males

  20. Misexpression of cyclin B3 leads to aberrant spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refik-Rogers, Jale; Manova, Katia; Koff, Andrew

    2006-09-01

    Mus musculus cyclin B3 is an early meiotic cyclin that is expressed in leptotene and zygotene phases during gametogenesis. In order to determine whether downregulation of cyclin B3 at zygotene-pachytene transition was important for normal spermatogenesis, we investigated the consequences of expressing H. sapiens cyclin B3 after zygotene in mouse testes. Prolonging expression of cyclin B3 until the end of meiosis led to a reduction in sperm counts and disruption of spermatogenesis in four independent lines of transgenic mice. There were three distinct morphological defects associated with the ectopic expression of cyclin B3. Seminiferous tubules were either depleted of germ cells, had an abnormal cell mass in the lumen, or were characterized by the presence of abnormal round spermatids. These defects were associated with increased apoptosis in the testes. These results suggest that downregulation of cyclin B3 at the zygotene-pachytene transition is required to ensure normal spermatogenesis.

  1. Adrenal Gland Microenvironment and Its Involvement in the Regulation of Stress-induced Hormone Secretion during Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Kanczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Survival of all living organisms depends on maintenance of a steady state of homeostasis, which process relies on its ability to react and adapt to various physical and emotional threats. The defense against stress is executed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Adrenal gland is a major effector organ of stress system. During stress adrenal gland rapidly respond with increased secretion of glucocorticoids and catecholamines into circulation, which hormones, in turn, affect metabolism, to provide acutely energy, vasculature to increase blood pressure and the immune system to prevent it from extensive activation. Sepsis resulting from microbial infections is a sustained and extreme example of stress situation. In many critical ill patients levels of both corticotropin-releasing hormone and adrenocorticotropin, two major regulators of adrenal hormone production, are suppressed. Levels of glucocorticoids however, remain normal or are elevated in these patients, suggesting a shift from central to local intraadrenal regulation of adrenal stress response. Among many mechanisms potentially involved in this process, reduced glucocorticoid metabolism and local intraadrenal activation of hormone production mediated by adrenocortical and chromaffin cell interactions, the adrenal vascular system and the immune-adrenal crosstalk play a key role. Consequently, any impairment in function of these systems, can ultimately affect adrenal stress response. The purpose of this mini review is to present and discuss recent advances in our understanding of the adrenal gland microenvironment, and its role in regulation of stress-induced hormone secretion.

  2. [Identification of the meiotic events in grasshopper spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Hao; Zhao, Kai-Qiang; Wang, Ya-Dong; Yang, Meng-Ping; Zhao, Ning-Ning; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    The grasshoppers are ideal materials to study various meiotic stages of spermatogenesis due to their easy availability, fairly large chromosomes, and fewer numbers of chromosomes. It is easy to make temporary squash preparation of grasshopper testes; however, it is usually difficult for the beginners to differentiate between stages of meiosis. In view of this, we demonstrated the method of identification of meiotic stages by chromosome number and chromosome conformation, taking spermatogonial meiosis of Locusta migratoria manilensis as an example. We described briefly the mitosis of spermatogonia and the spermatogenesis of this species as well.

  3. Early developmental and temporal characteristics of stress-induced secretion of pituitary-adrenal hormones in prenatally stressed rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, L K; Kalin, N H

    1991-08-30

    Previous experiments revealed that 14-day-old prenatally stressed rats have significantly elevated concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone suggesting these animals have an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. In these studies, however, stress-induced hormone levels were determined only immediately after exposure to an acute stressor. Therefore, in the current study, we examined in postnatal days 7, 14 and 21 prenatally stressed rats the stress-induced time course of this pituitary-adrenal hormone elevation. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone were measured in the basal state and at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 h after a 10-min exposure period to foot shocks administered in the context of social isolation. Results indicated that at all 3 ages, plasma ACTH in prenatally stressed rats was significantly elevated. Corticosterone concentrations were also significantly higher in prenatally stressed than in control rats, especially in day 14 rats. Analysis of stress-induced hormone fluctuations over time indicated that by 14 days of age, both prenatally stressed than in control and control rats had significant increases in plasma ACTH and corticosterone after exposure to stress. Furthermore, although prenatally stressed rats had significantly higher pituitary-adrenal hormone concentrations than control animals, the post-stress temporal patterns of decline in ACTH and corticosterone levels were similar between groups. Results suggest that throughout the preweaning period, prenatal stress produces an HPA system that functions in a manner similar to that of controls but at an increased level.

  4. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P < 0.05) in longitudinal bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  5. Dose dependency of time of onset of radiation-induced growth hormone deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, P.E.; Shalet, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia was assessed on 133 occasions in 82 survivors of childhood malignant disease. All had received cranial irradiation with a dose range to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of 27 to 47.5 Gy (estimated by a schedule of 16 fractions over 3 weeks) and had been tested on one or more occasions between 0.2 and 18.9 years after treatment. Results of one third of the GH tests were defined as normal (GH peak response, greater than 15 mU/L) within the first 5 years, in comparison with 16% after 5 years. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that dose (p = 0.007) and time from irradiation (p = 0.03), but not age at therapy, had a significant influence on peak GH responses. The late incidence of GH deficiency was similar over the whole dose range (4 of 26 GH test results normal for less than 30 Gy and 4 of 25 normal for greater than or equal to 30 Gy after 5 years), but the speed of onset over the first years was dependent on dose. We conclude that the requirement for GH replacement therapy and the timing of its introduction will be influenced by the dose of irradiation received by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  6. Cortisol Interferes with the Estradiol-Induced Surge of Luteinizing Hormone in the Ewe1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Pierce, Bree N.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Turner, Anne I.; Karsch, Fred J.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge. PMID:19056703

  7. Preventive effects of chronic exogenous growth hormone levels on diet-induced hepatic steatosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is characterized by hepatic steatosis, can be reversed by early treatment. Several case reports have indicated that the administration of recombinant growth hormone (GH could improve fatty liver in GH-deficient patients. Here, we investigated whether chronic exogenous GH levels could improve hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet in rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Results High-fat diet-fed rats developed abdominal obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Chronic exogenous GH improved fatty liver, by reversing dyslipidaemia, fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Exogenous GH also reduced serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha levels, and ameliorated hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. Hepatic fat deposition was also reduced by exogenous GH levels, as was the expression of adipocyte-derived adipokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin, which might improve lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis. Exogenous GH seems to improve fatty liver by reducing fat weight, improving insulin sensitivity and correcting oxidative stress, which may be achieved through phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of a group of signal transducers and activators of hepatic signal transduction pathways. Conclusions Chronic exogenous GH has positive effects on fatty liver and may be a potential clinical application in the prevention or reversal of fatty liver. However, chronic secretion of exogenous GH, even at a low level, may increase serum glucose and insulin levels in rats fed a standard diet, and thus increase the risk of insulin resistance.

  8. Antigen-induced pleural eosinophilia is suppressed in diabetic rats: role of corticosteroid hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Diaz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have evidenced for the existence of interactive regulatory mechanisms between insulin and steroid hormones in different systems. In this study, we have investigated whether endogenous corticosteroids could be implicated in the hyporeactivity to antigen challenge observed in sensitized diabetic rats. Alloxinated rats showed a long-lasting increase in the blood glucose levels and a reduction in the number of pleural mast cells at 48 and 72 hr, but not at 24 hr after alloxan administration. In parallel, they also showed a significant elevation in the plasma levels of corticosterone together with an increase in the adrenal/body weight ratio. Antigen-evoked eosinophil accumulation appeared significantly reduced in rats pretreated with dexamethasone as well as in those rendered diabetic 72 hr after alloxan. In the same way, naive animals treated with dexamethasone also responded with a significant decrease in the number of pleural mast cells. Interestingly, when sensitized diabetic rats were pretreated with the steroid antagonist RU 38486 a reversion of the reduction in the allergen-induced eosinophil accumulation was noted. We conclude that the down-regulation of the allergic inflammatory response in diabetic rats is close-related to reduction in mast cell numbers and over expression of endogenous corticosteroids.

  9. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  10. Molecular markers of oocyte differentiation in European eel during hormonally induced oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Martínez-Miguel, Leticia; Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Vílchez, M Carmen; Asturiano, Juan F; Pérez, Luz; Cancio, Ibon

    2017-09-01

    Reproduction in captivity is a key study issue in Anguilla anguilla as a possible solution for its dwindling population. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the production of ribosomal building blocks during artificially induced oocyte maturation could be particularly interesting. Transcription levels of ribosomal biogenesis associated genes could be used as markers to monitor oogenesis. Eels from the Albufera Lagoon were injected with carp pituitary extract for 15weeks and ovaries in previtellogenic (PV) stage (non-injected), in early-, mid-, late-vitellogenesis (EV, MV, LV), as well as in migratory nucleus stage (MN) were analysed. 5S rRNA and related genes were highly transcribed in ovaries with PV oocytes. As oocytes developed, transcriptional levels of genes related to 5S rRNA production (gtf3a), accumulation (gtf3a, 42sp43) and nucleocytoplasmic transport (rpl5, rpl11) and the 5S/18S rRNA index decreased (PV>EV>MV>LV>MN). On the contrary, 18S rRNA was at its highest at MN stage while ubtf1 in charge of activating RNA-polymerase I and synthesising 18S rRNA behaved as 5S related genes. Individuals that did not respond (NR) to the treatment showed 5S/18S index values similar to PV females, while studied genes showed EV/LV-like transcription levels. Therefore, NR females fail to express the largest rRNAs, which could thus be taken as markers of successful vitellogenesis progression. In conclusion, we have proved that the transcriptional dynamics of ribosomal genes provides useful tools to characterize induced ovarian development in European eels. In the future, such markers should be studied as putative indicators of response to hormonal treatments and of the quality of obtained eel oocytes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-08-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  12. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola, E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.a [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, Johannes [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schittl, Heike [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gerschpacher, Marion [Department of Gynecologic Endocrinology and Reproduction, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Quint, Ruth Maria [Section of Radiation Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-08-15

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light ({lambda}=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  13. Photo-induced regeneration of hormones by electron transfer processes: Potential biological and medical consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Hartmann, Johannes; Schittl, Heike; Gerschpacher, Marion; Quint, Ruth Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on the previous results concerning electron transfer processes in biological substances, it was of interest to investigate if hormone transients resulting by e.g. electron emission can be regenerated. The presented results prove for the first time that the hormone transients originating by the electron emission process can be successfully regenerated by the transfer of electrons from a potent electron donor, such as vitamin C (VitC). Investigations were performed using progesterone (PRG), testosterone (TES) and estrone (E1) as representatives of hormones. By irradiation with monochromatic UV light (λ=254 nm) in a media of 40% water and 60% ethanol, the degradation as well as the regeneration of the hormones was studied with each hormone individually and in the mixture with VitC as a function of the absorbed UV dose, using HPLC. Calculated from the obtained initial yields, the determined regeneration of PRG amounted to 52.7%, for TES to 58.6% and for E1 to 90.9%. The consumption of VitC was determined in the same way. The reported results concerning the regeneration of hormones by the transfer of electrons from an electron donor offer a new, promising method for the therapy with hormones. As a consequence of the regeneration of hormones, a decreased formation of carcinogenic metabolites is expected.

  14. Cascading effects of thermally-induced anemone bleaching on associated anemonefish hormonal stress response and reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Beldade, Ricardo; Blandin, Agathe; O’Donnell, Rory; Mills, Suzanne C.

    2017-01-01

    Organisms can behaviorally, physiologically, and morphologically adjust to environmental variation via integrative hormonal mechanisms, ultimately allowing animals to cope with environmental change. The stress response to environmental and social changes commonly promotes survival at the expense of reproduction. However, despite climate change impacts on population declines and diversity loss, few studies have attributed hormonal stress responses, or their regulatory effects, to climate chang...

  15. Effect of aging on GHRF-induced growth hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in primary culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spik, K.W.; Boyd, R.L.; Sonntag, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Five criteria were developed to validate the primary cell culture model for comparison of GRF-induced release of growth hormone in pituitary tissue from aging animals. Pituitaries from young (5-mo), middle-aged (14-mo), and old (24-mo) male Fischer 344 rats were dispersed using either trypsin/trypsin inhibitor or dispase and compared with respect to the number of pituitary cells recovered, cell viability, 3H-leucine incorporation into total protein, time course for recovery of optimal response to GRF, and the dose-relationship for GRF-induced release of growth hormone 2, 4, and 6 days after dispersal. Results indicated that direct comparison of cellular responses between tissues from young, middle-aged, and old rats in primary cell culture is confounded by variations in time for recovery of optimal responses, the effects of the enzymes used for dispersal, and the methods used to express the data

  16. Reversal of cycloheximide-induced memory disruption by AIT-082 (Neotrofin) is modulated by, but not dependent on, adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongzi; Nguyen, Quang; Gonzaga, James; Johnson, Mai; Ritzmann, Ronald F; Taylor, Eve M

    2003-04-01

    AIT-082 (Neotrofin), a hypoxanthine derivative, has been shown to improve memory in both animals and humans. In animals, adrenal hormones modulate the efficacy of many memory-enhancing compounds, including piracetam and tacrine (Cognex). To investigate the role of adrenal hormones in the memory-enhancing action of AIT-082. Plasma levels of adrenal hormones (corticosterone and aldosterone) in mice were significantly reduced by surgical or chemical (aminoglutethimide) adrenalectomy or significantly elevated by oral administration of corticosterone. The effects of these hormone level manipulations on the memory-enhancing activity of AIT-082 and piracetam were evaluated using a cycloheximide-induced amnesia/passive avoidance model. As previously reported by others, the memory enhancing action of piracetam was abolished by adrenalectomy. In contrast, the memory enhancement by 60 mg/kg AIT-082 (IP) was unaffected. However, a sub-threshold dose of AIT-082 (0.1 mg/kg, IP) that did not improve memory in control animals did improve memory in adrenalectomized animals. These data suggested that, similar to piracetam and tacrine, the memory enhancing action of AIT-082 might be inhibited by high levels of adrenal hormones. As expected, corticosterone (30 and 100 mg/kg) inhibited the action of piracetam, however no dose up to 100 mg/kg corticosterone inhibited the activity of AIT-082. These data suggest that while AIT-082 function is not dependent on adrenal hormones, it is modulated by them. That memory enhancement by AIT-082 was not inhibited by high plasma corticosterone levels may have positive implications for its clinical utility, given that many Alzheimer's disease patients have elevated plasma cortisol levels.

  17. Vinclozolin Exposure in Utero Induces Postpubertal Prostatitis and Reduces Sperm Production via a Reversible Hormone-Regulated Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Cowin, Prue A.; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K.; Foster, Paul M. D.; Scott, Hamish S.; Risbridger, Gail P.

    2010-01-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-κB activat...

  18. The long-term effects of FSH and triiodothyronine administration during the pubertal period on Connexin 43 expression and spermatogenesis efficiency in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Kula, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and triiodothyronine (T3) are known regulatory factors of spermatogenesis initiation. Hyperstimulation of both hormones evokes regressional changes in connexin 43 expression and the seminiferous epithelium in young rats during testicular maturation. However, separate treatments with T3 reduce Sertoli cell number, which seems to be closely connected with the maturation of connexin 43 gap junctions. FSH elevates Sertoli cell number and function, but this effect may take place regardless of the presence of connexin 43-dependent intercellular communication. The aim of the study was to evaluate the later effects of such treatments. Newborn, male Wistar rats were divided randomly into experimental groups receiving daily subcutaneous injections of either 7.5 IU/animal FSH, or 100 mg/kg b.w. T3, or both substances or the same volume of vehicle (control group) until day 15 of life. The animals were sacrificed on day 50. Morphometric analysis and immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against Vimentin, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and Connexin 43 in the testis. Sertoli cell count, efficiency of spermatogenesis, and hormonal pattern were examined. Disturbances in the connexin 43 expression reduced the number of Sertoli cells, the efficiency of spermatogenesis and impaired endocrine function of testes in adult rats treated with FSH and T3 during puberty. Stimulation with FSH alone increased Sertoli cell number, but was associated with a negative effect on cell-to-cell connexin 43-dependent communication, with a consequential reduction of spermatogenesis efficiency. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 256-265, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Improved strength of silk fibers in Bombyx mori trimolters induced by an anti-juvenile hormone compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaiyu; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Tang, Muya; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibers with thin diameters have advantages of lightness and crease-resistance. Many studies have used anti-juvenile hormones to induce trimolters in order to generate thin silk; however, there has been comparatively little analysis of the morphology, structure and mechanical properties of trimolter silk. This study induced two kinds of trimolters by appling topically anti-juvenile hormones and obtained thin diameter silk. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR analysis, tensile mechanical testing, chitin staining were used to reveal that the morphology, conformation and mechanical property of the trimolter silk. Cocoon of trimolters were highly densely packed by thinner fibers and thus had small apertures. We found that the conformation of trimolter silk fibroin changed and formed more β-sheet structures. In addition, analysis of mechanical parameters yielded a higher Young's modulus and strength in trimolter silk than in the control. By chitin staining of silk gland, we postulated that the mechanical properties of trimolters' silk was enhanced greatly during to the structural changes of silk gland. We induced trimolters by anti-juvenile hormones and the resulting cocoons were more closely packed and had smaller silk fiber diameters. We found that the conformation of trimolters silk fibroin had a higher content of β-sheet structures and better mechanical properties. Our study revealed the structures and mechanical properties of trimolter silk, and provided a valuable reference to improve silk quality by influencing molting in silkworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. INDUCED FUCTIONAL MALE OF CORAL TROUT GROUPER (Plectropomus leopardus USING 17α-METHYLTESTOSTERONE HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sar Budi Moria Sembiring

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The success of grouper seeds production is depends on the availability of qualified broodstock. The nature of grouper is protogynous hermaphrodite, causing difficulties to mantain female and a bit difficult to get male broodstock, one possibility to accelerate sex revers is by hormone manipulation. The aim of this experiment was to find effectiveness of 17α-methyl testosterone hormone to produce coral trout grouper (Plectropomus leopardus functional male. The experiment was conducted in floating net cage by using 6 net cages with size of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m at density of 25 fish/cage, size of fish were 377.27±21.49 g. The fishes were treated by hormone implantation at concentration of 50 μg/kg body weight and without hormone implantation as a control with 3 replicates. The results showed that the highest concentration of testosteron in fish blood (1.144±0.135 pg/mL was detected after four months of hormone treatment, but the concentration of testosteron in fish blood declined after 8th months of treatment. The treated fish with hormone grew faster than control. Based on histological analysis of gonad, female gonado somatic index was higher for treated fish compare to control. Its seems that hormone tratment lead to promote development of female maturity and than sex reverse into male become faster.

  1. Effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents on thyroid hormone receptor action and thyroid hormone-induced cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Koibuchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gadolinium (Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs are used in diagnostic imaging to enhance the quality of magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. After intravenous injection, GBCAs can accumulate in the brain. Thyroid hormones (THs are critical to the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system. TH actions in brain are mainly exerted through nuclear TH receptors (TRs. We examined the effects of GBCAs on TR-mediated transcription in CV-1 cells using transient transfection-based reporter assay and thyroid hormone-mediated cerebellar Purkinje cell morphogenesis in primary culture. We also measured the cellular accumulation and viability of Gd after representative GBCA treatments in cultured CV-1 cells. Both linear (Gd-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-bis methyl acid, Gd-DTPA-BMA and macrocyclic (Gd-tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid, Gd-DOTA GBCAs were accumulated without inducing cell death in CV-1 cells. In contrast, Gd chloride (GdCl3 treatment induced approximately 100 times higher Gd accumulation and significantly reduced the number of cells. Low doses of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−8–10−6 M augmented TR-mediated transcription, but the transcription was suppressed at higher dose (10−5 – 10−4 M, with decreased β-galactosidase activity indicating cellular toxicity. TR-mediated transcription was not altered by Gd-DOTA or GdCl3, but the latter induced a significant reduction in β-galactosidase activity at high doses, indicating cellular toxicity. In cerebellar cultures, the dendrite arborization of Purkinje cells induced by 10-9 M T4 was augmented by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (10−7 M but was suppressed by higher dose (10−5 M. Such augmentation by low-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA was not observed with 10-9 M T3, probably because of the greater dendrite arborization by T3; however, the arborization by T3 was suppressed by a higher dose of Gd-DTPA-BMA (10-5 M as seen in T4 treatment. The effect of Gd-DOTA on dendrite arborization

  2. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumours in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocortical hormones have previously been shown to influence cell proliferation in many tissues. In this report, their influence on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomata is compared. Colonic tumour cell proliferation was found to be retarded following adrenalectomy and this retardation was reversible by administration of hydrocortisone, or by administration of synthetic steroids with predominantly glucocorticoid activity. Tumour cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats was not promoted by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Neither adrenalectomy, nor adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly influenced colonic crypt cell proliferation.

  3. Growth hormone reverses excitotoxic damage induced by kainic acid in the green iguana neuroretina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Mora, Janeth; Carranza, Martha; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) is expressed in extrapituitary tissues, including the nervous system and ocular tissues, where it is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions related to cell survival and anti-apoptosis in several vertebrates. Little is known, however, in reptiles, so we analyzed the expression and distribution of GH in the eye of green iguana and its potential neuroprotective role in retinas that were damaged by the intraocular administration of kainic acid (KA). It was found, by Western blotting, that GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) was expressed as two isoforms (15 and 26kDa, under reducing conditions) in cornea, vitreous, retina, crystalline, iris and sclera, in varying proportions. Also, two bands for the growth hormone receptor (GHR)-IR were observed (70 and 44kDa, respectively) in the same tissues. By immunofluorescence, GH-IR was found in neurons present in several layers of the neuroretina (inner nuclear [INL], outer nuclear [ONL] and ganglion cell [GCL] layers) as determined by its co-existence with NeuN, but not in glial cells. In addition, GH and GHR co-expression was found in the same cells, suggesting paracrine/autocrine interactions. KA administration induced retinal excitotoxic damage, as determined by a significant reduction of the cell density and an increase in the appearance of apoptotic cells in the INL and GCL. In response to KA injury, both endogenous GH and Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) expression were increased by 70±1.8% and 33.3±16%, respectively. The addition of exogenous GH significantly prevented the retinal damage produced by the loss of cytoarchitecture and cell density in the GCL (from 4.9±0.79 in the control, to 1.45±0.2 with KA, to 6.35±0.49cell/mm(2) with KA+GH) and in the INL (19.12±1.6, 10.05±1.9, 21.0±0.8cell/mm(2), respectively) generated by the long-term effect of 1mM KA intraocular administration. The co-incubation with a specific anti-GH antibody, however, blocked the protective effect of GH

  4. Steroid sex hormone dynamics during estradiol-17β induced gonadal differentiation in Paralichthys olivaceus (Teleostei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; You, Feng; Liu, Mengxia; Wu, Zhihao; Wen, Aiyun; Li, Jun; Xu, Yongli; Zhang, Peijun

    2010-03-01

    Steroid sex hormones, such as estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T), are important regulators of sex change in fish. In this study, we examined the effects of E2 treatment on the dynamics of E2 and T during gonadal differentiation in the olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus using histology and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Flounder larvae were divided into five groups (G0-G4), and fed with 0 (control), 0.2, 2, 20 and 100 mg E2/kg feed from 35 to 110 day post hatching (dph). Fish growth in the G1 and G2 groups was not significantly different from that of the control group ( P>0.05), while fish in the G3 and G4 groups were less active and showed growth depression and high mortality. The gonads of fish in the G3 and G4 groups were smaller and surrounded by hyperplastic connective tissue. The frequency of females in the G0-G4 groups was 54.5%, 75.0%, 100%, 100% and 93.3%, respectively. The RIA analyses of E2 and T showed that T levels decreased during gonadal differentiation, and increased slightly at the onset of ovarian differentiation, while E2 levels increased gradually and peaked at the onset of ovarian differentiation in the control group. In the E2-treated groups, T levels decreased before the onset of ovarian differentiation. E2 levels were high on the 48 dph, but declined to a lower level on the 54 dph, and then increased gradually during gonadal differentiation. And a sharp increase of E2 levels were observed in all E2-treated groups at the onset of ovarian differentiation. The data suggest that T and E2 play important roles during gonadal differentiation, and an E2 dose of 2 mg/kg feed could induce sex reversal in P. olivaceus.

  5. Fall in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) may be an early marker of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Sheriff, Nisa; Tran, Chau H; Menzies, Alexander M; Tsang, Venessa H M; Long, Georgina V; Tonks, Katherine T T

    2018-06-01

    Hypophysitis develops in up to 19% of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody. Early detection may avert life-threatening hypopituitarism. We aimed to assess the incidence of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis (IH) at a quaternary melanoma referral centre, and to determine whether cortisol or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) monitoring could predict IH onset. We performed a retrospective cohort study of ipilimumab-treated patients at a quaternary melanoma referral centre in Australia. The inclusion criteria were patients with metastatic or unresectable melanoma treated with ipilimumab monotherapy, and cortisol and TSH measurements prior to ≥ 2 infusions. The main outcomes were IH incidence and TSH and cortisol patterns in patients who did and did not develop IH. Of 78 ipilimumab-treated patients, 46 met the study criteria and 9/46 (20%) developed IH at a median duration of 13.0 weeks (range 7.7-18.1) following ipilimumab initiation. All patients whose TSH fell ≥ 80% compared to baseline developed IH, and, in 5/9 patients with IH, TSH fell prior to cortisol fall and IH diagnosis. Pre-cycle-4 TSH was significantly lower in those who developed IH (0.31 vs. 1.73 mIU/L, P = 0.006). TSH fall was detected at a median time of 9.2 (range 7.7-16.4) weeks after commencing ipilimumab, and a median of 3.6 (range of - 1.4 to 9.7) weeks before IH diagnosis. There was no difference in TSH between the groups before cycles 1-3 or in cortisol before cycles 1-4. TSH fall ≥ 80% may be an early marker of IH. Serial TSH measurement during ipilimumab therapy may be an inexpensive tool to expedite IH diagnosis.

  6. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moina Hasni Ebou

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1 and 2 (Tph2, leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells.

  7. Response of induced bone defects in horses to collagen matrix containing the human parathyroid hormone gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backstrom, Kristin C; Bertone, Alicia L; Wisner, Erik R; Weisbrode, Stephen E

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) gene in collagen matrix could safely promote bone formation in diaphyseal or subchondral bones of horses. 8 clinically normal adult horses. Amount, rate, and quality of bone healing for 13 weeks were determined by use of radiography, quantitative computed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis. Diaphyseal cortex and subchondral bone defects of metacarpi were filled with hPTH(1-34) gene-activated matrix (GAM) or remained untreated. Joints were assessed on the basis of circumference, synovial fluid analysis, pain on flexion, lameness, and gross and histologic examination. Bone volume index was greater for cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM, compared with untreated defects. Bone production in cortical defects treated with hPTH(1-34) GAM positively correlated with native bone formation in untreated defects. In contrast, less bone was detected in hPTH(1-34) GAM-treated subchondral bone defects, compared with untreated defects, and histology confirmed poorer healing and residual collagen sponge. Use of hPTH(1-34) GAM induced greater total bone, specifically periosteal bone, after 13 weeks of healing in cortical defects of horses. The hPTH(1-34) GAM impeded healing of subchondral bone but was biocompatible with joint tissues. Promotion of periosteal bone formation may be beneficial for healing of cortical fractures in horses, but the delay in onset of bone formation may negate benefits. The hPTH(1-34) GAM used in this study should not be placed in articular subchondral bone defects, but contact with articular surfaces is unlikely to cause short-term adverse effects.

  8. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development and deficiencies lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and in animal models. Environmental chemicals have been shown to disrupt TH levels, yet the relationship between developmental exposur...

  9. UV-radiation-induced electron emission by hormones. Hypothesis for specific communication mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getoff, Nikola [University of Vienna, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, Althanstr. 14, UZAII, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: nikola.getoff@univie.ac.at

    2009-11-15

    The highlights of recently observed electron emission from electronically excited sexual hormones (17{beta}-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone) and the phytohormone genistein in polar media are briefly reviewed. The electron yield, Q(e{sub aq}{sup -}), dependence from substrate concentration, hormone structure, polarity of solvent, absorbed energy and temperature are discussed. The hormones reactivity with e{sub aq}{sup -} and efficiency in electron transfer ensure them the ability to communicate with other biological systems in an organism. A hypothesis is presented for the explanation of the mechanisms of the distinct recognition of signals transmitted by electrons, originating from different types of hormones to receiving centres. Biological consequences of the electron emission in respect to cancer are mentioned.

  10. Acute toxicity of Fenvalerate Induced Alteration in Metabolic and Reproductive Hormones of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.; El Arab, E.A.

    1999-01-01

    The acute toxic effect of fenvalerate-a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide currently used in agriculture practice-on metabolic and reproductive hormones of rats had been studied. Intragastric administration of fen valerate (45 mg/kg) to male rats provoked a statistically significant decrease in T 3 and T 4 concentration during the setup regimen; the maximum decrease was recorded at 6 h. On the other hand, the reproductive hormones; LH, FSH and prolactin showed progressive increase in their values associated with a decrease in testosterone levels. The highest effect of fenvalerate on reproductive hormones was recorded at 24 h, followed by slight recovery at 48 h. In the future, measurement of such hormones might be included in any toxicology program for the risk assessment of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides if they should be mitigated or avoided

  11. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adequate levels of thyroid hormones (TH) are needed for proper brain development, deficiencies may lead to adverse neurological outcomes in humans and animal models....

  12. Protamines and spermatogenesis in Drosophila and Homo sapiens : A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanippayoor, Rachelle L; Alpern, Joshua H M; Moehring, Amanda J

    2013-04-01

    The production of mature and motile sperm is a detailed process that utilizes many molecular players to ensure the faithful execution of spermatogenesis. In most species that have been examined, spermatogenesis begins with a single cell that undergoes dramatic transformation, culminating with the hypercompaction of DNA into the sperm head by replacing histones with protamines. Precise execution of the stages of spermatogenesis results in the production of motile sperm. While comparative analyses have been used to identify similarities and differences in spermatogenesis between species, the focus has primarily been on vertebrate spermatogenesis, particularly mammals. To understand the evolutionary basis of spermatogenetic variation, however, a more comprehensive comparison is needed. In this review, we examine spermatogenesis and the final packaging of DNA into the sperm head in the insect Drosophila melanogaster and compare it to spermatogenesis in Homo sapiens.

  13. Hormonal therapy (hCG and rhFSH) for infertile men with adult-onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Suzuki, Keisuke; Iwahata, Toshiyuki; Shin, Takeshi; Sato, Ryo; Nishio, Kojiro; Yagi, Hiroshi; Arai, Gaku; Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Adult-onset idiopathic male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IMHH) is a very rare but treatable disease. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy and safety of a combination of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (rhFSH) for inducing spermatogenesis in men with adult-onset IMHH. Seven men (34-45 years of age) with azoospermia and/or sexual dysfunction, with a low serum testosterone concentration, and apulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone, were referred to our hospital for infertility. All had normal secondary sexual characteristics. Thorough endocrinologic examination and magnetic resonance imaging revealed no identifiable cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Adult-onset IMHH was diagnosed in all cases and treatment was started with 150 IU rhFSH and 5,000 IU hCG, both administered two times per week. Spermatogenesis was restored in five of the seven patients. During treatment one patient achieved spontaneous pregnancy with his wife, and spermatozoa recovered from the other four patients were frozen for future use in intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  14. Hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is conserved in multiple rat strains and identifies a core gene expression signature induced by pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A

    2006-06-15

    Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.

  15. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  16. Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Piña-Guzmán, Belem; Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M.J.; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2014-01-01

    Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5 mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4 days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45 days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis–vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43–57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75 mg/kg/day/4 days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. - Highlights: • Methamidophos alters sperm cell function at different stages of spermatogenesis. • Testicular stages of spermatogenesis are more sensitive to

  17. Methamidophos alters sperm function and DNA at different stages of spermatogenesis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urióstegui-Acosta, Mayrut; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Piña-Guzmán, Belem [Instituto Politécnico Nacional-UPIBI, D.F. (Mexico); Rafael-Vázquez, Leticia; Solís-Heredia, M.J.; Martínez-Aguilar, Gerardo [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico); Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet, E-mail: mquintan@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Toxicología, CINVESTAV-IPN, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Methamidophos (MET) is a highly toxic organophosphate (OP) pesticide that is widely used in developing countries. MET has male reproductive effects, including decreased fertility. We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. Adult male mice received MET (3.75 or 5 mg/kg-bw/ip/day/4 days) and were euthanized 1, 28 or 45 days post-treatment (dpt) to evaluate MET's effects on epididymal maturation, meiosis or mitosis, respectively. Spermatozoa were obtained from the cauda epididymis–vas deferens and were evaluated for sperm quality, acrosome reaction (AR; Coomassie staining), mitochondrial membrane potential (by JC-1), DNA damage (comet assay), oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) production), in vitro fertilization and protein phosphorylation (immunodetection), and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. At 1-dpt, MET inhibited AChE (43–57%) and increased abnormal cells (6%). While at 28- and 45-dpt, sperm motility and viability were significantly reduced with an increasing MET dose, and abnormal morphology increased at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days. MDA and mitochondrial activity were not affected at any dose or time. DNA damage (OTM and %DNA) was observed at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days in a time-dependent manner, whereas both parameters were altered in cells from mice exposed to 3.75 mg/kg/day/4 days only at 28-dpt. Depending on the time of collection, initial-, spontaneous- and induced-AR were altered at 5 mg/kg/day/4 days, and the fertilization capacity also decreased. Sperm phosphorylation (at serine and tyrosine residues) was observed at all time points. Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. - Highlights: • Methamidophos alters sperm cell function at different stages of spermatogenesis. • Testicular stages of spermatogenesis are more sensitive to

  18. 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine impairs mouse spermatogenesis at multiple stages through different usage of DNA methyltransferases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ning; Endo, Daisuke; Song, Bin; Shibata, Yasuaki; Koji, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a progressive process comprising spermatogonial proliferation, spermatocytic meiosis, and later spermiogenesis, which is considered to be under the regulation of epigenetic parameters. To gain insights into the significance of DNA methylation in early spermatogenesis, 5-azadC was used as a molecular biological tool to mimic the level of DNA methylation in vivo. Since the drug is incorporated into DNA during the S-phase, spermatogonia and spermatocytes would be affected primarily in mouse spermatogenesis. Adult male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with 5-azadC at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/day for 10 consecutive days, allowing us to examine its maximum effect on the kinetics of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In this short-term protocol, 5-azadC induced significant histological abnormalities, such as a marked increase in apoptosis of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, followed by severe loss of spermatids, while after termination of 5-azadC treatment, normal histology was restored in the testis within 35 days. Quantification of the methylation level of CCGG sites as well as whole DNA showed spermatogonial hypomethylation, which correlated with increased apoptosis of spermatogonia. Interestingly, the hypomethylated cells were simultaneously positive for tri-methylated histone H3 at K4. On the other hand, no changes in methylation level were found in spermatocytes, but PCNA staining clearly showed disordered accumulation of S-phase spermatocytes, which increased their apoptosis in stage XII. In addition, different immunohistochemical staining pattern was found for DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs); DNMT1was expressed in the majority of all germ cells, but DNMT3a and b were only expressed in spermatogonia. Our results indicate that 5-azadC caused DNA hypomethylation in spermatogonia, but induced prolongation of S-phase in spermatocytes, resulting in the induction of apoptosis in both cases. Thus, 5-azadC affects spermatogenesis at more than

  19. Cress oil modulates radiation-induced hormonal, histological, genetic disorders and sperm head abnormalities in albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Azab, KH.SH.; Soliman, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is an aquatic perennial herb of mustard family. The plant is rich in glucosinolates, specially gluconasturtin, which can be hydrolyzed to 2- phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and known to activate detoxification enzymes. Cress oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, by gavage for 2 weeks before whole body gamma irradiation at 7 Gy (single dose) and treatment was continued one week after irradiation. The results obtained showed that cress oil treatment significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations in levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin in serum and also blunted the increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum and testes. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue showed that radiation exposure leads to atrophic testis with marked loss of germ cells, remaining tall pink Sertoli cells, peri tubular fibrosis and interstitial fibrosis. Cress oil treatments ameliorated the intensity of these changes where signs of partial recovery were observed in the histological configuration of leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, spermatocytes and in the structure of interstitial cells. Moreover, administration of cress oil significantly reduced the score of sperm head abnormalities and chromosomal aberration frequencies. It could be concluded that watercress may have a bio protective effect on radiation-induced oxidative stress where phytochemicals present in watercress could protect against hormone-dependent disease

  20. Seed priming with hormones does not alleviate induced oxidative stress in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Falleiros Carvalho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming with hormones has been an efficient method for increasing seed vigor as well as seedling growth under stressful conditions. These responses have in the past been attributed to the activation of antioxidant systems in a range of crops. The results described in this work show that hormonal priming with methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid or CEPA (chloroethylphosphonic acid, an ethylene (ET releaser, does not induce the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase or glutathione reductase in maize seedlings subjected to salt stress. The enhanced biomass of maize seedlings under salt stress that was observed only from ET priming indicates that the stress tolerance in maize from ethylene priming is a fundamental process for stress tolerance acquisition, which is explained, however, by other biochemical mechanisms but not by changes in the antioxidant system.

  1. In uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid hormone and sympathetic activators induce thermogenesis without increasing glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Miles E; Thaler, Joshua P; Wisse, Brent E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Meek, Thomas H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Cubelo, Alex; Fischer, Jonathan D; Kaiyala, Karl J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) imaging technology have renewed interest in the identification of BAT activators for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. In uncontrolled diabetes (uDM), activation of BAT is implicated in glucose lowering mediated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin, which normalizes blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The potent effect of icv leptin to increase BAT glucose uptake in STZ-diabetes is accompanied by the return of reduced plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and BAT uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) mRNA levels to nondiabetic controls. We therefore sought to determine whether activation of thyroid hormone receptors is sufficient in and of itself to lower blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetes and whether this effect involves activation of BAT. We found that, although systemic administration of the thyroid hormone (TR)β-selective agonist GC-1 increases energy expenditure and induces further weight loss in STZ-diabetic rats, it neither increased BAT glucose uptake nor attenuated diabetic hyperglycemia. Even when GC-1 was administered in combination with a β(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist to mimic sympathetic nervous system activation, glucose uptake was not increased in STZ-diabetic rats, nor was blood glucose lowered, yet this intervention potently activated BAT. Similar results were observed in animals treated with active thyroid hormone (T3) instead of GC-1. Taken together, our data suggest that neither returning normal plasma thyroid hormone levels nor BAT activation has any impact on diabetic hyperglycemia, and that in BAT, increases of Ucp1 gene expression and glucose uptake are readily dissociated from one another in this setting.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone induces depression-like changes of sleep electroencephalogram in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler, P; Kluge, M; Gamringer, W; Wetter, T C; Yassouridis, A; Uhr, M; Rupprecht, R; Steiger, A

    2016-12-01

    We reported previously that repetitive intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) around sleep onset prompt depression-like changes in certain sleep and endocrine activity parameters (e.g. decrease of slow-wave sleep during the second half of the night, blunted growth hormone peak, elevated cortisol concentration during the first half of the night). Furthermore a sexual dimorphism of the sleep-endocrine effects of the hormones growth hormone-releasing hormone and ghrelin was observed. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated the effect of pulsatile administration of 4×50μg CRH on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal cortisol and GH concentration in young healthy women. After CRH compared to placebo, intermittent wakefulness increased during the total night and the sleep efficiency index decreased. During the first third of the night, REM sleep and stage 2 sleep increased and sleep stage 3 decreased. Cortisol concentration was elevated throughout the night and during the first and second third of the night. GH secretion remained unchanged. Our data suggest that after CRH some sleep and endocrine activity parameters show also depression-like changes in healthy women. These changes are more distinct in women than in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mucuna pruriens restores spermatogenesis in mice after exposure to 2-methoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Oky Tania

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing industrial activity is causing many problems in reproductive health, such as infertility. The factors causing infertility are hormones, infection, radiation, drugs and chemicals. One of these is 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP seed fraction on spermatogenesis, including number of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoal membrane protein profiles after exposure to 2-ME in mice. Methods This study was of experimental design. Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups, i.e. 2 control groups and 3 treatment groups. All mice were injected subcutaneously with 2-ME doses of 100mg/kg body weight (BW/day, for a period of 12 days. Positive (PC and negative controls (NC were treated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC. The three treatment groups were given MP seed fraction in doses of 14 (T1, 28 (T2 and 56 mg/kg BW (T3, respectively, from day 13 until day 64. Data on spermatogenic cells were collected from histological cross-sections and analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The spermatozoal membrane protein profile was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE with silver staining and were analyzed descriptively. Results Administration of MP seed fractions resulted in significantly different numbers of spermatocytes I and round spermatids between PC and T1, T2, and T3. A protein with the molecular weight of 41.6 kDa was expressed in all groups except the positive controls, while a 24.5 kDa protein was expressed in the positive controls only. Conclusion MP seed fraction effectively recovers spermatogenesis loss in mice due to 2-ME exposure.

  4. Mucuna pruriens restores spermatogenesis in mice after exposure to 2-methoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Oky Ari Tania

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasing industrial activity is causing many problems in reproductive health, such as infertility. The factors causing infertility are hormones, infection, radiation, drugs and chemicals. One of these is 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mucuna pruriens (MP seed fraction on spermatogenesis, including number of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoal membrane protein profiles after exposure to 2-ME in mice. Methods This study was of experimental design. Thirty mice were randomized into 5 groups, i.e. 2 control groups and 3 treatment groups. All mice were injected subcutaneously with 2-ME doses of 100mg/kg body weight (BW/day, for a period of 12 days. Positive (PC and negative controls (NC were treated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC. The three treatment groups were given MP seed fraction in doses of 14 (T1, 28 (T2 and 56 mg/kg BW (T3, respectively, from day 13 until day 64. Data on spermatogenic cells were collected from histological cross-sections and analyzed with one-way ANOVA. The spermatozoal membrane protein profile was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE with silver staining and were analyzed descriptively. Results Administration of MP seed fractions resulted in significantly different numbers of spermatocytes I and round spermatids between PC and T1, T2, and T3. A protein with the molecular weight of 41.6 kDa was expressed in all groups except the positive controls, while a 24.5 kDa protein was expressed in the positive controls only. Conclusion MP seed fraction effectively recovers spermatogenesis loss in mice due to 2-ME exposure.

  5. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    were examined using a semi-quantitative stereological method. In patients, serum concentrations of testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and inhibin-B were correlated with the findings on histological examination......, with the exception of testes with bilateral micronodules, which had significantly increased Leydig cell volume compared to those without micronodules. The number of micronodules correlated positively to LH (r = 0.577, p ... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  6. Hormonal modulation of food intake in response to low leptin levels induced by hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A loss in fat mass is a common response to centrifugation and it results in low circulating leptin concentrations. However, rats adapted to hypergravity are euphagic. The focus of this study was to examine leptin and other peripheral signals of energy balance in the presence of a hypergravity-induced loss of fat mass and euphagia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were centrifuged for 14 days at gravity levels of 1.25, 1.5, or 2 G, or they remained stationary at 1 G. Urinary catecholamines, urinary corticosterone, food intake, and body mass were measured on Days 11 to 14. Plasma hormones and epididymal fat pad mass were measured on Day 14. Mean body mass of the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than controls, and no differences were found in food intake (g/day/100 g body mass) between the hypergravity groups and controls. Epididymal fat mass was 14%, 14%, and 21% lower than controls in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups, respectively. Plasma leptin was significantly reduced from controls by 46%, 45%, and 65% in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2 G groups, respectively. Plasma insulin was significantly lower in the 1.25, 1.5, and 2.0 G groups than controls by 35%, 38%, and 33%. No differences were found between controls and hypergravity groups in urinary corticosterone. Mean urinary epinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Mean urinary norepinephrine was significantly higher in the 1.25, 1.5 and 2.0 G groups than in controls. Significant correlations were found between G load and body mass, fat mass, leptin, urinary epinephrine, and norepinephrine. During hypergravity exposure, maintenance of food intake is the result of a complex relationship between multiple pathways, which abates the importance of leptin as a primary signal.

  7. Effects of Ferula assa-foetida extract on spermatogenesis of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ferula assa-foetida is an herbaceous perennial plant which belongs to Apiaceae family. It is native to the east and central parts of Iran. This old traditional medicine has been used as antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, sedative, stimulant, emmenagogue and vermifuge. In addition to the several therapeutic effects of the plant, it is known as an aphrodisiac herb traditionally; therefore, the present study has evaluated the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of F. assa-foetida on spermatogenesis of rats. Methods: The seeds of the plant (500 g were identified and extracted by aqueous ethanol 80% using maceration methods (3×48 h.Adult male rats (6 weeks were orally treated with 50 mg/kg body weight of extract for 6 weeks. The extract was dispersed in distilled water. Control group received distilled water for the same duration. Some fertility parameters including sperm count, morphology and mobility of sperms with serum levels of testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH were evaluated using immunoassay methods.  Results: Sperm parameters and levels of testosterone and LH were significantly improved in the treated group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The results revealed that extract of F. assa-foetida significantly (p

  8. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  9. Pancreatic beta-cell lipotoxicity induced by overexpression of hormone-sensitive lipase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Svensson, Håkan; Enerbäck, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Lipid perturbations associated with triglyceride overstorage in beta-cells impair insulin secretion, a process termed lipotoxicity. To assess the role of hormone-sensitive lipase, which is expressed and enzymatically active in beta-cells, in the development of lipotoxicity, we generated transgenic...... mice overexpressing hormone-sensitive lipase specifically in beta-cells. Transgenic mice developed glucose intolerance and severely blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion when challenged with a high-fat diet. As expected, both lipase activity and forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was increased...

  10. A novel transcriptional factor Nkapl is a germ cell-specific suppressor of Notch signaling and is indispensable for spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Okuda

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is an elaborately regulated system dedicated to the continuous production of spermatozoa via the genesis of spermatogonia. In this process, a variety of genes are expressed that are relevant to the differentiation of germ cells at each stage. Although Notch signaling plays a critical role in germ cell development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, its function and importance for spermatogenesis in mammals is controversial. We report that Nkapl is a novel germ cell-specific transcriptional suppressor in Notch signaling. It is also associated with several molecules of the Notch corepressor complex such as CIR, HDAC3, and CSL. It was expressed robustly in spermatogonia and early spermatocytes after the age of 3 weeks. Nkapl-deleted mice showed complete arrest at the level of pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, apoptosis was observed in this cell type. Overexpression of NKAPL in germline stem cells demonstrated that Nkapl induced changes in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC markers and the reduction of differentiation factors through the Notch signaling pathway, whereas testes with Nkapl deleted showed inverse changes in those markers and factors. Therefore, Nkapl is indispensable because aberrantly elevated Notch signaling has negative effects on spermatogenesis, affecting SSC maintenance and differentiation factors. Notch signaling should be properly regulated through the transcriptional factor Nkapl.

  11. Ultrastructure of Spermatogenesis of the Paradise Fish, Macropodus opercularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Lee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The intricate process of spermatogenesis in the paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis, was studied. In this species, the unrestricted or lobular type testes lining the caudal side of the body cavity are translucent and slender. Spermatogonia occur along the length of the tubules and the development of sperm takes place within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. Spermiogenesis involves preparatory morphological events followed by conspicuous modifications such as the movement of the centrioles, completion of the nuclear condensation, reduction of the cytoplasm, and the final differentiation of the flagellar complex. Mature spermatozoon has an oval nucleus, condensed chromatin, and typical 9 + 2 flagellar axoneme but lack acrosome. The role of the material in the nucleus and the cytoplasm as it reaches the Sertoli cell in the control of spermatogenesis is discussed.

  12. Dynamically observing the value of the changes of serum sex hormone levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Honggang; Dong Hua; Gu Yan; Zhang Zuncheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of the changes of serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG), estradiol (E), progesterone (P) Levels of early pregnancy after drug-induced abortion dynamically. Methods: Assessing 55 women proved pregnant by urine or blood HCG retrospecticly, who had terminated their pregnancy by mifepristonr and misoprostol. Meanwhile the serum levels of β-HCG, E, P were monitored dynamically. Results: Among the 55 patients, the levels of β-HCG, E and P had significant decreased (t β-HCG =4.845, t E =7.655, t P =11.390, P E =9.089, P P =2.910, P<0.05). Conclusion: Detectint the serum hormone's levels after drug-induced abortion by chemiluminescent immunoassay, we can assess indirectly the value of administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, predict the prolonged vaginal bleeding after drug-induced abortion, and the outcome of the treatment, which determine wether need another curestage. (authors)

  13. Role of cyclins in controlling progression of mammalian spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    WOLGEMUTH, DEBRA J.; MANTEROLA, MARCIA; VASILEVA, ANA

    2013-01-01

    Cyclins are key regulators of the mammalian cell cycle, functioning primarily in concert with their catalytic partners, the cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). While their function during mitosis in somatic cells has been extensively documented, their function during both mitosis and meiosis in the germ line is poorly understood. From the perspective of cell cycle regulation there are several aspects of mammalian spermatogenesis that suggest unique modes of regulation and hence, possible unique ...

  14. Reactive oxygen species and hormone signaling cascades in endophytic bacterium induced essential oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Yu; Li, Xia; Zhao, Dan; Deng-Wang, Meng-Yao; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens induces gibberellin and ethylene signaling via hydrogen peroxide in planta . Ethylene activates abscisic acid signaling. Hormones increase sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis gene expression and enzyme activity, inducing essential oil accumulation. Atractylodes lancea is a famous Chinese medicinal plant, whose main active components are essential oils. Wild A. lancea has become endangered due to habitat destruction and over-exploitation. Although cultivation can ensure production of the medicinal material, the essential oil content in cultivated A. lancea is significantly lower than that in the wild herb. The application of microbes as elicitors has become an effective strategy to increase essential oil accumulation in cultivated A. lancea. Our previous study identified an endophytic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens ALEB7B, which can increase essential oil accumulation in A. lancea more efficiently than other endophytes; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown (Physiol Plantarum 153:30-42, 2015; Appl Environ Microb 82:1577-1585, 2016). This study demonstrates that P. fluorescens ALEB7B firstly induces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in A. lancea, which then simultaneously activates gibberellin (GA) and ethylene (ET) signaling. Subsequently, ET activates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. GA and ABA signaling increase expression of HMGR and DXR, which encode key enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, leading to increased levels of the corresponding enzymes and then an accumulation of essential oils. Specific reactive oxygen species and hormone signaling cascades induced by P. fluorescens ALEB7B may contribute to high-efficiency essential oil accumulation in A. lancea. Illustrating the regulation mechanisms underlying P. fluorescens ALEB7B-induced essential oil accumulation not only provides the theoretical basis for the inducible synthesis of terpenoids in many medicinal plants, but also further reveals the complex and diverse

  15. Potential role of cysteine and methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and mutagenicity induced by furazolidone in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H.; El-Aziem, Sekena H. Abd; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of nitrofurans as veterinary drugs has been banned in the EU since 1993 due to doubts on the safety of the protein-bound residues of these drugs in edible products. Furazolidone (FUZ) is a nitrofuran drug, which has been used for many years as an antibacterial drug in veterinary practice. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of L-cysteine and L-methionine in the protection against hormonal imbalance and the genotoxicity induced by FUZ using the micronucleus (MN) assay and random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis in female rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups included the untreated control group; a group treated with FUZ (300 mg/kg b.w.); a group treated with a mixture of L-cysteine (300 mg/kg b.w.) and L-methionine (42.8 mg/kg b.w.) and a group treated with FUZ plus the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine for 10 days. The results indicated that FUZ induced hormonal disturbances involving thyroid, ovarian and adrenal hormones. Moreover, FUZ increased the micronucleus formation and induced changes in polymorphic band patterns. The combined treatment with FUZ and the mixture of L-cysteine and L-methionine succeeded to prevent or diminish the endocrine disturbance and the clastogenic effects of FUZ. The current study is casting new light on the complex mechanisms underlying the ameliorating action of dietary L-cysteine and L-methionine against FUZ toxicity in experimental animals

  16. Decreased allopregnanolone induced by hormonal contraceptives is associated with a reduction in social behavior and sexual motivation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoru, Francesca; Berretti, Roberta; Locci, Andrea; Porcu, Patrizia; Concas, Alessandra

    2014-09-01

    Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid involved in depression, memory, social, and sexual behavior. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with a combination of ethinylestradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG), two compounds frequently used in hormonal contraception, decreased brain allopregnanolone concentrations. These changes may contribute to some of the emotional and sexual disorders observed in hormonal contraceptive users. We thus examined whether the reduction in allopregnanolone concentrations induced by long-term EE/LNG administration was associated with altered emotional, learning, social, and sexual behaviors. Rats were orally treated with a combination of EE (0.030 mg) and LNG (0.125 mg) once a day for 4 weeks and were subjected to behavioral tests 24 h after the last administration. EE/LNG treatment reduced immobility behavior in the forced swim test, without affecting sucrose preference and spatial learning and memory. In the resident-intruder test, EE/LNG-treated rats displayed a decrease in dominant behaviors associated with a reduction in social investigation. In the paced mating test, EE/LNG treated rats showed a reduction in proceptive behaviors, while the lordosis quotient was not affected. Progesterone, but not estradiol, administration to EE/LNG-treated rats increased sexual activity and cerebrocortical allopregnanolone concentrations. Prior administration of finasteride decreased allopregnanolone concentrations and abolished the increase in proceptivity induced by progesterone administration. The decrease in brain allopregnanolone concentrations induced by EE/LNG treatment is associated with a reduction in social behavior and sexual motivation in female rats. These results might be relevant to the side effects sometimes exhibited by women taking hormonal contraceptives.

  17. Juvenile hormone prevents 20-hydroxyecdysone-induced metamorphosis by regulating the phosphorylation of a newly identified broad protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-09-19

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5'-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Juvenile Hormone Prevents 20-Hydroxyecdysone-induced Metamorphosis by Regulating the Phosphorylation of a Newly Identified Broad Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei-Juan; Liu, Wen; Pei, Xu-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ru; He, Hong-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) initiates insect molting and metamorphosis. By contrast, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents metamorphosis. However, the mechanism by which JH inhibits metamorphosis remains unclear. In this study, we propose that JH induces the phosphorylation of Broad isoform Z7 (BrZ7), a newly identified protein, to inhibit 20E-mediated metamorphosis in the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. The knockdown of BrZ7 in larvae inhibited metamorphosis by repressing the expression of the 20E response gene. BrZ7 was weakly expressed and phosphorylated during larval growth but highly expressed and non-phosphorylated during metamorphosis. JH regulated the rapid phosphorylation of BrZ7 via a G-protein-coupled receptor-, phospholipase C-, and protein kinase C-triggered pathway. The phosphorylated BrZ7 bound to the 5′-regulatory region of calponin to regulate its expression in the JH pathway. Exogenous JH induced BrZ7 phosphorylation to prevent metamorphosis by suppressing 20E-related gene transcription. JH promoted non-phosphorylated calponin interacting with ultraspiracle protein to activate the JH pathway and antagonize the 20E pathway. This study reveals one of the possible mechanisms by which JH counteracts 20E-regulated metamorphosis by inducing the phosphorylation of BrZ7. PMID:25096576

  19. Investigations of hormones during early abortion induced by prostaglandin Fsub(2α) and 15(S)-methyl-PGFsub(2α)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, B.; Liedtke, M.P.; Brockmann, J.; Beissert, M.; Gstoettner, H.; Alexander, H.; Herter, U.

    1978-01-01

    In early pregnancy up the 7th week of pregnancy PGFsub(2α) was infused and 15(S)-methyl-PGFsub(2α) was applied i.m. to induce menstruation in 20 or 19 cases, respectively. In the tested form of application 15(S)-methyl-PGFsub(2α) is effective in 89 per cent of the cases and in 74 per cent complete abortion was achieved. PGFsub(2α) produced bleeding in 80 per cent only and complete abortion in 55 per cent. The differences in these two groups were not statistically significant. The steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone decrease in a successful application of PGs for induction of abortion and reach a value of 75 per cent at the onset of bleeding. The LH concentration in plasma becomes smaller too. In some cases there is a temporary increase in hormones shortly after starting treatment. The results could indicate that the considerable decrease in hormones before the onset of bleeding might be caused by an alteration of the corpus luteum, which is effective during early pregnangy. (author)

  20. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Grote (Floor); L.W.A. van Suijlekom-Smit (Lisette); D. Mul (Dick); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. ten Cate (Rebecca); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); W.H.J. van Luijk (Wilma); C.J.A. Jansen-Van Wijngaarden (C. J A); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims:

  1. Growth hormone treatment in children with rheumatic disease, corticosteroid induced growth retardation, and osteopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, FK; van Suijlekom-Smit, LWA; Mul, D; Hop, WCJ; ten Cate, R; Oostdijk, W; Van Luijk, W; Jansen-van Wijngaarden, CJA; Keizer-Schrama, SMPFD

    Background: In children with severe rheumatic disease (RD), treatment with corticosteroids (CS) is frequently needed and growth retardation and osteopenia may develop. A beneficial effect of human growth hormone (hGH) has been reported but mostly in trials without a control group. Aims: To study the

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  3. Trialkyltin rexinoid-X receptor agonists selectively potentiate thyroid hormone induced programs of xenopus laevis metamorphosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengeling, Brenda J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Furlow, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    The trialkyltins tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) can function as rexinoid-X receptor (RXR) agonists. We recently showed that RXR agonists can alter thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in a mammalian pituitary TH-responsive reporter cell line, GH3.TRE-Luc. The prevalence of TBT and TPT in the

  4. A threshold for low-protein-diet-induced elevations in parathyroid hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstetter, J E; Svastisalee, C M; Caseria, D M

    2000-01-01

    We reported previously that lowering dietary protein intake in young healthy women to 0.7 g/kg depressed intestinal calcium absorption and was accompanied by elevations in parathyroid hormone (PTH). Moderate amounts of dietary protein (1.0 g/kg) did not appear to perturb calcium homeostasis....

  5. Contractions induce phosphorylation of the AMPK site Ser565 in hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donsmark, Morten; Langfort, Jozef; Holm, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    Intramyocellular triglyceride is an important energy store which is related to insulin resistance. Mobilization of fatty acids from this pool is probably regulated by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which has recently been shown to exist in muscle and to be activated by epinephrine via PKA...

  6. Effects of experimentally induced mild hyperthyroidism on growth hormone and insulin secretion and sex steroid levels in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Veldhuis, J D; Rood, J C; Tulley, R

    1997-12-01

    Although triiodothyronine (T3) exerts major regulatory actions in both animals and humans, most clinical studies of T3 administration have been relatively short-term. The present study examined the effects of more than 2 months (63 days) of low-dose T3 treatment on overnight pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion, short-term insulin secretion, and of sex steroid levels in seven healthy, lean men studied at an inpatient metabolic unit. At baseline, there were strong correlations between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and several measures of GH production, including total GH production (r = .99), GH interburst interval (r = -.75), and GH mass (r = .82). SHBG was also inversely correlated with basal insulin secretion (r = -.74). There was a 42% increase in serum levels of total testosterone (18.5 +/- 1.3 to 26.3 +/- 1.8 nmol/L, P = .005) and a 150% increase in SHBG (18.0 +/- 2.2 to 44.9 +/- 7.0 nmol/L, P = .008) following T3 treatment. Estradiol and free testosterone levels were unchanged by treatment, although free testosterone decreased from 142.8 +/- 18.4 to 137.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/L. T3 treatment significantly reduced the GH interburst interval (P secretion. There were no statistically significant effects of T3 treatment on insulin secretion, although insulin peak amplitude, mass secreted per burst, and total production all decreased. We conclude that experimentally induced T3 excess in healthy men produces significant and sustained changes in sex hormone levels and GH secretion. Furthermore, there are strong associations between SHBG and both GH and insulin secretion independent of thyroid hormone excess that require additional study.

  7. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  8. Specificity of herbivore-induced hormonal signaling and defensive traits in five closely related milkweeds (Asclepias spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Patrick, Eamonn T; Knight, Anna C

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recognition that phytohormonal signaling mediates induced responses to herbivory, we still have little understanding of how such signaling varies among closely related species and may generate herbivore-specific induced responses. We studied closely related milkweeds (Asclepias) to link: 1) plant damage by two specialist chewing herbivores (milkweed leaf beetles Labidomera clivicolis and monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus); 2) production of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA); 3) induction of defensive cardenolides and latex; and 4) impacts on Danaus caterpillars. We first show that A. syriaca exhibits induced resistance following monarch herbivory (i.e., reduced monarch growth on previously damaged plants), while the defensively dissimilar A. tuberosa does not. We next worked with a broader group of five Asclepias, including these two species, that are highly divergent in defensive traits yet from the same clade. Three of the five species showed herbivore-induced changes in cardenolides, while induced latex was found in four species. Among the phytohormones, JA and ABA showed specific responses (although they generally increased) to insect species and among the plant species. In contrast, SA responses were consistent among plant and herbivore species, showing a decline following herbivore attack. Jasmonic acid showed a positive quantitative relationship only with latex, and this was strongest in plants damaged by D. plexippus. Although phytohormones showed qualitative tradeoffs (i.e., treatments that enhanced JA reduced SA), the few significant individual plant-level correlations among hormones were positive, and these were strongest between JA and ABA in monarch damaged plants. We conclude that: 1) latex exudation is positively associated with endogenous JA levels, even among low-latex species; 2) correlations among milkweed hormones are generally positive, although herbivore damage induces a

  9. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, Patrick R., E-mail: phannon2@illinois.edu; Brannick, Katherine E., E-mail: kbran@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Wang2@covance.com; Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@yahoo.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-04-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  10. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibits antral follicle growth, induces atresia, and inhibits steroid hormone production in cultured mouse antral follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Patrick R.; Brannick, Katherine E.; Wang, Wei; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant found in consumer products that causes ovarian toxicity. Antral follicles are the functional ovarian units and must undergo growth, survival from atresia, and proper regulation of steroidogenesis to ovulate and produce hormones. Previous studies have determined that DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth and decreases estradiol levels in vitro; however, the mechanism by which DEHP elicits these effects is unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that DEHP directly alters regulators of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis to inhibit antral follicle functionality. Antral follicles from adult CD-1 mice were cultured with vehicle control or DEHP (1–100 μg/ml) for 24–96 h to establish the temporal effects of DEHP on the follicle. Following 24–96 h of culture, antral follicles were subjected to gene expression analysis, and media were subjected to measurements of hormone levels. DEHP increased the mRNA levels of cyclin D2, cyclin dependent kinase 4, cyclin E1, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1 and decreased the levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A prior to growth inhibition. Additionally, DEHP increased the mRNA levels of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL2-associated X protein, BCL2-related ovarian killer protein, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and Bcl2-like 10, leading to an increase in atresia. Further, DEHP decreased the levels of progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone prior to the decrease in estradiol levels, with decreased mRNA levels of side-chain cleavage, 17α-hydroxylase-17,20-desmolase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and aromatase. Collectively, DEHP directly alters antral follicle functionality by inhibiting growth, inducing atresia, and inhibiting steroidogenesis. - Highlights: • DEHP inhibits antral follicle growth by dysregulating cell cycle regulators. • DEHP induces antral follicle atresia by dysregulating apoptosis regulators. • DEHP

  11. UV filters induce transcriptional changes of different hormonal receptors in Chironomus riparius embryos and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozáez, Irene; Aquilino, Mónica; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-07-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are emerging contaminants that are ubiquitous in fresh and marine aquatic systems due to their extensive use in cosmetics, plastics, paints, textiles, and many other industrial products. The estrogenic effects of organic UV filters have been long demonstrated in vertebrates, and other hormonal activities may be altered, according to more recent reports. The impact of UV filters on the endocrine system of invertebrates is largely unknown. We have previously reported that some UV filters may affect ecdysone-related genes in the aquatic insect Chironomus riparius, an ecotoxicologically important model organism. To further analyze other possible effects on endocrine pathways, we first characterized four pivotal genes related with hormonal pathways in insects; thereafter, these genes were assessed for alterations in transcriptional activity after exposure to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) or benzophenone-3 (BP-3), two extensively used sunscreens. We found that both chemicals disturbed the expression of all four genes analyzed: hormonal receptor 38 (HR38), methoprene-tolerant (Met), membrane-associate progesterone receptor (MAPR) and insulin-like receptor (INSR), measured by changes in mRNA levels by real-time PCR. An upregulatory effect at the genomic level was detected in different developmental stages. Interestingly, embryos appeared to be more sensitive to the action of the UV filters than larvae. Our results suggest that the risk of disruption through different endocrine routes is not negligible, considering the significant effects of UV filters on key hormonal receptor and regulatory genes. Further effort is needed to develop environmental risk assessment studies on these pollutants, particularly for aquatic invertebrate model organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GPR142 Controls Tryptophan-Induced Insulin and Incretin Hormone Secretion to Improve Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hua V.; Efanov, Alexander M.; Fang, Xiankang; Beavers, Lisa S.; Wang, Xuesong; Wang, Jingru; Gonzalez Valcarcel, Isabel C.; Ma, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    GPR142, a putative amino acid receptor, is expressed in pancreatic islets and the gastrointestinal tract, but the ligand affinity and physiological role of this receptor remain obscure. In this study, we show that in addition to L-Tryptophan, GPR142 signaling is also activated by L-Phenylalanine but not by other naturally occurring amino acids. Furthermore, we show that Tryptophan and a synthetic GPR142 agonist increase insulin and incretin hormones and improve glucose disposal in mice in a G...

  13. Methimazole-Induced Goitrogenesis in an Adult Patient With the Syndrome of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Glymph DO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with the syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH have clinical (tachycardia and anxiety and biochemical (elevated thyroid hormones level features of hyperthyroidism. Based on previous reports in pediatric patients with the RTH, antithyroid treatment in these patients is not indicated. Clinical and biochemical sequel of antithyroid therapy in an adult patient with RTH was not previously reported. A 63-year-old African American female with history of RTH was treated with a therapy consisting of methimazole 15 mg daily and atenolol. Methimazole treatment resulted in reduction in thyroid hormone level while the patient’s TSH increased with a peak of 24.88 mIU/L. Having achieved biochemical euthyroidism, the patient developed thyroid gland enlargement associated with progressive symptoms of dysphagia and dyspnea. Examination demonstrated globally enlarged firm thyroid gland with areas of nodularity in both lobes. A computed tomography of the neck showed enlarged thyroid gland with extension around bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles and compression onto the trachea. Methimazole therapy was discontinued and patient was treated just on atenolol. Over 12 months following discontinuation of methimazole, the patient experienced marked clinical and radiographic improvement of the goiter size associated with TSH reduction to 1.26 mIU/L and modest free thyroxine increase as expected in RTH. It seems appealing to treat patients with the RTH with antithyroid medications. However, in these patients decrease in thyroid hormone levels will stimulate TSH production, which can, in turn, predispose to goiter formation. Our report supports prior observations in children with RTH that treatment with methimazole is not indicated in adult patients with RTH.

  14. Thyroid hormone-induced hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael; Mueller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair.

  15. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

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    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  16. Metabolic clues regarding the enhanced performance of elite endurance athletes from orchiectomy-induced hormonal changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the metabolic performance of an elite cyclist, Lance Armstrong, before and after his diagnosis with testicular cancer. Although a champion cyclist in 1-day events prior to his diagnosis of testicular cancer at age 25, he was not a contender in multi-day endurance cycle races such as the 3-week Tour de France. His genetic makeup and physiology (high VO2max, long femur, strong heavy build) coupled with his ambition and motivation enabled him at an early age to become one of the best 1-day cyclists in the world. Following his cancer diagnosis, he underwent a unilateral orchiectomy, brain surgery and four cycles of chemotherapy. After recovering, he returned to cycling and surprisingly excelled in the Tour de France, winning this hardest of endurance events 7 years running. This dramatic transformation from a 1-day to a 3-week endurance champion has led many to query how this is possible, and under the current climate, has led to suggestions of doping as to the answer to this metamorphosis. Physiological tests following his recovery indicated that physiological parameters such as VO2max were not affected by the unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy. We propose that his dramatic improvement in recovery between stages, the most important factor in winning multi-day stage races, is due to his unilateral orchiectomy, a procedure that results in permanent changes in serum hormones. These hormonal changes, specifically an increase in gonadotropins (and prolactin) required to maintain serum testosterone levels, alter fuel metabolism; increasing hormone sensitive lipase expression and activity, promoting increased free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization to, and utilization by, muscles, thereby decreasing the requirement to expend limiting glycogen stores before, during and after exercise. Such hormonal changes also have been associated with ketone body production, improvements in muscle repair and haematocrit levels and may facilitate the loss of body weight

  17. Evidence that shock-induced immune suppression is mediated by adrenal hormones and peripheral beta-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnick, J E; Lysle, D T; Kucinski, B J; Rabin, B S

    1990-07-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that presentations of mild foot-shock to Lewis rats induces a suppression of splenic and peripheral blood lymphocyte responses to nonspecific T-cell mitogens. The present study demonstrated that adrenalectomy prevented the shock-induced suppression of the mitogenic response of peripheral blood T-cells but did not attenuate the suppression of splenic T-cells. Conversely, the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, propranolol and nadolol, attenuated the shock-induced suppression of splenic T-cells in a dose-dependent manner but did not attenuate suppression of the blood mitogen response. These data indicate that distinct mechanisms mediate the shock-induced suppression of T-cell responsiveness to mitogens in the spleen and the peripheral blood. The results indicate that the peripheral release of catecholamines is responsible for splenic immune suppression and that adrenal hormones, which do not interact with beta-adrenergic receptors, are responsible for shock-induced suppression of blood mitogenic responses.

  18. THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS

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    Romulo Sperduto Dezonne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

  19. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    Postprandial insulin release is lower in healthy aerobically trained (T) compared to untrained (UT) individuals. This may be mediated by a lower release of the two incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] in T. The aim of this study...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  20. Recombination homeostasis of meiosis during spermatogenesis under nicotine treatment

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    Zhai Jingli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking can affect male fertility via the quality of semen. To explore the effects of nicotine, a major component of cigarettes, on meiotic recombination during spermatogenesis, C57BL/6J male mice were injected with nicotine at a dosage of 0.2 mg/100 g body weight daily for 35 days (nicotine-treated group; mice in the control group were injected with isopycnic normal saline. According to previous expression profiles of mouse sperm, a subset of meiosis-related genes was pooled using bioinformatic analysis. Protein expression was compared between the two groups using by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Recombination frequency during the meiosis phase of spermatogenesis was estimated by combined use of chromosome spread and immunofluorescence staining in mouse testes. Data mining analysis indicated that 4 genes that express meiotic topoisomerase-like protein SPO11, MutS protein homolog 4 (MSH4, strand exchange protein RAD51 and MutL protein homologue 1 (MLH1, were associated with the meiosis recombination process. The results of Western blotting and immunohistochemistry further showed that the protein expression of SPO11 (0.73-fold and MSH4 (0.73-fold was downregulated in murine testes after nicotine treatment, whereas the protein expression of both RAD51 (2.06-fold and MLH1 (1.40-fold was upregulated. Unexpectedly, we did not detect a significant difference in recombination frequency in meiosis during spermatogenesis in the nicotine-treated group as compared to the control. Taken together, these results indicate that nicotine can affect the expression profile of restructuring-related genes, but it does not significantly change the recombination frequency during male meiosis. These findings suggest there is a self-regulating mechanism during meiotic chromosome restructuring in male mice that responds to environmental stress.

  1. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

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    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  2. GnRH Neuron Activity and Pituitary Response in Estradiol-Induced vs Proestrous Luteinizing Hormone Surges in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marina A; Burger, Laura L; DeFazio, R Anthony; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-02-01

    During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon, coincident with a daily luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced. We hypothesized GnRH neuron activity is greater during the proestrous-preovulatory surge than the estradiol-induced surge. GnRH neuron activity was monitored by extracellular recordings from fluorescently tagged GnRH neurons in brain slices in the late afternoon from diestrous, proestrous, and OVX+E mice. Mean GnRH neuron firing rate was low on diestrus; firing rate was similarly increased in proestrous and OVX+E mice. Bursts of action potentials have been associated with hormone release in neuroendocrine systems. Examination of the patterning of action potentials revealed a shift toward longer burst duration in proestrous mice, whereas intervals between spikes were shorter in OVX+E mice. LH response to an early afternoon injection of GnRH was greater in proestrous than diestrous or OVX+E mice. These observations suggest the lower LH surge amplitude observed in the OVX+E model is likely not attributable to altered mean GnRH neuron activity, but because of reduced pituitary sensitivity, subtle shifts in action potential pattern, and/or excitation-secretion coupling in GnRH neurons. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  3. Inhibin B as a serum marker of spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T K; Andersson, A M; Hjollund, N H

    1997-01-01

    = -0.61, P sperm concentration (r = -0.40, P sperm concentration (r = 0.38, P sperm counts below 20 mill/mL among men who's inhibin B....... All blood samples were analyzed in the same laboratory. Median sperm concentration and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa were significantly higher among men from centre A (56.0 mill/mL and 42.5%), compared with men from centre B (44.8 mill/mL and 39%). Men from centre B had...... reproductive health, may serve as a new marker of spermatogenesis, in addition to sperm concentration and serum FSH....

  4. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion induced by the phytotherapy Harpagophytum procumbers: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Reis Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is the inability of antidiuretic hormone (ADH suppression, compromising the mechanisms of water excretion and urinary concentration. It manifests as hyponatremia and its symptoms, especially neurological. There are many causes that trigger such disease, notably: central nervous system disorders, malignant neoplasm, drugs and others. Case Report: A 65 years female hypertensive patient presented clinical and laboratory manifestations of hyponatremia due to SIADH. It happened twice under use of herbal medication for osteoarthritis treatment. Discussion: The drug-related hyponatremia can be triggered by direct effect of the drug or by association with SIADH. The clinical manifestations presented could have been related to psychiatric condition and may have severe outcome if not properly diagnosed. The association of an herbal medicine to SIADH could be confirmed after a new episode of hyponatremia related to Harpagophytum procumbers reintroduction. Our literature review did not find this herbal medicine associated with SIADH, so far. Conclusion: SIADH may be caused by herbal medicine described from now on their association in the literature.

  5. Radiation therapy induced changes in male sex hormone levels in rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueland, Svein; Groenlie Guren, Marianne; Rune Olsen, Dag; Poulsen, Jan Peter; Magne Tveit, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose:To determine the effect of curative radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) on the sex hormone levels in male rectal cancer patients. Materials and methods:Twenty-five male rectal cancer patients (mean age 65 years), receiving pelvic radiation therapy (2 Gyx23-25 fractions in 5 weeks) were included. Serum testosterone, FSH and LH were determined before start of treatment, at the 10th and 25th fractions, and 4-6 weeks after completed radiotherapy. The testicular dose was determined by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Results:Five weeks of radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) resulted in a 100% increase in serum FSH, a 70% increase in LH, and a 25% reduction in testosterone levels. After treatment, 35% of the patients had serum testosterone levels below lower limit of reference. The mean radiation dose to the testicles was 8.4 Gy. A reduction in testosterone values was observed already after a mean dose of 3.3 Gy (10th fraction). Conclusion:Radiation therapy (46-50 Gy) for rectal cancer resulted in a significant increase in serum FSH and LH and a significant decrease in testosterone levels, indicating that sex hormone production is sensitive to radiation exposure in patients with a mean age of 65 years

  6. Effects of lead, molybdenum, rubidium, arsenic and organochlorines on spermatogenesis in fish: Monitoring at Mekong Delta area and in vitro experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Sonoko [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Miura, Chiemi [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Ito, Aki [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan); Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Bui Cach Tuyen [Nong Lam University, Thu Duc Distr., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Miura, Takeshi [Laboratory of Fish Reproductive Physiology, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566 (Japan)]. E-mail: miutake@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-06-05

    To estimate the influence of water contaminants on fish reproduction in the Mekong Delta area, we sampled cultivated male catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), investigated testicular development, and measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace element levels in muscle and liver, respectively. Various testes sizes were observed although sampling took place during a short period. Histological analysis revealed that all developmental stages of germ cells were observed in catfish with large testis, whereas only necrotic spermatogonia but no other germ cells were observed in catfish with small testis. In small testis, furthermore, vacuolization and hypertrophy of Sertoli cells were observed. Measurement of POPs in muscle and trace elements in liver demonstrated that there were negative correlations between GSI and the concentrations of Pb, Mo, Rb and As. To clarify possible direct effects of Pb, Mo, Rb and As on spermatogenesis in fish, we investigated the effects of these trace elements on spermatogenesis using in vitro testicular organ culture of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Treatment with each of the trace elements alone did not affect spermatogenesis. However, treatment with 10{sup -7} M of Pb, 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -4} M of Mo, 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M of Rb or 10{sup -5} M of As inhibited the spermatogenesis induced by 11-ketotestosterone (11KT). Furthermore, treatment with 10{sup -4} M of As in combination with 11KT caused necrosis of testicular fragments. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that Pb, Mo, Rb and As can exert inhibitory effects on spermatogenesis in catfish inhabiting the Mekong Delta area.

  7. Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Chinami; Akiyoshi, Sayuri; Ishida, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki; Ohno, Shinji; Tokunaga, Eriko

    2017-09-01

    For premenopausal women with breast cancer, information on the effects of chemotherapy and the risk of infertility is important. In this study, the effect of chemotherapy on the ovarian function in premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer was investigated, with an age-stratified analysis of the appearance of amenorrhea and the resumption of menstruation after the use of chemotherapy with anthracyclines or taxanes. Premenopausal women diagnosed with operable Stage I-III hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and underwent neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with the standard regimen of anthracyclines and/or taxanes were included. The patients were classified into age groups in 5-year increments, and the rates of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA), resumption of menstruation, and duration of CIA after chemotherapy were analyzed. The subjects consisted of 101 patients (median age 45 years). CIA occurred in 97 (96%) patients and 40 patients resumed menstruation. In all patients aged ≤39 years menstruation restarted, whereas in all patients aged ≥50 years, menstruation did not restart. For the patients who resumed menstruation, the younger the patients, the sooner menstruation tended to restart. The resumption of menstruation occurred within 1 year for younger patients aged around 30 years, but for those aged ≥35 years, 60% of cases took around 2-3 years for resumption. The incidence of CIA, the resumption of menstruation and duration of CIA after chemotherapy depend greatly on the patient's age.

  8. Investigation the Effect of Curcumin on the Hormones of Pituitary-Ovarian Axis in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

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    Seyeddamoon Sadoughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that causes dysfunction of the endocrine glands and reproductive disorders. Due to the antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties of curcumin, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of curcumin on serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH in diabetic rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 32 female Wistar rats were allocated into four equal groups. Control, non-treated diabetic and diabetic treated with curcumin (100 and 200 mg/kg, ip. The diabetes in non-treated diabetic and treated diabetic groups was induced using an intraperitoneal injection of alloxan. Estrous cycles were identical using sex hormones. Curcumin was intraperitoneally injected to treated diabetic groups for 25 days. DMSO was injected to the animals of control and non-treated diabetic groups as a vehicle. At the end of treatment, the serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone were measured by ELISA. Statistical analysis carried out using one way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Administration of curcumin with concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone, compared to non-treated diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicate significant effect of curcumin on serum levels of LH, FSH, estrogen and progesterone in diabetic rats. Therefore, curcumin could be effective in improving hormonal disorders in patients with diabetes.

  9. Estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced death of hippocampal neurons and enhances synaptic transmission in aged, long-term hormone-deprived female rats.

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    Tomoko Inagaki

    Full Text Available Transient global forebrain ischemia causes selective, delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, and the ovarian hormone 17β-estradiol (E2 reduces neuronal loss in young and middle-aged females. The neuroprotective efficacy of E2 after a prolonged period of hormone deprivation is controversial, and few studies examine this issue in aged animals given E2 treatment after induction of ischemia.The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of E2 administered immediately after global ischemia in aged female rats (15-18 months after 6 months of hormone deprivation. We also used electrophysiological methods to assess whether CA1 synapses in the aging hippocampus remain responsive to E2 after prolonged hormone withdrawal. Animals were ovariohysterectomized and underwent 10 min global ischemia 6 months later. A single dose of E2 (2.25 µg infused intraventricularly after reperfusion significantly increased cell survival, with 45% of CA1 neurons surviving vs 15% in controls. Ischemia also induced moderate loss of CA3/CA4 pyramidal cells. Bath application of 1 nM E2 onto brain slices derived from non-ischemic aged females after 6 months of hormone withdrawal significantly enhanced excitatory transmission at CA1 synapses evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation, and normal long-term potentiation (LTP was induced. The magnitude of LTP and of E2 enhancement of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was indistinguishable from that recorded in slices from young rats.The data demonstrate that 1 acute post-ischemic infusion of E2 into the brain ventricles is neuroprotective in aged rats after 6 months of hormone deprivation; and 2 E2 enhances synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged long-term hormone deprived females. These findings provide evidence that the aging hippocampus remains responsive to E2 administered either in vivo or in vitro even after prolonged periods of hormone withdrawal.

  10. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro; Green, Paul G; Levine, Jon D

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal handling (NH) of male rat pups strongly attenuates stress response and stress-induced persistent muscle hyperalgesia in adults. Because female sex is a well established risk factor for stress-induced chronic muscle pain, we explored whether NH provides resilience to stress-induced hyperalgesia in adult female rats. Rat pups underwent NH, or standard (control) care. Muscle mechanical nociceptive threshold was assessed before and after water avoidance (WA) stress, when they were adults. In contrast to male rats, NH produced only a modest protection against WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia in female rats. Gonadectomy completely abolished NH-induced resilience in male rats but produced only a small increase in this protective effect in female rats. The administration of the antiestrogen drug fulvestrant, in addition to gonadectomy, did not enhance the protective effect of NH in female rats. Finally, knockdown of the androgen receptor by intrathecal antisense treatment attenuated the protective effect of NH in intact male rats. Together, these data indicate that androgens play a key role in NH-induced resilience to WA stress-induced muscle hyperalgesia. NH induces androgen-dependent resilience to stress-induced muscle pain. Therefore, androgens may contribute to sex differences observed in chronic musculoskeletal pain and its enhancement by stress. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The postnatal progeny development of males whose sexual cells were irradiated during different stages of spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepekhin, N.P.; Palyga, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Distinct genetic radiosensitivity if germinal cells of males irradiated during different stages of spermatogenesis with doses of 0.25-5.0 Gy leads to reduction in vital newborn rats number in the first generation progeny and to elevated postnatal mortality rate. These postnatal ontogeny disorders depend on the irradiation dose and spermatogenesis stage for a moment irradiation. 11 refs.; 4 tabs

  13. Sex differences in stress-induced social withdrawal: independence from adult gonadal hormones and inhibition of female phenotype by corncob bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Brian C; Takahashi, Elizabeth Y; Campi, Katharine L; Florez, Stefani A; Greenberg, Gian D; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Laredo, Sarah A; Orr, Veronica N; Silva, Andrea L; Steinman, Michael Q

    2013-03-01

    There is compelling evidence for important sex differences in behavioral and hormonal responses to psychosocial stress. Here we examined the effects of gonadal hormones on behavioral responses to social defeat stress in monogamous California mice (Peromyscus californicus). Three episodes of social defeat induced social withdrawal in intact females but not males. Gonadectomy blocked corticosterone responses to defeat in females and sensitized male corticosterone responses. However, gonadectomy had no effects on social interaction behavior, suggesting that social withdrawal is not dependent on gonadal hormones in the adult California mouse. In contrast, defeat reduced exploratory behavior in the open field test for intact but not castrated males. We also examined the effects of social defeat on social interaction behavior when California mice were raised on corncob bedding, which has estrogenic properties. In this dataset of over 300 mice, we observed that social defeat did not induce social withdrawal when females were raised on corncob bedding. This finding suggests that the use of corncob in rodent studies could mask important sex differences in the effects of stress on brain and behavior. Although gonadal hormones do not affect social withdrawal behavior in adults, our data suggest that hormones may act earlier in development to induce a more resilient social phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  16. Hypothalamic kappa opioid receptor mediates both diet-induced and melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver damage through inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Romero-Picó, Amparo; Kalló, Imre; Chee, Melissa J; Porteiro, Begoña; Al-Massadi, Omar; Contreras, Cristina; Fernø, Johan; Senra, Ana; Gallego, Rosalia; Folgueira, Cintia; Seoane, Luisa M; van Gestel, Margriet; Adan, Roger A; Liposits, Zsolt; Dieguez, Carlos; López, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2016-10-01

    The opioid system is widely known to modulate the brain reward system and thus affect the behavior of humans and other animals, including feeding. We hypothesized that the hypothalamic opioid system might also control energy metabolism in peripheral tissues. Mice lacking the kappa opioid receptor (κOR) and adenoviral vectors overexpressing or silencing κOR were stereotaxically delivered in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of rats. Vagal denervation was performed to assess its effect on liver metabolism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was inhibited by pharmacological (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) and genetic (overexpression of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa) approaches. The peripheral effects on lipid metabolism were assessed by histological techniques and western blot. We show that in the LHA κOR directly controls hepatic lipid metabolism through the parasympathetic nervous system, independent of changes in food intake and body weight. κOR colocalizes with melanin concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH-R1) in the LHA, and genetic disruption of κOR reduced melanin concentrating hormone-induced liver steatosis. The functional relevance of these findings was given by the fact that silencing of κOR in the LHA attenuated both methionine choline-deficient, diet-induced and choline-deficient, high-fat diet-induced ER stress, inflammation, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis, whereas overexpression of κOR in this area promoted liver steatosis. Overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 kDa in the liver abolished hypothalamic κOR-induced steatosis by reducing hepatic ER stress. This study reveals a novel hypothalamic-parasympathetic circuit modulating hepatic function through inflammation and ER stress independent of changes in food intake or body weight; these findings might have implications for the clinical use of opioid receptor antagonists. (Hepatology 2016;64:1086-1104). © 2016 The Authors. (Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on

  17. Hyper-G stress-induced hyperglycemia in rats mediated by glucoregulatory hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligcon, B. C.; Oyama, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with possible relations of the hyperglycemic response of rats exposed to hyper-G stress to (1) alterations in blood levels of the glucoregulatory hormones and gluconeogenic substrates, and (2) changes in insulin response on muscle glucose uptake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used in the study. The results of the experiments indicate that the initial rapid rise in blood glucose of rats exposed to hyper-G stress is mediated by increases in circulating catecholamines and glucagon, both potent stimulators of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Lactate, derived from epinephrine stimulation of muscle glycogenolysis, appears to be a major precursor for the initial rise in blood glucose. The inhibition of the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by muscle tissues may be a factor in the observed sustained hyperglycemia.

  18. Ultrastructural study of spermatogenesis in Phoronopsis harmeri (Lophophorata, Phoronida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, Arkadiy; Klepal, Waltraud

    2004-02-01

    The process of sperm development in Phoronopsis harmeri was studied by electron microscopy. Developing spermatogenical cells are aggregated around the capillaries of the haemal plexus. The spermatogonia, which are situated around the capillary walls of the caeca, are remarkable for the presence of germ-line vesicles and contain their centrioles near the cell membrane. The spermatocytes and spermatids are flagellated cells arranged in clusters. During spermiogenesis the basal body/flagellum complex migrates to the apical pole of the spermatid. The acrosome-like structure arises from material produced by the Golgi complex. It lacks a surrounding membrane and has a fibrillar content. The nucleus elongates and the condensation of chromatin is caused by an activation of 'initiation centres'. The late spermatid and the spermatozoon appear as two-armed 'V'-shaped cells in which one arm contains the nucleus and posteriorly located mitochondria, and the other one is the axoneme. Spermatogenesis of P. harmeri is an interesting example of gamete differentiation where advanced sperm structure is combined with a plesiomorphic pattern of sperm development characterized as 'flagellate spermatogenesis'.

  19. Effect of acetylsalicylic acid on spermatogenesis in adult albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameer, M.K.; Tahrir, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis in male albino mice. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy University of Health Sciences, Lahore from Apr, 2012 to Dec, 2012. Material and Methods: Thirty nine male albino mice, 6-8 weeks old weighing 30 - 5 gm, were used; these were randomly divided into three groups having thirteen mice in each using random numbers table. Group A served as a control and was given distilled water orally via oral gavage 10 ml per kg for 30 days. Group B was given acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg/kg dissolved in 10 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Group C was given acetylsalicylic acid 25 mg/kg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled orally for a period of 30 days. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last dose and the testes were removed, fixed in Bouin's fixative for 48 hours. Five microns thick sections of processed tissue were stained with H and E and PAS for calculation of Johnsen score and diameter of seminiferous tubules. Serum testosterone level was measured by testosterone enzyme immunoassay test kits. Results: Microscopic examination demonstrated that ASA treatment lead to statistically significant increase in the mean Johnsen score and mean diameter of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion: It was concluded from the current study that ASA treatment enhances spermatogenesis. (author)

  20. Ultrastructure of spermatogenesis in the sea star, Asterina minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, A

    1988-02-01

    The ultrastructural features of spermatogenesis were investigated in the hermaphroditic sea star Asterina minor. The primordial germ cells in the genital rachis contain small clusters of electron-dense material (nuage material) and a stack of annulate lamellae. They also have a flagellum and basal body complex situated close to the Golgi complex. After the development of the genital rachis into the ovotestis, spermatogenic cells increase in number and differentiation begins. Nuage material is observed in spermatogonia, but it gradually disappears in spermatocytes. The annulate lamellae do not exist beyond the early spermatogonial stage. By contrast, a flagellum and basal body complex are found throughout spermatogenesis. The Golgi-derived proacrosomal vesicles appear in the spermatocyte and coalesce to form an acrosomal vesicle in the early spermatid. The process of acrosome formation is as follows: (1) a lamella of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) continuous with the outer nuclear membrane encloses the posterior portion of the acrosomal vesicle; (2) the vesicle attaches to the cell membrane with its anterior portion; (3) periacrosomal material accumulates in the space between the acrosomal vesicle and the ER; (4) the nucleus proper changes its features to surround the acrosome; (5) amorphous, electron-dense material is deposited under the electron-dense disk; and (6) the nucleus forms a hollow opposite the electron-dense material.

  1. Induction of puberty with human chorionic gonadotropin and follicle-stimulating hormone in adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, R; de Luis, D; Alonso, M; Lamas, A; Moreno, J C

    1999-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical and hormonal responses of adolescent males with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) in response to gonadotropin replacement with the use of long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy. Prospective clinical study. Clinical pediatric department providing tertiary care. Seven prepubertal males with isolated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 15.44+/-1.97 years and seven prepubertal males with panhypopituitarism-associated HH with a mean (+/-SD) age of 18.1+/-3.24 years were studied. Human chorionic gonadotropin (1,000-1,500 IU IM) and FSH (75-100 IU SC) were administered every alternate day of the week until the total induction of puberty and spermatogenesis was achieved. Serum testosterone levels, testicular volume, penis length, and sperm count were evaluated after the administration of hCG and FSH. All patients achieved normal sexual maturation and normal or nearly normal adult male levels of testosterone. The increase in testicular size was significant in both groups. Positive sperm production was assessed in four of five patients with isolated HH and in three of three patients with panhypopituitarism-associated HH. Long-term combined hCG and FSH therapy is effective in inducing puberty, increasing testicular volume, and stimulating spermatogenesis in adolescent males with isolated HH and panhypopituitarism-associated HH.

  2. Vinclozolin exposure in utero induces postpubertal prostatitis and reduces sperm production via a reversible hormone-regulated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowin, Prue A; Gold, Elspeth; Aleksova, Jasna; O'Bryan, Moira K; Foster, Paul M D; Scott, Hamish S; Risbridger, Gail P

    2010-02-01

    Vinclozolin is an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) that binds with high affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and blocks the action of gonadal hormones on male reproductive organs. An alternative mechanism of action of Vinclozolin involves transgenerational effects on the male reproductive tract. We previously reported in utero Vinclozolin exposure-induced prostatitis (prostate inflammation) in postpubertal rats concurrent with down-regulation of AR and increased nuclear factor-kappaB activation. We postulated the male reproductive abnormalities induced by in utero Vinclozolin exposure could be reversed by testosterone supplementation, in contrast to the permanent modifications involving DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) described by others. To test this hypothesis, we administered high-dose testosterone at puberty to Vinclozolin-treated rats and determined the effect on anogenital distance (AGD); testicular germ cell apoptosis, concentration of elongated spermatids, and the onset of prostatitis. Concurrently we examined Dnmt1, -3A, -3B, and -3L mRNA expression. Consistent with previous reports, in utero exposure to Vinclozolin significantly reduced AGD, increased testicular germ cell apoptosis 3-fold, reduced elongated spermatid number by 40%, and induced postpubertal prostatitis in 100% of exposed males. Administration of high-dose testosterone (25 mg/kg) at puberty normalized AGD, reduced germ cell apoptosis, and restored elongated spermatid number. Testosterone restored AR and nuclear factor-kappaB expression in the prostate and abolished Vinclozolin-induced prostatitis. Altered Dnmt expression was evident with in utero Vinclozolin exposure and was not normalized after testosterone treatment. These data demonstrate in utero Vinclozolin-induced male reproductive tract abnormalities are AR mediated and reversible and involve a mechanism independent of Dnmt expression.

  3. Adrenergic and steroid hormone modulation of ozone-induced pulmonary injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We have shown that acute ozone inhalation promotes activation of the sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to release of cortisol and epinephrine from the adrenals. Adrenalectomy (ADREX) inhibits ozone-induced pulmonary vascular leakage and ...

  4. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set shows high throughput gene expression assessment using RNAseq to examine how ozone-induced transcriptional changes in the lung are influenced by...

  5. Resistance exercise-induced increases in putative anabolic hormones do not enhance muscle protein synthesis or intracellular signalling in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Kujbida, Gregory W; Moore, Daniel R; Atherton, Philip; Burd, Nicholas A; Padzik, Jan P; De Lisio, Michael; Tang, Jason E; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2009-11-01

    We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced elevations in systemic concentration of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhanced post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and phosphorylation of signalling proteins important in regulating mRNA translation. Eight young men (20 +/- 1.1 years, BMI = 26 +/- 3.5 kg m(-2)) completed two exercise protocols designed to maintain basal hormone concentrations (low hormone, LH) or elicit increases in endogenous hormones (high hormone, HH). In the LH protocol, participants performed a bout of unilateral resistance exercise with the elbow flexors. The HH protocol consisted of the same elbow flexor exercise with the contralateral arm followed immediately by high-volume leg resistance exercise. Participants consumed 25 g of protein after arm exercise to maximize MPS. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were taken as appropriate. There were no changes in serum testosterone, GH or IGF-1 after the LH protocol, whereas there were marked elevations after HH (testosterone, P anabolic hormones do not enhance fed-state anabolic signalling or MPS following resistance exercise. Local mechanisms are likely to be of predominant importance for the post-exercise increase in MPS.

  6. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, E.; Kersemaekers, W.M.; Elliesen, J.; Kepers, M.; Apter, D.; Behre, H.M.; Beynon, J.; Bouloux, P.M.; Costantino, A.; Gerbershagen, H.P.; Gronlund, L.; Heger-Mahn, D.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Lange, C.; Lindenberg, S.; Meriggiola, M.C.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Nieschlag, E.; Perheentupa, A.; Solomon, A.; Vaisala, L.; Wu, F.C.; Zitzmann, M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess spermatogenesis suppression and safety of a new combination of an etonogestrel (ENG) implant combined with testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections for male contraception. This is the first large placebo-controlled study for male hormonal contraception.

  7. The Possible Effect Of Tamoxifen Vs Whole Body Irradiation Treatment On Thyroid Hormones in Female Rats Bearing Mammary Tumors Chemically Induced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in most developed and developing regions of the world. In women, this drug has tissuespecific effects, acting as an estrogen antagonist on the breast, and as an estrogen agonist on bone, lipid metabolism (increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and the endometrium. Thyroid hormones act on almost all organs throughout the body and regulate the basal metabolism of the organism. Thyroid hormone can also stimulate the proliferation in vitro of certain tumor cell lines. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the significant value of tamoxifen and/or irradiation treatment on thyroid hormones in breast cancer bearing female rats. Forty two female Sprague-Dawely rats randomly divided into seven groups and the effect of tamoxifen and post-irradiation was studied on breast cancer chemically induced. The results shows a T 4 and estradiol levels not T 3 were altered in different experimental groups. It could be concluded that irradiation-induced changes in the composition of the mammary microenvironment promote the expression of neoplastic potential by affecting both estradiol and thyroid hormones, and tamoxifen may alter the thyroid hormones. Irradiation and tamoxifen administration may have worth effects on T 4 and estradiol levels and it is recommended to further studies towards the bystander effect of radiation and tamoxifen on the tissue culture and molecular biology scale.

  8. Ultrastructural and hormonal changes in rat cauda epididymal spermatozoa induced by Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ali, Daoud; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Hussain, Tajamul; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H; Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed G

    2014-04-01

    Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii diffuses smoke polluting air that adversely affects indoor environment that certainly harm human health. Therefore, this study aims at ascertaining the effect of these plants on gonadal hormones and molecular changes in rat spermatozoa. The animals were exposed to 4 g/kg body weight of B. papyrifera and B. carterii daily for 120 days along with suitable controls. Significant decreases in FSH, LH and testosterone levels were evidenced, along with a reduction of protein, sialic acid, and carnitine levels. In sperm physiology, sperm count, motility, speed decrease, whereas sperm anomalies increase. TEM observation indicates morphological changes in plasma and acrosomal membranes, cytoplasmic droplet in the tail region, vacuolated, and disorganization of the mitochondrial sheath. These findings demonstrate that B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of sperm formation and maturation, which indicates the detrimental effects of these plants on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of polyethylene glycol induced drought stress on physio-hormonal attributes of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamayun, M.; Khan, A.L.; Ahmad, N.; Lee, In-Jung; Khan, S.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Drought stress is a major abiotic constraint limiting crop production world wide. In current study, we investigated the adverse effects of drought stress on growth, yield and endogenous phytohormones of soybean. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of elevated strength (8% and 16%) were used for drought stress induction. Drought stress period span for two weeks each at pre and post flowering growth stage. It was observed that soybean growth and yield attributes significantly reduced under drought stress at both pre and post flowering period, while maximum reduction was caused by PEG (16%) applied at pre flowering time. The endogenous bioactive GA/sub 1/ and GA/sub 4/ content decreased under elevated drought stress. On the other hand, jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) content increased under drought stress. On the basis of current study, we concluded that application of earlier drought stress severely reduced growth and yield attributes of soybean when compared to its later application. Furthermore, increases in the endogenous contents of JA, SA and ABA in response to drought stress demonstrate the involvement of these hormones in drought stress resistance. (author)

  10. Paliperidone Inducing Concomitantly Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS, and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline. On the third day, he developed high grade fever and severe muscle rigidity with raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK and liver enzymes levels. He was treated with dantrolene 100 mg, bromocriptine 2.5 mg, and lorazepam 2 mg. Our patient required management of the three rare conditions following treatment with paliperidone. This case highlights the need for health care providers to be aware of the rare, potentially life threatening but preventable hyponatremia, NMS, and rhabdomyolysis as a possible adverse effect of paliperidone.

  11. Hematologic, Metabolite and Hormone Responses to Weaning-Induced Stress in Foals of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Fazeela Yaqoob1 and Heinrich Enbergs2

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-four foals of different breeds (Thoroughbred, Standardbred, German Warmblood, aged 5-6 months, were used in a study to evaluate the effects of weaning, sex, breed on haematological, metabolic and hormonal parameters. The values of leukocytes, neutrophils, red blood cells, haemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelets, activity of -GT and concentrations of cholesterol, cortisol and thyroxin rose on day 1 after weaning, while the percentages of eosinophils, lymphocytes and serum concentration of triglycerides decreased one day following weaning. These parameters returned to pre-weaning values on day 14 post-weaning except serum cholesterol, which fell to a significantly lower level on day 14 post-weaning than pre-weaning value. Serum alkaline phosphatase declined markedly on day 14 post-weaning. The most pronounced rise was observed for cortisol (51% and thyroxin (40% values. Females presented higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and cortisol concentration than males (P<0.05. German Warmblood foals presented a less-altered picture following weaning as compared with Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds. It is concluded that foals respond immediately to weaning, which may lead to suppression of the activities of bone cells i.e., osteoblasts. In addition, serum concentrations of cortisol and thyroxin influence one another in weanling foals. The Thoroughbred foals appear to be the most sensitive to weaning.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SEVERAL OVULATION INDUCING HORMONES ON PIKEPERCH (SANDER LUCIOPERCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. KORBULY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of European freshwater aquaculture needs diversification of its production with reliable culture methods of new fish species. From the last two decades, more research efforts were done in order to develop culture of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.. Most market size pikeperch come from open waters and relatively few are produced under intensive and/or indoor conditions. The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of different hormones on pikeperch ovulation in order to reproduce the species under controlled environmental conditions. Eight clinically healthy adult pikeperch females (3-4 years old were used in our experiments. They were injected with human chorionic gonadotropine - hCG (Pregnyl and carp pituitary extract (CPE, without photo-thermal stimulation. None of the females ovulated at 72 hours after the injection. When water temperature was increased to 17°C, females stimulated with hCG ovulated first, then one of the females stimulated with CPE. None of females from the control group ovulated.

  13. Isolation, purification and studies on radiation induced biochemical and physiological changes of bovine growth hormone in animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Salam, H.M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Growth hormone has a great importance in the field of animal physiology. Bovine growth hormone was extracted by alteration of the hydrogen ion concentration of phosphate buffer extract of frozen pituitary glands. The extracted bovine growth hormone has similar absorption peaks at UV and infrared spectra, bands of the same location on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plate and had a molecular weight exactly as the standard bovine growth hormone and equal to 20.9 KD. Labelling of bovine growth hormone with 131 I was carried out with fast and least expensive method. The biological and physiological effects of labelled and non labelled bovine growth hormone were studied on rabbits. The labelled bovine growth hormone decreased the biological and physiological effects of the hormone. Bovine growth hormone (unlabelled) and different effects on growth performance traits, body chemical composition (water, fat,protein and ash), and also on the serum biochemical parameters. We conclude that the bovine growth hormone affects on the biological and physiological properties but this depends on the dose, type of delivery of hormone, time of treatment, and the diet content of the animal. 6 tabs., 13.2 figs., 110 refs

  14. Cold temperature blocks thyroid hormone-induced changes in lipid and energy metabolism in the liver of Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Awai, Koichiro; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus tadpoles to low temperature affects many biological processes including lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway, resulting in arrest of TH-induced metamorphosis. To clarify what molecular events occur in this phenomenon, we investigated the glycerophospholipid and fatty acid (FA) compositions, the activities of mitochondrial enzymes and the transcript levels of related genes in the liver of control (26 °C) and cold-treated (4 °C) tadpoles with or without 5 nM 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). Exposure to T3 decreased the tail height and polyunsaturation of FAs in the glycerophospholipids, and increased plasma glucose levels and transcript levels of primary TH-response genes including TH receptor, and some energy metabolic (cox4, srebp1 and fas) and FA chain elongase genes (elovl3 and elovl5). However, these T3-induced responses were abolished at 4 °C. Exposure to cold temperature enhanced plasma glucose, triglyceride and free FA levels, monounsaturation of FAs, mitochondrial enzymes activities (cytochrome c oxidase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase; U/g liver), with the upregulation of the genes involved in glycogenolysis (pygl), gluconeogenesis (pck1 and g6pc2), FA β-oxidation (acadl), and cholesterol uptake and synthesis (hmgcr, srebp2 and ldlr1), glycerophospholipids synthesis (pcyt1, pcyt2, pemt, and pparg), and FA monounsaturation (scd1) and chain elongation (elovl1 and elovl2). T3 had little effect on the cold-induced changes. Our study demonstrated that exposures to T3 and cold temperature exert different effects on lipid metabolism, resulting in changes in the FA composition in glycerophospholipids, and suggests that a cold-induced signal may block TH-signaling pathway around primary TH-response genes.

  15. Distribution and responsiveness of rat anti-Muellerian hormone during ovarian development and VCD-induced ovotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark-Kappeler, Connie J.; Sen, Nivedita; Keating, Aileen F.; Sipes, I. Glenn; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH) is produced by granulosa cells in primary to small antral follicles of the adult ovary and helps maintain primordial follicles in a dormant state. The industrial chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) causes specific ovotoxicity in primordial and small primary follicles of mice and rats. Previous studies suggest that this ovotoxicity involves acceleration of primordial to primary follicle recruitment via interactions with the Kit/Kit ligand signaling pathway. Because of its accepted role in inhibiting primordial follicle recruitment, the present study was designed to investigate a possible interaction between AMH and VCD-induced ovotoxicity. Protein distribution of AMH was compared in neonatal and adult F344 rat ovaries. AMH protein was visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy in large primary and secondary follicles of the adult ovary, but in small primary follicles in neonatal rat ovaries. In cultured postnatal day (PND) 4 F344 rat ovaries, VCD exposure (30 μM, 2-8 days) decreased (P < 0.05) AMH mRNA (d4-8) and protein (d6-8). Recombinant AMH (100-400 mg/ml) in PND4 ovaries cultured 8 days ± VCD (30 μM) caused an increase (P < 0.05) in primordial, and a decrease (P < 0.05) in small primary follicles, supporting that AMH retarded primordial follicle recruitment. However, no concentration of AMH had an effect on VCD-induced ovotoxicity. Whereas, VCD caused a reduction in expression of AMH (d4-d8), it followed previously reported initial disruptions in Kit signaling induced by VCD (d2). Thus, collectively, these results do not support a mechanism whereby VCD causes ovotoxicity via generalized activation of primordial follicle recruitment, but instead provide further support for the specificity of other intracellular mechanisms involved in VCD-induced ovotoxicity.

  16. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  17. Protective role of cabbage extract versus cadmium-induced oxidative renal and thyroid hormones dysfunctions in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M. F. S.; OSMAN, N. N.; DARWISH, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in human and experimental animals. A body of evidence has accumulated implicating the free radical generation with subsequent oxidative stress in the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of Cd damage. Cabbage is economically an important cole crop grown and consumed worldwide. It belongs the Cruciferous vegetables (Brassica), which have been reported to have a wide range of pharmacological properties. Since kidney is the critical target organ of chronic Cd damage, we carried out this study to investigate the effects of cabbage extract (C.E.) on Cd-induced dysfunction in the kidney of rats. The thyroid hormones values were also determined. Male Wistar rats were provided with cadmium chloride (100 mg/ L water) as the only drinking fluid and/or cabbage extract (C.E.) (5 ml/ kg body weight /day) for 4 weeks. Oral administration of Cd significantly induced the renal damage which was evident from the significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine with a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in creatinine clearance. It also significantly declined the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in urine. Intoxication of Cd to rats reduced serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations. Reduced glutathione (GSH), and enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were also significantly (p < 0.05) depressed with a concomitant marked enhancement in lipid peroxidation marker (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). Co-administration of C.E. along with Cd resulted in a reversal of the Cd-induced biochemical variables in kidney accompanied by a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and a higher levels of renal antioxidant defense system. However, incorporation of C.E. to rats whether applied alone or in combination with Cd did not reveal any change in the thyroid hormones levels, which reflect significant drop in

  18. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  19. Hormonal and metabolic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 on polycystic ovary syndrome induced rats under diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Ouladsahebmadarek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old. It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility. This study aimed to confirm the role of nutrition containing omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acid on control of experimental PCO induced by estradiol-valerat in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar female rats (n=40 were allocated into control (n=10 and test groups (n= 30, test group was subdivided into 3 groups: G1, received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily; G2 and G3 groups were induced PCO by single injection of estradiol-valerate (16 mg/kg/IM. Group 3 received omega-3 (240 mg/kg/orally/daily and low carbohydrate feeding for 60 subsequent days; on sixtieth day 5 ml blood samples and ovarian tissues of all rats in the group were removed and prepared for biochemical and hormonal analysis. Results: Catalase, GPX (Glutathione peroxidase, SOD (Superoxide dismutase in groups that received omega-3showed higher levels, but MDA (malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased (P

  20. Contraction-induced lipolysis is not impaired by inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsted, Thomas J; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats, Clara; Serup, Annette K; Høeg, Louise; Schjerling, Peter; Holm, Cecilia; Zimmermann, Robert; Fledelius, Christian; Galbo, Henrik; Kiens, Bente

    2013-10-15

    In skeletal muscle hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) has long been accepted to be the principal enzyme responsible for lipolysis of intramyocellular triacylglycerol (IMTG) during contractions. However, this notion is based on in vitro lipase activity data, which may not reflect the in vivo lipolytic activity. We investigated lipolysis of IMTG in soleus muscles electrically stimulated to contract ex vivo during acute pharmacological inhibition of HSL in rat muscles and in muscles from HSL knockout (HSL-KO) mice. Measurements of IMTG are complicated by the presence of adipocytes located between the muscle fibres. To circumvent the problem with this contamination we analysed intramyocellular lipid droplet content histochemically. At maximal inhibition of HSL in rat muscles, contraction-induced breakdown of IMTG was identical to that seen in control muscles (P contractions IMTG staining decreased significantly in both HSL-KO and WT muscles (P skeletal muscle, other TG lipases accordingly being of negligible importance for lipolysis of IMTG. The present study is the first to demonstrate that contraction-induced lipolysis of IMTG occurs in the absence of HSL activity in rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Furthermore, the results suggest that ATGL is activated and plays a major role in lipolysis of IMTG during muscle contractions.

  1. Endothelin-1-induced focal cerebral ischemia in the growth hormone/IGF-1 deficient Lewis Dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Toth, Peter; Ashpole, Nicole M; Farley, Julie A; Hodges, Erik L; Warrington, Junie P; Han, Song; Fung, Kar-Ming; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Sonntag, William E

    2014-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Growth hormone (GH) and its anabolic mediator, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, decrease with advancing age and this decline has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction. In addition, lower GH/IGF-1 levels are associated with higher stroke mortality in humans. These results suggest that decreased GH/IGF-1 level is an important factor in increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. This study was designed to assess whether GH/IGF-1-deficiency influences the outcome of cerebral ischemia. We found that endothelin-1-induced middle cerebral artery occlusion resulted in a modest but nonsignificant decrease in cerebral infarct size in GH/IGF-1 deficient dw/dw rats compared with control heterozygous littermates and dw/dw rats with early-life GH treatment. Expression of endothelin receptors and endothelin-1-induced constriction of the middle cerebral arteries were similar in the three experimental groups. Interestingly, dw/dw rats exhibited reduced brain edema and less astrocytic infiltration compared with their heterozygous littermates and this effect was reversed by GH-treatment. Because reactive astrocytes are critical for the regulation of poststroke inflammatory processes, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier and neural repair, further studies are warranted to determine the long-term functional consequences of decreased astrocytic activation in GH/IGF-1 deficient animals after cerebral ischemia. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  2. Comparison of piascledine (avocado and soybean oil) and hormone replacement therapy in menopausal-induced hot flashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Yunes; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Kashani, Nafise; Baharie Javan, Nika; Dadjo, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Different symptoms in Climacteric period, includes hot flash. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is common therapy for relief of menopausal symptoms but has possible contraindications and side effects. Recently Piascledine (combination of Avocado oil with Soybean oil) showed effects in reducing hot flash severity. Present study designed to compare the effects of HRT with Piascledine in treatment of hot flash. The cases of this study were sixty-six women at the age range of 40 to 70 years and complaints of menopause-induced hot flashing, whose last menstruation dated at least 6 months prior to the beginning of the study. The patients in this open label clinical trial, randomized to receive Piascledine capsule 1 mg or HRT (0.625 mg oral daily Conjugated Estrogen tablets, plus 2.5 mg continuous oral daily Medroxyprogesterone Acetate tablets) for 2 month. Hot flash property and severity was assessed via a daily check list and Visual analog scale. Climacteric symptom was measured before and after intervention using Greene Climacteric Scale (GCS) and Blatt-kupperman Menopausal Index (BKMI). Thirty-three eligible patients were allocated in each group. From the Piascledine group, one patient and from the HRT group, 16 patients weren›t willing to attend the study; therefore, 32 and 17 woman received treatment in Piascledine and HRT groups. 4 patients were withdrawn for vaginal bleeding and one for breast tenderness from HTR group. Hot flash severity in both groups decreased during the time similarly. With regard to GCS (p = 0.571) and BMKI (p = 0.891), the outcome was similar among the two groups. Due to low HRT compliance and its possible risks in long period of time and considering the same activity of soybean supplement and HRT in relieving the hot flash as menopausal symptoms in women, it seems that soybean supplements can be an alternative therapy to hormone.

  3. Follicle stimulating hormone alleviates radiation-induced degeneration of mouse ovarian follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.J. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.K.; Chun, K.J.

    2000-05-01

    The present study was performed to analyze the influences of (FSH) follicle stimulating hormone and {gamma}-radiation on the morphological changes of ovarian follicles and serum concentrations of testosterone, and estradiol-17{beta} in prepubertal mice. Female mice (ICR strain, three weeks old) were irradiated with 8.33 Gy of {gamma}-ray and followed by a 5 IU i.p.-injection of FSH to know the effect of FSH on the ovarian follicles. Left ovaries were collected at 0 h, 1 d, and 2 d after irradiation or saline/ FSH injection. Another group was received 5 IU of FSH 2 hours before irradiation to analyze the changes of ovarian steroidogenic abilities. By the morphometrical analysis, the number of normal or atretic follicles was counted and the ratio of normal to atretic follicle numbers was calculated. The percentage of atretic follicles was significantly reduced by the treatment of FSH. In the case of the FSH-injected group, the cellular debris caused by radiation was engulfed by the immune cells and the neighboring granulosa cells within the follicles. In concurrence with the morphometric analysis, the changes of the serum concentrations (pg/ml) of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E{sub 2}) were determined by radioimmunoassays. The concentration of T was 336.8{+-}61.3 in the control mice. One day after irradiation, the concentration went up to 484.8{+-}80.0 in the irradiated group, and down to 243.5{+-}80.7 in the FSH-treated one. The concentration of E{sub 2} was 174.9{+-}15.0 in the control group. One day after irradiation, however, the concentration was decreased to 94.8{+-}19.8, and 155.9{+-}8.7 in the irradiated and FSH-treated group, respectively. The alleviation of the follicular degeneration by the treatment of FSH is closely related to the elimination of the cellular debris and to the activities of the steroidogenic enzymes. (Author)

  4. Cellular content and biosynthesis of polyamines during rooster spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, R; Vidal, S; Mezquita, C

    1982-01-01

    The natural polyamines spermine and spermidine, and the diamine putrescine, were extracted from rooster testis cells separated by sedimentation at unit gravity, and from vas-deferens spermatozoa. The ratios spermine/DNA and spermidine/DNA were kept relatively constant throughout spermatogenesis, whereas the ratio putrescine/DNA rose in elongated spermatids. The cellular content of spermine, spermidine and putrescine decreased markedly in mature spermatozoa. Two rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of polyamines, ornithine decarboxylase and S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase, showed their highest activities at the end of spermiogenesis and were not detectable in vas-deferens spermatozoa. A marked reduction in cell volume during spermiogenesis without a parallel decrease in the cellular content of polyamines suggests the possibility that the marked changes in chromatin composition and structure occurring in rooster late spermatids could take place in an ambience of high polyamine concentration. Images PLATE 1 PMID:7159401

  5. Long term effects of ionizing radiation on mouse spermatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker-Klom, U.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of acute or split dose exposure to radiation on murine stem cell spermatogonia were analysed. Flow cytometry was applied to estimate the percentages of haploid germ cells (round and elongated spermatids) up to 12 months after irradiation. The recovery in the number of haploid germ cells continued gradually during the period under observation. The intervals between the two equal doses in split dose exposures were 0, 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours. Split doses that were 24 h or 48 h apart had more harmful effects on spermatogenesis than split doses with 4 or 8 hours intervals or acute exposures. The repair capacity of the stem cell spermatogonia was remarkably high. (orig.)

  6. Internal Auger emitters: effects on spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.V.; Mylavarapu, V.B.; Sastry, K.S.R.; Howell, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The in vivo biological effects of Auger emitters are investigated using [A] spermatogenesis in mouse testis, and [B] oogenesis in mouse ovary as experimental models. Spermhead survival and induction of abnormal sperm, following intratesticular administration of radiopharmaceuticals, were the end points in Model A. Of interest in Model B is primary oocyte survival after intraperitoneal injection of the radiochemicals. The effectiveness of the Auger emitter is determined relative to its beta emitting companion or external X-rays in the absence of such an analogue. Results reveal pronounced effects of Auger emitters on all end points, not dependent on mode of administration. The efficacy of the Auger emitter is related intimately to its subcellular distribution, which, is governed by the chemical form of the carrier molecule. Conventional dosimetry is inadequate and biophysically meaningful dosimetric approaches are needed to understand in vivo effects of Auger emitters. (author)

  7. Spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in the polychaete genus Ophryotrocha (Dorvilleidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, Hans-Dieter; Grünig, Charlotte

    1990-06-01

    The details of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis are described for Ophryotrocha puerilis. The ultrastructure of mature sperm is shown for O. puerilis, O. hartmanni, O. gracilis, O. diadema, O. labronica, and O. notoglandulata. Clusters of sixteen cells each are proliferated by two stem cells in each setigerous segment of O. puerilis representing the very early stages of both oogenesis and spermatogenesis. In each spermatocyte-I cluster, the cells are interconnected by cytoplasmic bridges. Early, clusters are enveloped by peritoneal sheath cells. These transient gonad walls break down prior to meiosis. The meiotic processes may start in the clusters with the cells still interconnected, or during breakdown of the original cluster, giving rise to smaller subclusters of both spermatocytes I and spermatocytes II with various numbers of cells. Finally, spermatid tetrads are present. As spermiogenesis progresses, the tetrads disintegrate. Golgi vesicles in both spermatocytes and spermatids contain electron-dense material, presumably preacrosomal. The acrosome is formed by such vesicles. In the six species studied here, the acrosomes appear to be of a similar overall structure but are of different shape. Centrioles are usually located beneath the acrosome. The distal centriole forms the basal body of a flagellum-like cytoplasmic process. The microtubules of these flagellar equivalents do not show a normal ciliar arrangement. The flagellar equivalent appears to be non-motile. In O. hartmanni and in O. notoglandulata, a flagellar equivalent is missing. Microtubules originating from the proximal end of the distal centriole stretch to the nuclear envelope. This feature appears to be especially conspicuous in O. puerilis and in O. labronica. In O. labronica and in O. notoglandulata, bundles of microtubules paralleling the cell perimeter appear to stabilise the sperm. Various numbers of mitochondria are either randomly distributed around the nucleus or accumulate on one side

  8. Effect of thyroid hormone concentration on the transcriptional response underlying induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Amy K

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid hormones (TH induce gene expression programs that orchestrate amphibian metamorphosis. In contrast to anurans, many salamanders do not undergo metamorphosis in nature. However, they can be induced to undergo metamorphosis via exposure to thyroxine (T4. We induced metamorphosis in juvenile Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum using 5 and 50 nM T4, collected epidermal tissue from the head at four time points (Days 0, 2, 12, 28, and used microarray analysis to quantify mRNA abundances. Results Individuals reared in the higher T4 concentration initiated morphological and transcriptional changes earlier and completed metamorphosis by Day 28. In contrast, initiation of metamorphosis was delayed in the lower T4 concentration and none of the individuals completed metamorphosis by Day 28. We identified 402 genes that were statistically differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold between T4 treatments at one or more non-Day 0 sampling times. To complement this analysis, we used linear and quadratic regression to identify 542 and 709 genes that were differentially expressed by ≥ two-fold in the 5 and 50 nM T4 treatments, respectively. Conclusion We found that T4 concentration affected the timing of gene expression and the shape of temporal gene expression profiles. However, essentially all of the identified genes were similarly affected by 5 and 50 nM T4. We discuss genes and biological processes that appear to be common to salamander and anuran metamorphosis, and also highlight clear transcriptional differences. Our results show that gene expression in axolotls is diverse and precise, and that axolotls provide new insights about amphibian metamorphosis.

  9. Effect of thyroid hormone concentration on the transcriptional response underlying induced metamorphosis in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B; Voss, Stephen R; Samuels, Amy K; Smith, Jeramiah J; Putta, Srikrishna; Beachy, Christopher K

    2008-02-11

    Thyroid hormones (TH) induce gene expression programs that orchestrate amphibian metamorphosis. In contrast to anurans, many salamanders do not undergo metamorphosis in nature. However, they can be induced to undergo metamorphosis via exposure to thyroxine (T4). We induced metamorphosis in juvenile Mexican axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) using 5 and 50 nM T4, collected epidermal tissue from the head at four time points (Days 0, 2, 12, 28), and used microarray analysis to quantify mRNA abundances. Individuals reared in the higher T4 concentration initiated morphological and transcriptional changes earlier and completed metamorphosis by Day 28. In contrast, initiation of metamorphosis was delayed in the lower T4 concentration and none of the individuals completed metamorphosis by Day 28. We identified 402 genes that were statistically differentially expressed by > or = two-fold between T4 treatments at one or more non-Day 0 sampling times. To complement this analysis, we used linear and quadratic regression to identify 542 and 709 genes that were differentially expressed by > or = two-fold in the 5 and 50 nM T4 treatments, respectively. We found that T4 concentration affected the timing of gene expression and the shape of temporal gene expression profiles. However, essentially all of the identified genes were similarly affected by 5 and 50 nM T4. We discuss genes and biological processes that appear to be common to salamander and anuran metamorphosis, and also highlight clear transcriptional differences. Our results show that gene expression in axolotls is diverse and precise, and that axolotls provide new insights about amphibian metamorphosis.

  10. Effects of maturation-inducing hormone on heterologous gap junctional coupling in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Bolamba, D.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2001-01-01

    A previous ultrastructural study of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) gap junction (GJ) contacts in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker suggested that these contacts disappear late during the process of resumption of oocyte meiosis. This observation suggested that, unlike scenarios proposed for a number of other species, uncoupling of GJ is not necessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in croaker follicles. However, the functionality of heterologous GJ contacts and the temporal association between maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-induced changes in heterologous coupling and resumption of oocyte meiosis have not been examined in Atlantic croaker. These questions were addressed with a cell-cell coupling assay that is based on the transfer of a GJ marker, Lucifer Yellow, from oocytes to granulosa cells. Follicle-enclosed oocytes injected with Lucifer Yellow allowed transfer of the dye into the follicle cell layer, thus confirming that there is functional heterologous coupling between the oocyte and the granulosa cells. Dye transfer was observed in vitellogenic, full-grown/maturation-incompetent, and full-grown /maturation-competent follicles. Treatment of maturation-competent follicles with MIH caused a time-dependent decline in the number of follicles transferring dye. However, although GJ uncoupling in some of the follicles was observed before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, index of meiotic resumption), about 50% of the follicles maintained the ability to transfer dye even after GVBD had occurred. Further, a known GJ inhibitor (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) blocked heterologous GJ within a time frame similar to that seen with MIH but without inducing any of the morphological changes (including GVBD) associated with follicular maturation. In conclusion, uncoupling of heterologous GJ seems insufficient and unnecessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  11. Contribution of adrenal hormones to nicotine-induced inhibition of synovial plasma extravasation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, F J; Benowitz, N L; Heller, P H; Levine, J D

    1997-01-01

    1. In this study, we examined the mechanism(s) by which s.c. nicotine inhibits synovial plasma extravasation. We found that nicotine dose-dependently inhibited bradykinin (BK)- and platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced plasma extravasation. 2. The effect of nicotine on both BK- and PAF-induced plasma extravasation was attenuated by adrenal medullectomy. ICI-118,551 (a selective beta 2-adrenoceptor blocker) (30 micrograms ml-1, intra-articularly) significantly attenuated the inhibitory action of high-dose (1 mg kg-1) nicotine on BK-induced plasma extravasation without affecting the inhibition by low- (0.01 microgram kg-1) dose nicotine or that on PAF-induced plasma extravasation by nicotine at any dose. This suggested that beta 2-adrenoceptors mediate the inhibitory actions of high-dose, but not low-dose, nicotine. We also found that systemic naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist) (two hourly injections of 1 mg kg-1, i.p.) attenuated the inhibitory action produced by all doses of nicotine on BK- or PAF-induced plasma extravasation, suggesting the contribution of endogenous opioids. 3. RU-38,486 (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist) (30 mg kg-1, s.c.), and metyrapone (a glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor) (two hourly injections of 100 mg kg-1, i.p.) both attenuated the action of high-dose nicotine without affecting that of low-dose nicotine. 4. Spinal mecamylamine (a nicotinic receptor antagonist) (0.025 mg kg-1, intrathecally, i.t.) attenuated the action of high-dose, but not low-dose, nicotine, suggesting that part of the action of high-dose nicotine is mediated by spinal nicotinic receptors. 5. Combined treatment with ICI-118,551, naloxone and RU-38,486 attenuated the action of low-dose nicotine by an amount similar to that produced by naloxone alone but produced significantly greater attenuation of the effect of high-dose nicotine when compared to the action of any of the three antagonists alone.

  12. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Barzegar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrullus colocynthis (CCT is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. Objective: We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats’ model. Materials and Methods: 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly, and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III, 50mg/kg metformin (group IV, and CCT extract+ metformin (group V for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter. Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Conclusion: Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G.; Cherr, Gary N.; Hanna, Lynn A.; Keen, Carl L.

    2006-01-01

    In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis

  14. Effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats model: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegar, Mohammad Hossein; Khazali, Homayoun; Kalantar, Seyyed Mehdi; Khoradmehr, Arezoo

    2017-10-01

    Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) is used as the anti-diabetic and antioxidant agent. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive disorder which level of gonadotropins and sexual hormones are imbalanced. We evaluated the effect of CCT hydro-alcoholic extract on hormonal and folliculogenesis process in estradiol valerate-induced PCOs rats' model. 40 female adult Wistar rats divided into five groups (n=8each: Group I (control) only injected by sesame oil as estradiol valerate solvent, group II (Sham) was orally received normal saline after estradiol valerate- induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (4 mg/rat estradiol valerate, intramuscularly), and three experimental groups, that after induction of PCOS within 60 days, received orally 50 mg/kg CCT extract (group III), 50mg/kg metformin (group IV), and CCT extract+ metformin (group V) for 20 days. The serum concentration level of luteinizing, testosterone and follicle stimulating hormones were measured using ELISA method and the serum concentration level of glucose were measured using the oxidative method (glucose meter). Histological study of ovary tissue carried out by hematoxylin-eosin staining. There was a significant reduction in luteinizing hormone and testosterone in III-V groups compared to Sham group, whereas follicle stimulating hormone in III-V groups was not significantly changed in comparison with Sham group. Histological investigations showed a significant increase in number of preantral and antral follicles and corpus luteum in the experimental groups compared to group II. Marked improvement in hormonal and histological symptoms of PCOS may be due to CCT effects hence, CCT can potentially be considered as an effective drug for treatment of PCOS.

  15. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1, the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite and progesterone (P4 in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Methods Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. Results The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170–186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, 158 – 275 pmol/L and 20.7 – 46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8 – 6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. Conclusion The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  16. Natural Variation in Stress Hormones, Comparisons Across Matrices, and Impacts Resulting from Induced Stress in the Bottlenose Dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E; Kellar, Nicholas M; Cockrem, John; Romano, Tracy; Booth, Rebecca K; Wasser, Samuel K

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge regarding stress hormones and how they vary in response to seasonality, gender, age, and reproductive status for any marine mammal is limited. Furthermore, stress hormones may be measured in more than one matrix (e.g., feces, blood, blubber), but the relationships between levels of a given hormone across these matrices are unknown, further complicating the interpretations of hormones measured in samples collected from wild animals. A study is underway to address these issues in a population of bottlenose dolphins trained for voluntary participation in sample collections from different matrices and across season and time of day.

  17. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants 168 patients with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovary syndrome: 83 were allocated electrocautery and 85 were allocated recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Intervention Laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovaries followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or induction of ovulation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone. Main outcome measure Ongoing pregnancy within 12 months. Results. The cumulative rate of ongoing pregnancy after recombinant follicle stimulating hormone was 67%. With only electrocautery it was 34%, which increased to 49% after clomiphene citrate was given. Subsequent recombinant follicle stimulating hormone increased the rate to 67% at 12 months (rate ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 1.24). No complications occurred from electrocautery with or without clomiphene citrate. Patients allocated to electrocautery had a significantly lower risk of multiple pregnancy (0.11, 0.01 to 0.86). Conclusion The ongoing pregnancy rate from ovulation induction with laparoscopic electrocautery followed by clomiphene citrate and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone if anovulation persisted, or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, seems equivalent to ovulation induction with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, but the former procedure carries a lower risk of multiple pregnancy. PMID:14739186

  18. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  19. Protective effects of D-Trp6-luteinising hormone-releasing hormone microcapsules against cyclophosphamide-induced gonadotoxicity in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokser, L; Szende, B; Schally, A V

    1990-06-01

    The possible protective effect of an agonist of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) against the ovarian damage caused by cyclophosphamide was investigated in rats. D-Trp6-LH-RH microcapsules were injected once a month for 3 months, in a dose calculated to release 25 micrograms day-1. Control animals received the injection vehicle. Sixty days after the first injection of microcapsules, cyclophosphamide was given at a loading dose of 50 mg kg-1 followed by 5 mg kg-1 day-1 for 30 days, while the treatment with D-Trp6-LH-RH was continued. When the ovaries were examined 3 months and 5 months after discontinuation of treatment, a significant reduction in the total number of follicles (P less than 0.01) was found in non-pretreated animals given cyclophosphamide. This reduction affected mainly follicles larger than 100 microns. An irreversible disintegration and destruction of granulosa cells was also observed in this group. In animals pretreated with D-Trp6-LH-RH, administration of cyclophosphamide caused no reduction in the number and diameter of follicles. Thus, the treatment with D-Trp6-LH-RH microcapsules before and during chemotherapy prevented the ovarian injury inflicted by cyclophosphamide. The suppression of gonadal function by LH-RH analogues could be possibly utilised for the protection of the ovaries against damage caused by cytotoxic drugs.

  20. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erica S; Flannery, Brenna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M; Pestka, James J

    2015-10-19

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm) DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  1. High Sensitivity of Aged Mice to Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin-Induced Anorexia Corresponds to Elevated Proinflammatory Cytokine and Satiety Hormone Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S. Clark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos and adult (3 mos mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg and dietary (1, 2.5, 10 ppm DON exposure in comparison to adult mice. In addition to greater suppression of food intake from dietary DON exposure, aged mice also exhibited greater but transient body weight suppression. When aged mice were acutely exposed to 1 mg/kg bw DON i.p., aged mice displayed elevated DON and DON3GlcA tissue levels and delayed clearance in comparison with adult mice. Acute DON exposure also elicited higher proinflammatory cytokine and satiety hormone responses in the plasma of the aged group compared with the adult group. Increased susceptibility to DON-induced anorexia in aged mice relative to adult mice suggests that advanced life stage could be a critical component in accurate human risk assessments for DON and other trichothecenes.

  2. Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Protects against Cytokine-Induced Barrier Damage in Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Monolayers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Váradi

    Full Text Available Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide with cytoprotective effect in various tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the ability of α-MSH to interact with intestinal epithelial cell monolayers and mitigate inflammatory processes of the epithelial barrier. The protective effect of α-MSH was studied on Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial monolayers, which were disrupted by exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. The barrier integrity was assessed by measuring transepithelial electric resistance (TEER and permeability for marker molecules. Caco-2 monolayers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for expression of melanocortin-1 receptor and tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-4. The activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB was detected by fluorescence microscopy and inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by flow cytometric bead array cytokine assay. Exposure of Caco-2 monolayers to proinflammatory cytokines lowered TEER and increased permeability for fluorescein and albumin, which was accompanied by changes in ZO-1 and claudin-4 immunostaining. α-MSH was able to prevent inflammation-associated decrease of TEER in a dose-dependent manner and reduce the increased permeability for paracellular marker fluorescein. Further immunohistochemistry analysis revealed proinflammatory cytokine induced translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit into Caco-2 cell nuclei, which was inhibited by α-MSH. As a result the IL-6 and IL-8 production of Caco-2 monolayers were also decreased with different patterns by the addition of α-MSH to the culture medium. In conclusion, Caco-2 cells showed a positive immunostaining for melanocortin-1 receptor and α-MSH protected Caco-2 cells against inflammatory barrier dysfunction and inflammatory activation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β cytokines.

  3. Detecting the Hormonal Pathways in Oilseed Rape behind Induced Systemic Resistance by Trichoderma harzianum TH12 to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Ali, Ali Kadhim; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Wu, Jiangsheng; Fu, Chunhua; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Plants have the ability to resist pathogen attack after infection or treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. In oilseed rape plant Brassica napus AACC and in the artificially synthesized Raphanus alboglabra RRCC, the root-colonizing Trichoderma harzianum TH12 fungus triggers induced systemic resistance (ISR), and its culture filtrate (CF) triggers a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response against infection by the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) are plant hormone signals that play important roles in the regulation of ISR and SAR. In this study, at six different time points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days post-infection [dpi]), six resistance genes were used as markers of signaling pathways: JA/ET signaling used AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 genes, while PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 genes were used as markers of SA signaling. The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that AOC3, PDF1.2 and ERF2 expression levels in infected leaves of AACC and RRCC increase at 1 and 2 dpi with S. sclerotiorum or inoculation with TH12. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased at 8 and 10 dpi in infected leaves. PR-1, TGA5 and TGA6 expression levels increased early in plants treated with CF in both of the healthy genotypes. Furthermore, induction of SA- and JA/ET-dependent defense decreased disease symptoms in infected leaves at different times. The results suggest that the RRCC genotype exhibits resistance to disease and that the ability of TH12 and its CF to induce systemic resistance in susceptible and resistant oilseed rape genotypes exists. In addition, the results indicate for the first time that in RRCC the SA signaling pathway is involved in resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  4. Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is associated with increased thyrotropin releasing hormone in the dorsal striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ippolita Cantuti-Castelvetri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dyskinesias associated with involuntary movements and painful muscle contractions are a common and severe complication of standard levodopa (L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine therapy for Parkinson's disease. Pathologic neuroplasticity leading to hyper-responsive dopamine receptor signaling in the sensorimotor striatum is thought to underlie this currently untreatable condition.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the molecular changes associated with L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease. With this technique, we determined that thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH was greatly increased in the dopamine-depleted striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats that developed abnormal movements in response to L-DOPA therapy, relative to the levels measured in the contralateral non-dopamine-depleted striatum, and in the striatum of non-dyskinetic control rats. ProTRH immunostaining suggested that TRH peptide levels were almost absent in the dopamine-depleted striatum of control rats that did not develop dyskinesias, but in the dyskinetic rats, proTRH immunostaining was dramatically up-regulated in the striatum, particularly in the sensorimotor striatum. This up-regulation of TRH peptide affected striatal medium spiny neurons of both the direct and indirect pathways, as well as neurons in striosomes.TRH is not known to be a key striatal neuromodulator, but intrastriatal injection of TRH in experimental animals can induce abnormal movements, apparently through increasing dopamine release. Our finding of a dramatic and selective up-regulation of TRH expression in the sensorimotor striatum of dyskinetic rat models suggests a TRH-mediated regulatory mechanism that may underlie the pathologic neuroplasticity driving dopamine hyper-responsivity in Parkinson's disease.

  5. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Activation of Notch Signaling is Required for Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Development During Xenopus Laevis Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenta; Kajita, Mitsuko; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2017-04-01

    In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We show that they are up-regulated during both natural and TH-induced metamorphosis in a tissue-specific manner. Particularly, Hairy1 is specifically expressed in the AE cells. Moreover, up-regulation of Hairy1 and Hairy2b by TH was prevented by treating tadpoles with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits Notch signaling. More importantly, TH-induced up-regulation of LGR5, an adult intestinal stem cell marker, was suppressed by GSI treatment. Our results suggest that Notch signaling plays a role in stem cell development by regulating the expression of Hairy genes during intestinal remodeling. Furthermore, we show with organ culture experiments that prolonged exposure of tadpole intestine to TH plus GSI leads to hyperplasia of secretory cells and reduction of absorptive cells. Our findings here thus provide evidence for evolutionarily conserved role of Notch signaling in intestinal cell fate determination but more importantly reveal, for the first time, an important role of Notch pathway in the formation of adult intestinal stem cells during vertebrate development. Stem Cells 2017;35:1028-1039. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  6. Effect of hormone treatment on spontaneous and radiation-induced chromosomal breakage in normal and dwarf mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van; Buul-Offers, S. van

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of dwarf mice with growth hormone, insulin and testosterone had no effect on the spontaneous frequencies of micronuclei (MN) in bone-marrow cells, whereas thyroxine decreased these frequencies. The induction of MN by X-rays and mitomycin C was significantly lower in dwarf mice than in normal mice. Treatment with thyroxine plus growth hormone restored normal radiosensitivity in dwarfs. (orig.)

  7. The effects of increased testicular temperature on testis-specific isoform of Na+/K+ -ATPase in sperm and its role in spermatogenesis and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, J C; Rajamanickam, G D; Kastelic, J P; Newton, L D

    2012-08-01

    Impaired testicular thermoregulation is commonly implicated in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm function in animals and humans, with outcomes ranging from subclinical infertility to sterility. Bovine testes must be maintained 4-5 °C below body-core temperature for normal spermatogenesis. The effects of elevated testicular temperature have been extensively studied in cattle using a scrotal insulation model, which results in abnormal spermatogenesis and impaired sperm morphology and function. Using this model and proteomic approaches, we compared normal and abnormal sperm (from the same bulls) to elucidate the molecular basis of impaired function. We identified a cohort of sperm functional proteins differentially expressed between normal vs abnormal sperm, including a testis-specific isoform of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase. In addition to its role as a sodium pump regulating sperm motility, Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase is also involved as a signalling molecule during sperm capacitation. In conclusion, because of its involvement in regulation of sperm function, this protein has potential as a fertility marker. Furthermore, comparing normal vs abnormal sperm (induced by scrotal insulation) is a useful model for identifying proteins regulating sperm function. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Cytological evaluation of spermatogenesis: a novel and simple diagnostic method to assess spermatogenesis in non-obstructive azoospermia using testicular sperm extraction specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, M; de Vries, M; D'Hauwers, K W M; Fleischer, K; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C A; Braat, D D M; Ramos, L

    2015-05-01

    Most of the non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)-patients have only focal spermatogenesis which results in insufficient numbers of spermatozoa to reach the ejaculate. In ≈50% of these NOA-patients testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is successful and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is pursued. We studied whether (i) spermatogenesis can be evaluated by defining the ratios between Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes and spermatozoa in a testicular cell suspension, and (ii) these ratios are associated with the outcome of fertility treatment. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between June 2007 and August 2012. In this period, 441 consecutive ICSI-TESE cycles were performed in 212 couples. For each TESE biopsy, the ratios between Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes and spermatozoa were calculated. A control population of 32 vasectomized men was used to define cut-off values for complete spermatogenesis. Based on the pachytene to sperm ratio (P/Sp) and number of spermatozoa per 100 Sertoli cells (#Sp/100SC) groups were defined as complete spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis and partial maturation arrest (MA). Validation of the cytological diagnoses was performed by comparing the results of cytology to the histological evaluation of spermatogenesis in 40 cases. In 92.5%, a perfect match was observed and in the three remaining cases cytology corresponded well with the results of TESE. Couples with complete spermatogenesis have a higher ongoing pregnancy rate after the first treatment cycle compared to couples with hypospermatogenesis (34 vs. 16%; p = 0.02) and partial MA (34 vs. 19%; p = 0.11). In conclusion, pachytene spermatocytes, spermatozoa and Sertoli cells can be easily identified and counted in a cell suspension and their ratios can be successfully used to diagnose the level of spermatogenic impairment. This pilot study indicates that once successful spermatozoa retrieval is achieved, treatment outcome declines when spermatogenesis is

  9. New approaches to male non-hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nya-Ngatchou, Jean-Jacques; Amory, John K

    2013-03-01

    A non-hormonal male contraceptive is a contraceptive that does not involve the administration of hormones or hormone blockers. This review will focus on the use of lonidamine derivatives and inhibitors of retinoic acid biosynthesis and function as approaches to male non-hormonal contraception. Two current lonidamine derivatives, adjudin and H2-gamendazole, are in development as male contraceptives. These potent anti-spermatogenic compounds impair the integrity of the apical ectoplasmic specialization, resulting in premature spermiation and infertility. Another approach to male contraceptive development is the inhibition of retinoic acid in the testes, as retinoic acid signaling is necessary for spermatogenesis. The administration of the retinoic acid receptor antagonist BMS-189453 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in mice. Similarly, oral dosing of WIN 18,446, which inhibits testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis, effectively contracepts rabbits. Hopefully, one of these approaches to non-hormonal male contraception will prove to be safe and effective in future clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The contributions of adrenal hormones, hemodynamic factors, and the endotoxin-related stress reaction to stable prostaglandin analog-induced peripheral lymphopenia and neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, T R; Keys, M; Ni, R X; del Castillo, J; Dakay, E B

    1988-01-01

    Stable prostaglandin analogs are known to induce lymphopenia and neutrophilia in a dose-dependent fashion after subcutaneous injection in rats. The purpose of the present investigation is to determine whether the prostaglandin-induced changes in circulating leukocytes might be secondary to hypotension with the ensuing release of adrenal hormones. The adrenal medullary catecholamine epinephrine was found to induce neutrophilia in both intact and adrenalectomized rats, and the glucocorticosteroid analog dexamethasone induced a profound lymphopenia in rats as reported by previous investigators. A stable analog of PGF2 alpha (15-S-15-methyl PGF2 alpha; M-PGF2 alpha) at the dose of 1 mg/kg induced marked systemic hypotension 1 h after injection, with lymphopenia and neutrophilia 6 h after injection. The non-prostanoid hypotensive agent captopril, at a dose of 63 mg/kg, induced a hypotension of similar magnitude and kinetics to that induced by prostaglandin. Captopril also induced lymphopenia and neutrophilia at 6 h, although the neutrophilia was of lesser magnitude than that induced by prostaglandins. The prostaglandin-induced lymphopenia was found to be mediated, at least in part, by the hypotension-induced release of adrenal hormones, as evidenced by the abrogation of lymphopenia in prostaglandin-treated adrenalectomized rats. Captopril-treated adrenalectomized rats, however, did develop a significant lymphopenia, suggesting that hypotension can result in lymphopenia even in adrenalectomized rats. The M-PGF2 alpha-induced neutrophilia in adrenalectomized rats, by comparison to captopril-induced neutrophilia in adrenalectomized rats, was greater than the neutrophilia expected as the result of hypotension alone. Indeed, the M-PGF2 alpha-induced neutrophilia in adrenalectomized rats was greater than the captopril-induced neutrophilia in sham-adrenalectomized rats. Thus, a portion of the neutrophilia induced by M-PGF2 alpha in intact rats may be mediated through adrenal

  11. PLAG1 deficiency impairs spermatogenesis and sperm motility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Almas R; Grommen, Sylvia V H; O'Bryan, Moira K; O'Connor, Anne E; Merriner, D Jo; Hall, Nathan E; Doyle, Stephen R; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E; Barriga, Daniel; Hart, Adam H; Van de Ven, Wim J M; De Groef, Bert

    2017-07-13

    Deficiency in pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) leads to reduced fertility in male mice, but the mechanism by which PLAG1 contributes to reproduction is unknown. To investigate the involvement of PLAG1 in testicular function, we determined (i) the spatial distribution of PLAG1 in the testis using X-gal staining; (ii) transcriptomic consequences of PLAG1 deficiency in knock-out and heterozygous mice compared to wild-type mice using RNA-seq; and (iii) morphological and functional consequences of PLAG1 deficiency by determining testicular histology, daily sperm production and sperm motility in knock-out and wild-type mice. PLAG1 was sparsely expressed in germ cells and in Sertoli cells. Genes known to be involved in spermatogenesis were downregulated in the testes of knock-out mice, as well as Hsd17b3, which encodes a key enzyme in androgen biosynthesis. In the absence of Plag1, a number of genes involved in immune processes and epididymis-specific genes were upregulated in the testes. Finally, loss of PLAG1 resulted in significantly lowered daily sperm production, in reduced sperm motility, and in several animals, in sloughing of the germinal epithelium. Our results demonstrate that the subfertility seen in male PLAG1-deficient mice is, at least in part, the result of significantly reduced sperm output and sperm motility.

  12. Profiling of androgen response in rainbow trout pubertal testis: relevance to male gonad development and spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine D Rolland

    Full Text Available The capacity of testicular somatic cells to promote and sustain germ cell differentiation is largely regulated by sexual steroids and notably androgens. In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. Here we studied the influence of androgens on testicular gene expression in trout testis using microarrays. Following treatment of immature males with physiological doses of testosterone or 11-ketotestosterone, 418 genes that exhibit changes in expression were identified. Interestingly, the activity of testosterone appeared stronger than that of 11-ketotestosterone. Expression profiles of responsive genes throughout testis development and in isolated germ cells confirmed androgens to mainly affect gene expression in somatic cells. Furthermore, specific clusters of genes that exhibit regulation coincidently with changes in the natural circulating levels of androgens during the reproductive cycle were highlighted, reinforcing the physiological significance of these data. Among somatic genes, a phylogenetic footprinting study identified putative androgen response elements within the proximal promoter regions of 42 potential direct androgen target genes. Finally, androgens were also found to alter the germ line towards meiotic expression profiles, supporting the hypothesis of a role for the somatic responsive genes in driving germ cell fate. This study significantly increases our understanding of molecular pathways regulated by androgens in vertebrates. The highly cyclic testicular development in trout together with functions associated with regulated genes reveal potential mechanisms for androgen actions in tubule formation, steroid production, germ cell development and sperm secretion.

  13. Impact of melatonin supplementation in the rat spermatogenesis subjected to forced swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, A; Mokhtari, T; Hedayatpour, A; Abbaszadeh, H-A; Mohammadpour, S; Ramezanikhah, H; Shokri, S

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen consumption increases many times during exercise, which can increase reactive oxygen species. It negatively affects fertility in male athletes. Melatonin is exerting a regulatory role at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, there is no evidence that the protective effects of melatonin persist after long duration exercise on the spermatogenesis. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the impacts of melatonin on the testis following the administration of swimming exercise. Rats were separated into five different groups, including Control, sham M: received the solvent of melatonin, M: received melatonin, S: the exercise protocol, MS: received melatonin and the exercise protocol. After 8 weeks, animals were scarified and antioxidant enzymes levels of testes, spermatogenic cells apoptosis and sperm quality were measured. Swimming decreased all parameters of spermatozoa. Nevertheless, melatonin could significantly improve the progressive motility of spermatozoa in MS rats. Swimming caused an increased apoptosis of S group and decreased all antioxidant enzymes. Melatonin could drastically reduce apoptosis and increased these enzymes. Therefore, melatonin seems to induce the production of antioxidant enzymes of testicular tissues and diminish the extent of apoptotic changes caused by forced exercise on the testis, which can, in turn, ameliorate the sperm parameters. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Sensorimotor cortex ablation induces time-dependent response of ACTH cells in adult rats: behavioral, immunohistomorphometric and hormonal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrnja, Irena; Trifunovic, Svetlana; Ajdzanovic, Vladimir; Pekovic, Sanja; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Verica

    2014-02-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a serious event with far reaching complications, including pituitary dysfunction. Pars distalis corticotropes (ACTH cells), that represent the active module of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, seem to be affected as well. Since pituitary failure after TBI has been associated with neurobehavioral impairments the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TBI on recovery of motor functions, morphology and secretory activity of ACTH cells in the pituitary of adult rats. Wistar male rats, initially exposed to sensorimotor cortex ablation (SCA), were sacrificed at the 2nd, 7th, 14th and 30th days post-surgery (dps). A beam walking test was used to evaluate the recovery of motor functions. Pituitary glands and blood were collected for morphological and hormonal analyses. During the first two weeks post-injury increased recovery of locomotor function was detected, reaching almost the control value at day 30. SCA induces significant increase of pituitary weights compared to their time-matched controls. The volume of ACTH-immunopositive cells was reduced at the 7th dps, while at the 14th dps their volume was enlarged, in comparison to corresponding sham controls. Volume density of ACTH cells was increased only at 14th dps, while at day 30 this increase was insignificant. The plasma level of ACTH transiently increased after the injury. The most pronounced changes were observed at the 7th and 14th dps, and were followed by decrease toward control levels at the 30th dps. Thus, temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis after traumatic brain injury appear to correlate with the recovery process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behaviour in male and female rats: influence of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, L; Spano, M S; Altea, S; Fadda, P; Fratta, W

    2010-06-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that sex and hormones are key factors in modulating addiction. Previously, we have demonstrated that self-administration of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 12.5 microg.kg(-1) per infusion) is dependent on sex, intact female rats being more sensitive than males to the reinforcing properties of cannabinoids, and on the oestrous cycle, ovariectomized (OVX) females being less responsive than intact females. This follow-up study investigated whether sex and ovarian function also affect reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking in rats after exposure to drug or cue priming. After priming with 0.15 or 0.3 mg.kg(-1) WIN, intact female rats exhibited stronger reinstatement than males and OVX females. Responses of intact female rats were higher than those of male and OVX rats even after priming with a drug-associated visual (Light) or auditory (Tone) cue, or a WIN + Light combination. However, latency to the first response did not differ between intact and OVX female rats, and males showed the longest latency to initiate lever-pressing activity. Our study provides compelling evidence for a pivotal role of sex and the oestrous cycle in modulating cannabinoid-seeking, with ovariectomy diminishing drug and cue-induced reinstatement. However, it is possible that sex differences during self-administration training are responsible for sex differences in reinstatement. Finding that not only drug primings but also acute exposure to drug-associated cues can reinstate responding in rats could have significant implications for the development of pharmacological and behavioural treatments of abstinent female and male marijuana smokers.

  16. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gestational flu exposure induces changes in neurochemicals, affiliative hormones and brainstem inflammation, in addition to autism-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, V M; Zhu, Y; Bucher, C; McGinnis, W; Ryan, L K; Siegel, A; Zalcman, S

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism is increasing, however the etiology of these disorders is unclear and thought to involve a combination of genetic, environmental and immune factors. A recent epidemiological study found that gestational viral exposure during the first trimester increases risk of autism in offspring by twofold. In mice gestational viral exposures alter behavior of offspring, but the biological mechanisms which underpin these behavioral changes are unclear. We hypothesized that gestational viral exposure induces changes in affiliative hormones, brainstem autonomic nuclei and neurotransmitters which are associated with behavioral alterations in offspring. To address this hypothesis, we exposed pregnant mice to influenza A virus (H3N2) on gestational day 9 and determined behavioral, hormonal and brainstem changes in male and female offspring. We found that gestational flu exposure induced dose-dependent alterations in social and aggressive behaviors (p≤0.05) in male and female offspring and increases in locomotor behaviors particularly in male offspring (p≤0.05). We found that flu exposure was also associated with reductions in oxytocin and serotonin (p≤0.05) levels in male and female offspring and sex-specific changes in dopamine metabolism. In addition we found changes in catecholaminergic and microglia density in brainstem tissues of male flu exposed offspring only (p≤0.05). This study demonstrates that gestational viral exposure induces behavioral changes in mice, which are associated with alterations in affiliative hormones. In addition we found sex-specific changes in locomotor behavior, which may be associated with sex-specific alterations in dopamine metabolism and brainstem inflammation. Further investigations into maternal immune responses are necessary to unravel the molecular mechanisms which underpin abnormal hormonal, immune and behavioral responses in offspring after gestational viral exposure

  18. Stressed lungs: unveiling the role of circulating stress hormones in ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent work demonstrated that circulating stress hormones, epinephrine and corticosterone/cortisol, are involved in mediating ozone pulmonary effects through the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Adrenalectomy in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats diminished circu...

  19. Using an electrocautery strategy or recombinant follicle stimulating hormone to induce ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayram, Neriman; van Wely, Madelon; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2004-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of an electrocautery strategy with ovulation induction using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in patients with clomiphene resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Secondary and tertiary hospitals in the

  20. Growth hormone secretagogues prevent dysregulation of skeletal muscle calcium homeostasis in a rat model of cisplatin-induced cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Elena; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Mele, Antonietta; De Bellis, Michela; Pierno, Sabata; Rana, Francesco; Fonzino, Adriano; Caloiero, Roberta; Rizzi, Laura; Bresciani, Elena; Ben Haj Salah, Khoubaib; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; Giustino, Arcangela; Mariggiò, Maria Addolorata; Coluccia, Mauro; Tricarico, Domenico; Lograno, Marcello Diego; De Luca, Annamaria; Torsello, Antonio; Conte, Diana; Liantonio, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    Cachexia is a wasting condition associated with cancer types and, at the same time, is a serious and dose-limiting side effect of cancer chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle loss is one of the main characteristics of cachexia that significantly contributes to the functional muscle impairment. Calcium-dependent signaling pathways are believed to play an important role in skeletal muscle decline observed in cachexia, but whether intracellular calcium homeostasis is affected in this situation remains uncertain. Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS), a family of synthetic agonists of ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a), are being developed as a therapeutic option for cancer cachexia syndrome; however, the exact mechanism by which GHS interfere with skeletal muscle is not fully understood. By a multidisciplinary approach ranging from cytofluorometry and electrophysiology to gene expression and histology, we characterized the calcium homeostasis in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of adult rats with cisplatin-induced cachexia and established the potential beneficial effects of two GHS (hexarelin and JMV2894) at this level. Additionally, in vivo measures of grip strength and of ultrasonography recordings allowed us to evaluate the functional impact of GHS therapeutic intervention. Cisplatin-treated EDL muscle fibres were characterized by a ~18% significant reduction of the muscle weight and fibre diameter together with an up-regulation of atrogin1/Murf-1 genes and a down-regulation of Pgc1-a gene, all indexes of muscle atrophy, and by a two-fold increase in resting intracellular calcium, [Ca 2+ ] i , compared with control rats. Moreover, the amplitude of the calcium transient induced by caffeine or depolarizing high potassium solution as well as the store-operated calcium entry were ~50% significantly reduced in cisplatin-treated rats. Calcium homeostasis dysregulation parallels with changes of functional ex vivo (excitability and resting macroscopic conductance) and in

  1. Inhibition of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone-Induced Preovulatory Follicles in Rats Treated with a Nonsteroidal Negative Allosteric Modulator of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor1

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, James A.; Campo, Brice; Weaver, Barbara A.; Watts, Julie; Kluetzman, Kerri; Thomas, Richard M.; Bonnet, Béatrice; Mutel, Vincent; Poli, Sonia M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of FSHR (ADX61623) that blocked FSH-induced cAMP and progesterone production but did not block estradiol production. That FSHR NAM did not affect FSH-induced preovulatory follicle development as evidenced by the lack of an effect on the number of FSH-dependent oocytes found in the ampullae following ovulation with hCG. A goal is the development of a nonsteroidal contraceptive. Toward this end, a high-throughput screen using human F...

  2. A female survivor of childhood medulloblastoma presenting with growth-hormone-induced edema and inflammatory lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biassoni Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The improved survival of children with brain tumors has increased concerns about treatment-related sequelae. Growth hormone deficiency is frequently observed after craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. It has been widely reported that growth hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of second tumors, but there are reports in the literature of growth hormone, and its downstream mediator insulin-like Growth Factor 1, having an important proinflammatory action. There are few reports, however, on the "in-vivo" induction of edema and symptomatic inflammatory lesions during replacement therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old girl treated for metastatic medulloblastoma who developed growth hormone deficiency 2 years after oncological treatment. Three months after replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed exacerbation of her brain edema, which was already present after oncological treatment. We consequently suspended the growth hormone until a new magnetic resonance image obtained 3 months later documented a reduction of the inflammatory areas. We then re-introduced somatotropin at lower doses with no further increase in brain edema in subsequent radiological controls. Conclusion This case and its iconography suggest a strong association between growth hormone administration and the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions within the tumor bed. Replacement therapy should be carefully monitored in this particular subset of patients.

  3. Growth hormone receptor C-terminal domains required for growth hormone-induced intracellular free Ca2+ oscillations and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Bouchelouche, P; Allevato, G

    1995-01-01

    of varying frequency and amplitude. GH-induced transcription of the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 gene required the same C-terminal 52-amino acid domain of the receptor as for Ca2+ signaling. Mutation of the four proline residues in the conserved box 1 region of the GHR, which is responsible for binding...

  4. Changes in the biochemical composition of testes during spermatogenesis in Asterias vulgaris, with emphasis on the role of polyamines in regulating proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.F.

    1985-01-01

    Testes of Asterias vulgaris are potentially useful for investigating mechanisms regulating spermatogenic events because of their structural simplicity and annual spermatogenic cycle. Examination of major biochemical classes during the spermatogenic cycle provides a definition of the changing chemical microenvironment influencing germinal cells and also suggests temporal relationships among successive spermatogenic events. Testes from seastars collected throughout the year were homogenized and lyophilized and aliquots assayed for DNA, RNA, total protein, free amino acids, total lipids, glycogen, and other carbohydrates; spermatogenic stage was determined by examination of paraffin sections. Activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis, increases during the proliferative phase of spermatogenesis. Testicular ODC activity correlates well with DNA synthetic rate. To test the possible role of polyamines in regulating initiation of spermatogonial mitoses, intact testes near the beginning of the proliferative phase were incubated in vitro with exogenous polyamines. They subsequently showed a significant increase in incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA. These results suggest a direct role for polyamines in the regulation of spermatogenic proliferation in a. vulgaris. Evidence for a regulatory role of polyamines in the initiation of proliferation, together with existing information on the environmental, hormonal, and cytological interactions, facilitates development of a preliminary model for regulation and entrainment of spermatogenesis

  5. Impact of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea in breast cancer patients: the evaluation of ovarian function by menstrual history and hormonal levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA) is one of the most frequent therapy-related adverse events observed in breast cancer patients who have undergone chemotherapy. Although the characteristics of CIA have been studied in Western countries, little is known about CIA in Asian. We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the characteristics and influencing factors of CIA and its association with menopause in Chinese women who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods Seventy-three premenopausal women who underwent adjuvant chemotherapy for early stage (stages I to III) breast cancer were analyzed. Patient clinical characteristics, treatment regimes, menstrual information, and serum hormone values were collected retrospectively. Characteristic factors relevant to the onset of CIA and menopause were also estimated. Results Approximately 83.6% of patients developed CIA. Older patients (>40 years old) had higher CIA incidence compared with younger patients (P amenorrhea as determined by menstrual history and hormone levels (P = 0.0028). In women aged 46 to 49 years, the beginning of permanent amenorrhea was detected earlier via the clinical method than via the hormonal method (2 months versus 23 months, P amenorrhea was 19 months in the hormonal test and 2 months in the clinical test (P = 0.0112). Conclusions Age at diagnosis is a predictor of the onset of amenorrhea and transformation into menopause among premenopausal breast cancer patients. Adjuvant tamoxifen therapy substantially affects the onset of menopause. A delay of the onset of serum hormone postmenopausal status was observed compared with clinical symptoms. This interval was approximately 21 months in patients aged 46 to 49 years and 17 months in patients aged over 50 years. This interval is significant in the clinical estimate of the menstrual status. PMID:23688389

  6. The outcome of ART in males with impaired spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Mangoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART procedures, viz., intrauterine insemination (IUI, in vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in males with impaired spermatogenesis. Settings and Design: The subjects of the study were infertile couples who were undergoing ART treatment due to male factor indications. The project was designed to correlate the outcome of the ART treatment and its efficacy in different study groups. Methods: Males were grouped as: 1. oligozoospermia (n = 153, 2. asthenoteratozoospermia (n = 158, 3. obstructive azoospermia (n = 110 and 4. nonobstructive azoospermia (n = 58. Patients from groups 1 and 2 were considered for IUI, IVF and ICSI. Those from group 3 were considered for IVF and ICSI and the 4th group underwent only ICSI treatment. Results: Oligozoospermia showed lower pregnancy rates with IUI than with both IVF and ICSI. An average minimum native and postharvest count was obtained to get an acceptable IUI outcome. Asthenoteratozoospermia had the lowest pregnancy rate with IUI as compared to IVF, whereas ICSI showed significantly higher pregnancy rates in this group. Obstructive azoospermia showed significant improvement with ICSI over IVF. In nonobstructive azoospermia, ICSI resulted in a 27.58% pregnancy rate. Conclusion: The IUI outcome was impressive though less effective whereas there was no difference between the IVF and ICSI outcomes in oligozoospermia. In asthenoteratozoospermia, ICSI showed a significant advantage over IUI and IVF, with IUI resulting in poor outcome in this group. In obstructive azoospermia, ICSI had a distinct advantage over IVF whereas in nonobstructive azoospermia, ICSI, the only option, was found to be effective and helpful in achieving an acceptable pregnancy rate.

  7. NR4A1 (Nur77 mediates thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced stimulation of transcription of the thyrotropin β gene: analysis of TRH knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Nakajima

    Full Text Available Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH is a major stimulator of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH synthesis in the anterior pituitary, though precisely how TRH stimulates the TSHβ gene remains unclear. Analysis of TRH-deficient mice differing in thyroid hormone status demonstrated that TRH was critical for the basal activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone of the TSHβ gene. cDNA microarray and K-means cluster analyses with pituitaries from wild-type mice, TRH-deficient mice and TRH-deficient mice with thyroid hormone replacement revealed that the largest and most consistent decrease in expression in the absence of TRH and on supplementation with thyroid hormone was shown by the TSHβ gene, and the NR4A1 gene belonged to the same cluster as and showed a similar expression profile to the TSHβ gene. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that NR4A1 was expressed not only in ACTH- and FSH- producing cells but also in thyrotrophs and the expression was remarkably reduced in TRH-deficient pituitary. Furthermore, experiments in vitro demonstrated that incubation with TRH in GH4C1 cells increased the endogenous NR4A1 mRNA level by approximately 50-fold within one hour, and this stimulation was inhibited by inhibitors for PKC and ERK1/2. Western blot analysis confirmed that TRH increased NR4A1 expression within 2 h. A series of deletions of the promoter demonstrated that the region between bp -138 and +37 of the TSHβ gene was responsible for the TRH-induced stimulation, and Chip analysis revealed that NR4A1 was recruited to this region. Conversely, knockdown of NR4A1 by siRNA led to a significant reduction in TRH-induced TSHβ promoter activity. Furthermore, TRH stimulated NR4A1 promoter activity through the TRH receptor. These findings demonstrated that 1 TRH is a highly specific regulator of the TSHβ gene, and 2 TRH mediated induction of the TSHβ gene, at least in part by sequential stimulation of the NR4A1-TSHβ genes through a PKC and

  8. Longitudinal changes in reproductive hormones and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: abrupt transition to exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Caston-Balderrama, A L; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Nosbisch, C; Cameron, J L

    2001-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes in reproductive function that occur with strenuous exercise training. Using the female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), we documented changes in menstrual cyclicity and patterns of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone secretion as the animals developed exercise-induced amenorrhea. As monkeys gradually increased running to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/day, body weight did not change significantly although food intake remained constant. The time spent training until amenorrhea developed varied widely among animals (7-24 months; mean = 14.3 +/- 2.2 months) and was not correlated with initial body weight, training distance, or food intake. Consistent changes in function of the reproductive axis occurred abruptly, one to two menstrual cycles before the development of amenorrhea. These included significant declines in plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, an increase in follicular phase length, and a decrease in luteal phase progesterone secretion. These data document a high level of interindividual variability in the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction, delineate the progression of changes in reproductive hormone secretion that occur with exercise training, and illustrate an abrupt transition from normal cyclicity to an amenorrheic state in exercising individuals, that is not necessarily associated with weight loss.

  9. A hormone pulse induces transient changes in the subcellular distribution and leads to a lysosomal accumulation of the estradiol receptor alpha in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualmann, B; Kessels, M M; Thole, H H; Sierralta, W D

    2000-06-01

    An intrauterine pulse-stimulation with estradiol induced changes in the subcellular localization of estrogen receptor alpha in porcine endometrium, as detected with F(ab') fragments of various anti-receptor antibodies covalently linked to nanogold. The low-sterically hindered immunoreagents--recognizing different epitopes within the hormone binding domain--allowed for an efficient immunolabeling of estradiol receptor alpha, detecting it both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of nonstimulated epithelium cells. In the cytoplasm, the receptor often seemed to be associated with actin filaments and the endoplasmatic reticulum. After the stimulation with estradiol, a predominantly nuclear localization and a labeling of nucleoli was observed. Our immunoelectron microscopy study demonstrates a localization of the receptor in cytoplasmic organelles that increased after the hormone pulse. These organelles exhibited the morphological properties of lysosomes and relocated to the perinuclear area. In analogous cytoplasmic organelles, the presence of cathepsin D was detected via indirect immunogold labeling, justifying their classification as lysosomes. Quantitative examinations revealed that not only the number of lysosomes in the proximity of the nucleus but also their immunostaining for estradiol receptor alpha increased significantly after the hormone pulse. Thus, estradiol induces both the rapid shift of receptor into the nucleus, a slower perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes and an increase of lysosomal ERalpha-immunoreactivity. These results suggest a role for lysosomes in the degradation of receptor shuttling out of the nucleus. This could serve as termination of the estradiol receptor alpha-dependent activation of target cells. This hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that the receptor content in uterine tissue declined drastically few hours after the hormone pulse.

  10. After-ripening induced transcriptional changes of hormonal genes in wheat seeds: the cases of brassinosteroids, ethylene, cytokinin and salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R Chitnis

    Full Text Available Maintenance and release of seed dormancy is regulated by plant hormones; their levels and seed sensitivity being the critical factors. This study reports transcriptional regulation of brassinosteroids (BR, ethylene (ET, cytokinin (CK and salicylic acid (SA related wheat genes by after-ripening, a period of dry storage that decays dormancy. Changes in the expression of hormonal genes due to seed after-ripening did not occur in the anhydrobiotic state but rather in the hydrated state. After-ripening induced dormancy decay appears to be associated with imbibition mediated increase in the synthesis and signalling of BR, via transcriptional activation of de-etiolated2, dwarf4 and brassinosteroid signaling kinase, and repression of brassinosteroid insensitive 2. Our analysis is also suggestive of the significance of increased ET production, as reflected by enhanced transcription of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in after-ripened seeds, and tight regulation of seed response to ET in regulating dormancy decay. Differential transcriptions of lonely guy, zeatin O-glucosyltransferases and cytokinin oxidases, and pseudo-response regulator between dormant and after-ripened seeds implicate CK in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Our analysis also reflects the association of dormancy decay in wheat with seed SA level and NPR independent SA signaling that appear to be regulated transcriptionally by phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and whirly and suppressor of npr1 inducible1 genes, respectively. Co-expression clustering of the hormonal genes implies the significance of synergistic and antagonistic interaction between the different plant hormones in regulating wheat seed dormancy. These results contribute to further our understanding of the molecular features controlling seed dormancy in wheat.

  11. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Najimi, Seyedeh Asma; Farbood, Yaghoob

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with the loss of endocrine function. In this study, Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex), which has antioxidant effects and high levels of phytoestrogen, was investigated with regard to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and antioxidant indices in natural aging and in a d-galactose induced aging model in female mice. The mice were subcutaneously injected with d-galactose (500 mg/kg/d for 45 days). Extract of Vitex (600 mg/kg/bid for 7 days by gavage) was used to treat d-galactose-induced aging and natural aging in mice. Seventy-two female NMRI mice (48 3-month-old normal mice and 24 18-24-month-old mice), weighing 30-35 g were randomly divided into six groups: control, Vitex, d-galactose, Vitex + d-galactose, Aging, and Vitex + Aging. The antioxidant indices and sex hormone levels were subsequently measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Body weight and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels were significantly increased in the d-galactose aging and natural aging groups, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and estrogen level were significantly decreased in these same groups. d-Galactose can also disrupt the estrous cycle and damage the uterus and ovarian tissues. Vitex could effectively attenuate these alterations. Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  12. Endocrine testicular function and spermatogenesis persist in calves after partial scrotal resection but not Burdizzo castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieler, D; Wohlsein, P; Peinhopf, W; Aurich, J E; Erber, R; Ille, N; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2014-06-01

    Bull calves for fattening are often castrated during the first weeks of life. Because androgens stimulate growth, there is an interest in males that are infertile but exposed to endogenous testicular steroids. Such a situation occurs in cryptorchids and has been imitated by shortening the scrotum to an extent that the testes are located in a near-inguinal position. In this study, effects of partial scrotal resection (SR) and Burdizzo castration (BZ) on endocrine testicular function, testes histology and on weight at slaughter were studied and compared to orchidectomized (OR) and gonad-intact calves (CO; n = 10 per group; age at castration, 54 ± 3 days; fattening period, 474 ± 11 days). Plasma testosterone concentrations were determined repeatedly, and testes were collected for histopathology at slaughter. We hypothesized that SR inhibits spermatogenesis without loss of testicular steroidogenesis. Group SR animals gained more weight than groups OR and BZ (P < 0.01). Plasma testosterone concentration increased in groups SR and CO (P < 0.01 vs. BZ and OR). Histologically, in all SR animals, testicular and epididymal tissue was identified with a seminiferous epithelium of up to three-cell layers in two animals. Germ cells including elongated spermatids were present in three animals. Shortening of the scrotum thus induced varying degrees of testicular degeneration but 3/10 animals had to be suspected as fertile. In one BZ animal, spermatids were identified whereas in the remaining BZ animals, testes and epididymides consisted of sclerotic fibrous tissue. Partial SR thus induced a cryptorchid-like status but fertility in individual animals must be assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroendocrine circuitry and endometriosis: progesterone derivative dampens corticotropin-releasing hormone-induced inflammation by peritoneal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariverdian, Nadja; Rücke, Mirjam; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Blois, Sandra M; Karpf, Eva F; Sedlmayr, Peter; Klapp, Burghard F; Kentenich, Heribert; Siedentopf, Friederike; Arck, Petra C

    2010-03-01

    Clinical symptoms of endometriosis, such as pain and infertility, can be described as persistent stressors. Such continuous exposure to stress may severely affect the equilibrium and bidirectional communication of the endocrine and immune system, hereby further aggravating the progression of endometriosis. In the present study, we aimed to tease apart mediators that are involved in the stress response as well as in the progression of endometriosis. Women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy due to infertility were recruited (n = 69). Within this cohort, early stage of endometriosis were diagnosed in n = 30 and advanced stage of endometriosis in n = 8. Levels of progesterone in serum were determined. Frequency of progesterone receptor (PR) expression on CD56(+) and CD8(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was analysed by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-10 by peritoneal leukocytes upon stimulation with the potent stress mediator corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the progesterone derivative dydrogesterone, or both, were evaluated. Furthermore, the production of progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) by peritoneal leukocytes and the expression of PR in endometriotic tissue were investigated. Levels of progesterone in serum were decreased in women with endometriosis and inversely correlated to pain scores. Furthermore, an increased frequency of CD56(+)PR(+) and CD8(+)PR(+) peritoneal lymphocytes was present in advanced endometriosis. The TNF/IL-10 ratio, reflecting cytokine secretion by peritoneal cells, was higher in cells derived from endometriosis patients and could be further heightened by CRH stimulation, whereas stimulation with dydrogesterone abrogated the CRH-mediated inflammation. Finally, the expression of PIBF by peritoneal leukocytes was increased in endometriosis. Low levels of progesterone in the follicular phase could be responsible for the progression of endometriosis and related pain. Peripheral CRH

  14. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on radiation induced and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate enhanced radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.; Umans, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the interactions of glucocorticoid hormones with radiation in the induction of transformation in vitro in C3AH10T1/2 cells. We have observed that cortisone has its primary enhancing effect on radiation transformation when present after the radiation exposure during the ''expression period'', or the time after carcinogen exposure during which promoting agents have been shown to enhance radiation transformation in vitro, and that two different glucocorticoid hormones, dexamethasone and cortisone, have a suppressive effect on the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) enhancement of radiation transformation in vitro

  15. Intermedin attenuates LPS-induced inflammation in the rat testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    Full Text Available First reported as a vasoactive peptide in the cardiovascular system, intermedin (IMD, also known as adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2, is a hormone with multiple potent roles, including its antioxidant action on the pulmonary, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Though IMD may play certain roles in trophoblast cell invasion, early embryonic development and cumulus cell-oocyte interaction, the role of IMD in the male reproductive system has yet to be investigated. This paper reports our findings on the gene expression of IMD, its receptor components and its protein localization in the testes. In a rat model, bacterial lippolysaccharide (LPS induced atypical orchitis, and LPS treatment upregulated the expression of IMD and one of its receptor component proteins, i.e. receptor activity modifying protein 2 (RAMP2. IMD decreased both plasma and testicular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS production, attenuated the increase in the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6 and interleukin 1 beta (IL1β, rescued spermatogenesis, and prevented the decrease in plasma testosterone levels caused by LPS. The restorative effect of IMD on steroidogenesis was also observed in hydrogen peroxide-treated rat primary Leydig cells culture. Our results indicate IMD plays an important protective role in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, suggesting therapeutic potential for IMD in pathological conditions such as orchitis.

  16. Inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone-induced preovulatory follicles in rats treated with a nonsteroidal negative allosteric modulator of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, James A; Campo, Brice; Weaver, Barbara A; Watts, Julie; Kluetzman, Kerri; Thomas, Richard M; Bonnet, Béatrice; Mutel, Vincent; Poli, Sonia M

    2014-01-01

    We previously described a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of FSHR (ADX61623) that blocked FSH-induced cAMP and progesterone production but did not block estradiol production. That FSHR NAM did not affect FSH-induced preovulatory follicle development as evidenced by the lack of an effect on the number of FSH-dependent oocytes found in the ampullae following ovulation with hCG. A goal is the development of a nonsteroidal contraceptive. Toward this end, a high-throughput screen using human FSHR identified an additional nonsteroidal small molecule (ADX68692). Although ADX68692 behaved like ADX61623 in inhibiting production of cAMP and progesterone, it also inhibited FSH-induced estradiol in an in vitro rat granulosa primary cell culture bioassay. When immature, noncycling female rats were injected subcutaneously or by oral dosing prior to exogenous FSH administration, it was found that ADX68692 decreased the number of oocytes recovered from the ampullae. The estrous cycles of mature female rats were disrupted by administration by oral gavage of 25 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg ADX68692. In the highest dose tested (25 mg/kg), 55% of animals cohabited with mature males had implantation sites compared to 33% in the 10 mg/kg group and 77% in the control group. A surprising finding was that a structural analog ADX68693, while effectively blocking progesterone production with similar efficacy as ADX68692, did not block estrogen production and despite better oral availability did not decrease the number of oocytes found in the ampullae even when used at 100 mg/kg. These data demonstrate that because of biased antagonism of the FSHR, nonsteroidal contraception requires that both arms of the FSHR steroidogenic pathway must be effectively blocked, particularly estrogen biosynthesis. Thus, a corollary to these findings is that it seems reasonable to propose that the estrogen-dependent diseases such as endometriosis may benefit from inhibition of FSH action at the ovary using the FSHR

  17. Leydig cell micronodules are a common finding in testicular biopsies from men with impaired spermatogenesis and are associated with decreased testosterone/LH ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2003-01-01

    To assess the biological significance of Leydig cell 'hyperplasia' in man, Leydig cell distribution, volume, and function were studied in patients with infertility or testicular cancer and in suddenly deceased controls. A total of 156 biopsies from 95 patients and 18 necropsies from 13 controls......), and were rare in testes from controls (median = 0, p = 0.02). The proportion of testicular tissue occupied by Leydig cells increased with decreasing spermatogenic capacity. In contrast, the total volume of Leydig cells per testis was roughly comparable irrespective of the histological pattern...... in the hyperstimulated testes, as reflected by an increased LH/testosterone ratio. In conclusion, Leydig cell micronodules were more frequent in biopsies with impaired spermatogenesis and associated with decreased ratios of testicular hormones to gonadotrophins. The presence of micronodules thus seems...

  18. Hormone action. Part I. Peptide hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaumer, L.; O'Malley, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    The major sections of this book on the hormonal action of peptide hormones cover receptor assays, identification of receptor proteins, methods for identification of internalized hormones and hormone receptors, preparation of hormonally responsive cells and cell hybrids, purification of membrane receptors and related techniques, assays of hormonal effects and related functions, and antibodies in hormone action

  19. Developmental and hormone-induced changes of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzyme activities during the last instar larval development of maize stem borer, Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenkatRao, V; Chaitanya, R K; Naresh Kumar, D; Bramhaiah, M; Dutta-Gupta, A

    2016-12-01

    The energy demand for structural remodelling in holometabolous insects is met by cellular mitochondria. Developmental and hormone-induced changes in the mitochondrial respiratory activity during insect metamorphosis are not well documented. The present study investigates activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) namely, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I, Succinate: ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex II, Ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase or complex III, cytochrome c oxidase or complex IV and F 1 F 0 ATPase (ATPase), during Chilo partellus development. Further, the effect of juvenile hormone (JH) analog, methoprene, and brain and corpora-allata-corpora-cardiaca (CC-CA) homogenates that represent neurohormones, on the ETC enzyme activities was monitored. The enzymatic activities increased from penultimate to last larval stage and thereafter declined during pupal development with an exception of ATPase which showed high enzyme activity during last larval and pupal stages compared to the penultimate stage. JH analog, methoprene differentially modulated ETC enzyme activities. It stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities, but did not alter the activities of complex II, III and ATPase. On the other hand, brain homogenate declined the ATPase activity while the injected CC-CA homogenate stimulated complex I and IV enzyme activities. Cumulatively, the present study is the first to show that mitochondrial ETC enzyme system is under hormone control, particularly of JH and neurohormones during insect development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Diet- and hormone-induced reversal of the carbamoylphosphate synthetase mRNA gradient in the rat liver lobulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, A. F.; de Boer, P. A.; Charles, R.; Lamers, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    A hybridocytochemical analysis of adult liver from normal control and from hormonally and dietary-treated rats was carried out, using radioactively-labelled probes for the mRNAs of glutamine synthetase (GS), carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). In line

  1. Diet-Induced Growth Is Regulated via Acquired Leptin Resistance and Engages a Pomc-Somatostatin-Growth Hormone Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Löhr

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca. In turn, this leads to reduced activation of hypophysiotropic somatostatin (Sst-neurons that express the melanocortin receptor Mc4r, elevated growth hormone (GH expression in the pituitary, and enhanced somatic growth. Mc4r expression and αMSH responsiveness are conserved in Sst-expressing hypothalamic neurons of mice. Thus, acquired leptin resistance and attenuation of pomca transcription in response to excessive caloric intake may represent an ancient mechanism to promote somatic growth when food resources are plentiful. : The melanocortin system controls energy homeostasis and somatic growth, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. Löhr et al. identify a functional neural circuit in which Pomc neurons stimulate hypothalamic somatostatin neurons, thereby inhibiting hypophyseal growth hormone production. Excessive feeding and acquired leptin resistance attenuate this pathway, allowing faster somatic growth when food resources are rich. Keywords: Pomc neuron, somatostatin neuron, somatic growth, growth hormone, melanocortin system, high-fat diet, obesity, leptin resistance, zebrafish, mouse

  2. Temperature induced variation in gene expression of thyroid hormone receptors and deiodinases of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Servili, A.; Mazurais, D.

    2018-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of growth, development, and metabolism in vertebrates and influence early life development of fish. TH is produced in the thyroid gland (or thyroid follicles) mainly as T4 (thyroxine), which is metabolized to T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine) and T2 (3...

  3. Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and inactivation are differently modulated by oral fat and protein in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, P Thomas; Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2006-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid (OA), and certain milk proteins, especially whey protein (WP), have insulinotropic effects and can reduce postprandial glycemia. This effect may involve the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like pepti...

  4. Adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of Pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřa, J.; Krishnan, Natraj; Alquicer, Glenda; Kodrík, Dalibor; Socha, Radomír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 146, - (2007), s. 336-342 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/07/0788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : adipokinetic hormone * antioxidant activity * oxidative stress Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.345, year: 2007

  5. Preservation of active incretin hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV suppresses meal-induced incretin secretion in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Wamberg, S; Bie, P

    2002-01-01

    protection has not been fully assessed, largely because suitable assays which distinguish between intact and degraded peptides have been unavailable. Using newly developed assays for intact GLP-1 and GIP, the effect of DPP IV inhibition on incretin hormone metabolism was examined. Conscious dogs were given...

  6. Regulation of wheat seed dormancy by after-ripening is mediated by specific transcriptional switches that induce changes in seed hormone metabolism and signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu

    Full Text Available Treatments that promote dormancy release are often correlated with changes in seed hormone content and/or sensitivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of after-ripening (seed dry storage in triggering hormone related changes and dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum, temporal expression patterns of genes related to abscisic acid (ABA, gibberellin (GA, jasmonate and indole acetic acid (IAA metabolism and signaling, and levels of the respective hormones were examined in dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. After-ripening mediated developmental switch from dormancy to germination appears to be associated with declines in seed sensitivity to ABA and IAA, which are mediated by transcriptional repressions of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2C, SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, ABA INSENSITIVE5 and LIPID PHOSPHATE PHOSPHTASE2, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR and RELATED TO UBIQUITIN1 genes. Transcriptomic analysis of wheat seed responsiveness to ABA suggests that ABA inhibits the germination of wheat seeds partly by repressing the transcription of genes related to chromatin assembly and cell wall modification, and activating that of GA catabolic genes. After-ripening induced seed dormancy decay in wheat is also associated with the modulation of seed IAA and jasmonate contents. Transcriptional control of members of the ALLENE OXIDE SYNTHASE, 3-KETOACYL COENZYME A THIOLASE, LIPOXYGENASE and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE gene families appears to regulate seed jasmonate levels. Changes in the expression of GA biosynthesis genes, GA 20-OXIDASE and GA 3-OXIDASE, in response to after-ripening implicate this hormone in enhancing dormancy release and germination. These findings have important implications in the dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy in cereals.

  7. Female Sex Hormones Influence the Febrile Response Induced by Lipopolysaccharide, Cytokines and Prostaglandins but not by Interleukin-1β in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, H O; Radulski, D R; Wilhelms, D B; Stojakovic, A; Brito, L M O; Engblom, D; Franco, C R C; Zampronio, A R

    2016-10-01

    There are differences in the immune response, and particularly fever, between males and females. In the present study, we investigated how the febrile responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and different endogenous pyrogens were affected by female gonadal hormones. The febrile response to i.p. injection of LPS (50 μg/kg) was 40% lower in female rats compared to male or ovariectomised (OVX) female rats. Accordingly, oestrogen replacement in OVX animals reduced LPS-induced fever. Treatment with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (2 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before) reduced the febrile response induced by LPS in both OVX (88%) and sham-operated (71%) rats. In line with the enhanced fever in OVX rats, there was increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the hypothalamus and elevated levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). In addition, OVX rats were hyper-responsive to PGE 2 injected i.c.v. By contrast to the enhanced fever in response to LPS and PGE 2 , the febrile response induced by i.c.v. injection of interleukin (IL)-1β was unaffected by ovariectomy, whereas the responses induced by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α were completely abrogated. These results suggest that the mediators involved in the febrile response in females are similar to males, although the reduction of female hormones may decrease the responsiveness of some mediators such as TNF-α and MIP-1α. Compensatory mechanisms may be activated in females after ovariectomy such as an augmented synthesis of COX-2 and PGE 2 . © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  9. Dual effect of melatonin on gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-induced Ca(2+) signaling in neonatal rat gonadotropes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Vaněček, Jiří

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 4 (2001), s. 262-269 ISSN 0028-3835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/99/0213; GA ČR GA309/99/0215; GA AV ČR IAA5011103; GA AV ČR IAA5011105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : melatonin * gonadotropin-release hormone * calcium Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 2.144, year: 2001

  10. The hormone response element mimic sequence of GAS5 lncRNA is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Mark R.; Williams, Gwyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) lncRNA promotes apoptosis, and its expression is down-regulated in breast cancer. GAS5 lncRNA is a decoy of glucocorticoid/related receptors; a stem-loop sequence constitutes the GAS5 hormone response element mimic (HREM), which is essential for the regulation of breast cancer cell apoptosis. This preclinical study aimed to determine if the GAS5 HREM sequence alone promotes the apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Nucleofection of hormone-sensitive and –insensitive breast cancer cell lines with a GAS5 HREM DNA oligonucleotide increased both basal and ultraviolet-C-induced apoptosis, and decreased culture viability and clonogenic growth, similar to GAS5 lncRNA. The HREM oligonucleotide demonstrated similar sequence specificity to the native HREM for its functional activity and had no effect on endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Certain chemically modified HREM oligonucleotides, notably DNA and RNA phosphorothioates, retained pro-apoptotic. activity. Crucially the HREM oligonucleotide could overcome apoptosis resistance secondary to deficient endogenous GAS5 lncRNA levels. Thus, the GAS5 lncRNA HREM sequence alone is sufficient to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells, including triple-negative breast cancer cells. These findings further suggest that emerging knowledge of structure/function relationships in the field of lncRNA biology can be exploited for the development of entirely novel, oligonucleotide mimic-based, cancer therapies. PMID:26862727

  11. Effect of Acarbose, Sitagliptin and combination therapy on blood glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone concentrations in experimentally induced postprandial hyperglycemia of healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akihiro; Ueda, Kaori; Lee, Peter; Oda, Hitomi; Ishioka, Katsumi; Arai, Toshiro; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-06-01

    Acarbose (AC) and Sitagliptin (STGP) are oral hypoglycemic agents currently used either alone or in conjunction with human diabetic (Type 2) patients. AC has been used with diabetic cats, but not STGP thus far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the potential use of AC or STGP alone and in combination for diabetic cats, by observing their effect on short-term post-prandial serum glucose, insulin, and incretin hormone (active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)) concentrations in five healthy cats, following ingestion of a meal with maltose. All treatments tended (pglucose area under the curve (AUC), with an accompanying significant reduction (pAUC as compared to no treatment. Meanwhile, a significant increase (pAUC was observed with STGP (100% higher) and combined treatment (130% greater), as compared to either AC or no treatment. Lastly, a significant reduction (pAUC was observed with STGP (21% reduction) and combined treatment (7% reduction) as compared to control. Overall, AC, STGP, or combined treatment can significantly induce positive post-prandial changes to insulin and incretin hormone levels of healthy cats. Increasing active GLP-1 and reducing postprandial hyperglycemia appear to be the principal mechanisms of combined treatment. Considering the different, but complementary mechanisms of action by which AC and STGP induce lower glucose and insulin levels, combination therapy with both these agents offers great potential for treating diabetic cats in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing of thyrotropin-releasing hormone prohormone (pro-TRH) generates a biologically active peptide, prepro-TRH-(160-169), which regulates TRH-induced thyrotropin secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulant, M.; Vaudry, H.; Roussel, J.P.; Astier, H.; Nicolas, P.

    1990-01-01

    Rat thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) prohormone contains five copies of the TRH progenitor sequence Gln-His-Pro-Gly linked together by connecting sequences whose biological activity is unknown. Both the predicted connecting peptide prepro-TRH-(160-169) (Ps4) and TRH are predominant storage forms of TRH precursor-related peptides in the hypothalamus. To determine whether Ps4 is co-released with TRH, rat median eminence slices were perfused in vitro. Infusion of depolarizing concentrations of KCl induced stimulation of release of Ps4- and TRH-like immunoreactivity. The possible effect of Ps4 on thyrotropin release was investigated in vitro using quartered anterior pituitaries. Infusion of Ps4 alone had no effect on thyrotropin secretion but potentiated TRH-induced thyrotropin release in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the occurrence of specific binding sites for 125 I-labeled Tyr-Ps4 in the distal lobe of the pituitary was demonstrated by binding analysis and autoradiographic localization. These findings indicate that these two peptides that arise from a single multifunctional precursor, the TRH prohormone, act in a coordinate manner on the same target cells to promote hormonal secretion. These data suggest that differential processing of the TRH prohormone may have the potential to modulate the biological activity of TRH

  13. Amenorrhea secondary to a vismodegib-induced blockade of follicle-stimulating hormone-receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasswimmer, John; Latimer, Benjamin; Ory, Steven

    2014-08-01

    To report a novel mechanism suggestive of early ovarian failure secondary to the anti-tumor hedgehog-pathway inhibitor vismodegib. Case report and literature review. Academic and private dermatology and fertility practices. A 34-year-old nulliparous woman with locally advanced basal cell carcinomas who became amenorrheic while receiving oral therapy with vismodegib. Physical examination and endocrine evaluation. Elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and low estrogen in the setting of a normal anti-Müllerian hormone. FSH was elevated; estrogen was low. Preantral follicles were detected and anti-Müllerian hormone activity was normal. Menses resumed 5 weeks after cessation of therapy. Vismodegib, a first-in-class inhibitor of the hedgehog signaling pathway is indicated for advanced basal cell carcinoma and is associated with amenorrhea. The mechanism is unknown; it has some features of ovarian failure but preserves ovarian potential through blockading of FSH-receptor-dependent signal transduction. This effect appears to be rapidly reversible upon cessation of therapy. Vismodegib and related compounds may have potential for a role in intervention for gynecologic and endocrine disorders and in therapy for other issues involving FSH-dependent function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Male hormonal contraception: past, present, future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Hegyi, Borbála Eszter; Badó, Attila; Németh, Gábor

    2017-11-01

    In certain regions of the world the enormous rate of population growth raises economic and public health concerns and widely accessible contraceptive methods would be desired. In contrast, in other countries the use of effective contraception is a question of individual preferences. Today, most of the reliable contraceptive methods are applied by women, while the options for male methods are quite limited. It is well known that significant portion of pregnancies are still unplanned and several data revealed men's willingness to take part in family planning. Based on these needs, remarkable efforts have been made to develop a suitable hormonal contraceptive agent for men. With the exogenous suppression of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion, the inhibition of the testicular testosterone production and the spermatogenesis can be achieved. In the beginning, testosterone-derivatives, or testosterone-progestin combinations were administered, later synthetic androgen agents were developed. Despite of these efforts, unfortunately, there is no safe, widely feasible male hormonal contraception to date, but in the future this goal can be achieved by solving the key hurdles. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(46): 1819-1830.

  15. Responsiveness to Thyroid Hormone and to Ambient Temperature Underlies Differences Between Brown Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Cintia B.; Olivares, Emerson L.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone accelerates energy expenditure (EE) and is critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. To define the metabolic role played by thyroid hormone in the dissipation of calories from diet, hypothyroid mice were studied for 60 d in a comprehensive lab animal monitoring system. Hypothyroidism decreased caloric intake and body fat while down-regulating genes in the skeletal muscle but not brown adipose tissue thermogenic programs, without affecting daily EE. Only at thermoneutrality (30 C) did hypothyroid mice exhibit slower rate of EE, indicating a metabolic response to hypothyroidism that depends on ambient temperature. A byproduct of this mechanism is that at room temperature (22 C), hypothyroid mice are protected against diet-induced obesity, i.e. only at thermoneutrality did hypothyroid mice become obese when placed on a high-fat diet (HFD). This is in contrast to euthyroid controls, which on a HFD gained more body weight and fat at any temperature while activating the brown adipose tissue and accelerating daily EE but not the skeletal muscle thermogenic program. In the liver of euthyroid controls, HFD caused an approximately 5-fold increase in triglyceride content and expression of key metabolic genes, whereas acclimatization to 30 C cut triglyceride content by half and normalized gene expression. However, in hypothyroid mice, HFD-induced changes in liver persisted at 30 C, resulting in marked liver steatosis. Acclimatization to thermoneutrality dramatically improves glucose homeostasis, but this was not affected by hypothyroidism. In conclusion, hypothyroid mice are metabolically sensitive to environmental temperature, constituting a mechanism that defines resistance to diet-induced obesity and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:21771890

  16. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  17. Spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane C Shakes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In most sexually reproducing organisms, the fundamental process of meiosis is implemented concurrently with two differentiation programs that occur at different rates and generate distinct cell types, sperm and oocytes. However, little is known about how the meiotic program is influenced by such contrasting developmental programs. Here we present a detailed timeline of late meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans using cytological and molecular landmarks to interrelate changes in chromosome dynamics with germ cell cellularization, spindle formation, and cell cycle transitions. This analysis expands our understanding C. elegans spermatogenesis, as it identifies multiple spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program and provides a framework for comparative studies. Post-pachytene chromatin of spermatocytes is distinct from that of oocytes in both composition and morphology. Strikingly, C. elegans spermatogenesis includes a previously undescribed karyosome stage, a common but poorly understood feature of meiosis in many organisms. We find that karyosome formation, in which chromosomes form a constricted mass within an intact nuclear envelope, follows desynapsis, involves a global down-regulation of transcription, and may support the sequential activation of multiple kinases that prepare spermatocytes for meiotic divisions. In spermatocytes, the presence of centrioles alters both the relative timing of meiotic spindle assembly and its ultimate structure. These microtubule differences are accompanied by differences in kinetochores, which connect microtubules to chromosomes. The sperm-specific features of meiosis revealed here illuminate how the underlying molecular machinery required for meiosis is differentially regulated in each sex.

  18. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ferguson

    Full Text Available In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  19. Spermatogenesis is accelerated in the immature Djungarian and Chinese hamster and rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, L. H.; de rooij, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The rate of progression of spermatogenesis was studied in immature Djungarian and Chinese hamsters and Wistar rats by scoring the most advanced cell types present at various ages after birth. From 15 days of age onward, the most advanced cell types in the Djungarian hamsters were formed at a rate

  20. Analysis of cell-type-specific gene expression during mouse spermatogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Nielsen, John E; Hansen, Martin Asser

    2004-01-01

    In rodents, changes in gene expression during spermatogenesis can be monitored by sampling testis from each day during postnatal development. However, changes in gene expression at the tissue level can reflect changes in the concentration of an mRNA in a specific cell type, changes in volume of s...

  1. Genetic, structural, and chemical insights into the dual function of GRASP55 in germ cell Golgi remodeling and JAM-C polarized localization during spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cartier-Michaud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a dynamic process that is regulated by adhesive interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. Germ cells express the Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C, encoded by Jam3, which localizes to germ/Sertoli cell contacts. JAM-C is involved in germ cell polarity and acrosome formation. Using a proteomic approach, we demonstrated that JAM-C interacted with the Golgi reassembly stacking protein of 55 kDa (GRASP55, encoded by Gorasp2 in developing germ cells. Generation and study of Gorasp2-/- mice revealed that knock-out mice suffered from spermatogenesis defects. Acrosome formation and polarized localization of JAM-C in spermatids were altered in Gorasp2-/- mice. In addition, Golgi morphology of spermatocytes was disturbed in Gorasp2-/- mice. Crystal structures of GRASP55 in complex with JAM-C or JAM-B revealed that GRASP55 interacted via PDZ-mediated interactions with JAMs and induced a conformational change in GRASP55 with respect of its free conformation. An in silico pharmacophore approach identified a chemical compound called Graspin that inhibited PDZ-mediated interactions of GRASP55 with JAMs. Treatment of mice with Graspin hampered the polarized localization of JAM-C in spermatids, induced the premature release of spermatids and affected the Golgi morphology of meiotic spermatocytes.

  2. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  3. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  4. Prenatal maternal restraint stress exposure alters the reproductive hormone profile and testis development of the rat male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, María Eugenia; Adrover, Ezequiela; Baier, Carlos Javier; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Monteleone, Melisa C; Brocco, Marcela A; González-Calvar, Silvia I; Antonelli, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the presence of stressors during pregnancy induces adverse effects on the neuroendocrine system of the offspring later in life. In the present work, we investigated the effects of early programming on the male reproductive system, employing a prenatal stress (PS) paradigm. This study found that when pregnant dams were placed in a plastic restrainer three times a day during the last week of pregnancy, the offspring showed reduced anogenital distance and delayed testicular descent. Serum luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were decreased at postnatal day (PND) 28 and testosterone was decreased at PND 75. Increased testosterone plus dihydrotestosterone (T + DHT) concentrations correlated with increased testicular 5α Reductase-1 (5αR-1) mRNA expression at PND 28. Moreover, PS accelerated spermatogenesis at PND 35 and 60, and increased mean seminiferous tubule diameter in pubertal offspring and reduced Leydig cell number was observed at PND 35 and 60. PS offspring had increased androgen receptor (AR) mRNA level at PND 28, and at PND 35 had increased the numbers of Sertoli cells immunopositive for AR. Overall, the results confirm that stress during gestation can induce long-term effects on the male offspring reproductive system. Of particular interest is the pre-pubertal imbalance of circulating hormones that probably trigger accelerated testicular development, followed by an increase in total androgens and a decrease in testosterone concentration during adulthood. Exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment might prepare for harsh external conditions by triggering early puberty, increasing reproductive potential.

  5. Leptin modulates human Sertoli cells acetate production and glycolytic profile: a novel mechanism of obesity-induced male infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Sá, Rosália; Monteiro, Mariana P; Sousa, Mário; Carvalho, Rui A; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G

    2015-09-01

    Human feeding behavior and lifestyle are gradually being altered, favoring the development of metabolic diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes and obesity. Leptin is produced by the adipose tissue acting as a satiety signal. Its levels have been positively correlated with fat mass and hyperleptinemia has been proposed to negatively affect male reproductive function. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms by which this hormone affects male fertility remain unknown. Herein, we hypothesize that leptin acts on human Sertoli cells (hSCs), the "nurse cells" of spermatogenesis, altering their metabolism. To test our hypothesis, hSCs were cultured without or with leptin (5, 25 and 50ng/mL). Leptin receptor was identified by qPCR and Western blot. Protein levels of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2 and GLUT3), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) were determined by Western Blot. LDH activity was assessed and metabolite production/consumption determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Oxidative damage was evaluated by assessing lipid peroxidation, protein carbonilation and nitration. Our data shows that leptin receptor is expressed in hSCs. The concentration of leptin found in lean, healthy patients, upregulated GLUT2 protein levels and concentrations of leptin found in lean and obese patients increased LDH activity. Of note, all leptin concentrations decreased hSCs acetate production illustrating a novel mechanism for this hormone action. Moreover, our data shows that leptin does not induce or protect hSCs from oxidative damage. We report that this hormone modulates the nutritional support of spermatogenesis, illustrating a novel mechanism that may be linked to obesity-induced male infertility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A 3-day high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet does not alter exercise-induced growth hormone response in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroto; Ishibashi, Aya; Tsuchiya, Yoshihumi; Shimura, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Ebi, Kumiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 3 days isoenergetic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet (HF-LC) relative to low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet (LF-HC) on the exercise-induced growth hormone (GH) response in healthy male subjects. Ten healthy young males participated in this study. Each subject consumed the HF-LC (18±1% protein, 61±2% fat, 21±1% carbohydrate, 2720 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days after consuming the LF-HC (18±1% protein, 20±1% fat, 62±1% carbohydrate, 2755 kcal per day) for 3 consecutive days. After each dietary intervention period, the hormonal and metabolic responses to an acute exercise (30 min of continuous pedaling at 60% of V˙O2max) were compared. The intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) contents in the vastus lateralis, soleus, and tibialis anterior were evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Serum GH concentrations increased significantly during the exercise after both the HF-LC and LF-HC periods (Pexercise-induced GH response was not significantly different between the two periods. Fat utilization and lipolytic responses during the exercise were enhanced significantly after the HF-LC period compared with the LF-HC period. IMCL content did not differ significantly in any portion of muscle after the dietary interventions. We could not show that short-term HF-LC consumption changed significantly exercise-induced GH response or IMCL content in healthy young males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Essential Role of Growth Hormone and IGF-1 in Therapeutic Effect of Ghrelin in the Course of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2017-05-24

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin exhibits a protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. The aim of the present study was to examine whether administration of ghrelin affects the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and to determine what is the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in this effect. In sham-operated or hypophysectomized male Wistar rats, colitis was induced by enema with 1 mL of 3% solution of acetic acid. Saline or ghrelin (given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose) was administered intraperitoneally twice a day. Seven days after colitis induction, rats were anesthetized and the severity of the colitis was assessed. Treatment with ghrelin reduced the area of colonic mucosa damage in pituitary-intact rat. This effect was associated with increase in serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Moreover, administration of ghrelin improved blood flow in colonic mucosa and mucosal cell proliferation, as well as reduced mucosal concentration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and activity of myeloperoxidase. Hypophysectomy reduced serum levels of GH and IGF-1 and increased the area of colonic damage in rats with colitis. These effects were associated with additional reduction in mucosal blood follow and DNA synthesis when compared to pituitary-intact rats. Mucosal concentration of IL-1β and mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase were maximally increased. Moreover, in hypophysectomized rats, administration of ghrelin failed to affect serum levels of GH or IGF-1, as well as the healing rate of colitis, mucosal cell proliferation, and mucosal concentration of IL-1β, or activity of myeloperoxidase. We conclude that administration of ghrelin accelerates the healing of the acetic acid-induced colitis. Therapeutic effect of ghrelin in experimental colitis is mainly mediated by the release of endogenous growth hormone and IGF-1.

  8. The anti-oxidant effects of ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis dys-function of diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaki, Arash; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Hajhosseini, Laleh; Golzar, Farhad Sadeghpour; Ainehchi, Nava

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes rats have been linked to reproductive dysfunction and plant medicine has been shown to be effective in its treatment. Antioxidants have distinctive effects on spermatogenesis, sperm biology and oxidative stress, and changes in anti-oxidant capacity are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetes mellitus. Ginger and cinnamon are strong anti-oxidants and have been shown to reduce oxidative stress in the long-term treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in animal models. The present study examined the influence of combined ginger and cinnamon on spermatogenesis in STZ-induced diabetes in male Wistar rats. Animals (n = 80) were allocated randomly into eight groups, 10 each: Group 1: Control rats given only 5cc Normal saline (0.9% NaCl) daily;Group2: rats received ginger (100mg/kg/rat) daily; Group 3: rats received cinnamon (75mg/kg) daily; Group 4: rats received ginger and cinnamon, (100mg/kg/rat ginger and 75mg/kg cinnamon) daily; Group 5: Diabetic control rats received only normal saline. Group 6: Diabetic rats received 100mg/kg/day ginger; Group 7: Diabetic rats received 75mg /kg/ day cinnamon; Group 8: Diabetic rats received ginger and cinnamon (100mg/kg/day and 75mg/kg /day). Diabetes was induced with 55 mg/kg, single intra-peritoneal injection of STZ in all groups. At the end of the experiment (56th day), blood samples were taken for determination of testosterone, LH,FSH, total anti-oxidant capacity, and levels of malondialdehyde, SOD, Catalase and GPX. All rats were euthanized, testes were dissected out and spermatozoa were collected from the epididymis for analysis. Sperm numbers, percentages of sperm viability and motility, and total serum testosterone increased in ginger and cinnamon and combined ginger and cinnamon treated diabetic rats compared with control groups. Serum testosterone, LH and FSH were higher compared to control group and also serum anti-oxidants (TAC, SOD, GPX and catalase) all were increased at the

  9. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  10. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency.

  11. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica; Shrivastava, Richa; Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-01-01

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis

  13. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute - CDRI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Lucknow 226021 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Mandalapu, Dhanaraju [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Sharma, Vishnu Lal [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Division of Biochemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Bhadauria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K. [Department of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast

  14. Curcumin and Quercetin Ameliorated Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin-Induced Reproductive System Impairment in Male Wistar Rats by Upregulating The Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp and deltamethrin (Del and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/kg.bw, group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/kg.bw, group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/kg.bw each, group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg.bw, group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxi- dant glutathione (GSH and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO. The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly

  15. Luteinizing hormone signaling phosphorylates and activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase PDE5 in mouse ovarian follicles, contributing an additional component to the hormonally induced decrease in cyclic GMP that reinitiates meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Jeremy R; Yee, Siu-Pok; Jaffe, Laurinda A

    2018-03-01

    Prior to birth, oocytes within mammalian ovarian follicles initiate meiosis, but then arrest in prophase until puberty, when with each reproductive cycle, one or more follicles are stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) to resume meiosis in preparation for fertilization. Within preovulatory follicles, granulosa cells produce high levels of cGMP, which diffuses into the oocyte to maintain meiotic arrest. LH signaling restarts meiosis by rapidly lowering the levels of cGMP in the follicle and oocyte. Part of this decrease is mediated by the dephosphorylation and inactivation the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase in response to LH, but the mechanism for the remainder of the cGMP decrease is unknown. At least one cGMP phosphodiesterase, PDE5, is activated by LH signaling, which would contribute to lowering cGMP. PDE5 exhibits increased cGMP-hydrolytic activity when phosphorylated on serine 92, and we recently demonstrated that LH signaling phosphorylates PDE5 on this serine and increases its activity in rat follicles. To test the extent to which this mechanism contributes to the cGMP decrease that restarts meiosis, we generated a mouse line in which serine 92 was mutated to alanine (Pde5-S92A), such that it cannot be phosphorylated. Here we show that PDE5 phosphorylation is required for the LH-induced increase in cGMP-hydrolytic activity, but that this increase has only a modest effect on the LH-induced cGMP decrease in mouse follicles, and does not affect the timing of meiotic resumption. Though we show that the activation of PDE5 is among the mechanisms contributing to the cGMP decrease, these results suggest that another cGMP phosphodiesterase is also activated by LH signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The rat as animal model in breast cancer research: a histopathological study of radiation- and hormone-induced rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwieten, M.J. van.

    1984-01-01

    One of the goals of this monograph is to present data on the frequency of mammary neoplasms following irradiation and/or hormone administration in intact and castrated female rats of three strains allowed to live their natural life spans. These data are intended to give an overview of the effects of radiation and hormonal manipulation on the mammary gland based on histological examination of necropsied rats and using standard morphological criteria for mammary tumors. The second goal of this monograph is to provide detailed histological descriptions of the mammary tumors found in the various experimental groups as well as in several groups of untreated control rats. The aims are to examine whether possible strain-related and treatment-related differences in morphology or growth patterns exist, as well as to define the pathogensis of radiation-induced rat mammary tumors through the study of early lesions. An attempt will be made to describe tumor characteristics which may be of comparative value in identifying tumor types (and their induction methods) useful as models for specific human breast neoplasms. A rat mammary tumor classification system reflecting the morphological features useful for comparative purposes is also presented. (Auth.)

  17. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  18. Estrogen receptor alpha localization in the testes of men with normal spermatogenesis Estrogen receptor alpha localization in the testes of men with normal spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Filipiak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that estrogens act on the male reproductive tract by binding to estrogen receptors (ER a and
    b. However, studies on ER localization in the human testis are discordant. The aim of this study was to investigate
    the localization of ERa in the testes of adult men with normal spermatogenesis. Semen analysis of ten adult men
    revealed azoospermia. FSH, LH and testosterone serum concentrations were within normal values, and the volume
    of the testes was normal, hence obstructive azoospermia was suspected. The tissues from testicular surgical
    biopsies were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and embedded in paraffin. Assessments of the seminiferous epithelium (scoring
    10 to –1, the number of Leydig cells (scoring 1 to 5, the areal fraction of intertubular space (IS, measurements
    of seminiferous tubule diameter, and the thickness of the tubular wall, were performed on microscopic
    sections. Immunohistochemical staining was applied with monoclonal antibodies against ERa. The mean spermatogenesis
    score was 10 points; IS — 30.6 ± 8.1%; seminiferous tubule diameter — 193.9 ± 19.4 μm; thickness of
    tubular wall — 7.44 ± 1.1 μm; number of Leydig cells — 1.6 ± 1.1 points. Immunohistochemical staining showed
    the localization of ERa to be in the Sertoli and Leydig cell cytoplasm, while ERa was absent in germ cells. The
    results of testicular tissue analysis confirmed its normal structure and normal, full spermatogenesis. The presence
    of ERa in Sertoli and Leydig cells in normal human testis demonstrated in this study suggests that estrogens may
    affect testicular function.It is known that estrogens act on the male reproductive tract by binding to estrogen receptors (ER a and
    b. However, studies on ER localization in the human testis are discordant. The aim of this study was to investigate
    the localization of ERa in the testes of adult men with normal spermatogenesis. Semen

  19. Comparison of stress-induced changes in adults and pups: is aldosterone the main adrenocortical stress hormone during the perinatal period in rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Varga

    Full Text Available Positive developmental impact of low stress-induced glucocorticoid levels in early development has been recognized for a long time, while possible involvement of mineralocorticoids in the stress response during the perinatal period has been neglected. The present study aimed at verifying the hypothesis that balance between stress-induced glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid levels is changing during postnatal development. Hormone responses to two different stressors (insulin-induced hypoglycaemia and immune challenge induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharid measured in 10-day-old rats were compared to those in adults. In pups corticosterone responses to both stressors were significantly lower than in adults, which corresponded well with the stress hyporesponsive period. Importantly, stress-induced elevations in aldosterone concentration were significantly higher in pups compared both to corticosterone elevations and to those in adulthood with comparable adrenocorticotropin concentrations in the two age groups. Greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in postnatal period is further supported by changes in gene expression and protein levels of gluco- (GR and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR and selected enzymes measured by quantitative PCR and immunohystochemistry in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, liver and kidney. Gene expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2, an enzyme enabling preferential effects of aldosterone on mineralocorticoid receptors, was higher in 10-day-old pups compared to adult animals. On the contrary, the expression and protein levels of GR, MR and 11β-HSD1 were decreased. Presented results clearly show higher stress-induced release of aldosterone in pups compared to adults and strongly suggest greater importance of mineralocorticoids compared to glucocorticoids in stress during the postnatal period.

  20. Estrogen receptor alpha localization in the testes of men with normal spermatogenesis Estrogen receptor alpha localization in the testes of men with normal spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Eliza Filipiak; Dagmara Suliborska; Maria Laszczynska; Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska; Elzbieta Oszukowska; Katarzyna Marchlewska; Krzysztof Kula; Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer

    2012-01-01

    It is known that estrogens act on the male reproductive tract by binding to estrogen receptors (ER) a and
    b. However, studies on ER localization in the human testis are discordant. The aim of this study was to investigate
    the localization of ERa in the testes of adult men with normal spermatogenesis. Semen analysis of ten adult men
    revealed azoospermia. FSH, LH and testosterone serum concentrations were within normal values, and the volume
    of the te...

  1. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) induced thyroid disruption by enhancement of hepatic thyroid hormone influx and degradation in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yufeng; Zhang, Haijun; Geng, Ningbo; Xing, Liguo; Fan, Jingfeng; Luo, Yun; Song, Xiaoyao; Ren, Xiaoqian; Wang, Feidi; Chen, Jiping

    2018-06-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are known to disturb thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in rodents. However, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized. In this study, male Sprague Dawley rats received SCCPs (0, 1, 10, or 100mg/kg/day) via gavage once a day for consecutive 28days. Plasma and hepatic TH concentrations, thyrocyte structure, as well as thyroid and hepatic mRNA and protein levels of genes associated with TH homeostasis were examined. Moreover, we performed molecular docking to predict interactions between constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a key regulator in xenobiotic-induced TH metabolism, with different SCCP molecules. Exposure to SCCPs significantly decreased the circulating free thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels, but increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels by a feedback mechanism. Decreased hepatic T 4 and increased hepatic T 3 levels were also seen after 100mg/kg/day SCCPs exposure. SCCPs didn't show any significant effects on the expression of thyroid TH synthesis genes or thyrocyte structure. However, stimulation effects were observed for mRNA and protein levels of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 and organic anion transporter 2, suggesting an accelerated TH metabolism in rat liver. The increased cytochrome P450 2B1 but not 1A1 mRNA and protein levels indicated that the CAR signaling was activated by SCCPs exposure. According to docking analysis, SCCPs form hydrophobic interactions with CAR and the binding affinity shows dependency on chlorine content. Overall, our data showed that CAR implicated enhancement of hepatic TH influx and degradation could be the main cause for SCCPs induced TH deficiency in male rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Honey bee foraging induces upregulation of early growth response protein 1, hormone receptor 38 and candidate downstream genes of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A S; Shah, A; Brockmann, A

    2018-02-01

    In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects. Time-trained foragers still showed an upregulation of Egr-1 when the feeder was presented at an earlier time of the day, suggesting that the genomic response is more dependent on the food reward than training time. However, presentation of the feeder at the training time without food was still capable of inducing a transient increase in Egr-1 expression. Thus, learnt feeder cues, or even training time, probably affect Egr-1 expression. In contrast, whole brain Egr-1 expression changes did not differ between dancing and nondancing foragers. On the basis of our results we propose that food reward induced continuous foraging ultimately elicits a genomic response involving Egr-1 and Hr38 and their downstream genes. Furthermore this genomic response is highly probably involved in foraging-related learning and memory responses. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Distinct cytoplasmic domains of the growth hormone receptor are required for glucocorticoid- and phorbol ester-induced decreases in growth hormone (GH) binding. These domains are different from that reported for GH-induced receptor internalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, A P; Tseng, M J; Logsdon, C D

    1996-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit growth in children and antagonize the growth-promoting action of GH in peripheral tissues. Recently, they have been shown to decrease GH binding. In this study we examine the molecular mechanisms by which the glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) and the phorbol ester phorbol...... of GH binding are also observed in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably transfected with a rat liver GHR cDNA, further arguing that DEX and PMA act post-translationally on GHR. Using mutant GHRs stably expressed in CHO cells, amino acids 455-506 and tyrosines 333 and/or 338 of GHR were shown...... to be required for maximal DEX-induced inhibition of GH binding. DEX decreased GH binding to a GHR mutant F346A, which is reported to be deficient in ligand-induced internalization, suggesting that DEX decreases GH binding by a mechanism distinct from that of ligand-induced GHR internalization. PMA reduced GH...

  4. Studies on the role of gibberellins in the regulation of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kwiatkowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antheridia from isolated nodes of Chara vulgaris, developing in the presence of either AMO-1618 or GA3, were studied. AMO-1618 which lowers the level of endogenous gibberellins causes a significant, proportional to the concentration, reduction in: 1 the number of antheridial filaments formed in antheridia, 2 spermatid number within a filament, as a result of eliminating one mitotic division at the first stage of spermatogenesis. Exogenous GA3 at the concentration 10-5 M evokes opposite effect i.e. increase in the number of antheridial filaments and increase in the number of spermatids within filament. Total number of spermatids within an antheridium decreases under the influence of 10-4M AMO-1618 three times in comparison with the control, whereas it increases twice following 10-5M GA3 treatment. It has been suggested that the normal course of spermatogenesis requires precisely determined level of endogenous gibberellins.

  5. Spermatogenesis in dogs after termination of the three-year exposure to γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorova, N.L.; Markelov, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of spermatogenesis of 15 dogs after termination of the three-year exposure to γ-radiation at dose rates of 0.34 and 0.17 rad/day plus dosages of 8 and 42 rad given 3 times a year (cumulative doses 375, 360 and 570 rad, respectively). A partial recovery of spermatogenesis was resistered. During the first 1-1.5 year following irradiation normalization was more intensive in males with most harmful lesions (cumulative dose of 570 rad). Subsequently (3-6 years), the rate of recovery slowed and the process of production of germ cells was stabilized at a lower level. Recovery of dogs received cumulative doses of 375 and 360 rad was less intensive

  6. Testis-Specific Histone Variant H3t Gene Is Essential for Entry into Spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ueda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes. Thus, by incorporating H3t into the genome during spermatogonial differentiation, male germ cells are able to enter meiosis and beyond.

  7. Computer-assisted Biology Learning Materials: Designing and Developing an Interactive CD on Spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to design and develop an interactive CD on spermatogenesis. This is a research and development. Procedure of development is making an outline of media program, making flowchart, making story board, gathering of materials, programming and finishing. The quantitative data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Qualitative data obtained were analyzed with Miles and Huberman techniques. The instrument used is a validation sheet. The result of CD design with a Macro flash MX program shows there are 17 slides generated. This prototype obtained a valid value after a self-review technique with many revisions, especially on sound and programming. This finding suggests that process-oriented spermatogenesis can be audio-visualized into a more comprehensive form of learning media. But this interactive CD product needs further testing to determine consistency and resistance to revisions.

  8. Prevention of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in testes of rats treated with Physalis peruviana L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) once a week for 12 weeks caused a significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. These decreases in sex hormones were reduced with Physalis peruviana L. (Cape gooseberry) juice supplementation. In addition, testicular activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase suppressed with CCl4 were elevated after P. peruviana juice supplements. P. peruviana juice supplementation significantly increased the testicular glutathione and significantly decreased the level of lipid peroxidation and the nitric oxide production compared with the CCl4 group. In addition, the decline in the activity of antioxidant enzymes after CCl4 was ameliorated by P. peruviana Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were prevented with the supplementation of P. peruviana juice. Furthermore, P. peruviana juice attenuated CCl4-induced apoptosis in testes tissue by inhibition of caspase-3 activity. The results clearly demonstrate that P. peruviana juice augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that the juice may have a therapeutic role in free radical-mediated diseases and infertility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Spermatogenesis in adult rhesus monkeys following irradiation with X-rays or fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, D.G. de; Sonneveld, P.; Bekkum, D.W. van

    A group of male rhesus monkeys was exposed to total body irradiation followed by autologous bone marrow transplantation. The animals were irradiated in the period between 1965 and 1976 and received a dose of 8.5 Gy of X-rays (300 KVP) or 3.6 Gy of 1 MeV fission neutrons. Of this group, a total of 11 male monkeys proved to be evaluable for studying the effects of irradiation on spermatogenesis. (Auth.)

  10. Temporal germ cell development strategy during continuous spermatogenesis within the montane lizard, Sceloporus bicanthalis (Squamata; Phrynosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbins, Kevin; Anzalone, Marla; Collier, Matthew; Granados-González, Gisela; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Hernández-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2011-10-01

    Sceloporus bicanthalis is a viviparous lizard that lives at higher elevations in Mexico. Adult male S. bicanthalis were collected (n = 36) from the Nevado de Toluca, Mexico (elevation is 4200 m) during August to December, 2007 and January to July, 2008. Testes were extracted, fixed in Trumps, and dehydrated in a graded series of ethanol. Tissues were embedded, sectioned (2 μm), stained, and examined via a light microscope to determine the spermatogenic developmental strategy of S. bicanthalis. In all months examined, the testes were spermiogenically active; based on this, plus the presence of sperm in the lumina of seminiferous tubules, we inferred that S. bicanthalis had year-round or continuous spermatogenesis, unlike most reptiles that occupy a temperate or montane habitat. It was recently reported that seasonally breeding reptiles had a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to amphibians, where germ cells progress through spermatogenesis as a single population, which leads to a single spermiation event. This was much different than spatial development within the testis of other derived amniotes. We hypothesized that germ cell development was temporal in S. bicanthalis. Therefore, we wanted to determine whether reptiles that practice continuous spermatogenesis have a mammalian-like spatial germ cell development, which is different than the typical temperate reptile exhibiting a temporal development. In the present study, S. bicanthalis had a temporal development strategy, despite its continuous spermatogenic cycle, making them similar to tropical anoles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals the role of selenium in spermatogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Sebastian; Malinouski, Mikalai; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Kasaikina, Marina V.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Zhou, You; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element with important roles in human health. Several selenoproteins have essential functions in development. However, the cellular and tissue distribution of Se remains largely unknown because of the lack of analytical techniques that image this element with sufficient sensitivity and resolution. Herein, we report that X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) can be used to visualize and quantify the tissue, cellular and subcellular topography of Se. We applied this technique to characterize the role of Se in spermatogenesis and identified a dramatic Se enrichment specifically in late spermatids, a pattern that was not seen in any other elemental maps. This enrichment was due to elevated levels of the mitochondrial form of glutathione peroxidase 4 and was fully dependent on the supplies of Se by Selenoprotein P. High-resolution scans revealed that Se concentrated near the lumen side of elongating spermatids, where structural components of sperm are formed. During spermatogenesis, maximal Se associated with decreased phosphorus, whereas Zn did not change. In sperm, Se was primarily in the midpiece and co-localized with Cu and Fe. XFM allowed quantification of Se in the midpiece (0.8 fg) and head (0.14 fg) of individual sperm cells, revealing the ability of sperm cells to handle the amounts of this element well above its toxic levels. Overall, the use of XFM allowed visualization of tissue and cellular Se and provided important insights in the role of this and other trace elements in spermatogenesis. PMID:19379757

  12. STUDY OF INTRA TESTICULAR REGULATIONS OF SPERMATOGENESIS DIFFERENTIATION BY EX-VIVO APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adaika

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the regulation of intratesticular during spermatogenesis ex vivo. To highlight the progress of spermatogenesis ex vivo, we developed two cell culture systems of seminiferous tubules to study the role of local factors that control the proliferation and differentiation of male germ cells. Our studies are based on two main techniques: RT-PCR and RNA extraction to examine changes in the expression of some growth factors in the culture of seminiferous tubules as the SCF, c- Kit and TGFß. The results show, using RT-PCR, that expression of SCF, c-Kit and TGFb is probably not involved in the alterations of spermatogenesis ex vivo. Indeed, their expressions are not modified during three weeks of culture, and their expressions depend on the proportion of cells where they are expressed. Our results also show that clusterin is a marker of Sertoli cells in the culture of seminiferous tubules and its expression is not altered by the presence of germ cells.

  13. Testicular development and establishment of spermatogenesis in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N; Umair, S; Shahab, M; Arslan, M

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen longitudinally reared Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were slaughtered at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo of age (n=3 per group) to observe testicular development and to examine qualitatively the establishment of spermatogenesis. With the age held constant, scrotal circumference and testes weight were correlated (0.95; Pfashion (57microm at 1 mo and 178microm at 24 mo), and the lumen formed at 12 mo of age. Differentiation of basal indifferent supporting cells to Sertoli cells started at 6 mo, and formation of Sertoli cells completed near 12 mo of age. Gonocytes predominated at 1 mo, but by 12 mo, most had been replaced by spermatogonia, thus rapid proliferation of tubular contents occurred at 12 mo (testes weight=75g). Spermatocytes were first observed at 12 mo, and their number increased through 18 and 24 mo. Establishment of spermatogenesis, as reflected by appearance of significant number of spermatids, occurred by 18 mo of age (testes weight 122g). Thus, the establishment of spermatogenesis was progressive from birth, and marked changes were observed during the last 6 mo.

  14. Bioidentical Hormones and Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Bioidentical Hormones January 2012 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Howard ... take HT for symptom relief. What are bioidentical hormones? Bioidentical hormones are identical to the hormones that ...

  15. Exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the potentiation of exogenous growth hormone on alcohol-induced fatty liver diseases in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Ya-ping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an essential regulator of intrahepatic lipid metabolism by activating multiple complex hepatic signaling cascades. Here, we examined whether chronic exogenous GH administration (via gene therapy could ameliorate liver steatosis in animal models of alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either an alcohol or a control liquid diet with or without GH therapy for 6 weeks. Biochemical parameters, liver histology, oxidative stress markers, and serum high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were also conducted to determine the underlying molecular mechanism. Results Serum HMW adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the GH1-treated control group than in the control group (3.98 ± 0.71 μg/mL vs. 3.07 ± 0.55 μg/mL; P P P P P Conclusions GH therapy had positive effects on AFLD and may offer a promising approach to prevent or treat AFLD. These beneficial effects of GH on AFLD were achieved through the activation of the hepatic adiponectin-SIRT1-AMPK and PPARα-AMPK signaling systems.

  16. The effect of training on responses of beta-endorphin and other pituitary hormones to insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Kjær, Michael; Hagen, C

    1985-01-01

    in untrained (25 +/- 6 mU X l-1) subjects (P less than 0.05). Levels of thyrotropin (TSH) changed in neither of the groups. It is concluded that, in contrast to what has been formerly proposed, training does not result in a general increase in secretory capacity of the anterior pituitary gland. TSH responds......We studied whether the previously reported intensified beta-endorphin response to exercise after training might result from a training-induced general increase in anterior pituitary secretory capacity. Identical hypoglycemia was induced by insulin infusion in 7 untrained (VO2max 49 +/- 4 ml X (kg X...

  17. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the absence of exogenous gonadotropins is not sufficient to induce multiple follicle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Karine; Fogle, Robin; Bendikson, Kristin; Christenson, Kamilee; Paulson, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Because the effectiveness of the "microdose flare" stimulation protocol often is attributed to the dramatic endogenous gonadotropin release induced by the GnRH agonist, the aim of this study was to determine whether use of microdose GnRH agonist alone could induce multiple ovarian follicle development in normal responders. Based on these data, the duration of gonadotropin rise is approximately 24 to 48 hours and is too brief to sustain continued multiple follicle growth. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related peptide)/IHH (Indian hedgehog protein) in surgically induced osteoarthritis of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Young; Im, Gun-Il

    2011-05-01

    This study was performed to investigate the expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related peptide) and IHH (Indian hedgehog protein) in OA (osteoarthritis) using surgically induced rat OA model. After 12 weeks, the articular cartilage from the distal femur was harvested. The expressions of the SOX trio, PTHrP and IHH were explored at gene, protein and epigenetic levels by real-time PCR (n = 5), immunohistochemistry (n = 5) and MSP (methylation-specific PCR). The findings from OA cartilage of the right knees were compared with those from the left knees as the control. The gene expressions of SOX-5, -6, -9 decreased by 58, 20 and 40%, respectively, in the OA cartilage, while their respective protein expressions increased. The PTHrP and IHH gene expressions decreased by 75 and 81%, respectively, although their protein expressions increased. Findings from MSP demonstrated increased methylation in the promoter regions of SOX-5 and -9 genes. This study demonstrated that increased methylation in the promoters of these genes may explain the low gene expression in the surgically induced OA model, whereas elevated protein expression is speculated to be from lag effect in the gene-protein expression.

  19. FOXL2 Is an Essential Activator of SF-1-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Human Granulosa Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyong Jin

    Full Text Available Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is required for proper sexual differentiation by regulating the regression of the Müllerian ducts in males. Recent studies indicate that AMH could be an important factor for maintaining the ovarian reserve. However, the mechanisms of AMH regulation in the ovary are largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that AMH is an ovarian target gene of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, an orphan nuclear receptor required for proper follicle development. FOXL2 is an evolutionally conserved transcription factor, and its mutations cause blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES, wherein affected females display eyelid defects and premature ovarian failure (POF. Notably, we found that functional FOXL2 is essential for SF-1-induced AMH regulation, via protein-protein interactions between FOXL2 and SF-1. A BPES-inducing mutant of FOXL2 (290-291delCA was unable to interact with SF-1 and failed to mediate the association between SF-1 and the AMH promoter. Therefore, this study identified a novel regulatory circuit for ovarian AMH production; specifically, through the coordinated interplay between FOXL2 and SF-1 that could control ovarian follicle development.

  20. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  1. Characterization of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and its receptor in chickens: Tissue expression, functional analysis, and fasting-induced up-regulation of hypothalamic MCH expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lin; Lv, Can; Zhang, Jiannan; Mo, Chunheng; Lin, Dongliang; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2017-06-05

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain. The cloned cMCHR4 was predicted to encode a receptor of 367 amino acids, which shares high amino acid identities with MCHR4 of ducks (90%), western painted turtles (85%), and coelacanths (77%), and a comparatively low identity to human MCHR1 (58%) and MCHR2 (38%), whereas chicken MCHR2 encodes a putative C-terminally truncated receptor and is likely a pseudogene. Using cell-based luciferase reporter assays or Western blot, we further demonstrated that chicken (and duck) MCHR4 could be potently activated by chicken MCH 1-19 , and its activation can elevate calcium concentration and activate MAPK/ERK and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways, indicating an important role of MCHR4 in mediating MCH actions in birds. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that both cMCH and cMCHR4 mRNA are expressed in various brain regions including the hypothalamus, and cMCH expression in the hypothalamus of 3-week-old chicks could be induced by 36-h fasting, indicating that cMCH expression is correlated with energy balance. Taken together, characterization of chicken MCH and MCHR4 will aid to uncover the conserved roles of MCH across vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spermatogenesis and spermatozoa ultrastructure of two Dipolydora species (Annelida: Spionidae) from the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radashevsky, Vasily I; Yurchenko, Olga V; Tyurin, Sergey A; Alexandrova, Yana N

    2015-02-01

    Spermatogenesis and the structure of the spermatozoa of two spionid polychaetes Dipolydora bidentata and Dipolydora carunculata are described by light and transmission electron microscopy. Both species are gonochoristic borers in shells of various molluscs. Proliferation of spermatogonia occurs in paired testes regularly arranged in fertile segments, and the rest of spermatogenesis occurs in the coelomic cavity. Early spermatogenesis occurs quite similarly in the two species but results in formation of tetrads of interconnected spermatids in D. bidentata and octads of spermatids in D. carunculata. Three consecutive stages of spermiogenesis are recognized according to the condensation of chromatin in nucleus: (1) early spermatids with heterogeneous, partly clumped chromatin, (2) middle spermatids with homogeneous, coarsely granular chromatin, and (3) late spermatids with homogeneous fibrillar chromatin. Moreover, late stage of spermatids is further classified into two stages, I and II, according to the position of the acrosome and shape of the nucleus. In late spermatids I, the acrosome is situated in the anterior invagination of the funnel-shaped to oval nucleus, whereas in late spermatids II the acrosome is situated on top of the elongated nucleus. Ultrastructural composition of cells at each stage of spermatogenesis is described and illustrated. The possible process of morphogenesis of organelles during spermato- and spermiogenesis is reconstructed for both species. The proacrosomal vesicle first appears in early spermatids near the Golgi complex and then migrates anteriorly; in the middle spermatids, the acrosome comes to lie in a deep anterior nuclear fossa. In late spermatids I, this fossa evaginates and a posterior fossa develops in the nucleus housing basal body and the anterior part of the axoneme. In late spermatids II, the mitochondria elongate and probably reduce in number due to fusion of some of them. The mature spermatozoa in both species are

  3. Metabolic hormone FGF21 is induced in ground squirrels during hibernation but its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany T Nelson

    Full Text Available Hibernation is a natural adaptation that allows certain mammals to survive physiological extremes that are lethal to humans. Near freezing body temperatures, heart rates of 3-10 beats per minute, absence of food consumption, and depressed metabolism are characteristic of hibernation torpor bouts that are periodically interrupted by brief interbout arousals (IBAs. The molecular basis of torpor induction is unknown, however starved mice overexpressing the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 promote fat utilization, reduce body temperature, and readily enter torpor-all hallmarks of mammalian hibernation. In this study we cloned FGF21 from the naturally hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus and found that levels of FGF21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in serum are elevated during hibernation torpor bouts and significantly elevated during IBAs compared to summer active animals. The effects of artificially elevating circulating FGF21 concentrations 50 to 100-fold via adenoviral-mediated overexpression were examined at three different times of the year. This is the first time that a transgenic approach has been used in a natural hibernator to examine mechanistic aspects of hibernation. Surgically implanted transmitters measured various metrics of the hibernation phenotype over a 7-day period including changes in motor activity, heart rate and core body temperature. In April fed-state animals, FGF21 overexpression decreased blood insulin and free fatty acid concentrations, effects similar to those seen in obese mice. However, elevated FGF21 concentrations did not cause torpor in these fed-state animals nor did they cause torpor or affect metabolic parameters in fasted-state animals in March/April, August or October. We conclude that FGF21 is strongly regulated during torpor and IBA but that its overexpression is not sufficient to cause torpor in naturally hibernating ground squirrels.

  4. Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone [1-34] Prevents Particle-Induced Periprosthetic Osteolysis in a Rat Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanggang Bi

    Full Text Available We examined whether intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone [1-34] (PTH[1-34]; 60 μg/kg/day can prevent the negative effects of titanium (Ti particles on implant fixation and periprosthetic osteolysis in a rat model. Eighteen adult male rats (12 weeks old, bones still growing received intramedullary Ti implants in their bilateral femurs; 6 rats from the blank group received vehicle injections, and 12 rats from the control group and PTH treatment group received Ti particle injections at the time of operation and intra-articular injections 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. Six of the rats that received Ti particles from the PTH group also received PTH[1-34] treatment. Six weeks postoperatively, all specimens were collected for assessment by X-ray, micro-CT, biomechanical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and dynamic histomorphometry. A lower BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, maximal fixation strength, and mineral apposition rate were observed in the control group compared to the blank group, demonstrating that a periprosthetic osteolysis model had been successfully established. Administration of PTH[1-34] significantly increased the bone mineral density of the distal femur, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, Con.D, SMI, and maximal fixation strength in the PTH group compared to that in the control group. SEM revealed higher bone-implant contact, thicker lamellar bone, and larger trabecular bone area in the PTH group than in the control group. A higher mineral apposition rate was observed in the PTH group compared to both the blank and control groups. These findings imply that intermittent administration of PTH[1-34] prevents periprosthetic osteolysis by promoting bone formation. The effects of PTH[1-34] were evaluated at a suprapharmacological dosage to the human equivalent in rats; therefore, additional studies are required to demonstrate its therapeutic potential in periprosthetic osteolysis.

  5. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (P<0.05). These results confirm earlier observations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  6. Luteinizing hormone-induced Akt phosphorylation and androgen production are modulated by MAP Kinase in bovine theca cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Shin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theca cells play an important role in controlling ovarian steroidogenesis by providing aromatizable androgens for granulosa cell estrogen biosynthesis. Although it is well established that the steroidogenic activity of theca cells is mainly regulated by LH, the intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that regulate thecal proliferation and/or steroidogenesis remain obscure. In this study, we examined whether and how LH controls the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and androgen production in bovine theca cells. We also explored whether this LH-induced PI3K/Akt activation is modulated with other signaling pathways (i.e. PKA and MAPK. Methods Ovarian theca cells were isolated from bovine small antral follicles and were incubated with LH for various durations. Phospho-Akt and total-Akt content in the cultured theca cells were examined using Western blotting. Androstenedione levels in the spent media were determined using EIA. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses were conducted to analyze the mRNA levels of CYP17A1 and StAR in the theca cells. To examine whether Akt activity is involved in theca cell androgen production, the PI3K inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 were also added to the cells. Results Akt is constitutively expressed, but is gradually phosphorylated in cultured bovine theca cells through exposure to LH. LH significantly increased androstenedione production in bovine theca cells, whereas addition of the wortmannin and LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced androstenedione production. LH significantly increased CYP17A1 mRNA level in theca cells, whereas addition of LY294002 significantly decreased LH-induced CYP17A1 expression. Neither LH nor PI3K inhibitors alter the mRNA levels of StAR in theca cells. Although H89 (a selective inhibitor of PKA does not affect LH-mediated changes in Akt, U0126 (a potent MEK inhibitor suppressed LH-induced Akt phosphorylation, CYP17A1 expression, and androgen production in theca

  7. Contraction-induced lipolysis is not impaired by inhibition of hormone-sensitive lipase in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsted, Thomas Junker; Ploug, Thorkil; Prats Gavalda, Clara

    2013-01-01

    activity. We investigated lipolysis of IMTG in soleus muscles electrically-stimulated to contract ex vivo during acute pharmacological inhibition of HSL in rat muscles and in muscles from HSL-KO mice. Measurements of IMTG are complicated by the presence of adipocytes located between the muscle fibers....... To circumvent the problem with this contamination we analyzed intramyocellular lipid droplet content histochemically. At maximal inhibition of HSL in rat muscles, contraction-induced breakdown of IMTG was identical to that seen in control muscles (p...

  8. Effects of phenobarbital on thyroid hormone contabolism in rat hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic enzyme inducers such as phenobarbital (PB) decrease circulating thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in rodents. PB induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes increases thyroid hormones catabolism and biliary elimination. This study examines the catabolism and cl...

  9. Hot issues in female and male hormonal contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Giulia; Lantadilla, Claudia; Martelli, Valentina; Fattorini, Anna; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    In recent years a number of significant developments in the field of female hormonal contraception have been made which have produced new formulations and delivery systems providing high efficacy, safety and important non-contraceptive benefits. In particular long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) formulations have been demonstrated to ensure extremely high efficacy in typical use, minimal contraindications, optimal safety in all women thereby representing the best option for most women of all ages. Their effectiveness is not reliant upon user adherence and their ability to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortions has been proven. Unfortunately the same considerations cannot be made for male hormonal contraception. Although a large number of men are interested and would welcome the opportunity to use male contraceptive methods, no safe, effective and reversible methods are available on the market. Current methods available for men are limited to condoms and vasectomy. Highly effective prototype regimens have been developed but the pharmaceutical industry is unwilling to pursue further development and market these products. Of all new approaches to male contraception, hormonal methods are the closest to clinical application. These are based on the reversible suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with subsequent reversible inhibition of spermatogenesis and consequent replacement to maintain androgen dependent physiological functions. Most approaches tested combination regimens such as testosterone and a progestin or testosterone and a GnRH analog.

  10. Zinc Ameliorate Oxidative Stress and Hormonal Disturbance Induced by Methomyl, Abamectin, and Their Mixture in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameeh A. Mansour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to mixtures of toxicants (e.g., pesticides is common in real life and a subject of current concern. The present investigation was undertaken to assess some toxicological effects in male rats following exposure to methomyl (MET, abamectin (ABM, and their combination (MET+ABM, and to evaluate the ameliorative effect of zinc co-administration. Three groups of rats were designated for MET, ABM, and the mixture treatments. Three other groups were designated for zinc in conjunction with the pesticides. Additionally, one group received water only (control, and the other represented a positive zinc treatment. The obtained results revealed that MET was acutely more toxic than ABM. The tested pesticides induced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation and catalase levels, while declined the levels of the other tested parameters e.g., Superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Glutathione peroxidase (GPx, Glutathione reductase (GR, Cytochrome P450 (CYP450, testosterone, and thyroxine. Biochemical alterations induced by the mixture were greater than those recorded for each of the individual insecticides. The joint action analysis, based on the obtained biochemical data, revealed the dominance of antagonistic action among MET and ABM. Zinc supplementation achieved noticeable ameliorative effects. It was concluded that zinc may act as a powerful antioxidant, especially in individuals who are occupationally exposed daily to low doses of such pesticides.

  11. Serum androgen binding protein and follicle stimulating hormone as indices of Sertoli cell function in the irradiated testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.I.; Hendry, J.H.; Shalet, S.M.; Morris, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    The present study presents evidence of radiation-induced Sertoli cell damage in both the pubertal and adult rat. The indirect measurement of Sertoli cell function, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), in general mirrored the changes seen in androgen binding protein (ABP), again indicating Sertoli cell dysfunction. Although FSH remained elevated in adult rats after 5 Gy and above and in pubertal rats after 10 and 20 Gy, the elevation was not as great as that observed in castrates. This suggests that FSH secretion was still inhibited by some factor. As ABP was reduced to near 'background' (castrate) levels after these high doses, suggesting Sertoli cell dysfunction, this may indicate that serum ABP levels may not adequately reflect all Sertoli cell functions. Alternatively FSH may have been inhibited by by Leydig cell androgens, which have been demonstrated to modulate, in part, FSH secretion. Although the Leydig cells were damaged, androgen secretion was not entirely reduced during the study. In general, FSH was elevated when severe damage to spermatogenesis was noted. Whether the changes were related to the absence of a specific spermatogenic cell type could not be determined. (UK)

  12. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cytosol-to-Nuclear Translocation of Rat Liver Nrf2 Is Dependent on Kupffer Cell Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Videla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L-3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3 administration upregulates nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in rat liver, which is redox-sensitive transcription factor mediating cytoprotection. In this work, we studied the role of Kupffer cell respiratory burst activity, a process related to reactive oxygen species generation and liver homeostasis, in Nrf2 activation using the macrophage inactivator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg i.v. 72 h before T3 [0.1 mg/kg i.p.] or NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (1.5 mmol/L added to the drinking water for 7 days before T3, and determinations were performed 2 h after T3. T3 increased nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 content ratio and levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and thioredoxin (Western blot over control values, proteins whose gene transcription is induced by Nrf2. These changes were suppressed by GdCl3 treatment prior to T3, an agent-eliciting Kupffer-cell depletion, inhibition of colloidal carbon phagocytosis, and the associated respiratory burst activity, with enhancement in nuclear inhibitor of Nrf2 kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1/Nrf2 content ratios suggesting Nrf2 degradation. Under these conditions, T3-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α response was eliminated by previous GdCl3 administration. Similar to GdCl3, apocynin given before T3 significantly reduced liver Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor eliciting abolishment of colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity without altering carbon phagocytosis. It is concluded that Kupffer cell functioning is essential for upregulation of liver Nrf2-signaling pathway by T3. This contention is supported by suppression of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and the associated reactive oxygen species production by GdCl3 or apocynin given prior to T3, thus hindering Nrf2 activation.

  13. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  14. The Effect of Long-Term Intranasal Serotonin Treatment on Metabolic Parameters and Hormonal Signaling in Rats with High-Fat Diet/Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira V. Derkach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 was carried out using regulators of the brain signaling systems. In DM2 the level of the brain serotonin is reduced. So far, the effect of the increase of the brain serotonin level on DM2-induced metabolic and hormonal abnormalities has been studied scarcely. The present work was undertaken with the aim of filling this gap. DM2 was induced in male rats by 150-day high-fat diet and the treatment with low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg on the 70th day of experiment. From the 90th day, diabetic rats received for two months intranasal serotonin (IS at a daily dose of 20 μg/rat. The IS treatment of diabetic rats decreased the body weight, and improved glucose tolerance, insulin-induced glucose utilization, and lipid metabolism. Besides, it restored hormonal regulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC activity in the hypothalamus and normalized AC stimulation by β-adrenergic agonists in the myocardium. In nondiabetic rats the same treatment induced metabolic and hormonal alterations, some of which were similar to those in DM2 but expressed to a lesser extent. In conclusion, the elevation of the brain serotonin level may be regarded as an effective approach to treat DM2 and its complications.

  15. Novel oligomeric proanthocyanidin derivatives interact with membrane androgen sites and induce regression of hormone-independent prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampa, Marilena; Theodoropoulou, Katerina; Mavromati, Fani; Pelekanou, Vassiliki; Notas, George; Lagoudaki, Eleni D; Nifli, Artemissia-Phoebe; Morel-Salmi, Cécile; Stathopoulos, Efstathios N; Vercauteren, Joseph; Castanas, Elias

    2011-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men in Western societies, and current therapeutic approaches are evolving to manage growth, recurrence, and mortality neoplasia. Membrane androgen receptors (mARs) have been characterized in human prostate cancer, being preferentially expressed in tumor rather than benign gland areas. Furthermore, mAR agonists (protein-conjugated testosterone) decrease in vitro prostate cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis, whereas in vivo they regress growth of tumor xenografts alone or in combination with taxane drugs. In this respect, targeting mARs might be a novel therapeutic approach in prostate cancer. In our search for new small-molecule ligands of mAR, we report that flavanol dimers B1-B4 (oligomeric procyanidins) decrease in vitro growth of the androgen-sensitive (LnCaP) and androgen-resistant (DU145) human prostate cancer cell lines in the following order: B3 = B4 > B2 ≫ B1 (LnCaP) and B2 ≫ B3 = B4 ≫ B1 (DU145). Some of these analogs were previously shown to trigger signaling cascades similar to testosterone-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugate. Galloylation does not confer an additional advantage; however, oleylation increases the dimers' antiproliferative potency by a factor of 100. In addition, we report that B2, oleylated or not, displaces testosterone from mARs with an IC(50) value at the nanomolar range and induces DU145 tumor xenograft regression by 50% (testosterone-BSA 40%). In this respect, oleylated B2 is a potent small-molecule agonist of mAR and could be a novel therapeutic agent for advanced prostate cancer, especially when taking into account the absence of androgenic actions and (liver) toxicity.

  16. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  17. The role of the expression of bcl-2, p53 gene in tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells and its relationship with hormone receptor status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Woo Chul; Ham, Yong Ho [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of bcl-2, p53, ER and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (ER+/bcl-2+/p53-) and MB MDA 468 (ER-/bcl-2-/p53+) cell line were cultured in estrogen-free condition. E2(10`-`9M) and tamoxifen (10`-`5M) were added to the media. The changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein were checked by Western blot and apoptosis were measured by flowcytometry. In MCF-7 cells, we found that treatment with tamoxifen resulted in a decrease in bcl-2 protein level, but produced no change in mutant p53. In MB MDA 468 cell however, there were no changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein level when E2 or tamoxifen were added. Apoptotic cells increased with time-dependent pattern when tamoxifen was added to MCF-7 cells. According to these result, ER+/blc-2+/mutant p53- cells, when treated with tamoxifen, were converted into bcl-2/mutant p53- cells which were more prone to apoptosis than bcl-2-/mutant p53+ cells. The paradoxical correlation of bcl-2 and ER which had been observed in clinical studies might be explained with this results and bcl-2 protein seems to be one of important factors that can predict the effect of hormone therapy. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs

  18. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10−4 μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH’s protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH’s protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED. PMID:26685899

  19. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-12-21

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.

  20. Sexual dimorphic expression of DMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal in the teleost fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tohru; Kajiura-Kobayashi, Hiroko; Guan, Guijun; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    We examined the expression profiles of tDMRT1 and Sox9a during gonadal sex differentiation and hormone-induced sex reversal. tDMRT1 was detected in the gonial germ-cell-surrounding cells in XY fry specifically before the appearance of any signs of morphological sex differentiation, that is, sex differences in germ cell number and histogenesis, such as differentiation into intratesticular efferent duct or ovarian cavity. The signals became localized in the Sertoli and epithelial cells comprising the efferent duct during gonadal differentiation. After the induction of XY sex reversal with estrogen, tDMRT1 decreased and then disappeared completely. In contrast, tDMRT1 was expressed in the germ-cell-surrounding cells in XX sex reversal with androgen. On the other hand, Sox9a did not show sexual dimorphism before the appearance of sex differences in histogenesis and was not expressed in the efferent duct in the testis. These results suggest that tDMRT1 is a superior testicular differentiation marker in tilapia.

  1. Calcitonin causes a sustained inhibition of protein kinase C-stimulated bone resorption in contrast to the transient inhibition of parathyroid hormone-induced bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransjoe, M.; Lerner, U.H.

    1990-01-01

    Calcitonin is a well known inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resortion, both in vivo and in vitro. However, it is also known that calcitonin has only a transient inhibitory effect on bone resorption. The mechanism for this so-called ''escape from inhibition'' phenomenon is not clear. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of calcitonin on phorbol ester-induced bone resorption was examined in cultured neonatal mouse calvaria. Bone resorption was assessed as the release of radioactivity from bones prelabelled in vivo with 45 Ca. Two proteon kinase C-activating phorbol esters, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, both stimulated 45 Ca release in 120-h cultures at a concentration of 10 nmul/l. Calcitonin (30 nmol/l) inhibited phorbol esterstimulated bone resorption without any ''escape from inhibition''. This was in contrast to the transient inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption stimulated by parathyroid hormone (10 nmol/l), prostaglandin E 2 (2 μmol/l), and bradykinin (1 μmol/l). Our results suggest that activation of protein kinase C produces a sustained inhibitory effect of calcitonin on bone resorption. (author)

  2. The role of the expression of bcl-2, p53 gene in tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells and its relationship with hormone receptor status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Woo Chul; Ham, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of bcl-2, p53, ER and tamoxifen-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells, MCF-7 (ER+/bcl-2+/p53-) and MB MDA 468 (ER-/bcl-2-/p53+) cell line were cultured in estrogen-free condition. E2(10'-'9M) and tamoxifen (10'-'5M) were added to the media. The changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein were checked by Western blot and apoptosis were measured by flowcytometry. In MCF-7 cells, we found that treatment with tamoxifen resulted in a decrease in bcl-2 protein level, but produced no change in mutant p53. In MB MDA 468 cell however, there were no changes of bcl-2 and mutant p53 protein level when E2 or tamoxifen were added. Apoptotic cells increased with time-dependent pattern when tamoxifen was added to MCF-7 cells. According to these result, ER+/blc-2+/mutant p53- cells, when treated with tamoxifen, were converted into bcl-2/mutant p53- cells which were more prone to apoptosis than bcl-2-/mutant p53+ cells. The paradoxical correlation of bcl-2 and ER which had been observed in clinical studies might be explained with this results and bcl-2 protein seems to be one of important factors that can predict the effect of hormone therapy. (author). 26 refs., 5 figs

  3. Combination therapy of Nigella sativa and human parathyroid hormone on bone mass, biomechanical behavior and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Mehmet Fatih; Kanter, Mehmet; Donmez, Senayi; Kartal, Murat Emre; Buyukbas, Sadik

    2007-01-01

    Extracts of the seeds of Nigella sativa (NS), an annual herbaceous plant of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used for many years for therapeutic purposes, including their potential anti-diabetic properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combined treatment with NS and human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) is more effective than treatment with NS or hPTH alone in improving bone mass, connectivity, biomechanical behaviour and strength in insulin-dependent diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a single dose of 50mg/kg. The diabetic rats received NS (2ml/kg/day, i.p.), hPTH (6microg/kg/day, i.p.) or NS and hPTH combined for 4 weeks, starting 8 weeks after STZ injection. The beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were examined by immunohistochemical methods. In addition, bone sections of femora were processed for histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis. In diabetic rats, the beta-cells were essentially negative for insulin-immunoreactivity. NS treatment (alone or in combination with hPTH) significantly increased the area of insulin immunoreactive beta-cells in diabetic rats; however, hPTH treatment alone only led to a slightly increase in the insulin-immunoreactivity. These results suggest that NS might be used in a similar manner to insulin as a safe and effective therapy for diabetes and might be useful in the treatment of diabetic osteopenia.

  4. Pituitary-hormone secretion by thyrotropinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Simon; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M.; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Smit, Jan W.; Frolich, Marijke; Keenan, Daniel M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2008-01-01

    Hormone secretion by somatotropinomas, corticotropinomas and prolactinomas exhibits increased pulse frequency, basal and pulsatile secretion, accompanied by greater disorderliness. Increased concentrations of growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) are observed in about 30% of thyrotropinomas leading to acromegaly or disturbed sexual functions beyond thyrotropin (TSH)-induced hyperthyroidism. Regulation of non-TSH pituitary hormones in this context is not well understood. We there therefore ev...

  5. Estrogen receptor alpha localization in the testes of men with normal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Eliza; Suliborska, Dagmara; Laszczynska, Maria; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Kula, Krzysztof; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2013-10-08

    It is known that estrogens act on the male reproductive tract by binding to estrogen receptors (ER) α and β. However, studies on ER localization in the human testis are discordant. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization of ERα in the testes of adult men with normal spermatogenesis. Semen analysis of ten adult men revealed azoospermia. FSH, LH and testosterone serum concentrations were within normal values, and the volume of the testes was normal, hence obstructive azoospermia was suspected. The tissues from testicular surgical biopsies were fixed in Bouin's fluid and embedded in paraffin. Assessments of the seminiferous epithelium (scoring 10 to -1), the number of Leydig cells (scoring 1 to 5), the areal fraction of intertubular space (IS), measurements of seminiferous tubule diameter, and the thickness of the tubular wall, were performed on microscopic sections. Immunohistochemical staining was applied with monoclonal antibodies against ERα. The mean spermatogenesis score was 10 points; IS - 30.6 ± 8.1%; seminiferous tubule diameter - 193.9 ± 19.4 μm; thickness of tubular wall - 7.44 ± 1.1 μm; number of Leydig cells - 1.6 ± 1.1 points. Immunohistochemical staining showed the localization of ERα to be in the Sertoli and Leydig cell cytoplasm, while ERα was absent in germ cells. The results of testicular tissue analysis confirmed its normal structure and normal, full spermatogenesis. The presence of ERα in Sertoli and Leydig cells in normal human testis demonstrated in this study suggests that estrogens may affect testicular function.

  6. Male sex interspecies divergence and down regulation of expression of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila sterile hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.

  7. Transgenerational effect of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on male spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Memon, Mushtaq A; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Skinner, Michael K

    2006-01-01

    with a vinclozolin generation female with a wild-type male had no phenotype. A similar phenotype was observed in outbred Sprague Dawley and inbred Fisher rat strains. Observations demonstrate that a transient exposure at the time of male sex determination to the antiandrogenic endocrine disruptor vinclozolin can induce an apparent epigenetic transgenerational phenotype with reduced spermatogenic capacity.

  8. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperglycemia induces elevated expression of thyroid hormone binding protein in vivo in kidney and heart and in vitro in mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kafaji, Ghada; Malik, Afshan N.

    2010-01-01

    During a search for glucose-regulated abundant mRNAs in the diabetic rat kidney, we cloned thyroid hormone binding protein (THBP), also known as μ-crystallin or CRYM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia/high glucose on the expression of THBP. THBP mRNA copy numbers were determined in kidneys and hearts of diabetic GK rats vs normoglycemic Wistar rats, and in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to high glucose using real-time qPCR, and THBP protein levels were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular ROS was measured in THBP transfected cells using DCF fluorescence. Hyperglycemia significantly increased THBP mRNA in GK rat kidneys (326 ± 50 vs 147 ± 54, p < 0.05), and hearts (1583 ± 277 vs 191 ± 63, p < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of THBP mRNA increased with age and hyperglycemia in GK rat kidneys, whereas in normoglycemic Wistar rat kidneys there was a decline with age. High glucose significantly increased THBP mRNA (92 ± 37 vs 18 ± 4, p < 0.005), and protein in HMCs. The expression of THBP as a fusion protein in transfected HMCs resulted in reduction of glucose-induced intracellular ROS. We have shown that THBP mRNA is increased in diabetic kidney and heart, is regulated by high glucose in renal cells, and appears to attenuate glucose-induced intracellular ROS. These data suggest that THBP may be involved in the cellular pathways activated in response to glucose. This is the first report linking hyperglycemia with THBP and suggests that the role of THBP in diabetic complications should be further investigated.

  10. Hyperglycemia induces elevated expression of thyroid hormone binding protein in vivo in kidney and heart and in vitro in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kafaji, Ghada [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom); Malik, Afshan N., E-mail: afshan.malik@kcl.ac.uk [Diabetes Research Group, Division of Reproduction and Endocrinology, King' s College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-22

    During a search for glucose-regulated abundant mRNAs in the diabetic rat kidney, we cloned thyroid hormone binding protein (THBP), also known as {mu}-crystallin or CRYM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia/high glucose on the expression of THBP. THBP mRNA copy numbers were determined in kidneys and hearts of diabetic GK rats vs normoglycemic Wistar rats, and in human mesangial cells (HMCs) exposed to high glucose using real-time qPCR, and THBP protein levels were measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Intracellular ROS was measured in THBP transfected cells using DCF fluorescence. Hyperglycemia significantly increased THBP mRNA in GK rat kidneys (326 {+-} 50 vs 147 {+-} 54, p < 0.05), and hearts (1583 {+-} 277 vs 191 {+-} 63, p < 0.05). Moreover, the levels of THBP mRNA increased with age and hyperglycemia in GK rat kidneys, whereas in normoglycemic Wistar rat kidneys there was a decline with age. High glucose significantly increased THBP mRNA (92 {+-} 37 vs 18 {+-} 4, p < 0.005), and protein in HMCs. The expression of THBP as a fusion protein in transfected HMCs resulted in reduction of glucose-induced intracellular ROS. We have shown that THBP mRNA is increased in diabetic kidney and heart, is regulated by high glucose in renal cells, and appears to attenuate glucose-induced intracellular ROS. These data suggest that THBP may be involved in the cellular pathways activated in response to glucose. This is the first report linking hyperglycemia with THBP and suggests that the role of THBP in diabetic complications should be further investigated.

  11. Growth hormone and IGF-1 deficiency exacerbate high-fat diet-induced endothelial impairment in obese Lewis dwarf rats: implications for vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Sosnowska, Danuta; Toth, Peter; Mitschelen, Matthew; Gautam, Tripti; Henthorn, Jim C; Ballabh, Praveen; Koller, Akos; Farley, Julie A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are more vulnerable to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of obesity than younger individuals. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging, GH/IGF-1 deficiency, and obesity interact to promote the development of cardiovascular disease remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that low circulating GH/IGF-1 levels exacerbate the pro-oxidant and proinflammatory vascular effects of obesity, GH/IGF-1-deficient Lewis dwarf rats and heterozygous control rats were fed either a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 months. Feeding an HFD resulted in similar relative weight gains and increases in body fat content in Lewis dwarf rats and control rats. HFD-fed Lewis dwarf rats exhibited a relative increase in blood glucose levels, lower insulin, and impaired glucose tolerance as compared with HFD-fed control rats. Analysis of serum cytokine expression signatures indicated that chronic GH/IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates HFD-induced inflammation. GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exacerbated HFD-induced endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and expression of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α, ICAM-1) in aortas of Lewis dwarf rats. Overall, our results are consistent with the available clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that GH/IGF-1 deficiency renders the cardiovascular system more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of obesity.

  12. Glucose delays the insulin-induced increase in thyroid hormone-mediated signaling in adipose of prolong-fasted elephant seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José G.; Viscarra, Jose A.; Jaques, John T.; MacKenzie, Duncan S.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged food deprivation in mammals typically reduces glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations, as well as tissue deiodinase (DI) content and activity, which, collectively, suppress metabolism. However, in elephant seal pups, prolonged fasting does not suppress TH levels; it is associated with upregulation of adipose TH-mediated cellular mechanisms and adipose-specific insulin resistance. The functional relevance of this apparent paradox and the effects of glucose and insulin on TH-mediated signaling in an insulin-resistant tissue are not well defined. To address our hypothesis that insulin increases adipose TH signaling in pups during extended fasting, we assessed the changes in TH-associated genes in response to an insulin infusion in early- and late-fasted pups. In late fasting, insulin increased DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 mRNA expression by 566%, 44%, and 267% at 60 min postinfusion, respectively, with levels decreasing by 120 min. Additionally, we performed a glucose challenge in late-fasted pups to differentiate between insulin- and glucose-mediated effects on TH signaling. In contrast to the insulin-induced effects, glucose infusion did not increase the expressions of DI1, DI2, and THrβ-1 until 120 min, suggesting that glucose delays the onset of the insulin-induced effects. The data also suggest that fasting duration increases the sensitivity of adipose TH-mediated mechanisms to insulin, some of which may be mediated by increased glucose. These responses appear to be unique among mammals and to have evolved in elephant seals to facilitate their adaptation to tolerate an extreme physiological condition. PMID:26739649

  13. Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T 4 ), thus reducing serum T 4 , and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T 4 glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T 4 glucuronidation, decreased serum T 4 , and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16α-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum T 4 , triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and TSH concentrations, hepatic T 4 /T 3 glucuronidation, and thyroid histology and follicular cell proliferation were investigated. PCN, 3-MC, and PCB treatments decreased serum T 4 , whereas serum T 3 was maintained in both Gunn and Wistar rats (except for PCB treatment). TSH was increased in Wistar and Gunn rats after PCN (130 and 277%) or PCB treatment (72 and 60%). T 4 glucuronidation in Wistar rats was increased after PCN (298%), 3-MC (85%), and PCB (450%), but was extremely low in Gunn rats, and unchanged after MEI. T 3 glucuronidation was increased after PCN (121%) or PCB (58%) in Wistar rats, but only PCN increased T 3 glucuronidation in Gunn rats (43%). PCN treatment induced thyroid morphological changes and increased follicular cell proliferation in both strains. These data demonstrate that T 4 glucuronidation cannot be increased in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats. Thus, the decrease in serum T 4 , increase in TSH, and increase in thyroid cell proliferation after MEI are not dependent on increased T 4 glucuronidation, and cannot be attributed to Ugt1a enzymes.

  14. Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis, patient approach and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rives, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Infertility affects 15% of couples at reproductive age and human male infertility appears frequently idiopathic. The main genetic causes of spermatogenesis defect responsible for non-obstructive azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia are constitutional chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions in the azoospermia factor region of the Y chromosome. The improvement of the Yq microdeletion screening method gave new insights in the mechanism responsible for the genesis of Yq microdeletions and for the consequences of the management of male infertility and genetic counselling in case of assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Xenotransplantation of a thyroid gland organ culture as the method of hormonal compensation of radiation-induced hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron'ko, M.D.; Paster, Yi.P.; Vojtenko, L.M.; Donyich, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reestablishment of the thyroid function in rats with radiation-induced hypothyroidism. The serum total thyroxine (TT4) and total triiodothyronine (TT3) values in male Wistar rats, weighing of 100-150 g, fell to low levels by 2 weeks after 2.775 MBq 131-iodine administration. The values of serum TT4 in rats were generally in the euthyroid range by the 17th day after xenotransplantation (XTP) of 3-day old newborn pig thyroid organ culture by injection into the fat tissue of anterior abdominal wall. The serum TT3 values rose rapidly and reached normal levels by the 7th day after XTP. 7 days after XTP, all newborn pig thyroid xenografts showed 131-iodine uptake, and four of five xenografts were still functional bu the 17th day. These results indicate that the xenografted newborn pig thyroid organ culture allows a restoration of the thyroid function in rats with post radioiodine hypothyroidism

  16. Deficiency of sex hormones does not affect 17-ß-estradiol-induced coronary vasodilation in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R L; Lima, J T; Rouver, W N; Moysés, M R

    2016-01-01

    The relaxation of coronary arteries by estrogens in the coronary vascular beds of naive and hypertensive rats has been well described. However, little is known about this action in gonadectomized rats. We investigated the effect of 17-ß-estradiol (E2) in coronary arteries from gonadectomized rats, as well as the contributions of endothelium-derived factors and potassium channels. Eight-week-old female and male Wistar rats weighing 220-300 g were divided into sham-operated and gonadectomized groups (n=9-12 animals per group). The baseline coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was determined, and the vasoactive effects of 10 μM E2 were assessed by bolus administration before and after endothelium denudation or by perfusion with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin, L-NAME plus clotrimazole or tetraethylammonium (TEA). The CPP differed significantly between the female and sham-operated male animals. Gonadectomy reduced the CPP only in female rats. Differences in E2-induced relaxation were observed between the female and male animals, but male castration did not alter this response. For both sexes, the relaxation response to E2 was, at least partly, endothelium-dependent. The response to E2 was reduced only in the sham-operated female rats treated with L-NAME. However, in the presence of indomethacin, clotrimazole, L-NAME plus indomethacin or L-NAME plus clotrimazole, or TEA, the E2 response was significantly reduced in all groups. These results highlight the importance of prostacyclin, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, and potassium channels in the relaxation response of coronary arteries to E2 in all groups, whereas nitric oxide may have had an important role only in the sham-operated female group.

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  18. Confocal Analysis of Nuclear Lamina Behavior during Male Meiosis and Spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Fabiana Fabbretti

    Full Text Available Lamin family proteins are structural components of a filamentous framework, the nuclear lamina (NL, underlying the inner membrane of nuclear envelope. The NL not only plays a role in nucleus mechanical support and nuclear shaping, but is also involved in many cellular processes including DNA replication, gene expression and chromatin positioning. Spermatogenesis is a very complex differentiation process in which each stage is characterized by nuclear architecture dramatic changes, from the early mitotic stage to the sperm differentiation final stage. Nevertheless, very few data are present in the literature on the NL behavior during this process. Here we show the first and complete description of NL behavior during meiosis and spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. By confocal imaging, we characterized the NL modifications from mitotic stages, through meiotic divisions to sperm differentiation with an anti-laminDm0 antibody against the major component of the Drosophila NL. We observed that continuous changes in the NL structure occurred in parallel with chromatin reorganization throughout the whole process and that meiotic divisions occurred in a closed context. Finally, we analyzed NL in solofuso meiotic mutant, where chromatin segregation is severely affected, and found the strict correlation between the presence of chromatin and that of NL.

  19. Effects of aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L. leaves on spermatogenesis in healthy male rats

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    Ameneh Hardani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nowadays, a lot of attention has been paid to the therapeutic properties of herbs, including evaluation of the effects of these plants on fertility in laboratory animals. Apium graveolens L. (celery has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of various disorders including impotency. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of A. graveolens on testicular tissue and spermatogenesis in healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: In this research, 24 apparently healthy male rats were divided into three groups, including eight rats in each. The first group as control received only distilled water 1 ml/animal/day. The second and third groups orally received 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. of the extract, respectively, for 30 days. The day after the last administration of the extract, the rats were sacrificed, the testes were removed entirely, and the morphometric studies were carried out. Epididymal sperm count and histological studies of testicular tissue were conducted. Results: The comparison between the treated and control groups revealed a remarkable increase in the seminiferous tubules diameter, testes volume (p≤0.001, and the number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and spermatozoa. Furthermore, the increase in the number of spermatids and epididymal weight were only significant at high doses of the extract (p≤ 0.05. Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that administration of celery leaf extract may improve spermatogenesis process and also be useful for some sperm fertility parameters.

  20. Oocyte-specific gene Oog1 suppresses the expression of spermatogenesis-specific genes in oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinnosuke; Miki, Yuka; Miyamoto, Yuya; Kawahara, Yu; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Minami, Naojiro

    2018-05-03

    Oog1, an oocyte-specific gene that encodes a protein of 425 amino acids, is present in five copies on mouse chromosomes 4 and 12. In mouse oocytes, Oog1 mRNA expression begins at embryonic day 15.5 and almost disappears by the late two-cell stage. Meanwhile, OOG1 protein is detectable in oocytes in ovarian cysts and disappears by the four-cell stage; the protein is transported to the nucleus in late one-cell to early two-cell stage embryos. In this study, we examined the role of Oog1 during oogenesis in mice. Oog1 RNAi-transgenic mice were generated by expressing double-stranded hairpin Oog1 RNA, which is processed into siRNAs targeting Oog1 mRNA. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the amount of Oog1 mRNA was dramatically reduced in oocytes obtained from Oog1-knockdown mice, whereas the abundance of spermatogenesis-associated transcripts (Klhl10, Tekt2, Tdrd6, and Tnp2) was increased in Oog1 knockdown ovaries. Tdrd6 is involved in the formation of the chromatoid body, Tnp2 contributes to the formation of sperm heads, Tekt2 is required for the formation of ciliary and flagellar microtubules, and Klhl10 plays a key role in the elongated sperm differentiation. These results indicate that Oog1 down-regulates the expression of spermatogenesis-associated genes in female germ cells, allowing them to develop normally into oocytes.

  1. Study of Spermatogenesis in Wistar Adult Rats Administrated to Long Term of Ruta Graveolens

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    Bazrafkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In Iranian folk medicine Ruta graveolens has been used for female and male contraceptive. There are few studies about the effect of this plant on spermatogenesis. Objectives In this study the effect of long term administration of aqueous extract of RG on spermatogenesis has been investigated. Materials and Methods Animals were allocated into 1 control: which did not receive anything, 2 vehicle which received only normal saline and 3 experiment: which received Ruta extract (300 mg/kg administered by gavage once a day for 100 days. A day after last gavage all the individuals were killed by euthanasia. The right testes and epididymis were extruded. The sperm motility was assessed and classified as progressive, no progressive. Results There was a significant decrease in the number of spermatogonia (P 0.05.The fertilization capacity of sperm of rats in experimental group was significantly lower than other groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions It is concluded that the aqueous extract of Ruta graveolens diminishes the reproductive system activity and might be a useful substance for birth control process.

  2. Dietary intake of high-dose biotin inhibits spermatogenesis in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Hiromi; Ikeda, Chieko; Shimada, Ryoko; Yoshii, Yui; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    To characterize a new function of the water-soluble vitamin, biotin, in reproduction and early growth in mammals, the effects of high dietary doses of biotin on early spermatogenesis were biochemically and histologically investigated in male rats. Weaned rats were fed a CE-2 (control) diet containing 0.00004% biotin, or a control diet supplemented with 0.01%, 0.1%, or 1.0% biotin. Pair-fed rats were fed a control diet that was equal in calories to the amount ingested by the 1.0% biotin group, because food intake was decreased in the 1.0% biotin group. Food intake and body weight gain were lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the control group. The kidney, brain and testis weights were significantly lower in the 1.0% biotin group than in the pair-fed group after 6 weeks of feeding. The accumulation of biotin in the liver and testis increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the 1.0% biotin group, the number of mature sperm was markedly lower, that of sperm with morphologically abnormal heads, mainly consisting of round heads, had increased. In addition, the development of seminiferous tubules was inhibited, and few spermatogonia and no spermatocytes were histologically observed. These results demonstrated that the long-term intake of high-dose biotin inhibited spermatogenesis in young male rats. © 2014 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Expression pattern of phb2 and its potential function in spermatogenesis of scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiantian; Ma, Xiaoshi; Liang, Shaoshuai; Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) participates in several biological processes including apoptosis, transcription regulation and suppression of cell proliferation in mammals. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of prohibitin 2 ( Cf-phb2) from the testis of scallop ( Chlamys farreri). The deduced amino acid sequence presented a characteristic of PHB family with the PHB domain, and clustered with PHB2 of other species. Temporal and spatial expression of Cf-phb2 in testis during the reproductive cycle was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. The expression of Cf-phb2 in the testis increased when testis developed from the resting stage to mature stage. The mRNA abundance of Cf-phb2 was the highest at mature stage, which was about 15-fold higher than that at proliferative stage. The expression of Cf-phb2 could be detected by in situ hybridization in all types of germ cells in testis, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The intensity of the signal increased with the spermatogenesis and was the highest in spermatids, which suggested that CF-PHB2 might affect the spermatogenesis of C. farreri.

  4. Putting things in place for fertilization: discovering roles for importin proteins in cell fate and spermatogenesis

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    Kate L. Loveland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importin proteins were originally characterized for their central role in protein transport through the nuclear pores, the only intracellular entry to the nucleus. This vital function must be tightly regulated to control access by transcription factors and other nuclear proteins to genomic DNA, to achieve appropriate modulation of cellular behaviors affecting cell fate. Importin-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport relies on their specific recognition of cargoes, with each importin binding to distinct and overlapping protein subsets. Knowledge of importin function has expanded substantially in regard to three key developmental systems: embryonic stem cells, muscle cells and the germ line. In the decade since the potential for regulated nucleocytoplasmic transport to contribute to spermatogenesis was proposed, we and others have shown that the importins that ferry transcription factors into the nucleus perform additional roles, which control cell fate. This review presents key findings from studies of mammalian spermatogenesis that reveal potential new pathways by which male fertility and infertility arise. These studies of germline genesis illuminate new ways in which importin proteins govern cellular differentiation, including via directing proteins to distinct intracellular compartments and by determining cellular stress responses.

  5. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni; Beyrer, Melanie; Fitzenberger, Elena; Wenzel, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation

  6. Evidence for gating roles of protein kinase A and protein kinase C in estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) expression in zebrafish ovarian follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ka-Cheuk; Ge, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) stimulates luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) expression in zebrafish follicle cells via nuclear estrogen receptors (nERs) that are likely expressed on the membrane, and lhcgr responds to E2 in a biphasic manner during 24-h treatment. These observations raise an interesting question on the signaling mechanism underlying E2 regulation, in particular the biphasic response of lhcgr expression. In the present study, we demonstrated that E2 regulation of lhcgr was significantly influenced by the activity of cAMP-PKA pathway. Activation of cAMP-PKA pathway by forskolin or db-cAMP suppressed E2-stimulated lhcgr expression in short-term (3 h) but enhanced its effect in long-term (24 h), suggesting differential roles of PKA at these two phases of lhcgr response. PKA inhibitor H89 showed reversed effects. In contrast, PKC pathway had consistent permissive effect on E2-induced lhcgr expression as evidenced by strong inhibition of E2 effect by PKC inhibitors GF109203X and Ro-31-8220 at both 3 and 24 h. One of the mechanisms by which PKA and PKC gated E2 effect might be through regulating nERs, particularly esr2a. Despite the strong influence of PKA and PKC, our data did not suggest direct mediating roles for these two pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression; yet they likely play critical gating roles in E2 signal transduction. As a follow-up study to our previous report on E2 regulation of gonadotropin receptors in the zebrafish ovary, the present study provides further evidence for the involvement of classical intracellular signal transduction pathways in E2 stimulation of lhcgr expression in the follicle cells.

  7. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) induces forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) expression in primary culture of human granulosa cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Sandro; Marinaro, Federica; Xella, Susanna; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) are two pivotal genes expressed in human granulosa cells (hGCs) where both genes share similar inhibitory functions on activation and follicular growth in order to preserve the ovarian follicle reserve. Furthermore, AMH and FOXL2 contribute to inhibit steroidogenesis, decreasing or preventing the activation of gonadotrophin-dependent aromatase CYP19A1 cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of AMH in regulating the expression of FOXL2. Primary cultures of hGCs were treated with increasing concentrations of recombinant human AMH (rhAMH; range 10-100 ng/ml) for 3 h. Negative controls were performed using corresponding amounts of AMH vehicle. Total RNA or proteins were purified and quantified by spectrophotometry. FOXL2 and CYP19A1 gene expression, normalized by reference gene ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7), was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Each reaction was repeated in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed. Extracted proteins were analyzed by immunoblot using anti-FOXL2 and anti-β-actin as primary antibodies. rhAMH treatments tested did not modulate the basal expression of aromatase CYP19A1 gene. rhAMH (50 ng/ml) was able to increase FOXL2 gene expression and its intracellular content. This study demonstrated the existence of an AMH-FOXL2 relationship in hGCs. AMH is capable of increasing both gene and protein expression of FOXL2. Because FOXL2 induces AMH transcription, these ovarian factors could be finely regulated by a positive feedback loop mechanism to preserve the ovarian follicle reserve.

  8. Proteomic analysis of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment of an infantile spasm model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid and prenatal stress.

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    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH. We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin β-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1, synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G,N(G-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3, and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA. In contrast, tubulin α-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment.

  9. Carnitine protects the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans from glucose-induced reduction of survival depending on the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deusing, Dorothé Jenni, E-mail: Dorothe.J.Deusing@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Beyrer, Melanie, E-mail: m.beyrer@web.de; Fitzenberger, Elena, E-mail: Elena.Fitzenberger@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de; Wenzel, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.wenzel@ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de

    2015-05-08

    Besides its function in transport of fatty acids into mitochondria in order to provide substrates for β-oxidation, carnitine has been shown to affect also glucose metabolism and to inhibit several mechanisms associated with diabetic complications. In the present study we used the mev-1 mutant of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans fed on a high glucose concentration in liquid media as a diabetes model and tested the effects of carnitine supplementation on their survival under heat-stress. Carnitine at 100 μM completely prevented the survival reduction that was caused by the application of 10 mM glucose. RNA-interference for sir-2.1, a candidate genes mediating the effects of carnitine revealed no contribution of the sirtuin for the rescue of survival. Under daf-12 RNAi rescue of survival by carnitine was abolished. RNA-interference for γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 2, encoding the key enzyme for carnitine biosynthesis did neither increase glucose toxicity nor prevent the rescue of survival by carnitine, suggesting that the effects of carnitine supplementation on carnitine levels were significant. Finally, it was demonstrated that neither the amount of lysosomes nor the proteasomal activity were increased by carnitine, excluding that protein degradation pathways, such as autophagy or proteasomal degradation, are involved in the protective carnitine effects. In conclusion, carnitine supplementation prevents the reduction of survival caused by glucose in C. elegans in dependence on a nuclear hormone receptor which displays high homologies to the vertebrate peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors. - Highlights: • Carnitine protects from glucose-induced reduction of stress-resistance. • Carnitine acts via the PPAR homolog DAF-12 on glucose toxicity. • Carnitine protects from glucose toxicity independent of protein degradation.

  10. Systematic review of hormone replacement therapy in the infertile man

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    Amr El Meliegy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To highlight alternative treatment options other than exogenous testosterone administration for hypogonadal men with concomitant infertility or who wish to preserve their fertility potential, as testosterone replacement therapy (TRT inhibits spermatogenesis, representing a problem for hypogonadal men of reproductive age. Materials and methods: We performed a comprehensive literature review for the years 1978–2017 via PubMed. Also abstracts from major urological/surgical conferences were reviewed. Review was consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA criteria. We used Medical Subject Heading terms for the search including ‘testosterone replacement therapy’ or ‘TRT’ and ‘male infertility’. Results: In all, 91 manuscripts were screened and the final number used for the review was 56. All studies included were performed in adults, were written in English and had an abstract available. Conclusions: Exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis. Hypogonadal men wanting to preserve their fertility and at the same time benefiting from TRT effects can be prescribed selective oestrogen receptor modulators or testosterone plus low-dose human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG. Patients treated for infertility with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be prescribed hCG alone at first followed by or in combination from the start with follicle-stimulating hormone preparations. Keywords: Gonadotrophins, Hypogonadism, Infertility, Systematic review, Testosterone therapy

  11. Effects of Vitex agnus-castus fruit on sex hormones and antioxidant indices in a d-galactose-induced aging female mouse model

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Vitex improved some aging events in the reproductive system of female mice. Therefore, because of its apparent antiaging effects, Vitex can be suitable for some aging problems such as oxidative stress, female sex hormone deficiency, and an atrophic endometrium.

  12. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha is not an index of growth-hormone- or obesity-induced insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, A I; Brunani, A; Scacchi, M; Dubini, A; Borsotti, R; Tibaldi, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Maestri, E; Cavagnini, F

    2001-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) might play a central role in insulin resistance, a frequent correlate of obesity likely contributing to some obesity-associated complications. Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency syndrome (GHDA) shares with obesity excessive fat mass, hyperlipidemia, increased cardiovascular risk, and insulin resistance. On the other hand, GH has been shown to induce transient deterioration of glucose metabolism and insulin resistance when administered in normal humans and in GHDA patients. No information is presently available on the relationship between serum TNF-alpha levels and insulin sensitivity in GHDA. We compared the serum TNF-alpha levels found in 10 GHDA patients before and after a 6-month recombinant human GH therapy (Genotropin), in an insulin resistance prone population of 16 obese (OB) patients and in 38 normal-weight healthy blood donors (controls). The insulin sensitivity was assessed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp in all the GHDA patients and in 10 OB and in 6 control subjects. The serum TNF-alpha levels were not significantly different in OB patients (42.2 +/- 12.81 pg/ml), in GHDA patients at baseline (71.3 +/- 23.97 pg/ml), and in controls (55.3 +/- 14.28 pg/ml). A slight decrease of TNF-alpha values was noted in GHDA patients after 6 months of recombinant human GH treatment (44.5 +/- 20.19 pg/ml; NS vs. baseline). The insulin sensitivity (M) was significantly reduced in OB patients (2.4 +/- 0.30 mg/kg/min) as compared with control subjects (7.5 +/- 0.39 mg/kg/min) and in GHDA patients both at baseline (6.6 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/min) and after recombinant human GH therapy (5.6 +/- 0.7 mg/kg/min). The insulin sensitivity in the GHDA patients, similar to that of controls at baseline, worsened after recombinant human GH treatment (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; p = 0.05 vs. controls). Linear regression analysis showed no correlation between TNF-alpha and M values (see text) in all patient groups. These data indicate

  13. The impact of female sex hormones on competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2009-01-01

    We use fluctuations of female sex hormones occurring naturally over the menstrual cycle or induced by hormonal contraceptives to determine the importance of sex hormones in explaining gender differences in competitiveness. Participants in a laboratory experiment solve a simple arithmetics task first

  14. Transcriptomics of shading-induced and NAA-induced abscission in apple (Malus domestica) reveals a shared pathway involving reduced photosynthesis, alterations in carbohydrate transport and signaling and hormone crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Dardick, Chris D; Beers, Eric P; Callanhan, Ann M; Xia, Rui; Yuan, Rongcai

    2011-10-17

    Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), a synthetic auxin analogue, is widely used as an effective thinner in apple orchards. When applied shortly after fruit set, some fruit abscise leading to improved fruit size and quality. However, the thinning results of NAA are inconsistent and difficult to predict, sometimes leading to excess fruit drop or insufficient thinning which are costly to growers. This unpredictability reflects our incomplete understanding of the mode of action of NAA in promoting fruit abscission. Here we compared NAA-induced fruit drop with that caused by shading via gene expression profiling performed on the fruit abscission zone (FAZ), sampled 1, 3, and 5 d after treatment. More than 700 genes with significant changes in transcript abundance were identified from NAA-treated FAZ. Combining results from both treatments, we found that genes associated with photosynthesis, cell cycle and membrane/cellular trafficking were downregulated. On the other hand, there was up-regulation of genes related to ABA, ethylene biosynthesis and signaling, cell wall degradation and programmed cell death. While the differentially expressed gene sets for NAA and shading treatments shared only 25% identity, NAA and shading showed substantial similarity with respect to the classes of genes identified. Specifically, photosynthesis, carbon utilization, ABA and ethylene pathways were affected in both NAA- and shading-induced young fruit abscission. Moreover, we found that NAA, similar to shading, directly interfered with leaf photosynthesis by repressing photosystem II (PSII) efficiency within 10 minutes of treatment, suggesting that NAA and shading induced some of the same early responses due to reduced photosynthesis, which concurred with changes in hormone signaling pathways and triggered fruit abscission. This study provides an extensive transcriptome study and a good platform for further investigation of possible regulatory genes involved in the induction of young fruit

  15. Possible role of vitamins A and/or α-tocopheryl acetate in modulating -radiation-induced disorders on the pituitary-gonadal-adrenal axis hormones and some related minerals in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Hussien, A.H.; El-Sayed, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the role of vitamins A (15000 IU/kg body wt) and α -tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg body wt) on repairing the disorders induced by γ -radiation on the pituitary-gonadal adrenal axis hormones in female rats during the estrus phase of estrus cycle. The investigation included the determination of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) estradiol (E2) progesterone (P) aldosterone (Ald), Na + , K + and Ca 2+ , levels in serum. Animals were divided into 5 groups: control, whole body -irradiated (6 Gy), injected with vitamin A 2 h before irradiation, subjected to γ -radiation then injected with α-tocopheryl acetate 1 h later and injected with vitamin A pre-irradiation, then injected with α -tocopheryl acetate post-irradiation. Animals were treated at the pro-estrus stage then, serum samples were taken at the estrus stage. Results showed that irradiation induced significant decreases in serum levels of FSH, E2, aldosterone and potassium, whereas, it elevated significantly the serum levels of P4 and sodium but there was in serum calcium levels. Both vitamins A and / orα-tocopheryl acetate succeeded to confront γ -radiation disorders on the estimated hormones and related minerals. The combination of vitamins A and α -tocopheryl acetate was more effective than either one alone

  16. Hormonal interaction in diabetic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.R.A.; Abdel-Hafez, M.A.; Osman, E.A.; Ibrahim, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Serum glucose, human placental lactogen (HPL), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E 2 ), progesterone (P), cortisol and human growth hormone (HGH) were determined in nondiabetic (19 cases) and diabetic (19 cases) pregnant women during the 32nd and 36th week of gestation. Significant elevation of HPL, PRL, HGH and cortisol was found in the diabetic pregnant women during the 32nd week while E 2 and P were not significantly changed from the corresponding levels in the nondiabetic group. One can conclude that the changes in the hormonal pattern during gestation may induce carbohydrate intolerance observed in diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  17. Sodium metabisulfite-induced changes on testes, spermatogenesis and epididymal morphometric values in adult rats

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    Shahnaz Shekarforoush

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Many types of biological and toxicological effects of sulphites in multiple organs of mammals have been shown in previous studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB on testicular function and morphometric values of epididymis in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 32 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The experimental groups received SMB at doses of 10 mg/kg (S10, 100mg/kg (S100, and 260 mg/kg (S260 while an equal volume of normal saline was administered to the control group via gavage. The rats were anaesthetized after 28 days and the left testis with the head of epididimis was excised following abdominal incision for histological observation using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum samples were collected for assay of testosterone level. The initial epididymis was analyzed for motility, morphology, and the number of sperms. Result: The results of this study showed that normal morphology, count, and motility of sperms and testosterone level were decreased in the SMB treated groups. In comparison with the control group, SMB resulted in a lower total number of spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, spermatids, and Leydig cells. Conclusion: It is suggested that SMB decreases the sperm production and has the potential to affect the fertility adversely in male rats.

  18. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats

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    M R Sailani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on s