Sample records for hormonal control systems

  1. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep (United States)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.


    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  2. Hormonal Control of Lactation


    青野, 敏博; Toshihiro, AONO; 徳島大学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tokushima, School of Medicine


    We studied the mechanism of normal lactation, especially the roles of prolactin (PRL) and oxytocin (OXT) in the initiation of lactation, the lactation in the women complicated with endocrinological disorders, and medical therapies for stimulation and suppression of lactation. The level of serum PRL increases as pregnancy progresses, and reachs to a peak on the day of delivery. Despite high PRL level, milk secretion does not appear during pregnancy, because the sex steroid hormones suppress bi...

  3. Hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system. (United States)

    Kim, Jung D; Leyva, Stephanie; Diano, Sabrina


    Regulation of energy homeostasis is fundamental for life. In animal species and humans, the Central Nervous System (CNS) plays a critical role in such regulation by integrating peripheral signals and modulating behavior and the activity of peripheral organs. A precise interplay between CNS and peripheral signals is necessary for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in the maintenance of energy balance. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus is a critical center for monitoring, processing and responding to peripheral signals, including hormones such as ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. Once in the brain, peripheral signals regulate neuronal systems involved in the modulation of energy homeostasis. The main hypothalamic neuronal circuit in the regulation of energy metabolism is the melanocortin system. This review will give a summary of the most recent discoveries on the hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the control of energy homeostasis.

  4. Hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dae eKim


    Full Text Available Regulation of energy homeostasis is fundamental for life. In animal species and humans, the Central Nervous System (CNS plays a critical role in such regulation by integrating peripheral signals and modulating behavior and the activity of peripheral organs. A precise interplay between CNS and peripheral signals is necessary for the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in the maintenance of energy balance. Within the CNS, the hypothalamus is a critical center for monitoring, processing and responding to peripheral signals, including hormones such as ghrelin, leptin and insulin. Once in the brain, peripheral signals regulate neuronal systems involved in the modulation of energy homeostasis. The main hypothalamic neuronal circuit in the regulation of energy metabolism is the melanocortin system. This review will give a summary of the most recent discoveries on the hormonal regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the control of energy homeostasis.

  5. The Hormonal Control of Food Intake (United States)

    Coll, Anthony P.; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen


    Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites—fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning the actions of these hormones on food intake. PMID:17448988

  6. [Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular system]. (United States)

    Límanová, Zdeňka; Jiskra, Jan

    Cardiovascular system is essentially affected by thyroid hormones by way of their genomic and non-genomic effects. Untreated overt thyroid dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Although it has been studied more than 3 decades, in subclinical thyroid dysfunction the negative effect on cardiovascular system is much more controversial. Large meta-analyses within last 10 years have shown that subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with higher cardiovascular risk than subclinical hypothyroidism. Conversely, in patients of age > 85 years subclinical hypothyroidism was linked with lower mortality. Therefore, subclinical hyperthyroidism should be rather treated in the elderly while subclinical hypothyroidism in the younger patients and the older may be just followed. An important problem on the border of endocrinology and cardiology is amiodarone thyroid dysfunction. Effective and safe treatment is preconditioned by distinguishing of type 1 and type 2 amiodarone induced hyperthyroidism. The type 1 should be treated with methimazol, therapeutic response is prolonged, according to recent knowledge immediate discontinuation of amiodarone is not routinely recommended and patient should be usually prepared to total thyroidectomy, or rather rarely 131I radioiodine ablation may be used if there is appropriate accumulation. In the type 2 there is a promt therapeutic response on glucocorticoids (within 1-2 weeks) with permanent remission or development of hypothyroidism. If it is not used for life-threatening arrhytmias, amiodarone may be discontinuated earlier (after several weeks). Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism is treated with levothyroxine without amiodarone interruption.Key words: amiodarone induced thyroid dysfunction - atrial fibrillation - cardiovascular risk - heart failure - hyperthyroidism - hypothyroidism - thyroid stimulating hormone.

  7. A dynamic, sex-specific expression pattern of genes regulating thyroid hormone action in the developing zebra finch song control system. (United States)

    Raymaekers, Sander R; Verbeure, Wout; Ter Haar, Sita M; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques; Darras, Veerle M


    The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excellent model to study developmental neuroplasticity. Despite the demonstrated influence of hormones such as sex steroids on this phenomenon, thyroid hormones (THs) - an important factor in neural development and maturation - have not been studied in this regard. We used in situ hybridization to compare the expression of TH transporters, deiodinases and receptors between both sexes during all phases of song development in male zebra finch. Comparisons were made in four song control nuclei: Area X, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), HVC (used as proper name) and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Most genes regulating TH action are expressed in these four nuclei at early stages of development. However, while general expression levels decrease with age, the activating enzyme deiodinase type 2 remains highly expressed in Area X, HVC and RA in males, but not in females, until 90days post-hatch (dph), which marks the end of sensorimotor learning. Furthermore, the L-type amino acid transporter 1 and TH receptor beta show elevated expression in male HVC and RA respectively compared to surrounding tissue until adulthood. Differences compared to surrounding tissue and between sexes for the other TH regulators were minor. These developmental changes are accompanied by a strong local increase in vascularization in the male RA between 20 and 30dph but not in Area X or HVC. Our results suggest that local regulation of TH signaling is an important factor in the development of the song control nuclei during the song learning phase and that TH activation by DIO2 is a key player in this process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release. (United States)

    Steyn, F J


    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita


    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth hormone...

  11. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation. (United States)

    Oles, Vladyslav; Panchenko, Alexander; Smertenko, Andrei


    Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork) for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2) auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3) hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4) individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield.

  12. Modeling hormonal control of cambium proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Oles

    Full Text Available Rise of atmospheric CO2 is one of the main causes of global warming. Catastrophic climate change can be avoided by reducing emissions and increasing sequestration of CO2. Trees are known to sequester CO2 during photosynthesis, and then store it as wood biomass. Thus, breeding of trees with higher wood yield would mitigate global warming as well as augment production of renewable construction materials, energy, and industrial feedstock. Wood is made of cellulose-rich xylem cells produced through proliferation of a specialized stem cell niche called cambium. Importance of cambium in xylem cells production makes it an ideal target for the tree breeding programs; however our knowledge about control of cambium proliferation remains limited. The morphology and regulation of cambium are different from those of stem cell niches that control axial growth. For this reason, translating the knowledge about axial growth to radial growth has limited use. Furthermore, genetic approaches cannot be easily applied because overlaying tissues conceal cambium from direct observation and complicate identification of mutants. To overcome the paucity of experimental tools in cambium biology, we constructed a Boolean network CARENET (CAmbium REgulation gene NETwork for modelling cambium activity, which includes the key transcription factors WOX4 and HD-ZIP III as well as their potential regulators. Our simulations predict that: (1 auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroids act cooperatively in promoting transcription of WOX4 and HD-ZIP III; (2 auxin and cytokinin pathways negatively regulate each other; (3 hormonal pathways act redundantly in sustaining cambium activity; (4 individual cambium cells can have diverse molecular identities. CARENET can be extended to include components of other signalling pathways and be integrated with models of xylem and phloem differentiation. Such extended models would facilitate breeding trees with higher wood yield.

  13. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system: a long-term randomized controlled study in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Gram, J


    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may influence risk of cardiovascular disease are still unclear. Impaired fibrinolytic function is associated with an enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease and therefore the effect of HRT on fibrinolysis may...... be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n...

  14. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring (United States)

    ... and Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are ... What are possible side effects of using the contraceptive skin patch? • ... birth control methods? Birth control pills, the birth control patch, and ...

  15. Hormones (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  16. Growth hormone and the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Palmeiro, Christopher R; Anand, Rishi; Dardi, Inderpreet Kaur; Balasubramaniyam, Nivas; Schwarcz, Monica D; Weiss, Irene A


    Growth hormone (GH) exerts its effects through insulin-like growth factor-1, and although ubiquitous in human tissues, it has a significant role in cardiovascular function. In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in GH as an etiologic factor in many cardiovascular disease states. Acromegaly, a state of endogenous GH excess, results in myocardial hypertrophy and decreased cardiac performance with increased cardiovascular mortality. Additional insight into the role of excess GH on the cardiovascular system has been gained from data collected in athletes doping with GH. Likewise, GH deficiency is associated with increased mortality, possibly from the associated increase in atherosclerosis, lipid abnormalities, and endothelial dysfunction. However, further research is required to clarify the benefit of GH treatment in both deficient states and in heart failure patients.

  17. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  18. The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency. (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Di Somma, C; Grasso, L F S; Savanelli, M C; Colao, A; Pivonello, R


    The clinical conditions associated with GH excess and GH deficiency (GHD) are known to be associated with an increased risk for the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that either an excess or a deficiency in GH and/or IGF-I is deleterious for cardiovascular system. In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by a concentric cardiac hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and, in later stages, with systolic dysfunction ending in heart failure if GH/IGF-I excess is not controlled. Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and anomalies of cardiac valves can also occur. Moreover, the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, as well as dyslipidemia, confer an increased risk for vascular atherosclerosis. Successful control of the disease is accompanied by a decrease of the cardiac mass and improvement of cardiac function and an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with hypopituitarism, GHD has been considered the under- lying factor of the increased mortality when appropriate standard replacement of the pituitary hormones deficiencies is given. Either childhood-onset or adulthood-onset GHD are characterized by a cluster of abnormalities associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, including altered body composition, unfavorable lipid profile, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular atherosclerosis, a decrease in cardiac mass together with an impairment of systolic function mainly after exercise. Treatment with recombinant GH in patients with GHD is followed by an improvement of the cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in cardiac mass together with an improvement in cardiac performance. In conclusion, acromegaly and GHD are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the control of GH/IGF-I secretion reverses cardiovascular

  19. Epinephrine biosynthesis: hormonal and neural control during stress. (United States)

    Wong, Dona Lee


    1. Stress contributes to the pathophysiology of many diseases, including psychiatric disorders, immune dysfunction, nicotine addiction and cardiovascular illness. Epinephrine and the glucocorticoids, cortisol and corticosterone, are major stress hormones. 2. Release of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla and glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex initiate the biological responses permitting the organism to cope with adverse psychological, physiological and environmental stressors. Following its massive release during stress, epinephrine must be restored to replenish cellular pools and sustain release to maintain the heightened awareness and sequelae of responses to re-establish homeostasis and ensure survival. 3. Epinephrine is regulated in part through its biosynthesis catalyzed by the final enzyme in the catecholamine pathway, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (E.C., PNMT). PNMT expression, in turn, is controlled through hormonal and neural stimuli, which exert their effects on gene transcription through protein stability. 4. The pioneering work of Julius Axelrod forged the path to our present understanding of how the stress hormone and neurotransmitter epinephrine, is regulated, in particular via its biosynthesis by PNMT.

  20. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690 Section 862.1690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... produced by the anterior pituitary are used in the diagnosis of thyroid or pituitary disorders. (b...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... and serum. ACTH measurements are used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of certain disorders...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1300 - Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Follicle-stimulating hormone test system. 862.1300 Section 862.1300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disorders. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  3. Central and peripheral effects of thyroid hormone signalling in the control of energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, A.


    Increasing evidence points towards a role for thyroid hormone signalling in the central nervous system with respect to the development of symptoms of thyroid disease, in addition to the well-known peripheral effects of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone affects target tissues directly via thyroid

  4. Effects of thyroid hormone on the cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Fazio, Serafino; Palmieri, Emiliano A; Lombardi, Gaetano; Biondi, Bernadette


    Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that overt hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state (high cardiac output with low systemic vascular resistance), which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, and increased prevalence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias - namely, atrial fibrillation - whereas overt hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. However, whether changes in cardiac performance associated with overt thyroid dysfunction are due mainly to alterations of myocardial contractility or to loading conditions remains unclear. Extensive evidence indicates that the cardiovascular system responds to the minimal but persistent changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, which are typical of individuals with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased heart rate, atrial arrhythmias, increased LV mass, impaired ventricular relaxation, reduced exercise performance, and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with impaired LV diastolic function and subtle systolic dysfunction and an enhanced risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Because all cardiovascular abnormalities are reversed by restoration of euthyroidism ("subclinical hypothyroidism") or blunted by beta-blockade and L-thyroxine (L-T4) dose tailoring ("subclinical hyperthyroidism"), timely treatment is advisable in an attempt to avoid adverse cardiovascular effects. Interestingly, some data indicate that patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disorders and those undergoing cardiac surgery may have altered peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism that, in turn, may contribute to altered cardiac function. Preliminary clinical investigations suggest that administration of

  5. Neural and Hormonal Control of Postecdysial Behaviors in Insects (United States)

    White, Benjamin H.; Ewer, John


    The shedding of the old exoskeleton that occurs in insects at the end of a molt (a process called ecdysis) is typically followed by the expansion and tanning of a new one. At the adult molt, these postecdysial processes include expanding and hardening the wings. Here we describe recent advances in understanding the neural and hormonal control of wing expansion and hardening, focusing on work done in Drosophila where genetic manipulations have permitted a detailed investigation of postecdysial processes and their modulation by sensory input. To place this work in context, we briefly review recent progress in understanding the neuroendocrine regulation of ecdysis, which appears to be largely conserved across insect species. Investigations into the neuroendocrine networks that regulate ecdysial and postecdysial behaviors, will provide insights into how stereotyped, yet environmentally-responsive, sequences are generated, as well as into how they develop and evolve. PMID:24160420

  6. Modeling the Nonlinear Time Dynamics of Multidimensional Hormonal Systems* (United States)

    Keenan, Daniel M.; Wang, Xin; Pincus, Steven M.; Veldhuis, Johannes D.


    In most hormonal systems (as well as many physiological systems more generally), the chemical signals from the brain, which drive much of the dynamics, can not be observed in humans. By the time the molecules reach peripheral blood, they have been so diluted so as to not be assayable. It is not possible to invasively (surgically) measure these agents in the brain. This creates a difficult situation in terms of assessing whether or not the dynamics may have changed due to disease or aging. Moreover, most biological feedforward and feedback interactions occur after time delays, and the time delays need to be properly estimated. We address the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to devise a combination of clinical experiments by which, via exogenous inputs, the hormonal system can be perturbed to new steady-states in such a way that information about the unobserved components can be ascertained; and, (2) Can one devise methods to estimate (possibly, time-varying) time delays between components of a multidimensional nonlinear time series, which are more robust than traditional methods? We present methods for both questions, using the Stress (ACTH-cortisol) hormonal system as a prototype, but the approach is more broadly applicable. PMID:22977290

  7. Hyperemesis gravidarum affects maternal sanity, thyroid hormones and fetal health: a prospective case control study. (United States)

    Buyukkayaci Duman, Nuriye; Ozcan, Oguzhan; Bostanci, M Ömer


    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition of severe nausea or vomiting accompanied by various complications during pregnancy. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the effects of HG on mother and fetus health. Control and case group were arranged from 50 healthy pregnant women and 50 pregnant women with HG. Information about the participant women was gathered with data collection form and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) were administered to the women. Following an abortion or delivery, the data about birth complications and neonatal health were collected. All laboratory results (blood count, thyroid hormones, electrolyte values and biochemical parameters) were gathered from the laboratory information system used in the hospital. It was found that in the case group, mean postpartum weight, serum hemoglobin, hematocrit and thyroid stimulant hormone levels were lower than control group (p < 0.01). Conversely, case group women have higher T3 and T4 levels than control group (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and abortion but it was observed that women with HG had often delivered prematurely. The mean scores of BDI and SAI in the case group were higher than those of control group. These results suggested that HG may have adverse effects on both mother and baby's health. Pregnant women with HG should be provided with training and consultancy services and be closely monitored in terms of anemia and thyroid hormones.

  8. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.


    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  9. Adult height in children with growth hormone deficiency: a randomized, controlled, growth hormone dose-response trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; Ridder, M.A. de; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de


    AIM: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m(2)/day biosynthetic GH (approx. 0.025

  10. Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Randomized, Controlled, Growth Hormone Dose-Response Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.


    Aim: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). Methods: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m

  11. Outpatient 60-hour day-and-night glucose control with dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, or sensor-augmented pump therapy in adults with type 1 diabetes: An open-label, randomised, crossover, controlled trial. (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi


    To assess whether the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas reduces hypoglycaemia compared to the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas in outpatient settings during the day and night. In a randomized, three-way, crossover trial we compared the dual-hormone artificial pancreas, the single-hormone artificial pancreas and sensor-augmented pump therapy (control) in 23 adults with type 1 diabetes. Each intervention was applied from 8 AM Day 1 to 8 PM Day 3 (60 hours) in outpatient free-living conditions. The primary outcome was time spent with sensor glucose levels below 4.0 mmol/L. A P value of less than .017 was regarded as significant. The median difference between the dual-hormone system and the single-hormone system was -2.3% (P = .072) for time spent below 4.0 mmol/L, -1.3% (P = .017) for time below 3.5 mmol/L, and -0.7% (P = .031) for time below 3.3 mmol/L. Both systems reduced (P artificial pancreas had the lowest risk of hypoglycaemia, but the differences were not statistically significant. Larger studies are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The role of gut hormones in controlling the food intake: what is their role in emerging diseases? (United States)

    Del Prete, Anna; Iadevaia, Maddalena; Loguercio, Carmelina


    Central nervous system (CNS) receives peripheral relevant information that are able to regulate individual's energy balance through metabolic, neural, and endocrine signals. Ingested nutrients come into contact with multiple sites in the gastrointestinal tract that have the potential to alter peptide and neural signaling. There is a strong relationship between CNS and those peripheral signals (as gastrointestinal hormones) in the control of food intake. The purpose of this review is to give updated information about the role of gut hormones as mediators of feeding behavior and of different nutrients in modulating gut hormones production. The role of gut hormones in the pathogenesis of emerging diseases as obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is also discussed together with the possible role of these peripheral signals as targets of future therapeutic options. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficacy of single-hormone and dual-hormone artificial pancreas during continuous and interval exercise in adult patients with type 1 diabetes: randomised controlled crossover trial. (United States)

    Taleb, Nadine; Emami, Ali; Suppere, Corinne; Messier, Virginie; Legault, Laurent; Ladouceur, Martin; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Haidar, Ahmad; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi


    The aim of this study was to assess whether the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas reduces hypoglycaemia compared with the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas during two types of exercise. An open-label randomised crossover study comparing both systems in 17 adults with type 1 diabetes (age, 37.2 ± 13.6 years; HbA1c, 8.0 ± 1.0% [63.9 ± 10.2 mmol/mol]) during two exercise types on an ergocycle and matched for energy expenditure: continuous (60% [Formula: see text] for 60 min) and interval (2 min alternating periods at 85% and 50% [Formula: see text] for 40 min, with two 10 min periods at 45% [Formula: see text] at the start and end of the session). Blocked randomisation (size of four) with a 1:1:1:1 allocation ratio was computer generated. The artificial pancreas was applied from 15:30 hours until 19:30 hours; exercise was started at 18:00 hours and announced 20 min earlier to the systems. The study was conducted at the Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal. During single-hormone control compared with dual-hormone control, exercise-induced hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose artificial pancreas outperformed the single-hormone artificial pancreas in regulating glucose levels during announced exercise in adults with type 1 diabetes. NCT01930110 FUNDING: : Société Francophone du Diabète and Diabète Québec.

  14. The role of luteinizing hormone activity in controlled ovarian stimulation. (United States)

    Angelopoulos, N; Goula, A; Tolis, G


    The role of LH in the natural menstrual cycle is undisputed. The active participation of LH in both steroidogenesis and ovulation is well established, but its potential effect on oocyte maturation in the issue of assisted reproduction protocols remains a topic of debate. Although several studies have added to our understanding of the specific actions of androgens in human follicular development, some discrepancies persist regarding their role in oocyte atresia. Clinical situations, where LH is either decreased or absent (e.g. in women with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism or LH-receptor gene mutations), provide important data supporting the necessity for a minimal amount of LH to evoke ovulation. Recent use of GnRH antagonists, which results in profound suppression of LH concentration, in combination with the pharmacological production of recombinant gonadotrophins, has attracted the attention of investigators. Identification of sub-fertilized women, in whom LH administration could be beneficial and should be indicated, is arousing ever more interest. Based on the available data in the literature, the aims of this review are to assess the role of both endogenous and exogenous LH activity in stimulated cycles, and to evaluate the effects of recombinant human LH supplementation on the ovarian hormonal milieu and on the main outcomes of controlled stimulated cycles.

  15. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.


    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  16. The Functional State of Hormone-Sensitive Adenylyl Cyclase Signaling System in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander O. Shpakov


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM induces a large number of diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular, and some other systems of the organism. One of the main causes of the diseases is the changes in the functional activity of hormonal signaling systems which lead to the alterations and abnormalities of the cellular processes and contribute to triggering and developing many DM complications. The key role in the control of physiological and biochemical processes belongs to the adenylyl cyclase (AC signaling system, sensitive to biogenic amines and polypeptide hormones. The review is devoted to the changes in the GPCR-G protein-AC system in the brain, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, and the adipose tissue in experimental and human DM of the types 1 and 2 and also to the role of the changes in AC signaling in the pathogenesis and etiology of DM and its complications. It is shown that the changes of the functional state of hormone-sensitive AC system are dependent to a large extent on the type and duration of DM and in experimental DM on the model of the disease. The degree of alterations and abnormalities of AC signaling pathways correlates very well with the severity of DM and its complications.

  17. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system. (United States)

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos


    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gottumukkala Achyuta Rama Raju


    Full Text Available Luteinizing hormone (LH in synergy with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH stimulates normal follicular growth and ovulation. FSH is frequently used in assisted reproductive technology (ART. Recent studies have facilitated better understanding on the complementary role of the LH to FSH in regulation of the follicle; however, role of LH in stimulation of follicle, optimal dosage of LH in stimulation and its importance in advanced aged patients has been a topic of discussion among medical fraternity. Though the administration of exogenous LH with FSH is obligatory for controlled ovarian stimulation in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, there is still a paucity of information of its usage in other patient population. In this review we looked in to the multiple roles that LH plays complementary to FSH to better understand the LH requirement in patients undergoing ART.

  19. How clocks and hormones act in concert to control the timing of insect development. (United States)

    Di Cara, Francesca; King-Jones, Kirst


    During the last century, insect model systems have provided fascinating insights into the endocrinology and developmental biology of all animals. During the insect life cycle, molts and metamorphosis delineate transitions from one developmental stage to the next. In most insects, pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone drive these developmental transitions by activating signaling cascades in target tissues. In holometabolous insects, ecdysone triggers metamorphosis, the remarkable remodeling of an immature larva into a sexually mature adult. The input from another developmental hormone, juvenile hormone (JH), is required to repress metamorphosis by promoting juvenile fates until the larva has acquired sufficient nutrients to survive metamorphosis. Ecdysone and JH act together as key endocrine timers to precisely control the onset of developmental transitions such as the molts, pupation, or eclosion. In this review, we will focus on the role of the endocrine system and the circadian clock, both individually and together, in temporally regulating insect development. Since this is not a coherent field, we will review recent developments that serve as examples to illuminate this complex topic. First, we will consider studies conducted in Rhodnius that revealed how circadian pathways exert temporal control over the production and release of ecdysone. We will then take a look at molecular and genetic data that revealed the presence of two circadian clocks, located in the brain and the prothoracic gland, that regulate eclosion rhythms in Drosophila. In this context, we will also review recent developments that examined how the ecdysone hierarchy delays the differentiation of the crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons, an event that is critical for the timing of ecdysis and eclosion. Finally, we will discuss some recent findings that transformed our understanding of JH function. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of sex steroid hormones, cytokines and the endocannabinoid system in female fertility. (United States)

    Karasu, T; Marczylo, T H; Maccarrone, M; Konje, J C


    Marijuana, the most used recreational drug, has been shown to have adverse effects on human reproduction. Endogenous cannabinoids (also called endocannabinoids) bind to the same receptors as those of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. The most extensively studied endocannabinoids are anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. The endocannabinoids, their congeners and the cannabinoid receptors, together with the metabolic enzymes and putative transporters form the endocannabinoid system (ECS). In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the relationships of ECS, sex steroid hormones and cytokines in female fertility, and underline the importance of this endocannabinoid-hormone-cytokine network. Pubmed and the Web of Science databases were searched for studies published since 1985, looking into the ECS, sex hormones, type-1/2 T-helper (Th1/Th2) cytokines, leukaemia inhibitory factor, leptin and reproduction. The ECS plays a pivotal role in human reproduction. The enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of endocannabinoids normalize levels of AEA for successful implantation. The AEA degrading enzyme (fatty acid amide hydrolase) activity as well as AEA content in blood may potentially be used for the monitoring of early pregnancies. Progesterone and oestrogen are involved in the maintenance of endocannabinoid levels. The ECS plays an important role in the immune regulation of human fertility. The available studies suggest that tight control of the endocannabinoid-hormone-cytokine network is required for successful implantation and early pregnancy maintenance. This hormone-cytokine network is a key element at the maternal-foetal interface, and any defect in such a network may result in foetal loss.

  1. Effect of sodium oxybate on growth hormone secretion in narcolepsy patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Aziz, N.A.; Roelfsema, F.; Frolich, M.; Overeem, S.; Lammers, G.J.; Pijl, H.


    Hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy and may affect neuroendocrine systems and body composition. Additionally, growth hormone (GH) alterations my influence weight in narcolepsy. Symptoms can be treated effectively with sodium oxybate (SXB; gamma-hydroxybutyrate) in many patients. This study

  2. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielhuis Gerhard A


    Full Text Available Abstract Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor, but the hormonal function may be disrupted in many more ways through pesticide exposure. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the various ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function of the female reproductive system and in particular the ovarian cycle. Disruption can occur in all stages of hormonal regulation: 1. hormone synthesis; 2. hormone release and storage; 3. hormone transport and clearance; 4. hormone receptor recognition and binding; 5. hormone postreceptor activation; 6. the thyroid function; and 7. the central nervous system. These mechanisms are described for effects of pesticide exposure in vitro and on experimental animals in vivo. For the latter, potential effects of endocrine disrupting pesticides on the female reproductive system, i.e. modulation of hormone concentrations, ovarian cycle irregularities, and impaired fertility, are also reviewed. In epidemiological studies, exposure to pesticides has been associated with menstrual cycle disturbances, reduced fertility, prolonged time-to-pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and developmental defects, which may or may not be due to disruption of the female hormonal function. Because pesticides comprise a large number of distinct substances with dissimilar structures and diverse toxicity, it is most likely that several of the above-mentioned mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiological pathways explaining the role of pesticide exposure in ovarian cycle disturbances, ultimately leading to fertility problems and other reproductive effects. In future research, information on the ways in which pesticides may disrupt the hormonal function as

  3. Discovery of a novel insect neuropeptide signaling system closely related to the insect adipokinetic hormone and corazonin hormonal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karina Kiilerich; Stafflinger, Elisabeth; Schneider, Martina


    that are structurally related to the AKHs but represent a different neuropeptide signaling system. We have previously cloned an orphan GPCR from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that was structurally intermediate between the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin GPCRs. Using functional expression of the receptor in cells......Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a central role in the physiology of insects. One large family of insect neuropeptides are the adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), which mobilize lipids and carbohydrates from the insect fat body. Other peptides are the corazonins...... in cell culture, we have now identified the ligand for this orphan receptor as being pQVTFSRDWNAamide, a neuropeptide that is structurally intermediate between AKH and corazonin and that we therefore named ACP (AKH/corazonin-related peptide). ACP does not activate the A. gambiae AKH and corazonin...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1545 - Parathyroid hormone test system. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... is a device intended to measure the levels of parathyroid hormone in serum and plasma. Measurements of parathyroid hormone levels are used in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia (abnormally...

  5. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  6. Interspecies hormonal control of host root morphology by parasitic plants. (United States)

    Spallek, Thomas; Melnyk, Charles W; Wakatake, Takanori; Zhang, Jing; Sakamoto, Yuki; Kiba, Takatoshi; Yoshida, Satoko; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Shirasu, Ken


    Parasitic plants share a common anatomical feature, the haustorium. Haustoria enable both infection and nutrient transfer, which often leads to growth penalties for host plants and yield reduction in crop species. Haustoria also reciprocally transfer substances, such as RNA and proteins, from parasite to host, but the biological relevance for such movement remains unknown. Here, we studied such interspecies transport by using the hemiparasitic plant Phtheirospermum japonicum during infection of Arabidopsis thaliana Tracer experiments revealed a rapid and efficient transfer of carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) from host to parasite upon formation of vascular connections. In addition, Phtheirospermum induced hypertrophy in host roots at the site of infection, a form of enhanced secondary growth that is commonly observed during various parasitic plant-host interactions. The plant hormone cytokinin is important for secondary growth, and we observed increases in cytokinin and its response during infection in both host and parasite. Phtheirospermum-induced host hypertrophy required cytokinin signaling genes (AHK3,4) but not cytokinin biosynthesis genes (IPT1,3,5,7) in the host. Furthermore, expression of a cytokinin-degrading enzyme in Phtheirospermum prevented host hypertrophy. Wild-type hosts with hypertrophy were smaller than ahk3,4 mutant hosts resistant to hypertrophy, suggesting hypertrophy improves the efficiency of parasitism. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the interspecies movement of a parasite-derived hormone modified both host root morphology and fitness. Several microbial and animal plant pathogens use cytokinins during infections, highlighting the central role of this growth hormone during the establishment of plant diseases and revealing a common strategy for parasite infections of plants.

  7. A fuzzy logic controller for hormone administration using an implantable pump (United States)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Wells, George H., Jr.


    This paper describes the requirements for a Fuzzy Logic Controller for the physiologic administration of hormones by means of a FDA-approved surgically implantable infusion pump. Results of a LabVIEW computer simulation for the administration of insulin for diabetic adult patients as well as human growth hormone for pediatric patients are presented. A VHS video tape of the simulation in action has been prepared and is available for viewing.

  8. The control of reproductive physiology and behavior by gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone


    Ubuka, Takayoshi; McGuire, Nicolette L.; Calisi, Rebecca M.; Perfito, Nicole; Bentley, George E.


    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the reproductive physiology and behavior of vertebrates by stimulating synthesis and release of gonadotropin from the pituitary gland. In 2000, another hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), was discovered in quail and found to be an inhibiting factor for gonadotropin release. GnIH homologs are present in the brains of vertebrates, including birds, mammals, amphibians, and fish. These peptides, categorized as RF amide-...

  9. Hormones in the immune system and their possible role. A critical review. (United States)

    Csaba, György


    Immune cells synthesize, store and secrete hormones, which are identical with the hormones of the endocrine glands. These are: the POMC hormones (ACTH, endorphin), the thyroid system hormones (TRH, TSH, T3), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin, histamine, serotonin, catecholamines, GnRH, LHRH, hCG, renin, VIP, ANG II. This means that the immune cells contain all of the hormones, which were searched at all and they also have receptors for these hormones. From this point of view the immune cells are similar to the unicells (Tetrahymena), so it can be supposed that these cells retained the properties characteristic at a low level of phylogeny while other cells during the evolution accumulated to form endocrine glands. In contrast to the glandular endocrine cells, immune cells are polyproducers and polyreceivers. As they are mobile cells, they are able to transport the stored hormone to different places (packed transport) or attracted by local factors, accumulate in the neighborhood of the target, synthesizing and secreting hormones locally. This is taking place, e.g. in the case of endorphin, where the accumulating immune cells calms pain caused by the inflammation. The targeted packed transport is more economical than the hormone-pouring to the blood circulation of glandular endocrines and the targeting also cares the other receptor-bearing cells timely not needed the effect. Mostly the immune-effects of immune-cell derived hormones were studied (except endorphin), however, it is not exactly cleared, while the system could have scarcely studied important roles in other cases. The evolutionary aspects and the known as well, as possible roles of immune-endocrine system and their hormones are listed and discussed.

  10. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Pankratova


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively. The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396 exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205, exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  11. How does juvenile hormone control insect metamorphosis and reproduction? (United States)

    Riddiford, Lynn M


    In insects juvenile hormone (JH) regulates both metamorphosis and reproduction. This lecture focuses on our current understanding of JH action at the molecular level in both of these processes based primarily on studies in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The roles of the JH receptor complex and the transcription factors that it regulates during larval molting and metamorphosis are summarized. Also highlighted are the intriguing interactions of the JH and insulin signaling pathways in both imaginal disc development and vitellogenesis. Critical actions of JH and its receptor in the timing of maturation of the adult optic lobe and of female receptivity in Drosophila are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The orphan nuclear hormone receptor ERRβ controls rod photoreceptor survival (United States)

    Onishi, Akishi; Peng, Guang-Hua; Poth, Erin M.; Lee, Daniel A.; Chen, Jichao; Alexis, Uel; de Melo, Jimmy; Chen, Shiming; Blackshaw, Seth


    Mutation of rod photoreceptor-enriched transcription factors is a major cause of inherited blindness. We identified the orphan nuclear hormone receptor estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) as selectively expressed in rod photoreceptors. Overexpression of ERRβ induces expression of rod-specific genes in retinas of wild-type as well as Nrl−/− mice, which lack rod photoreceptors. Mutation of ERRβ results in dysfunction and degeneration of rods, whereas inverse agonists of ERRβ trigger rapid rod degeneration, which is rescued by constitutively active mutants of ERRβ. ERRβ coordinates expression of multiple genes that are rate-limiting regulators of ATP generation and consumption in photoreceptors. Furthermore, enhancing ERRβ activity rescues photoreceptor defects that result from loss of the photoreceptor-specific transcription factor Crx. Our findings demonstrate that ERRβ is a critical regulator of rod photoreceptor function and survival, and suggest that ERRβ agonists may be useful in the treatment of certain retinal dystrophies. PMID:20534447

  13. Small-molecule pheromones and hormones controlling nematode development. (United States)

    Butcher, Rebecca A


    The existence of small-molecule signals that influence development in Caenorhabditis elegans has been known for several decades, but only in recent years have the chemical structures of several of these signals been established. The identification of these signals has enabled connections to be made between these small molecules and fundamental signaling pathways in C. elegans that influence not only development but also metabolism, fertility, and lifespan. Spurred by these important discoveries and aided by recent advances in comparative metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy, the field of nematode chemistry has the potential to expand dramatically in the coming years. This Perspective will focus on small-molecule pheromones and hormones that influence developmental events in the nematode life cycle (ascarosides, dafachronic acids, and nemamides), will cover more recent work regarding the biosynthesis of these signals, and will explore how the discovery of these signals is transforming our understanding of nematode development and physiology.

  14. Control system design method (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.


    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  15. Pesticide exposure: the hormonal function of the female reproductive system disrupted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Roeleveld, N.


    Some pesticides may interfere with the female hormonal function, which may lead to negative effects on the reproductive system through disruption of the hormonal balance necessary for proper functioning. Previous studies primarily focused on interference with the estrogen and/or androgen receptor,

  16. A system biology approach highlights a hormonal enhancer effect on regulation of genes in a nitrate responsive "biomodule"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nero Damion


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrate-induced reprogramming of the transcriptome has recently been shown to be highly context dependent. Herein, a systems biology approach was developed to identify the components and role of cross-talk between nitrate and hormone signals, likely to be involved in the conditional response of NO3- signaling. Results Biclustering was used to identify a set of genes that are N-responsive across a range of Nitrogen (N-treatment backgrounds (i.e. nitrogen treatments under different growth conditions using a meta-dataset of 76 Affymetrix ATH1 chips from 5 different laboratories. Twenty-one biclusters were found to be N-responsive across subsets of this meta-dataset. N-bicluster 9 (126 genes was selected for further analysis, as it was shown to be reproducibly responsive to NO3- as a signal, across a wide-variety of background conditions and datasets. N-bicluster 9 genes were then used as "seed" to identify putative cross-talk mechanisms between nitrate and hormone signaling. For this, the 126 nitrate-regulated genes in N-bicluster 9 were biclustered over a meta-dataset of 278 ATH1 chips spanning a variety of hormone treatments. This analysis divided the bicluster 9 genes into two classes: i genes controlled by NO3- only vs. ii genes controlled by both NO3- and hormones. The genes in the latter group showed a NO3- response that is significantly enhanced, compared to the former. In silico analysis identified two Cis-Regulatory Elements candidates (CRE (E2F, HSE potentially involved the interplay between NO3- and hormonal signals. Conclusion This systems analysis enabled us to derive a hypothesis in which hormone signals are proposed to enhance the nitrate response, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for the link between nitrate signaling and the control of plant development.

  17. Wisdom Appliance Control System (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia


    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  18. Contracepção hormonal e sistema cardiovascular Contracepción hormonal y sistema cardiovascular Hormonal contraception and cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bastos Brito


    Full Text Available A contracepção hormonal é o método mais utilizado para prevenção de gestações não planejadas. A literatura tem demonstrado associação entre risco cardiovascular e uso de hormonioterapia. A fim de melhorar a orientação contraceptiva para mulheres com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular, realizamos uma revisão da literatura em relação ao assunto. Esta revisão descreve os dados mais recentes da literatura científica acerca da influência dos contraceptivos hormonais em relação a trombose venosa, arterial e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, doenças cada dia mais prevalentes na população feminina jovem.La contracepción hormonal es el método más utilizado para la prevención de los embarazos no planificados. La literatura ha venido demostrando la asociación que existe entre el riesgo cardiovascular y el uso de la hormonoterapia. Con el objetivo de mejorar la orientación en la contracepción en mujeres con factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de enfermedad cardiovascular, realizamos una revisión de la literatura con relación a ese asunto. Esa revisión describe los datos más recientes de la literatura científica acerca de la influencia de los anticonceptivos hormonales con relación a la trombosis venosa, arterial e hipertensión arterial sistémica, enfermedades cada día más prevalentes en la población femenina joven.Hormonal contraception is the most widely used method to prevent unplanned pregnancies. The literature has shown an association between cardiovascular risk and use of hormone therapy. With the purpose of providing better guidelines on contraception methods for women with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, we have reviewed the literature on the subject. This review describes the latest data from the scientific literature concerning the influence of hormonal contraceptives on arterial thrombosis, venous thrombosis and systemic high blood pressure, which are diseases that have become

  19. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice. (United States)

    Lee, Dongoh; Ahn, Changhwan; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae


    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP) is a brominated flame retardant (BFR). Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1) and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2) decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2) and growth hormone (Gh) mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ) increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems.

  20. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone System by Regulating Thyroid Hormones and the Responsible Genes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongoh Lee


    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP is a brominated flame retardant (BFR. Based on its affinity for transthyretin, TBP could compete with endogenous thyroid hormone. In this study, the effects of TBP on the thyroid hormone system were assessed in mice. Briefly, animals were exposed to 40 and 250 mg/kg TBP. Thyroid hormones were also administered with or without TBP. When mice were treated with TBP, deiodinase 1 (Dio1 and thyroid hormone receptor β isoform 2 (Thrβ2 decreased in the pituitary gland. The levels of deiodinase 2 (Dio2 and growth hormone (Gh mRNA increased in response to 250 mg/kg of TBP, and the relative mRNA level of thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ increased in the pituitary gland. Dio1 and Thrβ1 expression in the liver were not altered, while Dio1 decreased in response to co-treatment with thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland activity decreased in response to TBP, as did the levels of free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that TBP can disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and the presence of TBP influenced thyroid actions as regulators of gene expression. These data suggest that TBP interferes with thyroid hormone systems

  1. Analysis of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste disposal system. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Yates, Scott R; Bradford, Scott A


    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause an adverse effect on aquatic species. To better assess the potential risks of hormone contamination resulting from land application of dairy wastes, various steroid hormones were determined in a typical dairy waste disposal system. Quantitative methods using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed to monitor low levels of steroid hormones in complex solid and liquid samples contaminated with dairy manure. The preparation method for wastewater analysis consisted of solid-phase extraction and purification steps, which minimized interference from the sample matrices and achieved low detection limits for the studied hormones. In the dairy wastewater and lagoon water, three endogenous hormones-17alpha-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone-were detected. The concentration of 17alpha-estradiol in fresh milk parlor effluent rapidly decreased along the wastewater disposal route, whereas the concentration of estrone increased along this same pathway. This suggests that 17alpha-estradiol was readily oxidized to the metabolite estrone. Levels of total steroid hormones in the sequencing lagoon water were approximately 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than those in the fresh dairy wastewaters, indicating significant removal of these hormones during the transport of dairy wastewater from source to field. In solid dairy waste samples, four steroid hormones were identified and quantified. Increasing the piling time of solid wastes and increasing the residence time of wastewater in sequencing lagoons are suggested to be economical and efficient agriculture practices to extend the degradation time of hormone contaminants and thereby reduce the hormone load to the environment.

  2. Use of hormonal contraceptives to control menstrual bleeding: attitudes and practice of Brazilian gynecologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makuch MY


    Full Text Available María Y Makuch,1 Maria José D Osis,1 Karla Simonia de Pádua,1,2 Luis Bahamondes3 1Center for Research in Reproductive Health (CEMICAMP, 2Prof Dr José Aristodemo Pinotti Women's Hospital, University of Campinas, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, and National Institute of Hormones and Women's Health, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes and prescribing practices of Brazilian obstetricians and gynecologists regarding use of contraceptive methods to interfere with menstruation and/or induce amenorrhea. Methods: We undertook a nationwide survey of Brazilian obstetricians and gynecologists selected using a computer-generated randomization system. Participants completed a questionnaire on prescription of contraceptives and extended/continuous regimens of combined oral contraceptives (COCs. Results: In total, 79.2% of Brazilian obstetricians and gynecologists reported that 20%–40% of their patients consulted them for menstrual-related complaints and 26%–34% of the gynecologists reported that 21%–40% of their patients consulted them for reduction in the intensity, frequency, and/or duration of menstrual bleeding. Overall, 93% stated that medically induced amenorrhea represents no risk to women's health and 82.5% said that they prescribed contraceptives to control menstruation or induce amenorrhea. The contraceptives most commonly prescribed were extended-cycle 24/4 or 26/2 COC regimens and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Poisson regression analysis showed that Brazilian obstetricians and gynecologists prescribing contraceptives to control menstruation or induce amenorrhea consider extended-use or continuous-use COC regimens to be effective for both indications (prevalence ratio 1.23 [95% confidence interval 1.09–1.40] and prevalence ratio 1.28 [95% confidence interval 1.13–1.46], respectively. They also

  3. Understanding the multifactorial control of growth hormone release by somatotropes: lessons from comparative endocrinology. (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D; Durán-Prado, Mario; Luque, Raúl M; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Quintero, Ana; Gutiérrez-Pascual, Ester; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Malagón, María M; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P


    Control of postnatal growth is the main, but not the only, role for growth hormone (GH) as this hormone also contributes to regulating metabolism, reproduction, immunity, development, and osmoregulation in different species. Likely owing to this variety of group-specific functions, GH production is differentially regulated across vertebrates, with an apparent evolutionary trend to simplification, especially in the number of stimulatory factors governing substantially GH release. Thus, teleosts exhibit a multifactorial regulation of GH secretion, with a number of factors, from the newly discovered fish GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) to pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) but also gonadotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin(s) directly controlling somatotropes. In amphibians and reptiles, GH secretion is primarily stimulated by the major hypothalamic peptides GHRH and PACAP and inhibited by somatostatin(s), while other factors (ghrelin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone) also influence GH release. Finally, in birds and mammals, primary control of GH secretion is exerted by a dual interplay between GHRH and somatostatin. In addition, somatotrope function is modulated by additional hypothalamic and peripheral factors (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I), which together enable a balanced integration of feedback signals related to processes in which GH plays a relevant regulatory role, such as metabolic and energy status, reproductive, and immune function. Interestingly, in contrast to the high number of stimulatory factors impinging upon somatotropes, somatostatin(s) stand(s) as the main primary inhibitory regulator(s) for this cell type.

  4. Male hormonal contraception: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, E.; Kersemaekers, W.M.; Elliesen, J.; Kepers, M.; Apter, D.; Behre, H.M.; Beynon, J.; Bouloux, P.M.; Costantino, A.; Gerbershagen, H.P.; Gronlund, L.; Heger-Mahn, D.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Koldewijn, E.L.; Lange, C.; Lindenberg, S.; Meriggiola, M.C.; Meuleman, E.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Nieschlag, E.; Perheentupa, A.; Solomon, A.; Vaisala, L.; Wu, F.C.; Zitzmann, M.


    BACKGROUND: This study was performed to assess spermatogenesis suppression and safety of a new combination of an etonogestrel (ENG) implant combined with testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections for male contraception. This is the first large placebo-controlled study for male hormonal contraception.

  5. Growth hormone used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis. (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang


    Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

  6. Interrelationships between Hormones, Behavior, and Affect during Adolescence: Complex Relationships Exist between Reproductive Hormones, Stress‐Related Hormones, and the Activity of Neural Systems That Regulate Behavioral Affect. Comments on Part III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    ..., and changes in behavioral affect regulation. The interactions between activity in the reproductive axis, the neural systems that regulate stress, hormones produced in response to stress, and neural systems governing behavioral affect regulation...

  7. Steroid hormone control of cell death and cell survival: molecular insights using RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi Chittaranjan


    Full Text Available The insect steroid hormone ecdysone triggers programmed cell death of obsolete larval tissues during metamorphosis and provides a model system for understanding steroid hormone control of cell death and cell survival. Previous genome-wide expression studies of Drosophila larval salivary glands resulted in the identification of many genes associated with ecdysone-induced cell death and cell survival, but functional verification was lacking. In this study, we test functionally 460 of these genes using RNA interference in ecdysone-treated Drosophila l(2mbn cells. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell proliferation, and apoptosis assays confirmed the effects of known genes and additionally resulted in the identification of six new pro-death related genes, including sorting nexin-like gene SH3PX1 and Sox box protein Sox14, and 18 new pro-survival genes. Identified genes were further characterized to determine their ecdysone dependency and potential function in cell death regulation. We found that the pro-survival function of five genes (Ras85D, Cp1, CG13784, CG32016, and CG33087, was dependent on ecdysone signaling. The TUNEL assay revealed an additional two genes (Kap-alpha3 and Smr with an ecdysone-dependent cell survival function that was associated with reduced cell death. In vitro, Sox14 RNAi reduced the percentage of TUNEL-positive l(2mbn cells (p<0.05 following ecdysone treatment, and Sox14 overexpression was sufficient to induce apoptosis. In vivo analyses of Sox14-RNAi animals revealed multiple phenotypes characteristic of aberrant or reduced ecdysone signaling, including defects in larval midgut and salivary gland destruction. These studies identify Sox14 as a positive regulator of ecdysone-mediated cell death and provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the ecdysone signaling network governing cell death and cell survival.

  8. A comparative analysis shows morphofunctional differences between the rat and mouse melanin-concentrating hormone systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Croizier

    Full Text Available Sub-populations of neurons producing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH are characterized by distinct projection patterns, birthdates and CART/NK3 expression in rat. Evidence for such sub-populations has not been reported in other species. However, given that genetically engineered mouse lines are now commonly used as experimental models, a better characterization of the anatomy and morphofunctionnal organization of MCH system in this species is then necessary. Combining multiple immunohistochemistry experiments with in situ hybridization, tract tracing or BrdU injections, evidence supporting the hypothesis that rat and mouse MCH systems are not identical was obtained: sub-populations of MCH neurons also exist in mouse, but their relative abundance is different. Furthermore, divergences in the distribution of MCH axons were observed, in particular in the ventromedial hypothalamus. These differences suggest that rat and mouse MCH neurons are differentially involved in anatomical networks that control feeding and the sleep/wake cycle.

  9. Quantitative Assessment of Female Sexual Motivation in the Rat: Hormonal Control of Motivation (United States)

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Becker, Jill B.


    While a good deal of information has been garnered in the last few decades regarding the neural and hormonal control of female sexual behavior, literature elucidating these mechanisms with respect to female sexual motivation has been scarce. We believe that one reason for this is the lack of a standardized paradigm that will quantify female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual interaction to occur. Here we describe a two-chambered apparatus that utilizes operant responding (nose poking) to quantify female sexual motivation. During the test, the female exhibits nose pokes to gain access to a sexually active male, with whom she is allowed to mate. Therefore, this apparatus allows for examination of sexual behavior as well as quantification of sexual motivation by assessing the number of nose pokes the female will exhibit within a fixed interval to gain access to the male. We report that hormone priming significantly increases sexual motivation in the female as indicated by the number of nose pokes she will exhibit to gain access to the male. Additionally, hormone primed females enter the male compartment after a shorter period and spend more time in direct contact with the male compared to when they are not hormone primed. In contrast, when females are not hormone primed they spend more time in view, but out of reach, of the male. This paradigm will help to advance the study of female sexual motivation, providing a method for quantifiable assessment of female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual activity to occur. PMID:22120688

  10. Multiple hormonal control of enzyme synthesis in liver and hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, F.T.; Lee, K.L.; Pomato, N.; Nickol, J.M.


    Synthesis of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase is accelerated in vivo by either of the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon as well as by glucocorticoids, and glucagon acts via the intracellular mediator, cyclic AMP. The mechanisms responsive to these hormones have also been retained in cultured hepatoma cells: in H-35 cells the responses appear to be essentially identical to those in liver, especially in that each inducer can act independently of the others. In this paper we describe recent analyses of the cellular mechanisms involved in this multiple hormonal control of synthesis of a single enzyme. These experiments have been done with rat liver in vivo, owing to a need for larger quantities of cellular components that can readily be obtained from cultured cells. As some of these results appear to be at variance in important respects with those of earlier analyses carried out in H-35 cells, we briefly review these earlier experiments as well.

  11. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on serum homocysteine levels in perimenopausal women : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, AE; Bak, AAA; Lindemans, J; Planellas, J; Bennink, HJTC; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM


    Serum homocysteine levels may be lowered by hormone replacement therapy, but randomized controlled trial data are scarce. We performed a single center randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the 6 months effect of hormone replacement therapy compared with placebo on fasting serum homocysteine

  12. Epigenetic control of vasopressin expression is maintained by steroid hormones in the adult male rat brain (United States)

    Auger, Catherine J.; Coss, Dylan; Auger, Anthony P.; Forbes-Lorman, Robin M.


    Although some DNA methylation patterns are altered by steroid hormone exposure in the developing brain, less is known about how changes in steroid hormone levels influence DNA methylation patterns in the adult brain. Steroid hormones act in the adult brain to regulate gene expression. Specifically, the expression of the socially relevant peptide vasopressin (AVP) within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) of adult brain is dependent upon testosterone exposure. Castration dramatically reduces and testosterone replacement restores AVP expression within the BST. As decreases in mRNA expression are associated with increases in DNA promoter methylation, we explored the hypothesis that AVP expression in the adult brain is maintained through sustained epigenetic modifications of the AVP gene promoter. We find that castration of adult male rats resulted in decreased AVP mRNA expression and increased methylation of specific CpG sites within the AVP promoter in the BST. Similarly, castration significantly increased estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression and decreased ERα promoter methylation within the BST. These changes were prevented by testosterone replacement. This suggests that the DNA promoter methylation status of some steroid responsive genes in the adult brain is actively maintained by the presence of circulating steroid hormones. The maintenance of methylated or demethylated states of some genes in the adult brain by the presence of steroid hormones may play a role in the homeostatic regulation of behaviorally relevant systems. PMID:21368111

  13. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  14. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  15. Nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 controls fat consumption and fatty acid composition in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R Van Gilst


    Full Text Available Mammalian nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs, such as liver X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, precisely control energy metabolism. Consequently, these receptors are important targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases, including diabetes and obesity. A thorough understanding of NHR fat regulatory networks has been limited, however, by a lack of genetically tractable experimental systems. Here we show that deletion of the Caenorhabditis elegans NHR gene nhr-49 yielded worms with elevated fat content and shortened life span. Employing a quantitative RT-PCR screen, we found that nhr-49 influenced the expression of 13 genes involved in energy metabolism. Indeed, nhr-49 served as a key regulator of fat usage, modulating pathways that control the consumption of fat and maintain a normal balance of fatty acid saturation. We found that the two phenotypes of the nhr-49 knockout were linked to distinct pathways and were separable: The high-fat phenotype was due to reduced expression of enzymes in fatty acid beta-oxidation, and the shortened adult life span resulted from impaired expression of a stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Despite its sequence relationship with the mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 receptor, the biological activities of nhr-49 were most similar to those of the mammalian PPARs, implying an evolutionarily conserved role for NHRs in modulating fat consumption and composition. Our findings in C. elegans provide novel insights into how NHR regulatory networks are coordinated to govern fat metabolism.

  16. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A


    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long...... and more tight control. These data imply that the highly conserved GH signaling pathway, which has been linked to longevity in animal models, is also associated with human longevity....

  17. Swashplate control system (United States)

    Peyran, Richard J.; Laub, Georgene H.; Morse, H. Andrew


    A mechanical system to control the position of a rotating swashplate is developed. This system provides independent lateral cyclic, longitudinal cyclic and collective pitch control of a helicopter rotor attached to the swashplate, without use of a mixer box. The system also provide direct, linear readout of cyclic and collective swashplate positions.

  18. The Glucose-Insulin Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Korsgaard, Thomas Vagn; Hansen, RenéNormann N.


    This chapter reviews the glucose-insulin control system. First, classic control theory is described briefly and compared with biological control. The following analysis of the control system falls into two parts: a glucose-sensing part and a glucose-controlling part. The complex metabolic pathways....... Furthermore, the body has also glucose sensors in the intestine, the brain, the portal vein, and to some extent the liver, and they sense very different glucose concentrations. All sensors are incorporated in a dynamic network that is interconnected by both hormones and the nervous system. Regarding glucose...... control, the analysis shows that the system has many more facets than just keeping the glucose concentration within narrow limits. After glucose enters the cell and is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate, the handling of glucose-6-phosphate is critical for glucose regulation. Also, this handling...

  19. Motion control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sabanovic, Asif


    "Presents a unified approach to the fundamental issues in motion control, starting from the basics and moving through single degree of freedom and multi-degree of freedom systems In Motion Control Systems, Šabanovic and Ohnishi present a unified approach to very diverse issues covered in motion control systems, offering know-how accumulated through work on very diverse problems into a comprehensive, integrated approach suitable for application in high demanding high-tech products. It covers material from single degree of freedom systems to complex multi-body non-redundant and redundant systems. The discussion of the main subject is based on original research results and will give treatment of the issues in motion control in the framework of the acceleration control method with disturbance rejection technique. This allows consistent unification of different issues in motion control ranging from simple trajectory tracking to topics related to haptics and bilateral control without and with delay in the measure...

  20. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S


    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  1. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system. (United States)

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F


    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  2. Steroid hormones for contraception in men: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. (United States)

    Grimes, David A; Gallo, Maria F; Grigorieva, Vera; Nanda, Kavita; Schulz, Kenneth F


    Male hormonal contraception has been an elusive goal. Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so an "add-back" therapy is needed. We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials of male hormonal contraception and azoospermia. Few significant differences emerged from these trials. Levonorgestrel implants combined with injectable testosterone enanthate (100 mg im) were significantly more effective than was levonorgestrel 125 microg po daily combined with testosterone patches [10 mg/d; odds ratio (OR) for azoospermia with the oral levonorgestrel regimen, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.00-0.29]. The addition of levonorgestrel 500 microg po daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone enanthate 100 mg im weekly by itself (OR for azoospermia with the combined regimen, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.00-15.99). Several regimens, including testosterone alone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and antagonists, had disappointing results. In conclusion, no male hormonal contraceptive is ready for clinical use. All trials published to date have been small exploratory studies. As a result, their power to detect important differences has been limited and their results have been imprecise. In addition, the definition of oligospermia has been imprecise or inconsistent in many reports. To avoid bias, future trials need to pay more attention on the methodological requirements for randomized controlled trials. Trials with adequate power would also be helpful.

  3. Temporal organization: A novel mechanism of hormonal control of male-typical sexual behavior in vertebrates. (United States)

    Schořálková, Tereza; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš


    In vertebrates, male-typical sexual behavior (MSB) is largely controlled by gonadal androgens, however, the mechanism of this control is believed to vary among species. During immediate activation MSB is tightly correlated with circulating levels of androgens, while the organization of MSB by a hormonal event at a specific developmental period, early in ontogeny or during puberty, has been postulated in other lineages. Here, we put forward an alternative concept of "temporal organization". Under temporal organization longer exposure to circulating androgens is needed for the onset of MSB, which can continue for a long time after the levels of these hormones drop. We tested this concept through long-term monitoring of MSB in females and castrated males of the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) in response to experimental changes in testosterone levels. Several weeks of elevated testosterone levels were needed for the full expression of MSB in both treatment groups and MSB diminished only slowly and gradually after the supplementation of exogenous testosterone ended. Moreover, despite receiving the same application of the hormone both the progressive onset and the cessation of MSB were significantly slower in experimental females than in castrated males. We suggest that the concept of temporal organization of MSB can parsimoniously explain several earlier discrepancies and debatable conclusions on the apparent variability in the hormonal control of MSB in vertebrates, which were based on behavioral testing at a few subjectively selected time points. We conclude that long-term and continuous behavioral testing after hormonal manipulations is needed to understand the regulation of MSB in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Control and optimization system (United States)

    Xinsheng, Lou


    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  5. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S


    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  6. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... that carried the control system designer through the steps necessary to consider fault handling in an early design phase. It was shown how an existing control loop with interface to the plant wide control system could be extended with three additional modules to obtain fault tolerance: Fault detection...

  7. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi


    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  8. Cytokine and hormonal profile in serum samples of patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation: interleukin-1beta predicts ongoing pregnancy. (United States)

    Bonetti, T C S; Salomao, R; Brunialti, M; Braga, D P A F; Borges, E; Silva, I D C G


    Changes in the endometrium are not regulated exclusively by ovarian hormones; the immune system has also been implicated in normal endometrial function, similar to processes taking place during inflammatory and reparative path. Many cytokines are crucially important for reproductive processes, and the role of cytokines in the female reproductive system function has been broadly investigated during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for IVF attempts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of serum cytokines and hormones, and the clinical outcomes of women who underwent COS and ICSI procedures. The study prospectively included 96 patients (aged 22-43 years, unexplained or male infertility, n = 61; female infertility factors, n = 35) who underwent ICSI cycles. Serum levels of interleukin (IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, IL-10, IL-12), tumour necrosis factor and leukaemia-inhibitory factor (LIF) and the hormones FSH, estradiol, progesterone, anti-Mullerian hormone and Inhibin-B were measured on the day of oocyte retrieval. The ongoing pregnancy rate was 25.3%. The presence of serum IL-1beta positively affected the implantation rate (P = 0.004) and increased the chance of becoming pregnant by 15 fold. Furthermore, the percentage of patients with detectable serum IL-1beta levels who conceived (62.5%) was higher than those who failed to conceive (37.5%; P = 0.019). The LIF was undetectable in all serum samples, and no other factors influenced the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ICSI cycles. Our findings revealed that detectable serum levels of IL-1beta on the day of oocyte retrieval in patients undergoing COS and ICSI are predictive of successful implantation and ongoing pregnancy.

  9. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann


    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  10. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 5. Systems and Control Engineering - Control Systems-Analysis and Design. A Rama Kalyan J R Vengateswaran. General Article Volume 4 Issue 5 May 1999 pp 88-94 ...

  11. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of hip fracture: population based case-control study (United States)

    Michaëlsson, Karl; Baron, John A; Farahmand, Bahman Y; Johnell, Olof; Magnusson, Cecilia; Persson, Per-Gunnar; Persson, Ingemar; Ljunghall, Sverker


    Objective: To determine the relative risk of hip fracture associated with postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy including the effect of duration and recency of treatment, the addition of progestins, route of administration, and dose. Design: Population based case-control study. Setting: Six counties in Sweden. Subjects: 1327 women aged 50-81 years with hip fracture and 3262 randomly selected controls. Main outcome measure: Use of hormone replacement therapy. Results: Compared with women who had never used hormone replacement therapy, current users had an odds ratio of 0.35 (95 % confidence interval 0.24 to 0.53) for hip fracture and former users had an odds ratio of 0.76 (0.57 to 1.01). For every year of therapy, the overall risk decreased by 6% (3% to 9%): 4% (1% to 8%) for regimens without progestin and 11% (6% to 16%) for those with progestin. Last use between one and five years previously, with a duration of use more than five years, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.27 (0.08 to 0.94). After five years without hormone replacement therapy the protective effect was substantially diminished (−7% to 48%). With current use, an initiation of therapy nine or more years after the menopause gave equally strong reduction in risk for hip fracture as an earlier start. Oestrogen treatment with skin patches gave similar risk estimates as oral regimens. Conclusions: Recent use of hormone replacement therapy is required for optimum fracture protection, but therapy can be started several years after the menopause. The protective effect increases with duration of use, and an oestrogen-sparing effect is achieved when progestins are included in the regimen. Key messages Hormone replacement therapy should be continued for long periods for optimal protection of hip fracture No overall substantial hip fracture protection remains after five years without hormone replacement therapy Therapy can be initiated several years after menopause without loss of fracture protection

  12. Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. (United States)

    Newbern, Dorothee; Freemark, Michael


    To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone (GH-V) induces maternal insulin resistance and thereby facilitates the mobilization of maternal nutrients for fetal growth. Human placental lactogen (hPL) and prolactin increase maternal food intake by induction of central leptin resistance and promote maternal beta-cell expansion and insulin production to defend against the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The effects of the lactogens are mediated by diverse signaling pathways and are potentiated by glucose. Pathologic conditions of pregnancy are associated with dysregulation of GH-V and hPL gene expression. The somatogenic and lactogenic hormones of the placenta and maternal pituitary gland integrate the metabolic adaptations of pregnancy with the demands of fetal and neonatal development. Dysregulation of placental growth hormone and/or placental lactogen in pathologic conditions of pregnancy may adversely impact fetal growth and postnatal metabolic function.

  13. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A


    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  14. Hormonal acceleration of song development illuminates motor control mechanism in canaries. (United States)

    Alliende, Jorge A; Méndez, Jorge M; Goller, Franz; Mindlin, Gabriel B


    In songbirds, the ontogeny of singing behavior shows strong parallels with human speech learning. As in humans, development of learned vocal behavior requires exposure to an acoustic model of species-typical vocalizations, and, subsequently, a sensorimotor practice period after which the vocalization is produced in a stereotyped manner. This requires mastering motor instructions driving the vocal organ and the respiratory system. Recently, it was shown that, in the case of canaries (Serinus canaria), the diverse syllables, constituting the song, are generated with air sac pressure patterns with characteristic shapes, remarkably, those belonging to a very specific mathematical family. Here, we treated juvenile canaries with testosterone at the onset of the sensorimotor practice period. This hormone exposure accelerated the development of song into stereotyped adultlike song. After 20 days of testosterone treatment, subsyringeal air sac pressure patterns of song resembled those produced by adults, while those of untreated control birds of the same age did not. Detailed temporal structure and modulation patterns emerged rapidly with testosterone treatment, and all previously identified categories of adult song were observed. This research shows that the known effect of testosterone on the neural circuits gives rise to the stereotyped categories of respiratory motor gestures. Extensive practice of these motor patterns during the sensorimotor phase is not required for their expression. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance. (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan


    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko


    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Female Sexual Motivation in the Rat: Hormonal Control of Motivation


    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Becker, Jill B.


    While a good deal of information has been garnered in the last few decades regarding the neural and hormonal control of female sexual behavior, literature elucidating these mechanisms with respect to female sexual motivation has been scarce. We believe that one reason for this is the lack of a standardized paradigm that will quantify female sexual motivation while allowing for sexual interaction to occur. Here we describe a two-chambered apparatus that utilizes operant responding (nose poking...

  18. Drone Control System (United States)


    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  19. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson


    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  20. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and hormonal factors in women. A population-based case-control study. (United States)

    Longstreth, W T; Nelson, L M; Koepsell, T D; van Belle, G


    To determine the degree to which endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors influence the risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage in women. A population-based case-control study. King County, Washington. 103 women with an incident, spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and 2 age- and sex-matched controls per case-patient who were identified through random-digit dialing. Information on exposures was collected during in-person interviews of case-patients, controls, and their surrogates. Premenopausal women, especially those without a history of smoking or hypertension, were at a reduced risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage compared with age-matched postmenopausal women (odds ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.68). The use of hormone replacement therapy was associated with a reduced risk (odds ratio, 0.47; CI, 0.26 to 0.86); the reduction was significantly greater in women who had smoked than in those that had never smoked. Of the 23 premenopausal case-patients, 74% were either menstruating when hemorrhaging occurred or had had their last menstrual period 21 or more days before hemorrhaging compared with the expected 43% (difference, 31%; CI, 4% to 58%). Premenopausal women are at reduced risk for subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially those without a history of smoking or hypertension. Hormone replacement therapy reduced the risk only in postmenopausal women who had ever smoked. Among women still menstruating, the risk for hemorrhage was greatest in the perimenstrual period.

  1. Digestive physiology of the pig symposium: secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and eating control. (United States)

    Steinert, R E; Feinle-Bisset, C; Geary, N; Beglinger, C


    Nutrient ingestion triggers numerous changes in gastrointestinal (GI) peptide hormone secretion that affect appetite and eating. Evidence for these effects comes from research in laboratory animals, healthy humans, and, increasingly, obese patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which has marked effects on GI hormone function and is currently the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. Increases in cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) and decreases in ghrelin secretion after meals are triggered by changes in the nutrient content of the intestine. One apparent physiological function of each is to initiate a reflex-like feedback control of eating. Here we briefly review this function, with an emphasis on the controls of their secretion. Each is secreted from enteroendocrine cells that are directly or indirectly affected by caloric load, macronutrient composition, and other characteristics of ingested food such as fatty acid chain length. In addition, digestive hydrolysis is a critical mechanism that controls their secretion. Although there are relatively few data in agricultural animals, the generally consistent results across widely divergent mammals suggests that most of the processes described are also likely to be relevant to GI hormone functions and eating in agricultural animals.

  2. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraception | Dahan-Farkas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives are effective methods of birth control that provide contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. Long-acting reversible hormonal contraceptives include progesterone only injectables, subdermal implants and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system.

  3. High Molecular Weight Isoforms of Growth Hormone In Cells of the Immune System (United States)

    Weigent, Douglas A.


    A substantial body of research exists to support the idea that cells of the immune system produce growth hormone (GH). However, the structure and mechanism of action of lymphocyte-derived GH continues to remain largely unknown. Here we present the results of Western analysis of whole cell extracts showing that different molecular weight isoforms of GH of approximately 100 kDa, 65 kDa, and 48 kDa can be detected in primary mouse cells of the immune system and in the mouse EL4 cell line. The identity of the 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms of GH were confirmed by mass spectrometry. The various isoforms were detected in both enriched T and B spleen cell populations. The large molecular weight isoform appears to reside primarily in the cytoplasm whereas the lower molecular weight 65 kDa and 48 kDa isoforms were detected primarily in the nucleus. These results also suggest that GH isoforms are induced by oxidative stress. In EL4 cells overexpressing GH, the expression of luciferase controlled by a promoter containing the antioxidant response element is increased almost three-fold above control. The data suggest that the induction of isoforms of the GH molecule in cells of the immune system may be an important mechanism of adaptation and/or protection of lymphoid cells under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:21741628

  4. Digital flight control systems (United States)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.


    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  5. The effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on sex hormone-binding globulin and endogenous sex hormone levels: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedick Nicole M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Findings from observational studies suggest that sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and endogenous sex hormones may be mediators of the putative relation between coffee consumption and lower risk of type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormone levels. Findings After a two-week run-in phase with caffeine abstention, we conducted an 8-week parallel-arm randomized controlled trial. Healthy adults (n = 42 were recruited from the Boston community who were regular coffee consumers, nonsmokers, and overweight. Participants were randomized to five 6-ounce cups of caffeinated or decaffeinated instant coffee or water (control group per day consumed with each meal, mid-morning, and mid-afternoon. The main outcome measures were SHBG and sex hormones [i.e., testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate]. No significant differences were found between treatment groups for any of the studied outcomes at week 8. At 4 weeks, decaffeinated coffee was associated with a borderline significant increase in SHBG in women, but not in men. At week 4, we also observed several differences in hormone concentrations between the treatment groups. Among men, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased total testosterone and decreased total and free estradiol. Among women, decaffeinated coffee decreased total and free testosterone and caffeinated coffee decreased total testosterone. Conclusions Our data do not indicate a consistent effect of caffeinated coffee consumption on SHBG in men or women, however results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. This is the first randomized trial investigating the effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on SHBG and sex hormones and our findings necessitate further examination in a larger intervention trial.

  6. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  7. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail:; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.


    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  8. Nuclear receptor DHR4 controls the timing of steroid hormone pulses during Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxiang Ou


    Full Text Available In insects, precisely timed periodic pulses of the molting hormone ecdysone control major developmental transitions such as molts and metamorphosis. The synthesis and release of ecdysone, a steroid hormone, is itself controlled by PTTH (prothoracicotopic hormone. PTTH transcript levels oscillate with an 8 h rhythm, but its significance regarding the timing of ecdysone pulses is unclear. PTTH acts on its target tissue, the prothoracic gland (PG, by activating the Ras/Raf/ERK pathway through its receptor Torso, however direct targets of this pathway have yet to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila Hormone Receptor 4 (DHR4, a nuclear receptor, is a key target of the PTTH pathway and establishes temporal boundaries by terminating ecdysone pulses. Specifically, we show that DHR4 oscillates between the nucleus and cytoplasm of PG cells, and that the protein is absent from PG nuclei at developmental times when low titer ecdysone pulses occur. This oscillatory behavior is blocked when PTTH or torso function is abolished, resulting in nuclear accumulation of DHR4, while hyperactivating the PTTH pathway results in cytoplasmic retention of the protein. Increasing DHR4 levels in the PG can delay or arrest development. In contrast, reducing DHR4 function in the PG triggers accelerated development, which is caused by precocious ecdysone signaling due to a failure to repress ecdysone pulses. Finally, we show that DHR4 negatively regulates the expression of a hitherto uncharacterized cytochrome P450 gene, Cyp6t3. Disruption of Cyp6t3 function causes low ecdysteroid titers and results in heterochronic phenotypes and molting defects, indicating a novel role in the ecdysone biosynthesis pathway. We propose a model whereby nuclear DHR4 controls the duration of ecdysone pulses by negatively regulating ecdysone biosynthesis through repression of Cyp6t3, and that this repressive function is temporarily overturned via the PTTH pathway by removing DHR4

  9. Sucrose is an early modulator of the key hormonal mechanisms controlling bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. (United States)

    Barbier, François; Péron, Thomas; Lecerf, Marion; Perez-Garcia, Maria-Dolores; Barrière, Quentin; Rolčík, Jakub; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Citerne, Sylvie; Lemoine, Remi; Porcheron, Benoît; Roman, Hanaé; Leduc, Nathalie; Le Gourrierec, José; Bertheloot, Jessica; Sakr, Soulaiman


    Sugar has only recently been identified as a key player in triggering bud outgrowth, while hormonal control of bud outgrowth is already well established. To get a better understanding of sugar control, the present study investigated how sugar availability modulates the hormonal network during bud outgrowth in Rosa hybrida. Other plant models, for which mutants are available, were used when necessary. Buds were grown in vitro to manipulate available sugars. The temporal patterns of the hormonal regulatory network were assessed in parallel with bud outgrowth dynamics. Sucrose determined bud entrance into sustained growth in a concentration-dependent manner. Sustained growth was accompanied by sustained auxin production in buds, and sustained auxin export in a DR5::GUS-expressing pea line. Several events occurred ahead of sucrose-stimulated bud outgrowth. Sucrose upregulated early auxin synthesis genes (RhTAR1, RhYUC1) and the auxin efflux carrier gene RhPIN1, and promoted PIN1 abundance at the plasma membrane in a pPIN1::PIN1-GFP-expressing tomato line. Sucrose downregulated both RwMAX2, involved in the strigolactone-transduction pathway, and RhBRC1, a repressor of branching, at an early stage. The presence of sucrose also increased stem cytokinin content, but sucrose-promoted bud outgrowth was not related to that pathway. In these processes, several non-metabolizable sucrose analogues induced sustained bud outgrowth in R. hybrida, Pisum sativum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting that sucrose was involved in a signalling pathway. In conclusion, we identified potential hormonal candidates for bud outgrowth control by sugar. They are central to future investigations aimed at disentangling the processes that underlie regulation of bud outgrowth by sugar. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J


    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  11. Neural systems and hormones mediating attraction to infant and child faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhu eLuo


    Full Text Available We find infant faces highly attractive as a result of specific features which Konrad Lorenz termed Kindchenschema or baby schema, and this is considered to be an important adaptive trait for promoting protective and caregiving behaviors in adults, thereby increasing the chances of infant survival. This review first examines the behavioral support for this effect and physical and behavioral factors which can influence it. It next reviews the increasing number of neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies investigating the neural circuitry underlying this baby schema effect in both parents and non-parents of both sexes. Next it considers potential hormonal contributions to the baby schema effect in both sexes and then neural effects associated with reduced responses to infant cues in post-partum depression, anxiety and drug taking. Overall the findings reviewed reveal a very extensive neural circuitry involved in our perception of cutenessin infant faces with enhanced activation compared to adult faces being found in brain regions involved in face perception, attention, emotion, empathy, memory, reward and attachment, theory of mind and also control of motor responses.Both mothers and fathers also show evidence for enhanced responses in these same neural systems when viewing their own as opposed to another child. Furthermore, responses to infant cues in many of these neural systems are reduced in mothers with post-partum depression or anxiety or have taken addictive drugs throughout pregnancy. In general reproductively active women tend to rate infant faces as cuter than men, which may reflect both heightened attention to relevant cues and a stronger activation in their brain reward circuitry. Perception of infant cuteness may also be influenced by reproductive hormones with the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin being most strongly associated to date with increased attention andattractionto infant cues in both sexes.

  12. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System. (United States)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan


    Thyroid hormones (THs) play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS) in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR), the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5) was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in mollusks contribute

  13. Identification of Thyroid Hormones and Functional Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Receptor in the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas Provide Insight into Evolution of the Thyroid Hormone System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones (THs play important roles in development, metamorphosis, and metabolism in vertebrates. During the past century, TH functions were regarded as a synapomorphy of vertebrates. More recently, accumulating evidence has gradually convinced us that TH functions also occur in invertebrate chordates. To date, however, TH-related studies in non-chordate invertebrates have been limited. In this study, THs were qualitatively detected by two reliable methods (HPLC and LC/MS in a well-studied molluscan species, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Quantitative measurement of THs during the development of C. gigas showed high TH contents during embryogenesis and that oyster embryos may synthesize THs endogenously. As a first step in elucidating the TH signaling cascade, an ortholog of vertebrate TH receptor (TR, the most critical gene mediating TH effects, was cloned in C. gigas. The sequence of CgTR has conserved DNA-binding and ligand-binding domains that normally characterize these receptors. Experimental results demonstrated that CgTR can repress gene expression through binding to promoters of target genes and can interact with oyster retinoid X receptor. Moreover, CgTR mRNA expression was activated by T4 and the transcriptional activity of CgTR promoter was repressed by unliganded CgTR protein. An atypical thyroid hormone response element (CgDR5 was found in the promoter of CgTR, which was verified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. These results indicated that some of the CgTR function is conserved. However, the EMSA assay showed that DNA binding specificity of CgTR was different from that of the vertebrate TR and experiments with two dual-luciferase reporter systems indicated that l-thyroxine, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and triiodothyroacetic acid failed to activate the transcriptional activity of CgTR. This is the first study to functionally characterize TR in mollusks. The presence of THs and the functions of CgTR in

  14. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siegenthaler


    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  15. Control and Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Zahradnik


    Full Text Available The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  16. Control and Information Systems


    Jiri Zahradnik; Karol Rastocny; Juraj Spalek


    The article deals with main tends of scientific research activities of Department of Control and Information Systems at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering of University of Zilina and its perspectives in this area.

  17. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D


    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  18. Reset Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baños, Alfonso


    Reset Control Systems addresses the analysis for reset control treating both its basic form which requires only that the state of the controller be reinitialized to zero (the reset action) each time the tracking error crosses zero (the reset condition), and some useful variations of the reset action (partial reset with fixed or variable reset percentage) and of the reset condition (fixed or variable reset band and anticipative reset). The issues regarding reset control – concepts and motivation; analysis tools; and the application of design methodologies to real-world examples – are given comprehensive coverage. The text opens with an historical perspective which moves from the seminal work of the Clegg integrator and Horowitz FORE to more recent approaches based on impulsive/hybrid control systems and explains the motivation for reset compensation. Preliminary material dealing with notation, basic definitions and results, and with the definition of the control problem under study is also included. The fo...

  19. A Review of Weight Control Strategies and Their Effects on the Regulation of Hormonal Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A. Schwarz


    Full Text Available The estimated prevalence of obesity in the USA is 72.5 million adults with costs attributed to obesity more than 147 billion dollars per year. Though caloric restriction has been used extensively in weight control studies, short-term success has been difficult to achieve, with long-term success of weight control being even more elusive. Therefore, novel approaches are needed to control the rates of obesity that are occurring globally. The purpose of this paper is to provide a synopsis of how exercise, sleep, psychological stress, and meal frequency and composition affect levels of ghrelin, cortisol, insulin GLP-1, and leptin and weight control. We will provide information regarding how hormones respond to various lifestyle factors which may affect appetite control, hunger, satiety, and weight control.


    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.


    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  1. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency? (United States)

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith


    What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes recent data on the role of ovarian hormones and sex in inflammation-related hypertension. What advances does it highlight? The adaptive immune system has recently been implicated in the development of hypertension in males but not in females. The role of the immune system in the development of hypertension in women and its relationship to ovarian hormone production are highlighted. The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  2. Transport of steroid hormones, phytoestrogens, and estrogenic activity across a swine lagoon/sprayfield system. (United States)

    Yost, Erin E; Meyer, Michael T; Dietze, Julie E; Williams, C Michael; Worley-Davis, Lynn; Lee, Boknam; Kullman, Seth W


    The inflow, transformation, and attenuation of natural steroid hormones and phytoestrogens and estrogenic activity were assessed across the lagoon/sprayfield system of a prototypical commercial swine sow operation. Free and conjugated steroid hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone) were detected in urine and feces of sows across reproductive stages, with progesterone being the most abundant steroid hormone. Excreta also contained phytoestrogens indicative of a soy-based diet, particularly, daidzein, genistein, and equol. During storage in barn pits and the anaerobic lagoon, conjugated hormones dissipated, and androgens and progesterone were attenuated. Estrone and equol persisted along the waste disposal route. Following application of lagoon slurry to agricultural soils, all analytes exhibited attenuation within 2 days. However, analytes including estrone, androstenedione, progesterone, and equol remained detectable in soil at 2 months postapplication. Estrogenic activity in the yeast estrogen screen and T47D-KBluc in vitro bioassays generally tracked well with analyte concentrations. Estrone was found to be the greatest contributor to estrogenic activity across all sample types. This investigation encompasses the most comprehensive suite of natural hormone and phytoestrogen analytes examined to date across a livestock lagoon/sprayfield and provides global insight into the fate of these analytes in this widely used waste management system.

  3. Identification of putative egg-laying hormone containing neuronal systems in gastropod molluscs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Minnen, J.; Schallig, H. D.; Ramkema, M. D.


    Of gastropod molluscs, only in the Aplysiidae and the Lymnaeidae have the genes encoding the respective egg-laying hormones been cloned and the neurons controlling egg laying and egg-laying behavior been identified. Immunocytochemistry, using antibodies raised against alpha-CDCP (one of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU


    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  5. ACCESS Pointing Control System (United States)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; hide


    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  6. Hormone replacement therapy and the cardiovascular system lessons learned and unanswered questions. (United States)

    Ouyang, Pamela; Michos, Erin D; Karas, Richard H


    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among women in the U.S., exceeding breast cancer mortality in women of all ages. Women present with cardiovascular disease a decade after men, and this has been attributed to the protective effect of female ovarian sex hormones that is lost after menopause. Animal and observational studies have shown beneficial effects of hormone therapy when it is initiated early in the perimenopausal period or before the development of significant atherosclerosis. However, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in older women have not shown any benefit in either primary prevention or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, with a concerning trend toward harm. This review outlines the lessons learned from the basic science, animal, observational, and randomized trials, and then summarizes yet-unanswered questions of hormone therapy and cardiovascular risk.

  7. Hormonal Add-Back Therapy for Females Treated With Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist for Endometriosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    DiVasta, Amy D; Feldman, Henry A; Sadler Gallagher, Jenny; Stokes, Natalie A; Laufer, Marc R; Hornstein, Mark D; Gordon, Catherine M


    To assess whether add-back therapy with norethindrone acetate or norethindrone acetate plus conjugated equine estrogens is superior to maintain bone health in adolescents and young women using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for endometriosis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are associated with deleterious effects on bone. Hormonal add-back may mitigate these effects. Adolescents and young women (n=51) received a random, double-blind assignment to add-back with norethindrone acetate (5 mg/day) plus conjugated equine estrogens (0.625 mg/day) or norethindrone acetate plus placebo for 12 months. Body composition, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (BMD) were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry every 6 months. Quality-of-life measures were collected every 3 months. Intention-to-treat comparison of outcomes was conducted by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Thirty-four adolescents and young women completed the trial; dropouts did not differ from those who completed the trial. Bone mineral density was normal at baseline. At 12 months, total body bone mineral content and BMD had increased in the norethindrone acetate plus conjugated equine estrogens group (bone mineral content +37 g, Padd-back successfully preserved bone health and improved quality of life for adolescents and young women with endometriosis during 12 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy. Combination norethindrone acetate plus conjugated equine estrogens add-back appears to be more effective for increasing total body bone mineral content, areal BMD, and lean mass than norethindrone acetate monotherapy.;, NCT00474851. I.

  8. Environmental and hormonal factors controlling reversible colour change in crab spiders. (United States)

    Llandres, Ana L; Figon, Florent; Christidès, Jean-Philippe; Mandon, Nicole; Casas, Jérôme


    Habitat heterogeneity that occurs within an individual's lifetime may favour the evolution of reversible plasticity. Colour reversibility has many different functions in animals, such as thermoregulation, crypsis through background matching and social interactions. However, the mechanisms underlying reversible colour changes are yet to be thoroughly investigated. This study aims to determine the environmental and hormonal factors underlying morphological colour changes in Thomisus onustus crab spiders and the biochemical metabolites produced during these changes. We quantified the dynamics of colour changes over time: spiders were kept in yellow and white containers under natural light conditions and their colour was measured over 15 days using a spectrophotometer. We also characterised the chemical metabolites of spiders changing to a yellow colour using HPLC. Hormonal control of colour change was investigated by injecting 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into spiders. We found that background colouration was a major environmental factor responsible for colour change in crab spiders: individuals presented with white and yellow backgrounds changed to white and yellow colours, respectively. An ommochrome precursor, 3-OH-kynurenine, was the main pigment responsible for yellow colour. Spiders injected with 20E displayed a similar rate of change towards yellow colouration as spiders kept in yellow containers and exposed to natural sunlight. This study demonstrates novel hormonal manipulations that are capable of inducing reversible colour change.

  9. Acceptability of a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive in a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Roth, Mara Y; Shih, Grace; Ilani, Niloufar; Wang, Christina; Page, Stephanie T; Bremner, William J; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Blithe, Diana L; Amory, John K


    Fifty percent of pregnancies in the United States are unintended despite numerous contraceptive methods available to women. The only male contraceptive methods, vasectomy and condoms, are used by 10% and 16% of couples, respectively. Prior studies have shown efficacy of male hormonal contraceptives in development, but few have evaluated patient acceptability and potential use if commercially available. The objective of this study is to determine if a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive regimen, containing testosterone and Nestorone® gels, would be acceptable to study participants as a primary contraceptive method. As part of a three-arm, 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of testosterone and nestorone gels at two academic medical centers, subjects completed a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of the regimen. Of the 99 men randomized, 79 provided data for analysis. Overall, 56% (44/79) of men were satisfied or extremely satisfied with this gel-based method of contraception, and 51% (40/79) reported that they would recommend this method to others. One third of subjects (26/79) reported that they would use this as their primary method of contraception if it were commercially available today. However, men with concerns about sexually transmitted disease were significantly less satisfied than men without such concerns (p=0.03). A majority of the men who volunteered to participate in this trial of an experimental male hormonal contraceptive were satisfied with this transdermal male hormonal contraceptive. If commercially available, a combination of topical nesterone and testosterone gels could provide a reversible, effective method of contraception that is appealing to men. A substantial portion of men report they would use this transdermal male contraceptive regimen if commercially available. This method would provide a novel, reversible method of contraception for men, whose current choices are limited to condoms and vasectomy

  10. The FOXO transcription factor controls insect growth and development by regulating juvenile hormone degradation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. (United States)

    Zeng, Baosheng; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Jun; Shiotsuki, Takahiro; Bai, Hua; Palli, Subba Reddy; Huang, Yongping; Tan, Anjiang


    Forkhead box O (FOXO) functions as the terminal transcription factor of the insulin signaling pathway and regulates multiple physiological processes in many organisms, including lifespan in insects. However, how FOXO interacts with hormone signaling to modulate insect growth and development is largely unknown. Here, using the transgene-based CRISPR/Cas9 system, we generated and characterized mutants of the silkworm Bombyx mori FOXO (BmFOXO) to elucidate its physiological functions during development of this lepidopteran insect. The BmFOXO mutant (FOXO-M) exhibited growth delays from the first larval stage and showed precocious metamorphosis, pupating at the end of the fourth instar (trimolter) rather than at the end of the fifth instar as in the wild-type (WT) animals. However, different from previous reports on precocious metamorphosis caused by juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency in silkworm mutants, the total developmental time of the larval period in the FOXO-M was comparable with that of the WT. Exogenous application of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) or of the JH analog rescued the trimolter phenotype. RNA-seq and gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in JH degradation but not in JH biosynthesis were up-regulated in the FOXO-M compared with the WT animals. Moreover, we identified several FOXO-binding sites in the promoter of genes coding for JH-degradation enzymes. These results suggest that FOXO regulates JH degradation rather than its biosynthesis, which further modulates hormone homeostasis to control growth and development in B. mori In conclusion, we have uncovered a pivotal role for FOXO in regulating JH signaling to control insect development. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A. van der; Otten, B.J.


    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  12. Connexin-dependent signaling in neuro-hormonal systems.


    Potolicchio Ilaria; Cigliola Valentina; Velazquez-Garcia Silvia; Klee Philippe; Valjevac Amina; Kapic Dina; Cosovic Esad; Lepara Orhan; Hadzovic-Dzuvo Almira; Mornjacovic Zakira; Meda Paolo


    The advent of multicellular organisms was accompanied by the development of short and long range chemical signalling systems including those provided by the nervous and endocrine systems. In turn the cells of these two systems have developed mechanisms for interacting with both adjacent and distant cells. With evolution such mechanisms have diversified to become integrated in a complex regulatory network whereby individual endocrine and neuro endocrine cells sense the state of activity of th...

  13. A case-control study of hormonal exposures as etiologic factors for ALS in women: Euro-MOTOR. (United States)

    Rooney, James P K; Visser, Anne E; D'Ovidio, Fabrizio; Vermeulen, Roel; Beghi, Ettore; Chio, Adriano; Veldink, Jan H; Logroscino, Giancarlo; van den Berg, Leonard H; Hardiman, Orla


    To investigate the role of hormonal risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among women from 3 European countries. ALS cases and matched controls were recruited over 4 years in Ireland, Italy, and the Netherlands. Hormonal exposures, including reproductive history, breastfeeding, contraceptive use, hormonal replacement therapy, and gynecologic surgical history, were recorded with a validated questionnaire. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, study site, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were used to determine the association between female hormones and ALS risk. We included 653 patients and 1,217 controls. Oral contraceptive use was higher among controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.84), and a dose-response effect was apparent. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with a reduced risk of ALS only in the Netherlands (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.85). These findings were robust to sensitivity analysis, but there was some heterogeneity across study sites. This large case-control study across 3 different countries has demonstrated an association between exogenous estrogens and progestogens and reduced odds of ALS in women. These results are at variance with previous findings, which may be partly explained by differential regulatory, social, and cultural attitudes toward pregnancy, birth control, and HRT across the countries included. Our results indicate that hormonal factors may be important etiologic factors in ALS; however, a full understanding requires further investigation. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors. (United States)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P


    Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential. For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary

  15. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L


    Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression....... Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression...... is circadian in nature and under photoneural control. Whereas most rhythmically expressed genes in the pineal are controlled by adrenergic/cAMP signaling, Drd4 expression also requires thyroid hormone. This advance raises the questions of whether Drd4 expression is regulated by this mechanism in other systems...

  16. The use of plasmapheresis for rapid hormonal control in severe hyperthyroidism caused by a partial molar pregnancy. (United States)

    Adali, Ertan; Yildizhan, Recep; Kolusari, Ali; Kurdoglu, Mertihan; Turan, Nedim


    The hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), secreted by molar tissue, is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Hyperthyroidism in trophoblastic disease is thought to be the result of TSH receptor activation by extremely elevated levels of hCG. Significant elevations in hCG levels are less common in cases of partial moles. We describe a patient with partial molar pregnancy in which the levels of hCG and thyroid hormones were significantly high. It was not possible to decrease the elevated thyroid hormone concentrations to safer levels using medical treatment strategies only. Since the patient's vaginal bleeding increased gradually, plasmapheresis was used to rapidly control the thyroid hormones during the preoperative preparation of the patient for anesthesia and surgery. After the evacuation of the molar tissue, the levels of the thyroid hormones detected after the plasmapheresis started to decrease even further. Plasmapheresis may be used as an alternative to antithyroid medication for the rapid control of thyroid hormones in cases of severe hyperthyroidism caused by molar pregnancy.

  17. Afferent neuronal control of type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eHrabovszky


    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation of the human menstrual cycle represents an important ultimate challenge of reproductive neuroendocrine research. However, direct translation of information from laboratory animal experiments to the human is often complicated by strikingly different and unique reproductive strategies and central regulatory mechanisms that can be present in even closely related animal species. In all mammals studied so far, type-I gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH synthesizing neurons form the final common output way from the hypothalamus in the neuroendocrine control of the adenohypophysis. Under various physiological and pathological conditions, hormonal and metabolic signals either regulate GnRH neurons directly or act on upstream neuronal circuitries to influence the pattern of pulsatile GnRH secretion into the hypophysial portal circulation. Neuronal afferents to GnRH cells convey important metabolic-, stress-, sex steroid-, lactational- and circadian signals to the reproductive axis, among other effects. This article gives an overview of the available neuroanatomical literature that described the afferent regulation of human GnRH neurons by peptidergic, monoaminergic and amino acidergic neuronal systems. Recent studies of human genetics provided evidence that central peptidergic signaling by kisspeptins and neurokinin B play particularly important roles in puberty onset and later, in the sex steroid-dependent feedback regulation of GnRH neurons. This review article places special emphasis on the topographic distribution, sexual dimorphism, aging-dependent neuroanatomical changes and plastic connectivity to GnRH neurons of the critically important human hypothalamic kisspeptin and neurokinin B systems.

  18. Neural control of steroid hormone biosynthesis during development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Niwa, Yuko S; Niwa, Ryusuke


    The insect steroid hormone ecdysteroid plays pivotal roles in the temporal coordination of development, represented by molting and metamorphosis. During the larval stages, ecdysteroid is biosynthesized from dietary cholesterol by several ecdysteroidogenic enzymes in the specialized endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland (PG). As ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the PG is affected by several environmental cues, such as photoperiod and nutrition, a fundamental question is how the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway is controlled in response to environmental cues. In this review, we briefly summarize recent topics on the regulatory mechanisms of ecdysteroid biosynthesis, especially the neuronal regulatory mechanism, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The implications from studies with other insects are also discussed.

  19. Circadian hormone control in a human-on-a-chip: In vitro biology's ignored component? (United States)

    Cyr, Kevin J; Avaldi, Omero M; Wikswo, John P


    Organs-on-Chips (OoCs) are poised to reshape dramatically the study of biology by replicating in vivo the function of individual and coupled human organs. Such microphysiological systems (MPS) have already recreated complex physiological responses necessary to simulate human organ function not evident in two-dimensional in vitro biological experiments. OoC researchers hope to streamline pharmaceutical development, accelerate toxicology studies, limit animal testing, and provide new insights beyond the capability of current biological models. However, to develop a physiologically accurate Human-on-a-Chip, i.e., an MPS homunculus that functions as an interconnected, whole-body, model organ system, one must couple individual OoCs with proper fluidic and metabolic scaling. This will enable the study of the effects of organ-organ interactions on the metabolism of drugs and toxins. Critical to these efforts will be the recapitulation of the complex physiological signals that regulate the endocrine, metabolic, and digestive systems. To date, with the exception of research focused on reproductive organs on chips, most OoC research ignores homuncular endocrine regulation, in particular the circadian rhythms that modulate the function of all organ systems. We outline the importance of cyclic endocrine regulation and the role that it may play in the development of MPS homunculi for the pharmacology, toxicology, and systems biology communities. Moreover, we discuss the critical end-organ hormone interactions that are most relevant for a typical coupled-OoC system, and the possible research applications of a missing endocrine system MicroFormulator (MES-µF) that could impose biological rhythms on in vitro models. By linking OoCs together through chemical messenger systems, advanced physiological phenomena relevant to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies can be replicated. The concept of a MES-µF could be applied to other standard cell-culture systems such as well

  20. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo


    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  1. Nonlinear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydeep Jesur


    and features are added such a way that it can be also used for design of nonlinear control systems to achieve desired performance. It is very simple to learn this tool. One can easily use it with preliminary knowledge of DF and PPT methods.

  2. Internet Congestion Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranoto Rusmin


    Full Text Available Internet congestion occurs when resource demands exceeds the network capacity. But, it is not the only reason. Congestion can happen on some users because some others user has higher sending rate. Then some users with lower sending rate will experience congestion. This partial congestion is caused by inexactly feedback. At this moment congestion are solved by the involvement of two controlling mechanisms. These mechanisms are flow/congestion control in the TCP source and Active Queue Management (AQM in the router. AQM will provide feedback to the source a kind of indication for the occurrence of the congestion in the router, whereas the source will adapt the sending rate appropriate with the feedback. These mechanisms are not enough to solve internet congestion problem completely. Therefore, this paper will explain internet congestion causes, weakness, and congestion control technique that researchers have been developed. To describe congestion system mechanisms and responses, the system will be simulated by Matlab.

  3. Growth hormone replacement delays the progression of chronic heart failure combined with growth hormone deficiency: an extension of a randomized controlled single-blind study. (United States)

    Cittadini, Antonio; Marra, Alberto M; Arcopinto, Michele; Bobbio, Emanuele; Salzano, Andrea; Sirico, Domenico; Napoli, Raffaele; Colao, Annamaria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Baliga, Ragavendra R; Bossone, Eduardo; Saccà, Luigi


    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent evidence indicates that growth hormone deficiency (GHD) affects as many as 40% of patients with CHF, and short-term GH replacement causes functional benefit. Whether long-term GH replacement also affects CHF progression is unknown. The study is an extension of a previous randomized, controlled single-blind trial that screened 158 consecutive CHF patients (New York Heart Association classes II to IV) and identified 63 who had GHD by the growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine test. Fifty-six patients were randomized to receive either GH therapy or standard CHF therapy. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Secondary endpoints included left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and volumes, serum amino terminal fragment of the pro-hormone brain-type natriuretic peptide, quality of life, and safety. Seventeen patients in the GH group and 14 in the control group completed the study. In the GH group, peak VO2 improved over the 4-year follow-up. The treatment effect was 7.1 ± 0.7 ml/kg/min versus -1.8 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min in the GH and control groups, respectively. At 4 years, LV ejection fraction increased by 10 ± 3% in the GH group, whereas it decreased by 2 ± 5% in control patients. The treatment effect on LV end-systolic volume index was -22 ± 6 ml and 8 ± 3 ml/m(2) in the GH and control groups, respectively (all p < 0.001). No major adverse events were reported in the patients who received GH. Although this is a preliminary study, the finding suggests a new therapeutic approach to a large proportion of GHD patients with CHF. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT system in carcinogenesis of reproductive tissues: What does the hormonal regulation tell us? (United States)

    Figueira, Marília I; Cardoso, Henrique J; Correia, Sara; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia


    The tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF) are expressed in several tissues of male and female reproductive tract, playing an important role in the regulation of basic biological processes. The activation of c-KIT by SCF controls, cell survival and death, cell differentiation and migration. Also, the SCF/c-KIT system has been implicated in carcinogenesis of reproductive tissues due to its altered expression pattern or overactivation in consequence of gain-of-functions mutations. Over the years, it has also been shown that hormones, the primary regulators of reproductive function and causative agents in the case of hormone-dependent cancers, are also able to control the SCF/c-KIT tissue levels. Therefore, it is liable to suppose that disturbed SCF/c-KIT expression driven by (de)regulated hormone actions can be a relevant step towards carcinogenesis. The present review describes the SCF and c-KIT expression in cancers of reproductive tissues, discussing the implications of the hormonal regulation of the SCF/c-KIT system in cancer development. Understanding the relationship between hormonal imbalance and the SCF/c-KIT expression and activity would be relevant in the context of novel therapeutic approaches in reproductive cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. (Revised The role of melatonin as a hormone and an antioxidant in the control of fish reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra


    Full Text Available Reproduction in most fish is seasonal or periodic and the spawning occurs in an appropriate season to ensure maximum survival of the offspring. The sequence of reproductive events in an annual cycle is largely under the control of a species-specific endogenous timing system, which essentially relies on a well-equipped physiological response mechanism to changing environmental cues. The duration of solar light or photoperiod is one of the most predictable environmental signals used by a large number of animals including fish to coordinate their seasonal breeding. In vertebrates, the pineal gland is the major photo-neuroendocrine part of the brain that rhythmically synthesizes and releases melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine into the circulation in synchronization with the environmental light-dark cycle. Past few decades witnessed an enormous progress in understanding the mechanisms by which melatonin regulates seasonal reproduction in fish and in other vertebrates. Most studies emphasized hormonal actions of melatonin through its high-affinity, pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein (guanine nucleotide binding protein coupled receptors on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG axis of fish. However, the discovery that melatonin due to its lipophilic nature can easily cross the plasma membrane of all cells and may act as a potent scavenger of free radicals and stimulant of different antioxidants added a new dimension to the idea explaining mechanisms of melatonin actions in the regulation of ovarian functions. The basic concept on the actions of melatonin as an antioxidant emerged from mammalian studies. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin, apart from playing the role of a hormone, may also be associated with the reduction in oxidative stress to augment ovarian functions during spawning. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the role of melatonin as a hormone as well as an antioxidant in

  6. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?


    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith


    The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant change...

  7. Sterol-derived hormone(s controls entry into diapause in Caenorhabditis elegans by consecutive activation of DAF-12 and DAF-16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitali Matyash


    Full Text Available Upon starvation or overcrowding, Caenorhabditis elegans interrupts its reproductive cycle and forms a specialised larva called dauer (enduring. This process is regulated by TGF-beta and insulin-signalling pathways and is connected with the control of life span through the insulin pathway components DAF-2 and DAF-16. We found that replacing cholesterol with its methylated metabolite lophenol induced worms to form dauer larvae in the presence of food and low population density. Our data indicate that methylated sterols do not actively induce the dauer formation but rather that the reproductive growth requires a cholesterol-derived hormone that cannot be produced from methylated sterols. Using the effect of lophenol on growth, we have partially purified activity, named gamravali, which promotes the reproduction. In addition, the effect of lophenol allowed us to determine the role of sterols during dauer larva formation and longevity. In the absence of gamravali, the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12 is activated and thereby initiates the dauer formation program. Active DAF-12 triggers in neurons the nuclear import of DAF-16, a forkhead domain transcription factor that contributes to dauer differentiation. This hormonal control of DAF-16 activation is, however, independent of insulin signalling and has no influence on life span.

  8. Deciphering the hormonal signalling network behind the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa eMartinez-Medina


    Full Text Available Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defence response that is effective against a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defence signalling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms (ISR. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signalling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR is believed to involve a wider variety of signalling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defence related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA and the peptide prosystemin (PS evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA and ABA signalling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defence responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against the necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development

  9. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise. (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo


    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  10. Involvement of Ghrelin-Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor System in Pathoclinical Profiles of Digestive System Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang WANG; Weigang WANG; Wencai QIU; Youben FAN; Jun ZHAO; Yu WANG; Qi ZHENG


    Ghrelin receptor has been shown to be expressed along the human gastrointestinal tract.Recent studies showed that ghrelin and a synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist improved weight gain and lean body mass retention in a rat model of cancer cachexia by acting on ghrelin receptor, that is, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This study aims to explore the expression and the distribution of ghrelin receptor in human gastrointestinal tract cancers and to investigate the possible involvement of the ghrelin-GHS-R system in human digestive cancers. Surgical human digestive cancer specimens were obtained from various portions of the gastrointestinal tract from different patients. The expression of ghrelin receptor in these tissues was detected by tissue microarray technique. Our results showed that ghrelin receptor was expressed in cancers throughout the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the cytoplasm of mucosal layer cells.Its expression level possibly correlated with organ type, histological grade, tumor-nodes-metastases stage,and nutrition status (weight loss) of the patients. For the first time, we identified the distribution of ghrelin receptor in digestive system cancers. Our results implied that the ghrelin-GHS-R system might be involved in the pathoclinical profiles of digestive cancers.

  11. Exploring Genitoanal Injury and HIV Risk Among Women: Menstrual Phase, Hormonal Birth Control, and Injury Frequency and Prevalence. (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Moore, Kendra; Aka-James, Rose; Zink, Therese; Brown, Kathleen M; Fargo, Jamison D


    Genital, anal, and oral injuries sustained from sexual intercourse may explain HIV transmission among women. We determined the variability in genitoanal injury frequency and prevalence in women after consensual sexual intercourse, exploring the role of menstrual phase and hormonal birth control. We used a longitudinal observational design with a convenience sample of 393 women aged 21 years and older. Participants had a baseline interview with gynecological examination, followed by consensual sexual intercourse with a male partner and a second gynecological examination. We analyzed injury prevalence with logistic regression and injury frequency with negative binomial regression among women who were (1) menstrual, not using hormonal birth control, (2) menstrual, using hormonal birth control, or (3) menopausal. We also compared injury among menstrual women in the follicular, ovulatory, and luteal phases. Women using hormonal birth control had 38% more external genitalia injuries [adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 1.38, P = 0.030] and more than twice the anal injuries (ARR = 2.67, P = 0.005) as the nonhormonal birth control menstruating group. Menopausal women had more than 3 times the anal injuries (ARR = 3.36, P = 0.020) than those in the nonhormonal menstrual group. Among menstrual women, those in the follicular phase had a greater prevalence and frequency of external genitalia injuries than those in other phases. Increased rates of postcoital genitoanal injuries are noted among women using hormonal birth control and/or in the follicular phase of menstruation. Biological factors that influence women's risk for HIV warrant further investigation.

  12. MEGARA Control System (United States)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Pascual, S.; Villar, V.; Marino, R. A.; Cardiel, N.; Morales, I.; González, E.; Cedazo, R.; Serena, F.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Vílchez, J. M.; Sánchez, F. M.; Gil de Paz, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; The Megara Team


    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) designed for the GTC 10.4 m telescope in La Palma. The MEGARA Control System will provide the capabilities to move the different mechanisms of the instrument, to readout the data from the detector controller and the necessary routines for the Inspector Panels, the MEGARA Observing Preparation Software Suite, the Data Factory and the Sequencer strategies.

  13. Two important systems in energy homeostasis: melanocortins and melanin-concentrating hormone. (United States)

    Tritos, N A; Maratos-Flier, E


    Our understanding of the regulation of appetite and energy balance has advanced significantly over the past decade as several peptides, centrally or peripherally expressed, have been characterized and shown to profoundly influence food intake and energy expenditure. (1)The growing number of putative appetite-regulating neuropeptides includes peptides that are orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) signals and anorectic peptides. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), orexins A and B, galanin, and agouti -related peptide (AgRP) all act to stimulate feeding while alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alphaMSH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), cholecystokinin (CCK), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), neurotensin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP 1), and bombesin have anorectic actions.(1) Leptin, expressed in the periphery in white adipose tissue, acts in the CNS to modulate the expression of several of these hypothalamic peptides.(1) This creates a functional link between the adipose tissue and the brain that translates the information on body fat provided by leptin to input into energy balance regulating processes. In the current review we examine the significant role of the melanocortin system (alphaMSH, agouti and AgRP peptides, and their receptors and mahogany protein) and melanin concentrating hormone in the regulation of energy balance. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Optimum method for administration of biosynthetic human growth hormone: a randomised crossover trial of an Auto Injector and a pen injection system.


    Stanhope, R; Albanese, A; Moyle, L; Hamill, G


    The use of optimum conventional growth hormone administration, using a growth hormone vial combined with an Auto Injector, was compared with a pen injection system using a cartridge of growth hormone. In both methods of administration the concentration of growth hormone was 16 IU/ml. Thirty patients (22 boys, eight girls) who had all previously been treated with growth hormone (4 IU/ml) administered using needles and syringes (without an Auto Injector) were randomised into receiving one of ei...

  15. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems. (United States)

    Lucy, M C; McDougall, S; Nation, D P


    Hormonal interventions have been used to increase the probability of estrous detection and insemination, and to increase pregnancy rates of dairy cattle under a variety of management systems. The present review addresses the basic principles of hormonal intervention and presents typical examples that illustrate the methodology. The hormones used to control the estrous cycle mimic the reproductive hormones found within the normal cow. Most estrous synchronization systems employ a method for controlling follicular wave development, promoting ovulation in anestrous cows, regressing the corpus luteum in cyclic cows, and synchronizing estrus and (or) ovulation at the end of treatment. A wide range of reproductive systems are in place on dairy farms. In most herds, a non-intervention period is practiced where postpartum cows are observed estrus estrus. Cows not observed in estrus are then treated. A number of studies in pasture-based and confinement systems have demonstrated net benefits of whole-herd synchronization. Despite the advantages of whole-herd reproductive programs, their uptake has been inconsistent globally. The benefits of a timed artificial insemination (AI) system increase under conditions of poor estrous detection rate and poor conception rate. The unpopular nature of timed AI programs in pasture-fed cows relates to high rates of estrous detection and conception for pasture-based dairying. Regardless of production system, some cows must be re-inseminated because they are not pregnant after first insemination. The presence of "phantom cows" (non-pregnant cows that do not return to estrus) creates a serious reproductive challenge for both pasture-based and confinement-style operations. Early pregnancy diagnosis and second insemination timed AI may reduce the effects of phantom cows on dairy herds. Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to

  16. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Hentze

    Full Text Available Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of synthesis remains unclear, although previous studies suggest that the reproductive system may be their source. We have examined expression profiles of the ecdysteroidogenic Halloween genes, during development and in adults of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Genes required for the biosynthesis of ecdysone (E, the precursor of the molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E, are expressed in the tubular accessory glands (TAGs of adult males. In contrast, expression of the gene encoding the enzyme mediating 20E synthesis was detected in the ovaries of females. Further, Spookiest (Spot, an enzyme presumably required for endowing tissues with competence to produce ecdysteroids, is male specific and predominantly expressed in the TAGs. We also show that prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH, a regulator of E synthesis during larval development, regulates ecdysteroid levels in the adult stage in Drosophila melanogaster and the gene for its receptor Torso seems to be expressed specifically in the accessory glands of males. The composite results suggest strongly that the accessory glands of adult male insects are the main source of E, but not 20E. The finding of a possible male-specific source of E raises the possibility that E and 20E have sex-specific roles analogous to the vertebrate sex steroids, where males produce primarily testosterone, the precursor of estradiol. Furthermore this study provides the first evidence that PTTH regulates ecdysteroid synthesis in the adult stage and could explain the original finding that some adult insects are a rich source of PTTH.

  17. Verification of epigenetic inheritance in a unicellular model system: multigenerational effects of hormonal imprinting. (United States)

    Kőhidai, László; Lajkó, Eszter; Pállinger, Eva; Csaba, György


    The unicellular Tetrahymena has receptors for hormones of higher vertebrates, produces these hormones, and their signal pathways are similar. The first encounter with a hormone in higher dose provokes the phenomenon of hormonal imprinting, by which the reaction of the cell is quantitatively modified. This modification is transmitted to the progeny generations. The duration of the single imprinter effect of two representative signal molecules, insulin and 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine), in two concentrations (10(-6) and 10(-15) M) were studied. The effects of imprinting were followed in 5 physiological indices: (i) insulin binding, (ii) 5-HT synthesis, (iii) swimming behaviour, (iv) cell growth and (v) chemotaxis in progeny generations 500 and 1000. The result of each index was different from the non-imprinted control functions, growth rate, swimming behaviour and chemotactic activity to insulin being enhanced, while others, e.g. synthesis and chemotactic responsiveness of 5-HT and the binding of insulin were reduced. This means that a function-specific heritable epigenetic change during imprinting occurs, and generally a single encounter with a femtomolar hormone concentration is enough for provoking durable and heritable imprinting in Tetrahymena. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of epigenetic effects at a unicellular level and call attention to the possibility that the character of unicellular organisms has changed through to the present day due to an enormous amount of non-physiological imprinter substances in their environment. The results - together with results obtained earlier in mammals - point to the validity of epigenetic imprinting effects throughout the animal world.

  18. NSLS control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.D.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Yong N.


    The NSLS consists of two storage rings, a booster and a linac. A major upgrade of the control system (installed in 1978) was undertaken and has been completed. The computer architecture is being changed from a three level star-network to a two level distributed system. The microprocessor subsystem, host computer and workstations, communication link and the main software components are being upgraded or replaced. Since the NSLS rings operate twenty four hours a day a year with minimum maintenance time, the key requirement during the upgrade phase is a non-disruptive transition with minimum downtime. Concurrent with the upgrade, some immediate improvements were required. This paper describes the various components of the upgraded system and outlines the future plans.

  19. Integrated Systems View on Networking by Hormones in Arabidopsis Immunity Reveals Multiple Crosstalk for Cytokinin[W (United States)

    Naseem, Muhammad; Philippi, Nicole; Hussain, Anwar; Wangorsch, Gaby; Ahmed, Nazeer; Dandekar, Thomas


    Phytohormones signal and combine to maintain the physiological equilibrium in the plant. Pathogens enhance host susceptibility by modulating the hormonal balance of the plant cell. Unlike other plant hormones, the detailed role of cytokinin in plant immunity remains to be fully elucidated. Here, extensive data mining, including of pathogenicity factors, host regulatory proteins, enzymes of hormone biosynthesis, and signaling components, established an integrated signaling network of 105 nodes and 163 edges. Dynamic modeling and system analysis identified multiple cytokinin-mediated regulatory interactions in plant disease networks. This includes specific synergism between cytokinin and salicylic acid pathways and previously undiscovered aspects of antagonism between cytokinin and auxin in plant immunity. Predicted interactions and hormonal effects on plant immunity are confirmed in subsequent experiments with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our dynamic simulation is instrumental in predicting system effects of individual components in complex hormone disease networks and synergism or antagonism between pathways. PMID:22643121

  20. Gas turbine engine control system (United States)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)


    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  1. Avian melanocortin system: alpha-MSH may act as an autocrine/paracrine hormone: a minireview. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Sakae; Takahashi, Sumio; Okimoto, Ronald; Schioth, Helgi B; Boswell, Timothy


    The interest in the physiological role of alpha-MSH in birds has been limited because they lack the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, the main source of circulating alpha-MSH in most vertebrates. Recent studies have improved our understanding of the avian melanocortin system. We have cloned and characterized all five MC-R subtypes, POMC, and AGRP in chicken. Analyses of the tissue distribution of expression of these genes revealed widespread expression throughout the body, corresponding to the situation in mammals in which alpha-MSH exerts a multiplicity of effects in different tissues by acting as a local mediator. We showed that the extended black locus controlling feather pigmentation in the chicken encodes MC1-R. Moreover, black chickens carrying the dominant allele, the extended black, express the MC1-R with ligand-independent activity as the somber-3J black mice. alpha-MSH and AGRP were expressed in the infundibular nucleus of POMC and NPY neurons, respectively, in the brain of Japanese quail. Furthermore, fasting stimulated AGRP expression and lowered POMC expression. These data indicate that at least two of the major melanocortin systems reported in mammals, that is, regulation of pigmentation and energy homeostasis, was developed in a common ancestor to chicken and mammals at least 300 million years ago. Furthermore, alpha-MSH peptide was identified in developing chicken eye, suggesting a possible involvement of alpha-MSH in regulation of ocular development. Collectively, the data reviewed here indicate that alpha-MSH is produced locally and acts as an autocrine/paracrine hormone in birds.

  2. BLTC control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford


    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  3. Environmental Control System Development (United States)

    Stewart, Raymond


    With the ever-growing desire for mankind to reach destinations whose distances had been deemed impossible to transit, the largest rocket known to man was designed and is being developed. The Space Launch System (SLS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) solution for deep space travel, will begin its missions with the launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) and Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2). In order to accommodate the larger rocket, Kennedy Space Center made crucial upgrades to its existing facilities. At Launch Complex 39B, an entirely new Environmental Control System (ECS) was developed to supply the vehicle with the appropriate air or nitrogen gas mixture for launch. The new ECS displays must undergo Validation and Verification (V&V) using testing procedures developed to meet this requirement.


    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A


    There are considered questions of non-visual effects of blue LED light sources on hormonal systems (cortisol, glucose, insulin) providing the high human performance. In modern conditions hygiene strategy for child and adolescent health strategy was shown to be replaced by a strategy of light stimulation of the hormonal profile. There was performed a systematic analysis of the axis "light stimulus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals-cortisol-glucose-insulin". The elevation of the content of cortisol leads to the increase of the glucose level in the blood and the stimulation of the production of insulin, which can, like excessive consumption of food, give rise to irreversible decline in the number of insulin receptors on the cell surface, and thus--to a steady reduction in the ability of cells to utilize glucose, i.e. to type 2 diabetes or its aggravation.

  5. Aging changes in hormone production (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in hormone production To use the sharing ... that produce hormones are controlled by other hormones. Aging also changes this process. For example, an endocrine ...

  6. Sheep model for osteoporosis: The effects of peripheral hormone therapy on centrally induced systemic bone loss in an osteoporotic sheep model. (United States)

    Oheim, Ralf; Simon, Maciej J K; Steiner, Malte; Vettorazzi, Eik; Barvencik, Florian; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Clarke, Iain J; Pogoda, Pia; Beil, F Timo


    Hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) leads to low bone turnover followed by bone loss and reduced biomechanical properties in sheep. To investigate the role of peripheral hormones in this centrally induced systemic bone loss model, we planned a hormone replacement experiment. Therefore, estrogen (OHE), thyroxin (OHT) or a combination of both (OHTE) was substituted in ovariectomized HPD sheep, as both hormones are decreased in HPD sheep and are known to have a significant but yet not fully understood impact on bone metabolism. Bone turnover and structural parameters were analyzed in comparison to different control groups - untreated sheep (C), ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized+HPD sheep (OH). We performed histomorphometric and HR-pQCT analyses nine months after the HPD procedure, as well as biomechanical testing of all ewes studied. In HPD sheep (OH) the low bone turnover led to a significant bone loss. Treatment with thyroxin alone (OHT) mainly increased bone resorption, leading to a further reduction in bone volume. In contrast, the treatment with estrogen alone (OHE) and the combined treatment with estrogen and thyroxin (OHTE) prevented HPD-induced bone loss completely. In conclusion, peripheral hormone substitution was able to prevent HPD-induced low-turnover osteoporosis in sheep. But only the treatment with estrogen alone or in combination with thyroxin was able to completely preserve bone mass and structure. These findings demonstrate the importance of peripheral hormones for a balanced bone remodeling and a physiological bone turnover. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concept and System of Personification Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai,Fengshuang; Yin,Yixin; Tu,Xuyan; Zhang,Ying


    This paper provides the system and conception of the Personification Control System (PCS) on the basis of Intelligent Control System based on Artificial life (ICS/AL), Artificial Emotion, Humanoid Control, and Intelligent Control System based on Field bus. According to system science and deciding of organize of biology, the Pyramid System of PCS are created. Then Pyramid System of PCS which is made up of PCS1/H, PCS1/S, PCS1/O, PCS1/C and PCS1/G is described.

  8. The Effects of Local and Systemic Growth Hormone Treatment on Germ Cell Population and Fertility in an Experimental Unilateral Testicular Torsion and Orchiectomy Model. (United States)

    Ates, Ufuk; Gollu, Gulnur; Bingol-Kologlu, Meltem; Billur, Deniz; Kucuk, Gonul; Oruklu, Nihan; Bagrıacik, Umit; Hasırcı, Nesrin; Dindar, Hüseyin


    We evaluated the effects of local and systemic growth hormone on the germ cell population of the contralateral testes of pubertal rats subjected to unilateral testicular torsion and orchiectomy 24 hours later. A total of 40 male Wistar-Albino rats at age 3 weeks were divided into 5 groups. In the sham operated group the right testis was sutured and orchiectomy was performed 24 hours later. In groups 2 to 5 orchiectomy was performed 24 hours later following testicular torsion. In groups 3 and 4 unloaded and growth hormone loaded gelatin films, respectively, were sutured on the contralateral testes. In group 5 systemic growth hormone was administered for 7 days. Five weeks later each rat was cohabited with 2 female rats and the left testes were removed for evaluation. Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, mean testicular biopsy score and the mean haploid cell percentage were calculated. Mating studies were performed and fertility parameters were assayed. Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, mean testicular biopsy score and the mean haploid cell percentage of the contralateral testes were significantly decreased in the control and gelatin groups compared with the other groups. There was no difference between the local and systemic growth hormone groups regarding the haploid cell percentage. There were no differences between the groups in mean fetus numbers, mating or fertility and fecundity indexes except in the gelatin group, in which the mean fetus number was significantly lower. Fertility is not affected in rats after 24 hours of testicular torsion and orchiectomy, although there is germ cell injury and a decrease in the percent of haploid cells. Growth hormone administration resulted in the restoration of germ cell histology and an increase in the haploid cell percentage of the contralateral testes. Growth hormone may improve fertility after unilateral testicular torsion and orchiectomy. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  9. Hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUSs) versus other forms of reversible contraceptives as effective methods of preventing pregnancy. (United States)

    French, R; Van Vliet, H; Cowan, F; Mansour, D; Morris, S; Hughes, D; Robinson, A; Proctor, T; Summerbell, C; Logan, S; Helmerhorst, F; Guillebaud, J


    In the 1970s a new approach to the delivery of hormonal contraception was researched and developed. It was suggested that the addition of a progestogen to a non-medicated contraceptive device improved its contraceptive action. An advantage of these hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUS) is that they are relatively maintenance free, with users having to consciously discontinue using them to become pregnant rather than taking a proactive daily decision to avoid conception. To assess the contraceptive efficacy, tolerability and acceptability of hormonally impregnated intrauterine systems (IUSs) in comparison to other reversible contraceptive methods. Literature was identified through database searches, reference lists and individuals/organisations working in the field. Searches covered the period from 1972 to November 2003. All randomised controlled trials comparing IUSs with other forms of reversible contraceptives and reporting on pre-determined outcomes in women of reproductive years. The primary outcomes were pregnancy due to method/user failure and continuation rate. The quality assessment of studies and data extraction were completed independently by two blinded reviewers. A quality checklist was designed to identify general methodological and contraceptive specific factors which could bias results. Events per women months and single decrement life table rates were extracted where possible for pregnancy, continuation, adverse events and reasons for discontinuation. Events per total number of women at follow up were collected for hormonal side effects and menstrual disturbance. When appropriate, data were pooled at the same points of follow up to calculate rate ratios in order to determine the relative effectiveness of one method compared to another. For the single decrement life table rates, the rate differences were pooled to determine the absolute difference in effectiveness of one method compared to another. Interventions were only combined if the

  10. Hormones in pain modulation and their clinical implications for pain control: a critical review. (United States)

    Chen, Xueyin; Zhang, Jinyuan; Wang, Xiangrui


    Recently, more and more studies have found that pain generation, transmission and modulation are under hormonal regulation. Indeed, hormonal dysregulation is a common component of chronic pain syndromes. Studies have attempted to determine whether the relationship between the pain and its perception and hormones is a causative relationship and how these processes interrelate. This review summarizes and analyzes the current experimental data and provides an overview of the studies addressing these questions. The relationship between pain perception and endocrine effects suggests that hormones can be used as important biomarkers of chronic pain syndromes and/or be developed into therapeutic agents in the fight against pain.

  11. Switching Systems: Controllability and Control Design (United States)


    TERMS EOARD, Navigation, Comunications & Guidance, Complex Systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON JAMES LAWTON Ph...Switching Systems : Controllability and Control Design 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Professor...ABSTRACT Motivated by the need of dealing with physical systems that exhibit a more complicated behavior than those normally described by

  12. Biometry of the hypospadic penis after hormone therapy (testosterone and estrogen): A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. (United States)

    Paiva, Kelly Christina de Castro; Bastos, André Netto; Miana, Laura Pimenta; Barros, Eveline de Souza; Ramos, Plínio Santos; Miranda, Lara Meneguelli; Faria, Natália Maia; Avarese de Figueiredo, André; de Bessa, José; Netto, José Murillo B


    The use of preoperative hormonal stimulation before hypospadias surgery aims to increase penile size and achieve better surgical results; however, the rules are not clear in the literature. We evaluated the effects of topical testosterone and estrogen in the hypospadic penis regarding biometric measures, side effects, and serum hormonal levels. To our knowledge, this is the first study using estradiol prior to hypospadias surgery. Sixty-nine children with hypospadias were randomly divided into three study groups: a control group (CG) of 17 children given placebo cream; a testosterone group (TG) of 28 children who used 1% testosterone propionate; and an estradiol group (EG) of 24 children using 0.01% estradiol. All subjects applied the topical ointment on the entire penis, twice daily for 30 days before surgical correction. Biometric evaluation of the penis included penile length and diameter, glans diameter, distance from the urethral meatus to the tip, and the width of the urethral plate. These measurements as well as serum hormone level, and side effects were evaluated prior to hormone use, and 30 and 90 days after. After 30 days an increase in penile diameter and length and diameter of the glans were observed in TG (p penis had a tendency to increase also in TG. Estradiol did not change biometric measure of the penis. Few side effects occurred after both hormones, and any that did improved after 90 days follow-up and did not change hormone serum levels. Preoperative use of topical testosterone increases penile size, diameter of the penis and glans. The use of estradiol does not change penile biometry. Side effects occur mainly with the use of testosterone and are transient. No significant and persistent hormonal changes were observed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environment control system (United States)

    Sammarone, Dino G.


    A system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere. In changing from a nitrogen to an air environment, oxygen is inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate which the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture is removed from the enclosed area. The nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture removed from the enclosed area is mixed with hydrogen, the hydrogen recombining with the oxygen present in the gas to form water. The water is then removed from the system and, if it contains any radioactive products, can be utilized to form concrete, which can then be transferred to a licensed burial site. The process gas is purified further by stripping it of carbon dioxide and then distilling it to remove any xenon, krypton, and other fission or non-condensable gases. The pure nitrogen is stored as either a cryogenic liquid or a gas. In changing from an air to nitrogen environment, the gas is removed from the enclosed area, mixed with hydrogen to remove the oxygen present, dried, passed through adsorption beds to remove any fission gases, and reinserted into the enclosed area. Additionally, the nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change, is inserted into the enclosed area, the nitrogen from both sources being inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate as the removal of the gas from the containment area. As designed, the amount of nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change substantially equals that required to replace oxygen removed during an air to nitrogen change.

  14. Seasonal changes in plasma levels of sex hormones in the greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American Ratite with a complex mating system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego J Valdez

    Full Text Available Seasonal rhythm in sex hormones has been extensively studied in birds, as well as its relationship with the type of mating system. The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana, a South American ratite species, reproduces seasonally and has a complex mating system: female-defense polygyny and sequential polyandry. The present study aimed at analyzing the endocrine basis of reproduction in this species and its relationship with its mating system. We used HPLC and electrochemiluminescence techniques to identify and measure plasma testosterone and estradiol levels. Annual oscillations in sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in adult males and females were observed. Lower levels of these hormones were exhibited during the non reproductive season (February to July, whereas their maximum values were reached in September for males and November-December for females. These fluctuations reflect the seasonal changes in gonadal function. By contrast, no significant sex hormones oscillations were observed in juvenile males and females (negative control of seasonal changes. Greater rheas maintain high testosterone and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period. The high testosterone levels during incubation and chick rearing did not inhibit parental behavior in males, which appears not to conform to the "Challenge Hypothesis". In females, the high estradiol levels throughout the reproductive season would be needed to sustain their long egg-laying period.

  15. Coordination control of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, Tiziano


    This book describes how control of distributed systems can be advanced by an integration of control, communication, and computation. The global control objectives are met by judicious combinations of local and nonlocal observations taking advantage of various forms of communication exchanges between distributed controllers. Control architectures are considered according to  increasing degrees of cooperation of local controllers:  fully distributed or decentralized controlcontrol with communication between controllers,  coordination control, and multilevel control.  The book covers also topics bridging computer science, communication, and control, like communication for control of networks, average consensus for distributed systems, and modeling and verification of discrete and of hybrid systems. Examples and case studies are introduced in the first part of the text and developed throughout the book. They include: control of underwater vehicles, automated-guided vehicles on a container terminal, contro...

  16. Influence of hormonal control on LH pulsatility and secretion in women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne; Chakhtoura, Zeina; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Coudert, Mathieu; Coussieu, Christiane; Badachi, Yasmina; Dulon, Jérome; Charbit, Beny; Touraine, Philippe


    Women with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) exhibit reduced fertility due to several factors including anovulation. This has been attributed to a disturbed gonadotropic axis as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but there is no precise evaluation. Our aim was to evaluate the gonadotropic axis and LH pulsatility patterns and to determine factor(s) that could account for the potential abnormality of LH pulsatility. Case/control study. Sixteen CAH women (11 with the salt-wasting form and five with the simple virilizing form), aged from 18 to 40 years, and 16 age-matched women, with regular menstrual cycles (28 ± 3 days), were included. LH pulse patterns over 6 h were determined in patients and controls. No differences were observed between patients and controls in terms of mean LH levels, LH pulse amplitude, or LH frequency. In CAH patients, LH pulsatility patterns were heterogeneous, leading us to perform a clustering analysis of LH data, resulting in a two-cluster partition. Patients in cluster 1 had similar LH pulsatility patterns to the controls. Patients in cluster 2 had: lower LH pulse amplitude and frequency and presented menstrual cycle disturbances more frequently; higher 17-OH progesterone, testosterone, progesterone, and androstenedione levels; and lower FSH levels. LH pulsatility may be normal in CAH women well controlled by hormonal treatment. Undertreatment is responsible for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, with low LH pulse levels and frequency, but not PCOS. Suppression of progesterone and androgen concentrations during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle should be a major objective in these patients.

  17. Networked control of microgrid system of systems (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.


    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  18. Control Theory for Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Hautus, Malo


    Control Theory for Linear Systems deals with the mathematical theory of feedback control of linear systems. It treats a wide range of control synthesis problems for linear state space systems with inputs and outputs. The book provides a treatment of these problems using state space methods, often

  19. The characterization of new hormonal systems in arthropods with a focus on neuropeptide GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafflinger, Elisabeth

    Neuropeptides and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) occupy a high hierarchical position in the physiology of animals, because they steer important processes such as reproduction, development, and behaviour. Within the last nine years, several genomes have been sequenced providing the basis...... of genome comparisons and analysis. This yields new insights in GPCR evolution and ligand co-evolution, but also uncovers many new hormonal systems. In this thesis, I characterized a group of neuropeptide GPCRs and their ligands in arthropods and investigated GPCR evolution and co-evolution of their ligands...

  20. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicheng Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is widely used to controlling menopausal symptoms and prevent adverse cardiovascular events. However, the benefit and risk of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes remains controversial. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched the PubMed, EmBase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for obtaining relevant literature. All eligible trials reported on the effects of HRT on cardiovascular outcomes. We did a random effects meta-analysis to obtain summary effect estimates for the clinical outcomes with use of relative risks calculated from the raw data of included trials. Of 1903 identified studies, we included 10 trials reporting data on 38908 postmenopausal women. Overall, we noted that estrogen combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy as compared to placebo had no effect on coronary events (RR, 1.07; 95%CI: 0.91-1.26; P = 0.41, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.09; 95%CI: 0.85-1.41; P = 0.48, stroke (RR, 1.21; 95%CI: 1.00-1.46; P = 0.06, cardiac death (RR, 1.19; 95%CI: 0.91-1.56; P = 0.21, total death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI: 0.81-1.39; P = 0.66, and revascularization (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.83-1.08; P = 0.43. In addition, estrogen therapy alone had no effect on coronary events (RR, 0.93; 95%CI: 0.80-1.08; P = 0.33, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.95; 95%CI: 0.78-1.15; P = 0.57, cardiac death (RR, 0.86; 95%CI: 0.65-1.13; P = 0.27, total mortality (RR, 1.02; 95%CI: 0.89-1.18; P = 0.73, and revascularization (RR, 0.77; 95%CI: 0.45-1.31; P = 0.34, but associated with a 27% increased risk for incident stroke (RR, 1.27; 95%CI: 1.06-1.53; P = 0.01. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Hormone replacement therapy does not effect on the incidence of coronary events, myocardial infarction, cardiac death, total mortality or revascularization. However, it might contributed an important role on the risk of incident stroke.

  1. Imbalance between thyroid hormones and the dopaminergic system might be central to the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome: a hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Pereira Jr.


    Full Text Available Data collected from medical literature indicate that dopaminergic agonists alleviate Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms while dopaminergic agonists antagonists aggravate them. Dopaminergic agonists is a physiological regulator of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dopaminergic agonists infusion diminishes the levels of thyroid hormones, which have the ability to provoke restlessness, hyperkinetic states, tremors, and insomnia. Conditions associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, such as pregnancy or hyperthyroidism, have a higher prevalence of Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms. Low iron levels can cause secondary Restless Legs Syndrome or aggravate symptoms of primary disease as well as diminish enzymatic activities that are involved in dopaminergic agonists production and the degradation of thyroid hormones. Moreover, as a result of low iron levels, dopaminergic agonists diminishes and thyroid hormones increase. Iron therapy improves Restless Legs Syndrome symptoms in iron deprived patients. Medical hypothesis. To discuss the theory that thyroid hormones, when not counterbalanced by dopaminergic agonists, may precipitate the signs and symptoms underpinning Restless Legs Syndrome. The main cause of Restless Legs Syndrome might be an imbalance between the dopaminergic agonists system and thyroid hormones.

  2. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F.


    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  3. SPS : the control system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films


    English version. Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. "More than 10.000 things to control, 7,00 things to measure and 30,000 ? to survey, distributed over more than 10 square km. That was the problem which faced the controls group." Comments: images of control room, computer screens, and computer centre rather dark

  4. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Arranz


    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected

  5. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-immune system homeostatic hypothesis. (United States)

    Kamath, J; Yarbrough, G G; Prange, A J; Winokur, A


    Decades of research have established that the biological functions of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) extend far beyond its role as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Gary et al. [Gary, K.A., Sevarino, K.A., Yarbrough, G.G., Prange, A.J. Jr., Winokur, A. (2003). The thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) hypothesis of homeostatic regulation: implications for TRH-based therapeutics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 305(2):410-416.] and Yarbrough et al. [Yarbrough, G.G., Kamath, J., Winokur, A., Prange, A.J. Jr. (2007). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the neuroaxis: therapeutic effects reflect physiological functions and molecular actions. Med Hypotheses 69(6):1249-1256.] provided a functional framework, predicated on its global homeostatic influences, to conceptualize the numerous interactions of TRH with the central nervous system (CNS) and endocrine system. Herein, we profer a similar analysis to interactions of TRH with the immune system. Autocrine/paracrine cellular signaling motifs of TRH and TRH receptors are expressed in several tissues and organs of the immune system. Consistent with this functional distribution, in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests a critical role for TRH during the developmental stages of the immune system as well as its numerous interactions with the fully developed immune system. Considerable evidence supports a pivotal role for TRH in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory process with specific relevance to the "cytokine-induced sickness behavior" paradigm. These findings, combined with a number of documented clinical actions of TRH strongly support a potential utility of TRH-based therapeutics in select inflammatory disorders. Similar to its global role in behavioral and energy homeostasis a homeostatic role for TRH in its interactions with the immune system is consonant with the large body of available data. Recent advances in the field of immunology provide a significant opportunity for investigation of the TRH

  6. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo


    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  7. Diagnostic, reliablility and control systems

    CERN Document Server



    1. Explicit-Model-Based Fault Detection Method in Industrial Plants 2. Soft Sensor: An Effective Approach to Improve Control 3. Techniques in Soft Computing and Their Utilization in Mechatronic Products 4. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants 5. A Mechatronic Systems Approach to Controlling Robotic Systems with Actuator Dynamics 6. Process and Control Design for Fast Coordinate Measuring Machines 7. Techniques in the Stability of Mechatronic Systems with Sensor or Actuator Failure.

  8. Non-hormonal systemic therapy in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and metastases: a systematic review from the Cancer Care Ontario Program in Evidence-based Care's Genitourinary Cancer Disease Site Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotte Sébastien


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer that has recurred after local therapy or disseminated distantly is usually treated with androgen deprivation therapy; however, most men will eventually experience disease progression within 12 to 20 months. New data emerging from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of chemotherapy provided the impetus for a systematic review addressing the following question: which non-hormonal systemic therapies are most beneficial for the treatment of men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC and clinical evidence of metastases? Methods A systematic review was performed to identify RCTs or meta-analyses examining first-line non-hormonal systemic (cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic therapy in patients with HRPC and metastases that reported at least one of the following endpoints: overall survival, disease control, palliative response, quality of life, and toxicity. Excluded were RCTs of second-line hormonal therapies, bisphosphonates or radiopharmaceuticals, or randomized fewer than 50 patients per trial arm. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology were searched for relevant trials. Citations were screened for eligibility by four reviewers and discrepancies were handled by consensus. Results Of the 80 RCTs identified, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Two recent, large trials reported improved overall survival with docetaxel-based chemotherapy compared to mitoxantrone-prednisone. Improved progression-free survival and rates of palliative and objective response were also observed. Compared with mitoxantrone, docetaxel treatment was associated with more frequent mild toxicities, similar rates of serious toxicities, and better quality of life. More frequent serious toxicities were observed when docetaxel was combined with estramustine. Three trials reported improved time-to-disease progression, palliative response, and/or quality of life with mitoxatrone

  9. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab


    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  10. Hormonal and reproductive risk factors of papillary thyroid cancer: A population-based case-control study in France. (United States)

    Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Leux, Christophe; Neri, Monica; Tcheandjieu, Catherine; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Schvartz, Claire; Truong, Thérèse; Guénel, Pascal


    The three times higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women compared to men points to a role of female sex hormones in its etiology. However the effects of these factors are poorly understood. We analyzed the association between thyroid cancer and hormonal and reproductive factors among women enrolled in CATHY, a population-based case-control study conducted in France. The study included 430 cases of papillary thyroid cancer and 505 controls frequency-matched on age and area of residence. The odds ratios for thyroid cancer increased with age at menarche (p trend 0.05). Postmenopausal women were at increased risk, as compared to premenopausal women, particularly if menopause followed an ovariectomy, and for women with age at menopause association with thyroid cancer by about one third, and breastfeeding by 27%. Overall, these findings provide evidence that the risk of thyroid cancer increases with later age at menarche and after menopause, and decreases with use of oral contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. These findings confirm an implication of hormonal factors in papillary thyroid cancer risk, whose mechanisms need to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Menopause: A Review of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh Chang


    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is frequently prescribed to healthy women to ameliorate menopausal symptoms. HRT is used long term (≥ 1 year to prevent chronic disease in older women. The objective of this study was to review the benefits and risks of HRT and studies of menopause or HRT in Taiwan via a MEDLINE search. Recommendations are provided for future HRT research in Taiwan. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are considered the gold standard of scientific evidence. A MEDLINE literature search (January 1966-July 2002 identified 23 papers on trials (≥ 1 year that met the inclusion criteria. The results showed that various HRT regimens used for more than 1 year caused more harm than good in healthy menopausal women and that there was no benefit for women with coronary artery disease, Alzheimer's disease, hysterectomy, hysterosalpingooophorectomy, and ischemic stroke. None of this research was conducted in Taiwan. A MEDLINE search using the key words “estrogen replacement therapy and menopause in Taiwan” identified 16 studies. There was only one, short-term, HRT trial. No evidence suggested benefits from long-term HRT in menopausal women in Taiwan.

  12. A Nested Case-Control Study of Luteinizing Hormone Variants and Risk of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toniolo, Paolo


    An immunological variant of luteinizing hormone (LH) dependent on two point mutations in the gene of the LH beta-subunit has increased in vitro bioactivity and is detectable in serum with immunofluorometric assays (IFMA...

  13. Development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone systems in the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubois, E.A.


    Reproductive processes are mainly regulated by the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG-axis). Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons localized in the brain release their hormone GnRH, which allows the release of gonadotropic hormone by gonadotropic cells in the pituitary. Gonadotropic

  14. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Iterative method; optimal control theory; diatomic systems; quantum control. Abstract. Controlling molecular energetics using laser pulses is exemplified for nuclear motion in two different diatomic systems. The problem of finding the optimized field for maximizing a desired quantum dynamical target is formulated ...

  15. Effect of different culture systems and 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine/follicle-stimulating hormone on preantral follicle development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    Full Text Available The mechanical method to isolate preantral follicle has been reported for many years. However, the culture systems in vitro are still unstable. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the culture system of mice preantral follicles on the follicular development in vitro. The results showed that the 96-well plate system was the most effective method for mice follicle development in vitro (volume change: 51.71%; survival rate: 89%, at day 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and Thyroid hormone (TH are important for normal follicular development and dysregulation of hormones are related with impaired follicular development. To determine the effect of hormone on preantral follicular development, we cultured follicle with hormones in the 96-well plate culture system and found that FSH significantly increased preantral follicular growth on day 4. The FSH-induced growth action was markedly enhanced by T₃ although T₃ was ineffective alone. We also demonstrated by QRT-PCR that T₃ significantly enhanced FSH-induced up-regulation of Xiap mRNA level. Meanwhile, Bad, cell death inducer, was markedly down-regulated by the combination of hormones. Moreover, QRT-PCR results were also consistent with protein regulation which detected by Western Blotting analysis. Taken together, the findings of the present study demonstrate that 96-well plate system is an effective method for preantral follicle development in vitro. Moreover, these results provide insights on the role of thyroid hormone in increasing FSH-induced preantral follicular development, which mediated by up-regulating Xiap and down-regulating Bad.

  16. Controlled release of human growth hormone fused with a human hybrid Fc fragment through a nanoporous polymer membrane (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Sam; Jang, Do Soo; Yang, Seung Yun; Lee, Mi Nam; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Cha, Hyung Jin; Kim, Jin Kon; Sung, Young Chul; Choi, Kwan Yong


    Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and structural integrity of hGH. Thus, the nanoporous release device could be a potential delivery system for the long-term controlled release of therapeutic proteins fused with the hybrid Fc fragment.Nanotechnology has been applied to the development of more effective and compatible drug delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Human growth hormone (hGH) was fused with a hybrid Fc fragment containing partial Fc domains of human IgD and IgG4 to produce a long-acting fusion protein. The fusion protein, hGH-hyFc, resulted in the increase of the hydrodynamic diameter (ca. 11 nm) compared with the diameter (ca. 5 nm) of the recombinant hGH. A diblock copolymer membrane with nanopores (average diameter of 14.3 nm) exhibited a constant release rate of hGH-hyFc. The hGH-hyFc protein released in a controlled manner for one month was found to trigger the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) in human B lymphocyte and to exhibit an almost identical circular dichroism spectrum to that of the original hGH-hyFc, suggesting that the released fusion protein should maintain the functional and

  17. Occurrence of steroid hormones and antibiotics in shallow groundwater impacted by livestock waste control facilities (United States)

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel D.; Damon-Powell, Teyona; Miesbach, David


    Wastewater impoundments at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent a potential source of veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormone contamination to shallow groundwater. This study investigates the occurrence of seventeen veterinary pharmaceuticals and thirteen steroid hormones and hormone metabolites in lagoons and adjacent groundwater at operating swine and beef cattle facilities. These sites were chosen because subsurface geology and previous monitoring of nitrate, ammonia and chloride levels in shallow ground water strongly indicated direct infiltration, and as such represent worst cases for ground water contamination by waste water. Pharmaceutical compounds detected in samples obtained from cattle facilities include sulfamerazine; sulfamethazine; erythromycin; monensin; tiamulin; and sulfathiazole. Lincomycin; ractopamine; sulfamethazine; sulfathiazole; erythromycin; tiamulin and sulfadimethoxine were detected in wastewater samples obtained from swine facilities. Steroid hormones were detected less frequently than veterinary pharmaceuticals in this study. Estrone, testosterone, 4-androstenedione, and androsterone were detected in wastewater impoundments at concentrations ranging from 30 to 3600 ng/L, while only estrone and testosterone were detected in groundwater samples at concentrations up to 390 ng/L. The co-occurrence of veterinary pharmaceutical and steroid hormone contamination in groundwater at these locations and the correlation between pharmaceutical occurrence in lagoon wastewater and hydraulically downgradient groundwater indicates that groundwater underlying some livestock wastewater impoundments is susceptible to contamination by veterinary pharmaceuticals and steroid hormones originating in wastewater lagoons.

  18. Bibliographic Access and Control System. (United States)

    Kelly, Betsy; And Others


    Presents a brief summary of the functions of the Bibliographic Access & Control System (BACS) implemented at the Washington University School of Medicine Library, and outlines the design, development, and uses of the system. Bibliographic control of books and serials and user access to the system are also discussed. (Author/JL)

  19. Stress hormones predict a host superspreader phenotype in the West Nile virus system (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie; Burgan, Sarah; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Martin, Lynn B.


    Glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as corticosterone (CORT), have profound effects on the behaviour and physiology of organisms, and thus have the potential to alter host competence and the contributions of individuals to population- and community-level pathogen dynamics. For example, CORT could alter the rate of contacts among hosts, pathogens and vectors through its widespread effects on host metabolism and activity levels. CORT could also affect the intensity and duration of pathogen shedding and risk of host mortality during infection. We experimentally manipulated songbird CORT, asking how CORT affected behavioural and physiological responses to a standardized West Nile virus (WNV) challenge. Although all birds became infected after exposure to the virus, only birds with elevated CORT had viral loads at or above the infectious threshold. Moreover, though the rate of mortality was faster in birds with elevated CORT compared with controls, most hosts with elevated CORT survived past the day of peak infectiousness. CORT concentrations just prior to inoculation with WNV and anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations following viral exposure were predictive of individual duration of infectiousness and the ability to maintain physical performance during infection (i.e. tolerance), revealing putative biomarkers of competence. Collectively, our results suggest that glucocorticoid stress hormones could directly and indirectly mediate the spread of pathogens.

  20. Association between circulating levels of sex steroid hormones and Barrett's esophagus in men: a case-control analysis. (United States)

    Cook, Michael B; Wood, Shannon N; Cash, Brooks D; Young, Patrick; Acosta, Ruben D; Falk, Roni T; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hu, Nan; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Gherman, Barbara; Giffen, Carol; Dykes, Cathy; Turcotte, Veronique; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Hyland, Paula L; Taylor, Philip R


    Esophageal adenocarcinoma is believed to result from the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease to erosive esophagitis and re-epithelialization of the esophagus with a columnar cell population termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). Men develop BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma more frequently than women, yet little is known about the mechanisms of this difference. We assessed whether sex steroid hormones were associated with BE in a male population. We analyzed data from the Barrett's Esophagus Early Detection Case Control Study, based at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Blood samples were collected from 174 men with BE and 213 men without BE (controls, based on endoscopic analysis); 13 sex steroid hormones were measured by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also calculated free estradiol, free testosterone, and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, heartburn, regurgitation, and gastroesophageal symptom score (excluding heartburn and regurgitation). Levels of free testosterone and free DHT were associated positively with BE risk; patients in the highest quartile for these hormones were most likely to have BE (free testosterone: OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.21-13.03; P = .0002; free DHT: OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.87-9.66; P = .001). Level of estrone sulfate was associated inversely with BE risk (P for trend = .02). No other hormone was associated with BE risk. Relationships were not modified by age or BMI. In an analysis of men, levels of free testosterone and free DHT were significantly associated with BE. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association Between Circulating Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones and Barrett's Esophagus in Men: a Case–Control Analysis (United States)

    Cook, Michael B.; Wood, Shannon N.; Cash, Brooks D.; Young, Patrick; Acosta, Ruben D.; Falk, Roni T.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Hu, Nan; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Gherman, Barbara; Giffen, Carol; Dykes, Cathy; Turcotte, Veronique; Caron, Patrick; Guillemette, Chantal; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Hyland, Paula L.; Taylor, Philip R.


    Background & Aims Esophageal adenocarcinoma is believed to result from the progression of gastroesophageal reflux disease to erosive esophagitis and re-epithelialization of the esophagus with a columnar cell population termed Barrett's esophagus (BE). Men develop BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma more frequently than women, and the ratio is increasing; approximately 7 men are diagnosed with malignancy for every woman, yet little is known about the mechanisms of this difference. We assessed whether sex steroid hormones were associated with BE in a male population. Methods We analyzed data from the Barrett's Esophagus Early Detection Case Control Study, based at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Blood samples were collected from 173 men with BE and 213 men without BE (controls, based on endoscopic analysis); 13 sex steroid hormones were measured by mass spectrometry and sex hormone binding globulin was measured by ELISA. We also calculated free estradiol, free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, race, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), heartburn, regurgitation, and gastroesophageal symptom score (excluding heartburn and regurgitation). Results Levels of free testosterone and free DHT were positively associated with BE risk; patients in the highest quartile for these hormones were most likely to have BE (for free testosterone, OR=5.36; 95% CI, 2.21–13.03; P=0.0002 and for free DHT, OR=4.25, 95% CI, 1.87–9.66; P=.001). Level of estrone sulfate was inversely associated with BE risk (P for trend=.02). No other hormone was associated with BE risk. Relationships were not modified by age or BMI. Conclusions In an analysis of men, levels of free testosterone and free DHT were significantly associated with risk of BE. PMID:25158929

  2. Controlling Uncertain Dynamical Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. N Ananthkrishnan1 Rashi Bansal2. Head, CAE Analysis & Design Zeus Numerix Pvt Ltd. M-03, SINE, IIT Bombay Powai Mumbai 400076, India. MTech (Aerospace Engineering) with specialization in Dynamics & Control from IIT Bombay.

  3. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions. (United States)

    Dziurka, Michał; Janeczko, Anna; Juhász, Csilla; Gullner, Gábor; Oklestková, Jana; Novák, Ondrej; Saja, Diana; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Tóbiás, István; Barna, Balázs


    Phytohormone levels and the expression of genes encoding key enzymes participating in hormone biosynthetic pathways were investigated in pepper leaves inoculated with two different tobamoviruses. Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) inoculation led to the development of hypersensitive reaction (incompatible interaction), while Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) inoculation resulted in a systemic, compatible interaction. ObPV-inoculation markedly increased not only the levels of salicylic acid (SA) (73-fold) and jasmonic acid (8-fold) but also those of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin-9-riboside and trans-zeatin-9-riboside in the inoculated pepper leaves 3 days post inoculation. PMMoV infection increased only the contents of gibberellic acid and SA. Hormone contents did not change significantly after ObPV or PMMoV infection in non-infected upper leaves 20 days post inoculation. Concentrations of some brassinosteroids (BRs) and progesterone increased both in ObPV- and PMMoV inoculated leaves. ObPV inoculation markedly induced the expression of three phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) genes, while that of an isochorismate synthase (ICS) gene was not modified. PMMoV inoculation did not alter the expression of PAL and ICS genes but induced the transcript abundance of ACO although later than ObPV. Pre-treatment of pepper leaves with exogenous 24-epi-brassinolide (24-epi-BR) prior to ObPV-inoculation strongly mitigated the visible symptoms caused by ObPV. In addition, 24-epi-BR pre-treatment markedly altered the level of several hormones in pepper leaves following ObPV-inoculation. These data indicate that ObPV- and PMMoV-inoculations lead to intricate but well harmonized hormonal responses that are largely determined by the incompatible or compatible nature of plant-virus interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl


    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  5. Hormonal response during physical exercise of different intensities in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls. (United States)

    Adolfsson, Peter; Nilsson, Staffan; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Lindblad, Bengt


    Physical activity is a critical component in the care of diabetes. Although it offers health benefits it presents challenges. To investigate differences between adolescent boys and girls with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls in terms of maximal work capacity (VO(2) max) and hormonal response to physical exercise of different intensities. Twelve individuals (six boys and six girls; age 14-19 yr, pubertal stage 4-5) with type 1 diabetes (duration, 6.3 ± 4.4 yr; hemoglobin A1c, 63 ± 10 mmol/mol) were compared with 12 healthy controls matched for age, sex, pubertal stage, body mass index standard deviation score, and amount of regular physical activity. During consecutive days, three different workloads; maximal, endurance, and interval, were performed on an Ergometer cycle. During the tests, levels of lactate, glucose, insulin, and regulatory hormones [glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), adrenaline, and noradrenaline] were measured in blood. Subcutaneous glucose was measured continuously. VO(2) max did not differ between the groups, diabetes 49.8 ± 9.9 vs. control 50.7 ± 12.0 mL/min/kg. Hormonal responses did not differ between the groups except for mean peak GH level during the interval test, diabetes 63.2 ± 27.0 vs. control 33.8 ± 20.9 mU/L, p exercise of different intensities did not differ between adolescents with diabetes and healthy controls. Thus, adolescents with type 1 diabetes can participate in physical activity on the same terms as healthy peers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Маrtseva


    Full Text Available The paper considers methodology for formation of product cost while applying «direct-costing» system. It has been shown that the application of the given system permits economically to justify and accurately to determine financial results of an enterprise activity which is planned for the future.

  7. Asynchronous control for networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubio, Francisco; Bencomo, Sebastián


    This book sheds light on networked control systems; it describes different techniques for asynchronous control, moving away from the periodic actions of classical control, replacing them with state-based decisions and reducing the frequency with which communication between subsystems is required. The text focuses specially on event-based control. Split into two parts, Asynchronous Control for Networked Systems begins by addressing the problems of single-loop networked control systems, laying out various solutions which include two alternative model-based control schemes (anticipatory and predictive) and the use of H2/H∞ robust control to deal with network delays and packet losses. Results on self-triggering and send-on-delta sampling are presented to reduce the need for feedback in the loop. In Part II, the authors present solutions for distributed estimation and control. They deal first with reliable networks and then extend their results to scenarios in which delays and packet losses may occur. The novel ...

  8. Effect of metabolic control on parathyroid hormone secretion in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F.J.A.


    Full Text Available The metabolic derangement caused by diabetes mellitus may potentially affect bone mineral metabolism. In the present study we evaluated the effect of diabetes metabolic control on parathyroid hormone (PTH secretion during stimulation with EDTA infusion. The study was conducted on 24 individuals, 8 of them normal subjects (group N: glycated hemoglobin - HbA1C = 4.2 ± 0.2%; range = 3.5-5.0%, 8 patients with good and regular metabolic control (group G-R: HbA1C = 7.3 ± 0.4%; range = 6.0-8.5%, and 8 patients with poor metabolic control (group P: HbA1C = 12.5 ± 1.0%; range: 10.0-18.8%. Blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals throughout the study (a basal period of 30 min and a 2-h period of EDTA infusion, 30 mg/kg body weight and used for the determination of ionized calcium, magnesium, glucose and intact PTH. Basal ionized calcium levels were slightly lower in group P (1.19 ± 0.01 mmol/l than in group N (1.21 ± 0.01 mmol/l and group G-R (1.22 ± 0.01 mmol/l. After EDTA infusion, the three groups presented a significant fall in calcium, but with no significant difference among them at any time. Basal magnesium levels and levels determined during EDTA infusion were significantly lower (P<0.01 in group P than in group N. The induction of hypocalcemia caused an elevation in PTH which was similar in groups N and G-R but significantly higher than in group P throughout the infusion period (+110 min, N = 11.9 ± 2.1 vs G-R = 13.7 ± 1.6 vs P = 7.5 ± 0.7 pmol/l; P<0.05 for P vs N and G-R. The present results show that PTH secretion is impaired in patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

  9. A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer - III. Oral contraceptives, menopausal replacement therapy and other female hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Vecchia, C; Ron, E; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Mark, SD; Chatenoud, L; Braga, C; Preston-Martin, S; McTiernan, A; Kolonel, L; Mabuchi, K; Jin, F; Wingren, G; Galanti, MR; Hallquist, A; Lund, E; Levi, F; Linos, D; Negri, E

    Objective: The relations between oral contraceptives (OC), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopause, and other female hormone use and thyroid cancer risk was analyzed using the original data from 13 studies from North America, Asia and Europe. Methods: Based on 2,132 cases and 3,301 controls,

  10. Parathyroid hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system in plasma membranes of rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuman, W.F.; Schneider, N.


    Purified plasma membranes were prepared from normal rat livers. These membranes were unable to degrade parathyroid hormone (PTH), bovine PTH-(1 to 84) (bPTH-(1 to 84)), or bPTH-(1 to 34). The entire molecule bPTH-(1 to 84) caused a marked activation of adenylate cyclase (cAMP production increased over 5-fold), with half-maximal stimulation at 6.9 x 10/sup -8/ M. The amino-terminal fragment bPTH-(1 to 34) was equipotent but gave a smaller maximal cAMP production. The human (h) amino acid sequence, hPTH-(1 to 34) was only weakly effective at a concentration of 10/sup -5/ M. A similar species specificity was shown with crude rat renal cortical membranes. Of a variety of ligands, only glucagon and 10/sup -3/ M F/sup -/ were cyclase activators in these liver plasma membranes. Binding of (/sup 125/I)iodo-bPTH by these membranes was fairly extensive but showed a saturation of binding only at high hormone concentrations (> 10/sup -6/ M). Clearly, cleavage of the intact molecule PTH-(1 to 84) is not required for activation of the adenylate cyclase system of liver membranes. It appears that two rat tissues, liver and kidney, exhibit some species specificity in cyclase activation, i.e. the hPTH-(1 to 34) (Niall sequence) is inactive.

  11. Control integral systems; Sistemas integrales de control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Estrella [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    Almost two third of the electric power generation in Mexico are obtained from hydrocarbons, for that reasons Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) dedicated special commitment in modernizing the operation of fossil fuel central stations. In attaining this objective the control systems play a fundamental roll, from them depend a good share of the reliability and the efficiency of the electric power generation process, as well as the extension of the equipment useful life. Since 1984 the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has been working, upon the request of CFE, on the development of digital control systems. To date it has designed and implemented a logic control system for gas burners, which controls 32 burners of the Unit 4 boiler of the Generation Central of Valle de Mexico and two systems for distributed control for two combined cycle central stations, which are: Dos Bocas, Veracruz Combined cycle central, and Gomez Palacio, Durango combined cycle central. With these two developments the IIE enters the World tendency of implementing distributed control systems for the fossil fuel power central update [Espanol] Casi las dos terceras partes de la generacion electrica en Mexico se obtienen a partir de hidrocarburos, es por eso que la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) puso especial empeno en modernizar la operacion de las centrales termoelectricas de combustibles fosiles. En el logro de este objetivo los sistemas de control desempenan un papel fundamental, de ellos depende una buena parte la confiabilidad y la eficiencia en el proceso de generacion de energia electrica, asi como la prolongacion de la vida util de los equipos. Desde 1984 el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha trabajado, a solicitud de la CFE, en el desarrollo de sistemas digitales de control. A la fecha se han disenado e implantado un sistema de control logico de quemadores de gas, el cual controla 32 quemadores de la caldera de la unidad 4 de la central de generacion

  12. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros


    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  13. Safety of hormonal replacement therapy and oral contraceptives in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rojas-Villarraga

    Full Text Available There is conflicting data regarding exogenous sex hormones [oral contraceptives (OC and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT] exposure and different outcomes on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. The aim of this work is to determine, through a systematic review and meta-analysis the risks associated with estrogen use for women with SLE as well as the association of estrogen with developing SLE.MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciElo, BIREME and the Cochrane library (1982 to July 2012, were databases from which were selected and reviewed (PRISMA guidelines randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional, case-control and prospective or retrospective nonrandomized, comparative studies without language restrictions. Those were evaluated by two investigators who extracted information on study characteristics, outcomes of interest, risk of bias and summarized strength of evidence. A total of 6,879 articles were identified; 20 full-text articles were included. Thirty-two meta-analyses were developed. A significant association between HRT exposure (Random model and an increased risk of developing SLE was found (Rate Ratio: 1.96; 95%-CI: 1.51-2.56; P-value<0.001. One of eleven meta-analyses evaluating the risk for SLE associated with OC exposure had a marginally significant result. There were no associations between HRT or OC exposure and specific outcomes of SLE. It was not always possible to Meta-analyze all the available data. There was a wide heterogeneity of SLE outcome measurements and estrogen therapy administration.An association between HRT exposure and SLE causality was observed. No association was found when analyzing the risk for SLE among OC users, however since women with high disease activity/Thromboses or antiphospholipid-antibodies were excluded from most of the studies, caution should be exercised in interpreting the present results. To identify risk factors that predispose healthy individuals to the development of SLE who are planning to start HRT or OC

  14. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malemud Charles J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  15. Transcriptional regulation of insect steroid hormone biosynthesis and its role in controlling timing of molting and metamorphosis. (United States)

    Niwa, Yuko S; Niwa, Ryusuke


    The developmental transition from juvenile to adult is often accompanied by many systemic changes in morphology, metabolism, and reproduction. Curiously, both mammalian puberty and insect metamorphosis are triggered by a pulse of steroid hormones, which can harmonize gene expression profiles in the body and thus orchestrate drastic biological changes. However, understanding of how the timing of steroid hormone biosynthesis is regulated at the molecular level is poor. The principal insect steroid hormone, ecdysteroid, is biosynthesized from dietary cholesterol in the specialized endocrine organ called the prothoracic gland. The periodic pulses of ecdysteroid titers determine the timing of molting and metamorphosis. To date, at least nine families of ecdysteroidogenic enzyme genes have been identified. Expression levels of these genes correlate well with ecdysteroid titers, indicating that the transcriptional regulatory network plays a critical role in regulating the ecdysteroid biosynthesis pathway. In this article, we summarize the transcriptional regulation of ecdysteroid biosynthesis. We first describe the development of prothoracic gland cells during Drosophila embryogenesis, and then provide an overview of the transcription factors that act in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and signaling. We also discuss the external signaling pathways that target these transcriptional regulators. Furthermore, we describe conserved and/or diverse aspects of steroid hormone biosynthesis in insect species as well as vertebrates. © 2015 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  16. Systems and Control Engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on the accelerator pedal so that the speed of the vehicle is ... the vehicle. Sometimes, we use the word output for the effect. Thus, we assume that if an input is applied there will be a unique response. This relationship between the input and the output is .... frequency regulation, boiler control for steam generation, electric.

  17. Effects of hormone therapy on brain structure: A randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Kantarci, Kejal; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Lesnick, Timothy G; Zuk, Samantha M; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Gleason, Carey E; Wharton, Whitney; Dowling, N Maritza; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Senjem, Matthew L; Shuster, Lynne T; Bailey, Kent R; Rocca, Walter A; Jack, Clifford R; Asthana, Sanjay; Miller, Virginia M


    To investigate the effects of hormone therapy on brain structure in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in recently postmenopausal women. Participants (aged 42-56 years, within 5-36 months past menopause) in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study were randomized to (1) 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (2) 50 μg/d transdermal 17β-estradiol, or (3) placebo pills and patch for 48 months. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to active treatment groups for 12 days each month. MRI and cognitive testing were performed in a subset of participants at baseline, and at 18, 36, and 48 months of randomization (n = 95). Changes in whole brain, ventricular, and white matter hyperintensity volumes, and in global cognitive function, were measured. Higher rates of ventricular expansion were observed in both the CEE and the 17β-estradiol groups compared to placebo; however, the difference was significant only in the CEE group (p = 0.01). Rates of ventricular expansion correlated with rates of decrease in brain volume (r = -0.58; p ≤ 0.001) and with rates of increase in white matter hyperintensity volume (r = 0.27; p = 0.01) after adjusting for age. The changes were not different between the CEE and 17β-estradiol groups for any of the MRI measures. The change in global cognitive function was not different across the groups. Ventricular volumes increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received CEE compared to placebo but without changes in cognitive performance. Because the sample size was small and the follow-up limited to 4 years, the findings should be interpreted with caution and need confirmation. This study provides Class I evidence that brain ventricular volume increased to a greater extent in recently menopausal women who received oral CEE compared to placebo. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Uniconazole-induced tolerance of soybean to water deficit stress in relation to changes in photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingcai; Duan, Liusheng; Tian, Xiaoli; He, Zhongpei; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Baomin; Li, Zhaohu


    This study investigated whether uniconazole confers drought tolerance to soybean and if such tolerance is correlated with changes in photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system of leaves. Soybean plants were foliar treated with uniconazole at 50 mg L-1 at the beginning of bloom and then exposed to water deficit stress at pod initiation for 7 d. Uniconazole promoted biomass accumulation and seed yield under both water conditions. Plants treated with uniconazole showed higher leaf water potential only in water-stressed condition. Water stress decreased the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but those of uniconazole-treated plants were higher than the stressed control. Uniconazole increased the maximum quantum yield of photosystemand ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity of water-stressed plants. Water stress decreased partitioning of assimilated 14C from labeled leaf to the other parts of the plant. In contrast, uniconazole enhanced translocation of assimilated 14C from labeled leaves to the other parts, except stems, regardless of water treatment. Uniconazole-treated plants contained less GA3, GA4 and ABA under well-watered condition than untreated plants, while the IAA and zeatin levels were increased substantially under both water conditions, and ABA concentration was also increased under water stressed condition. Under water-stressed conditions, uniconazole increased the content of proline and soluble sugars, and the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase in soybean leaves but not the malondialdehyde content or electrical conductivity. These results suggest that uniconazole-induced tolerance to water deficit stress in soybean was related to the changes of photosynthesis, hormones and antioxidant system of leaves.

  19. Controlled ovarian stimulation using a long gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol: a proof of concept and feasibility study. (United States)

    Weissman, Ariel; Ravhon, Amir; Steinfeld, Zohar; Nahum, Hana; Golan, Abraham; Levran, David


    To evaluate the feasibility of a long protocol of controlled ovarian stimulation prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist used for pituitary and ovarian suppression. Thirty patients undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were randomized into two groups. The control group (n = 16) received a standard flexible GnRH antagonist protocol. Ovarian stimulation consisted of 225 IU/day of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for 5 days, followed by 225 IU/day of human menopausal gonadotropin until human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration. The study group (n = 14) received 0.25 mg of GnRH antagonist daily for 7 days, thereafter, upon confirmation of pituitary and ovarian suppression, ovarian stimulation was commenced with the same protocol as used in the control group. Hormone and follicle dynamics, as well as laboratory characteristics and cycle outcome, were compared for both groups. Both groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. Pituitary and ovarian suppression were effectively achieved in 12/14 patients in the study group. The duration of ovarian stimulation and gonadotropin consumption were similar in both groups, as was also the number and size of follicles on hCG day. The results of our study confirm the feasibility of a long GnRH antagonist protocol. This regimen could become another option to optimize GnRH antagonist protocols, and should thus be further explored. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Arithmetically Controlled H Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Manca


    Full Text Available We consider two classes of restricted H systems, both dealing with numbers associated to the terms of splicing operations. In one of them, these numbers indicate the age of the strings (the generation when the strings are produced, in the second one the numbers can be interpreted as valences of the strings. Restricting the splicing to strings of "a similar age", or accepting as complete splicing processes only those processes which produce strings with a null valence increase the generative power of H systems (with finite sets of rules.

  1. Interplay between Light and Plant Hormones in the Control of Arabidopsis Seedling Chlorophyll Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Liu


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll biosynthesis is one of the most important cellular processes and is essential for plant photosynthesis. After germination under the soil, dark-grown seedlings are etiolated and accumulate the chlorophyll precursor protochlorophyllide (Pchlide in cotyledons. Upon exposure to light, Pchlide is rapidly converted to chlorophyll to initiate photoautotrophic growth. In this light-regulated de-etiolation process, multiple endogenous phytohormones are also involved. Although the co-regulation of seedling greening by light and hormones has long been observed, recent studies greatly advanced our understanding of their interplay by identifying the key components connecting these pathways. The integrators, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORs, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, ETHYLENE INSENSTIVE 3 and DELLA proteins, are key transcription regulators in light or hormone signaling pathways. This review focuses on these integrators and illustrates the regulatory networks of light and hormone interactions in chlorophyll biosynthesis.

  2. Control systems on Lie groups. (United States)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.


    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas


    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  4. Controlling dynamics in diatomic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    optimal control theory (OCT)3–8 to design the pulse shapes have met with considerable theoretical and experimental success for small molecular systems. These include control over branching processes such as dissociation vs. ionization in HCl, HF, HI, CO, and ICN demonstrated by several groups,9–12 laser control of ...

  5. Optimal Control of Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Azhmyakov


    Full Text Available In the present work, we consider a class of nonlinear optimal control problems, which can be called “optimal control problems in mechanics.” We deal with control systems whose dynamics can be described by a system of Euler-Lagrange or Hamilton equations. Using the variational structure of the solution of the corresponding boundary-value problems, we reduce the initial optimal control problem to an auxiliary problem of multiobjective programming. This technique makes it possible to apply some consistent numerical approximations of a multiobjective optimization problem to the initial optimal control problem. For solving the auxiliary problem, we propose an implementable numerical algorithm.

  6. Hexapod control system and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufinka Aleš


    Full Text Available Hexapod is a testing device for generation of six degrees of freedom movement. Its control system is built from the National Instruments components and control application is created in the software LabVIEW. Using the real-time system to run this application requires special programming procedures because the precise timing of the control loop has to be observed. The hexapod motion control is based on its kinematic model. Equations for the six basic motions (3-axis movement and 3-axis rotation were obtained from the kinematic model. These equations are implemented directly in the control program for basic movement and rotation control. The control system, program design and program optimization are described in this paper.

  7. Performance of Networked Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Zhang


    Full Text Available Data packet dropout is a special kind of time delay problem. In this paper, predictive controllers for networked control systems (NCSs with dual-network are designed by model predictive control method. The contributions are as follows. (1 The predictive control problem of the dual-network is considered. (2 The predictive performance of the dual-network is evaluated. (3 Compared to the popular networked control systems, the optimal controller of the new NCSs with data packets dropout is designed, which can minimize infinite performance index at each sampling time and guarantee the closed-loop system stability. Finally, the simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the controllers designed.

  8. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D


    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  9. Ovarian hormones and obesity. (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori


    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  10. Uzaybimer Radio Telescope Control System (United States)

    Balbay, R.; Öz, G. K.; Arslan, Ö.; Özeren, F. F.; Küçük, İ.


    A 13 meters former NATO radar is being converted into a radio telescope. The radio telescope is controlled by a system which has been developed at UZAYBİMER. The Telescope Control System(TCS) has been designed using modern industrial systems. TCS has been developed in LabView platform in which works Windows embedded OS. The position feedback used on radio telescopes is an industrial EtherCAT standard. ASCOM library is used for astronomical calculations.

  11. The effect of physical exercise on postpartum fitness, hormone and lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial in primiparous, lactating women. (United States)

    Zourladani, A; Zafrakas, M; Chatzigiannis, B; Papasozomenou, P; Vavilis, D; Matziari, C


    To evaluate the effect of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise on physical fitness, hormone and lipid levels of postpartum, primiparous, lactating women. Thirty seven primiparous, lactating women were randomly assigned at 4-6 weeks postpartum to either follow an exercise training program of 50-60 min aerobic, strengthening and stretching exercise, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks (interventional group; n = 20) or no training program at all (control group; n = 17). The following parameters were measured at baseline and 12 weeks later: (1) for evaluation of physical fitness: VO2max, muscular endurance, joint mobility and body fat; (2) for evaluation of the lipidemic profile: triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, and (3) levels of hormones associated with lactation: prolactin, estradiol, cortisol, TSH, fT3 and fT4. After completion of the exercise training program, comparisons between the interventional and the control group showed statistically significant mean changes in VO2max (p = 0.003), muscular endurance of the upper extremities (p impact exercise training program appears to improve physical fitness of postpartum women, while it does not seem to affect lipid levels and lactation-associated hormone levels. Hence, implementation of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise is feasible in postpartum, primiparous, lactating women.

  12. Hormonal birth control use and relationship jealousy : Evidence for estrogen dosage effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobey, Kelly D.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Roberts, S. Craig; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Women who use hormonal contraceptives have been shown to report higher levels of jealousy than women who are regularly cycling. Here, we extend these findings by examining if self reported levels of jealousy vary with the dose of synthetic estrogen and progestin found in combined oral contraceptives

  13. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas


    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  14. Coordinated control of renal Ca(2+) transport proteins by parathyroid hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, M. van; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Kemp, J.W.C.M. van der; Friedlaender, M.M.; Leeuwen, J.P.P.M. van; Bindels, R.J.M.


    BACKGROUND: The kidney is one of the affected organs involved in the clinical symptoms of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related disorders, like primary hyperparathyroidism and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. The molecular mechanism(s) underlying alterations in renal Ca(2+) handling in these

  15. Accessory gland as a site for prothoracicotropic hormone controlled ecdysone synthesis in adult male insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie Lilith; Møller, Morten Erik; Jørgensen, Anne


    Insect steroid hormones (ecdysteroids) are important for female reproduction in many insect species and are required for the initiation and coordination of vital developmental processes. Ecdysteroids are also important for adult male physiology and behavior, but their exact function and site of s...

  16. Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman


    Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement.

  17. Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: external pH control over morphogenesis (United States)

    Smith, D. L.; Krikorian, A. D.


    Cultures of preglobular stage proembryos (PGSPs) were initiated from mechanically wounded mature zygotic embryos of carrot, Daucus carota, on a hormone-free, semisolid medium. These PGSPs have been maintained and multiplied for extended periods without their progression into later embryo stages on the same hormone-free medium containing 1 mM NH4+ as the sole nitrogen source. Sustained maintenance of cultures comprised exclusively of PGSPs was dependent on medium pH throughout the culture period. Best growth and multiplication of PGSP cultures occurred when the pH of unbuffered, hormone-free medium fell from 4.5 to 4 over a 2-week period or when buffered medium was titrated to pH 4. If the hormone-free medium was buffered to sustain a pH at or above 4.5, PGSPs developed into later embryo stages. Maintenance with continuous multiplication of PGSPs occurred equally well on medium containing NH4+ or NH4+ and NO3-, but growth was poor with NO3- alone. Additional observations on the effects of medium components such as various nitrogen sources and levels, sucrose concentration, semisolid supports, type of buffer, borate concentration, activated charcoal, and initial pH that permit optimum maintenance of the PGSPs or foster their continued developmental progression into mature embryos and plantlets are reported. The influence of the pH of the hormone-free medium as a determinant in maintaining cultures as PGSPs or allowing their continued embryonic development are unequivocally demonstrated by gross morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and histological preparations.

  18. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego


    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  19. Control Evaluation Information System Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Sutedjo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the control of information system savings in the banking and to identify the weaknesses and problem happened in those saving systems. Research method used are book studies by collecting data and information needed and field studies by interview, observation, questioner, and checklist using COBIT method as a standard to assess the information system control of the company. The expected result about the evaluation result that show in the problem happened and recommendation given as the evaluation report and to give a view about the control done by the company. Conclusion took from this research that this banking company has met standards although some weaknesses still exists in the system.Index Terms - Control Information System, Savings

  20. Vehicle electrical system state controller (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.


    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  1. Traction Control System for Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardinale Pascal


    Full Text Available Traction control is a widely used control system to increase stability and safety of four wheel vehicles. Automatic stability control is used in the BMW K1200R motorcycle and in motoGP competition, but not in other motorcycles. This paper presents an algorithm and a low-cost real-time hardware implementation for motorcycles. A prototype has been developed, applied on a commercial motorcycle, and tested in a real track. The control system that can be tuned by the driver during the race has been appreciated by the test driver.

  2. A universal heliostat control system (United States)

    Gross, Fabian; Geiger, Mark; Buck, Reiner


    This paper describes the development of a universal heliostat control system as part of the AutoR project [1]. The system can control multiple receivers and heliostat types in a single application. The system offers support for multiple operators on different machines and is designed to be as adaptive as possible. Thus, the system can be used for different heliostat field setups with only minor adaptations of the system's source code. This is achieved by extensive usage of modern programming techniques like reflection and dependency injection. Furthermore, the system features co-simulation of a ray tracer, a reference PID-controller implementation for open volumetric receivers and methods for heliostat calibration and monitoring.

  3. Linux in Industrial Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Riesco, T


    Today the Linux operating system has become a real alternative for industrial control systems. Linux supports all layers in control systems starting with Real-Time or embedded systems for data acquisition, following with treatment, storage, communication and data adaptation, and finally, with supervision and user interfaces. In the last years the Linux development has grown being incorporated in several industrial systems demonstrating high performance, availability and stability for complex processes in chemical, automobile or petrol industries. In many of these industries Linux architectures have been tested and validated successfully. The new CERN policy supporting Linux, as well as the emergence of cheap and robust Linux solutions, motivates its implementation in our safety control and supervision systems in the near future.

  4. Melanin-concentrating hormone: unique peptide neuronal systems in the rat brain and pituitary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamir, N.; Skofitsch, G.; Bannon, M.J.; Jacobowitz, D.M.


    A unique neuronal system was detected in the rat central nervous system by immunohistochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to salmon melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH). MCH-like immunoreactive (MCH-LI) cell bodies were confined to the hypothalamus. MCH-LI fibers were found throughout the brain but were most prevalent in hypothalamus, mesencephalon, and pons-medulla regions. High concentrations of MCH-LI were measured in the hypothalamic medial forebrain bundle (MFB), posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the diagonal band. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of MFB extracts from rat brain indicate that MCH-like peptide from the rat has a different retention time than that of the salmon MCH. An osmotic stimuls (2% NaCl as drinking water for 120 hr) caused a marked increase in MCH-LI concentrations in the lateral hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe. The present studies establish the presence of MCH-like peptide in the rat brain. The MCH-LI neuronal system is well situated to coordinate complex functions such as regulation of water intake.

  5. System Identification and Robust Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøffner-Clausen, S.

    The main purpose of this work is to develop a coherent system identification based robust control design methodology by combining recent results from system identification and robust control. In order to accomplish this task new theoretical results will be given in both fields. Firstly, however......, an introduction to modern robust control design analysis and synthesis will be given. It will be shown how the classical frequency domain techniques can be extended to multivariable systems using the singular value decomposition. An introduction to norms and spaces frequently used in modern control theory......, a non-trivial problem which to some extent has been neglected by the theoreticians of robust control. An uncertainty specification has simply been assumed given. One way of obtaining a perturbation model is by physical modelling. Application if the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, mechanics, physics...

  6. VA National Bed Control System (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  7. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B


    It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM.......It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM....

  8. Acceptability of a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive in a randomized controlled trial☆, ☆☆, ★ (United States)

    Roth, Mara Y.; Shih, Grace; Ilani, Niloufar; Wang, Christina; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Blithe, Diana L.; Amory, John K.


    Objective Fifty percent of pregnancies in the United States are unintended despite numerous contraceptive methods available to women. The only male contraceptive methods, vasectomy and condoms, are used by 10% and 16% of couples, respectively. Prior studies have shown efficacy of male hormonal contraceptives in development, but few have evaluated patient acceptability and potential use if commercially available. The objective of this study is to determine if a transdermal gel-based male hormonal contraceptive regimen, containing testosterone and Nestorone® gels, would be acceptable to study participants as a primary contraceptive method. Study Design As part of a three-arm, 6-month, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of testosterone and nestorone gels at two academic medical centers, subjects completed a questionnaire to assess the acceptability of the regimen. Of the 99 men randomized, 79 provided data for analysis. Results Overall, 56% (44/79) of men were satisfied or extremely satisfied with this gel-based method of contraception, and 51% (40/79) reported that they would recommend this method to others. One third of subjects (26/79) reported that they would use this as their primary method of contraception if it were commercially available today. However, men with concerns about sexually transmitted disease were significantly less satisfied than men without such concerns (p=0.03). Conclusions A majority of the men who volunteered to participate in this trial of an experimental male hormonal contraceptive were satisfied with this transdermal male hormonal contraceptive. If commercially available, a combination of topical nesterone and testosterone gels could provide a reversible, effective method of contraception that is appealing to men. Implications A substantial portion of men report they would use this transdermal male contraceptive regimen if commercially available. This method would provide a novel, reversible method of contraception for men, whose

  9. Adipokinetic hormones control amylase activity in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) gut. (United States)

    Bodláková, Karolina; Jedlička, Pavel; Kodrík, Dalibor


    This study examined the biochemical characteristics of α-amylase and hormonal (adipokinetic hormone: AKH) stimulation of α-amylase activity in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) midgut. We applied two AKHs in vivo and in vitro, then measured resultant amylase activity and gene expression, as well as the expression of AKH receptor (AKHR). The results revealed that optimal amylase activity is characterized by the following: pH: 5.7, temperature: 38.4 °C, K m (Michaelis-Menten constant): 2.54 mg starch/mL, and V max (maximum reaction velocity): 0.185 μmol maltose/mL/min. In vivo application of AKHs resulted in significant increase of amylase activity: by two-fold in the gastric caeca and 4-7 fold in the rest of the midgut. In vitro experiments supported results seen in vivo: a 24-h incubation with the hormones resulted in the increase of amylase activity by 1.4 times in the caeca and 4-9 times in the midgut. Further, gene expression analyses reveal that AKHR is expressed in both the caeca and the rest of the midgut, although expression levels in the former were 23 times higher than levels in the latter. A similar pattern was found for the amylase (AMY) gene. Hormonal treatment did not affect the expression of either gene. This study is the first to provide evidence indicating direct AKH stimulation of digestive enzyme activity in the insect midgut, supported by specific AKHR gene expression in this organ. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G


    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

  11. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der


    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in

  12. Control system oriented human interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.


    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor. (PMA)

  13. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan


    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  14. The corticotropin releasing hormone-1 (CRH1) receptor antagonist pexacerfont in alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled experimental medicine study. (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Schwandt, Melanie L; Thorsell, Annika; George, David T; Momenan, Reza; Rio, Daniel E; Huestis, Marilyn; Anizan, Sebastien; Concheiro, Marta; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus


    Extensive preclinical data implicate corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), acting through its CRH1 receptor, in stress- and dependence-induced alcohol seeking. We evaluated pexacerfont, an orally available, brain penetrant CRH1 antagonist for its ability to suppress stress-induced alcohol craving and brain responses in treatment seeking alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence. Fifty-four anxious alcohol-dependent participants were admitted to an inpatient unit at the NIH Clinical Center, completed withdrawal treatment, and were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with pexacerfont (300 mg/day for 7 days, followed by 100 mg/day for 23 days). After reaching steady state, participants were assessed for alcohol craving in response to stressful or alcohol-related cues, neuroendocrine responses to these stimuli, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to alcohol-related stimuli or stimuli with positive or negative emotional valence. A separate group of 10 patients received open-label pexacerfont following the same dosing regimen and had cerebrospinal fluid sampled to estimate central nervous system exposure. Pexacerfont treatment had no effect on alcohol craving, emotional responses, or anxiety. There was no effect of pexacerfont on neural responses to alcohol-related or affective stimuli. These results were obtained despite drug levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that predict close to 90% central CRH1 receptor occupancy. CRH1 antagonists have been grouped based on their receptor dissociation kinetics, with pexacerfont falling in a category characterized by fast dissociation. Our results may indicate that antagonists with slow offset are required for therapeutic efficacy. Alternatively, the extensive preclinical data on CRH1 antagonism as a mechanism to suppress alcohol seeking may not translate to humans.

  15. The effect of acupuncture on postmenopausal symptoms and reproductive hormones: a sham controlled clinical trial. (United States)

    Sunay, Didem; Ozdiken, Muruvvet; Arslan, Huseyin; Seven, Ali; Aral, Yalcin


    Acupuncture is commonly used to treat menopausal symptoms and other gynaecological conditions. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate whether acupuncture has an effect on menopausal symptoms and to explore whether this effect is related to changes in hormone levels. Materials and methods A total of 53 postmenopausal women were alternately assigned into two treatment groups: acupuncture (n=27) and sham acupuncture (n=26). Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). The serum oestradiol, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) levels were measured at baseline and again after the first and last sessions. The Student t test was used for normally distributed data and the Wilcoxon signed rank test for not normally distributed data. The group differences in MRS scores were assessed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. After treatment, total MRS, and the somatic and psychological subscale scores were significantly lower in the acupuncture group than the sham group (all p=0.001). The severity of hot flushes was found to be significantly decreased after treatment in acupuncture group (p=0.001). In the acupuncture group LH levels were lower and oestradiol levels were significantly higher than sham group (p=0.046 and p=0.045, respectively) after treatment, but there was no difference in FSH levels. Acupuncture was effective in reducing menopausal complaints when compared to sham acupuncture and can be considered as an alternative therapy in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  16. Sex Hormones Coordinate Neutrophil Immunity in the Vagina by Controlling Chemokine Gradients. (United States)

    Lasarte, Sandra; Samaniego, Rafael; Salinas-Muñoz, Laura; Guia-Gonzalez, Mauriel A; Weiss, Linnea A; Mercader, Enrique; Ceballos-García, Elena; Navarro-González, Teresa; Moreno-Ochoa, Laura; Perez-Millan, Federico; Pion, Marjorie; Sanchez-Mateos, Paloma; Hidalgo, Andres; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria A; Relloso, Miguel


    Estradiol-based contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy predispose women to Candida albicans infections. Moreover, during the ovulatory phase (high estradiol), neutrophil numbers decrease in the vaginal lumen and increase during the luteal phase (high progesterone). Vaginal secretions contain chemokines that drive neutrophil migration into the lumen. However, their expression during the ovarian cycle or in response to hormonal treatments are controversial and their role in vaginal defense remains unknown.To investigate the transepithelial migration of neutrophils, we used adoptive transfer of Cxcr2(-/-) neutrophils and chemokine immunofluorescence quantitative analysis in response to C. albicans vaginal infection in the presence of hormones.Our data show that the Cxcl1/Cxcr2 axis drives neutrophil transepithelial migration into the vagina. Progesterone promotes the Cxcl1 gradient to favor neutrophil migration. Estradiol disrupts the Cxcl1 gradient and favors neutrophil arrest in the vaginal stroma; as a result, the vagina becomes more vulnerable to pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty


    Full Text Available This paper extends the recently introduced approach for modeling and solving the optimal control problem of fixedswitched mode DC-DC power converter. DCDC converters are a class of electric power circuits that used extensively in regulated DC power supplies, DC motor drives of different types, in Photovoltaic Station energy conversion and other applications due to its advantageous features in terms of size, weight and reliable performance. The main problem in controlling this type converters is in their hybrid nature as the switched circuit topology entails different modes of operation, each of it with its own associated linear continuous-time dynamics.This paper analyses the modeling and controller synthesis of the fixed-frequency buck DC-DC converter, in which the transistor switch is operated by a pulse sequence with constant frequency. In this case the regulation of the DC component of the output voltage is via the duty cycle. The optimization of the control system is based on the formation of the control signal at the output.It is proposed to solve the problem of optimal control of a hybrid system based on the formation of the control signal at the output of the controller, which minimizes a given functional integral quality, which is regarded as a linear quadratic Letov-Kalman functional. Search method of optimal control depends on the type of mathematical model of control object. In this case, we consider a linear deterministic model of the control system, which is common for the majority of hybrid electrical systems. For this formulation of the optimal control problem of search is a problem of analytical design of optimal controller, which has the analytical solution.As an example of the hybrid system is considered a step-down switching DC-DC converter, which is widely used in various electrical systems: as an uninterruptible power supply, battery charger for electric vehicles, the inverter in solar photovoltaic power plants.. A

  18. Chitosan nanoparticles as carrier systems for the plant growth hormone gibberellic acid. (United States)

    Pereira, Anderson Espirito Santo; Silva, Paula Mayara; Oliveira, Jhones Luis; Oliveira, Halley Caixeta; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes


    This work concerns the development of nanocarriers composed of alginate/chitosan (ALG/CS) and chitosan/tripolyphosphate (CS/TPP) for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3). ALG/CS nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 450±10nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.3, zeta potential of -29±0.5mV, concentrations of 1.52×1011 and 1.92×1011 nanoparticles mL-1, respectively, and 100% encapsulation efficiency. CS/TPP nanoparticles with and without GA3 presented mean size of 195±1nm, PDI of 0.3, zeta potential of +27±3mV, concentrations of 1.92×1012 and 3.54×1012 nanoparticles mL-1, respectively, and 90% encapsulation efficiency. The nanoparticles were stable during 60days and the two systems differed in terms of the release mechanism, with the release depending on factors such as pH and temperature. Bioactivity assays using Phaseolus vulgaris showed that the ALG/CS-GA3 nanoparticles were most effective in increasing leaf area and the levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids. The systems developed showed good potential, providing greater stability and efficiency of this plant hormone in agricultural applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymer applied to the selective isolation of urinary steroid hormones: an efficient tool in the control of natural steroid hormones abuse in cattle. (United States)

    Doué, Mickael; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pichon, Valérie; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Lesellier, Eric; West, Caroline; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno


    The use of anabolic substances to promote growth in livestock is prohibited within the European Union as laid down in Directive 96/22/EC. Nowadays, efficient methods such as steroid profiling or isotopic deviation measurements allow to control natural steroid hormones abuse. In both cases, urine is often selected as the most relevant matrix and, due to its relatively high content of potential interferents, its preparation before analysis is considered as a key step. In this context, the use of a selective sorbent such as molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was investigated. A MIP was synthesized based on 17β-estradiol, methacrylic acid and acetonitrile as template, monomer and porogen, respectively. Two approaches were then tested for non-conjugated (aglycons and glucuronides deconjugated) steroid purification: (i) molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) and (ii) semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography with a commercial MIP as stationary phase (SFC-MIP). Parameters for both approaches were optimized based on the main bovine metabolites of testosterone, estradiol, nandrolone and boldenone. The MISPE protocol developed for screening purposes allowed satisfactory recoveries (upper 65% for the 12 target steroids) with sufficient purification for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. For confirmatory purposes, the use of isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) requires a higher degree of purity of the target compounds, which can be reached by the SFC-MIP protocol with three steps less compared to the official and current method. Purity, concentration and absence of isotopic fractionation of target steroids extracted from urine of treated cattle (treated with testosterone, estradiol, androstenedione, and boldenone) allowed the measurement of (13)C/(12)C isotopic ratios of corresponding metabolites and endogenous reference compounds (ERC) and proved the relevance of the strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Does menopausal hormone therapy reduce myocardial infarction risk if initiated early after menopause? A population-based case-control study. (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Germán D; Berglund, Anita; Gigante, Bruna; Landgren, Britt-Marie; de Faire, Ulf; Hallqvist, Johan; Leander, Karin


    This study aims to assess whether the timing of menopausal hormone therapy initiation in relation to onset of menopause and hormone therapy duration is associated with myocardial infarction risk. This study was based on the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study including 347 postmenopausal women who had experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction and 499 female control individuals matched for age and residential area. Odds ratios (with 95% CIs) for myocardial infarction were calculated using logistic regression. Early initiation of hormone therapy (within 10 y of onset of menopause or before age 60 y), compared with never use, was associated with an odds ratio of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) after adjustments for lifestyle factors, body mass index, and socioeconomic status. For late initiation of hormone therapy, the corresponding odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.53-1.76). For hormone therapy duration of 5 years or more, compared with never use, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.35-1.18). For hormone therapy duration of less than 5 years, the odds ratio was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.63-1.48). Neither the timing of hormone therapy initiation nor the duration of therapy is significantly associated with myocardial infarction risk.

  1. Dressage, Control, and Enterprise Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Berente, Nicholas; Yoo, Youngjin


    In 2004, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented Full Cost, an activity-based accounting program through an agency-wide enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation. We apply Foucault's notion of 'dressage' to highlight aspects of demonstrative control associated...... with this implementation effort and to outline the different dimensions along which control was distributed. We suggest that some elements of Full Cost and the ERP system were geared toward satisfying disciplinary requirements without necessarily contributing to productive activity. We term these elements dressage...... that the ideal of complete enterprise control remains unattainable, as aspects of demonstrative control are inevitably implicated within broader enterprise-wide control systems within contemporary organizations. We conclude with implications for research and practice....

  2. The AFP Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration


    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

  3. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image) (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  4. Learning fuzzy logic control system (United States)

    Lung, Leung Kam


    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  5. Component Control System for a Vehicle (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)


    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  6. A Review on the Importance of Hormones Monitoring and Their Removal in Conventional Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian


    Conclusion: According to the current study, further studies are needed to determine the entry routes of steroid hormones into aquatic environment, the detection techniques and measurements, as well as the best removal method in Iran.

  7. The CERN SPS Control System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Neyrac Films


    Part of the series of films produced by CERN about the SPS. Names, facts and credits added on the 1975 version by Bengt Sagnell, Meyrin, Oct 2012. The project leader for the SPS accelerator (with 400 staff) was John Adams - later Sir John. The group responsible for the design and installation of the control system was led by Michael Crowley-Milling. 00:02:14 Bernard Sutton00:02:48 Michael Crowley-Milling, Head of the Controls Group00:03:01 Designed in the Controls Group, this was probably the first use of touch screens in an industrial control system00:04:37 Louis Burnod, Section leader, Beam Instrumentation00:05:36 Claes Frisk, Computer technician 00:06:03 The system contained 24 Norsk Data NORD-10 16-bit mini computers with 16-64 kB of magnetic core memory and external hard disks of from 5MB to 256 MB in size00:06:23 Frank Beck, Section leader, Central Controls00:06:26 Véronique Frammery, Programmer 00:06:31 Hans-Karl Kuhn, Power Supply Controls00:07:55 Raymond Rausch, Control electronics00:10:23 Paul Acti...

  8. Certain hormonal profiles of postpartum anestrus jersey crossbred cows treated with controlled internal drug release and ovsynch protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanidhi Jena


    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to determine the serum levels of certain hormones in post-partum anestrus cows following treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR and Ovsynch protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 postpartum anestrus cows were divided into three equal groups after thorough gynecoclinical examination. The Group 1 animals received an intravaginal progesterone device on day 0 and 2 ml of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α on day of CIDR removal (7th day, Group 2 cows were treated with ovsynch protocol (gonadotropinreleasing hormone [GnRH]-PGF2α-GnRH on day 0, 7 and 9, respectively, and Group 3 cows were supplemented with mineral mixture and treated as control. The serum estrogen, progesterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine concentration were estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and absorbance was read at 450 nm with Perkin Elmer Wallac 1420 Microplate Reader. Results: There was a significant increase in progesterone level in Group 1 after withdrawal of CIDR as compared to other two groups. However, the estrogen assay revealed a greater concentration in Group 2 against Group 1 on day 7 of sampling. However, there was no significant difference for serum triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 irrespective of treatment protocols and days of sampling. Conclusion: Treatment with CIDR based progesterone therapy and drug combinations may affect the reproductive hormonal balance like estrogen and progesterone, which is inevitable for successful return to cyclicity and subsequent fertilization and conception. However, as far as serum T3 and T4 concentration concerned it may not give an astounding result.

  9. Systemic but no local effects of combined zoledronate and parathyroid hormone treatment in experimental autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresten Krarup Keller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Local bone erosions and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are the result of a more pronounced bone resorption than bone formation. Present treatment strategies for RA inhibit inflammation, but do not directly target bone erosions. The aim of the study was in experimental arthritis to investigate the juxtaarticular and systemic effects of simultaneous osteoclast inhibition with zoledronate (ZLN and osteoblast stimulation with parathyroid hormone (PTH. METHODS: Arthritis was induced in 36 SKG mice. The mice were randomized to three treatment groups and an untreated group: ZLN, PTH, PTH+ZLN, and untreated. Arthritis score and ankle width measurements were performed. Histological sections were cut from the right hind paw, and design-based stereological estimators were used to quantify histological variables of bone volume and bone formation and resorption. The femora were DXA- and μCT-scanned, and the bone strength was determined at the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis. RESULTS: Locally, we found no differences in arthritis score or ankle width throughout the study. Similarly, none of the treatments inhibited bone erosions or stimulated bone formation in the paw. Systemically, all treatments improved bone mineral density, strength of the femoral neck and mid-diaphysis, and μCT parameters of both cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, there was an additive effect of combination treatment compared with single treatments for most trabecular parameters including bone mineral density and bone volume fraction. CONCLUSIONS: No local effect on bone was found by the combined action of inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone formation. However, a clear systemic effect of the combination treatment was demonstrated.

  10. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting


    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  11. Proton beam therapy control system (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana


    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  12. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G


    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  13. Effect of 4 weeks of octreotide treatment on prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones in acromegalic patients. A double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Hansen, T B; Bollerslev, J


    We aimed to test the hypothesis, that octreotide has a suppressive effect on unstimulated and TRH-stimulated PRL levels in both normo- and hyperprolactinaemic acromegalic patients, and besides to evaluate the effect of octreotide on unstimulated TSH and thyroid hormones. The present study is a do...

  14. Hormonal control of hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch (United States)

    Vijayan, M.M.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.; Moon, T.W.


    The plasma cortisol concentration and liver cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor activities of continuously swimming, food-deprived coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) did not differ from those of resting, fed fish. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly higher in the exercising, starved fish, but there were no significant differences in either hepatic glycogen concentration or hepatic activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, pyruvate kinase, or lactate dehydrogenase between the two groups. Total glucose production by hepatocytes did not differ significantly between the two groups; glycogen breakdown accounted for all the glucose produced in the resting, fed fish whereas it explained only 59% of the glucose production in the exercised animals. Epinephrine and glucagon stimulation of glucose production by hepatocytes was decreased in the exercised fish without significantly affecting hepatocyte glycogen breakdown in either group. Insulin prevented glycogen breakdown and enhanced glycogen deposition in exercised fish. The results indicate that food-deprived, continuously swimming coho salmon conserve glycogen by decreasing the responsiveness of hepatocytes to catabolic hormones and by increasing the responsiveness to insulin (anabolic hormone).

  15. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH): a new player in human hair-growth control. (United States)

    Gáspár, Erzsébet; Hardenbicker, Celine; Bodó, Eniko; Wenzel, Björn; Ramot, Yuval; Funk, Wolfgang; Kromminga, Arno; Paus, Ralf


    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is the most proximal component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis that regulates thyroid hormone synthesis. Since transcripts for members of this axis were detected in cultured normal human skin cells and since human hair follicles (HFs) respond to stimulation with thyrotropin, we now have studied whether human HF functions are also modulated by TRH. Here we report that the epithelium of normal human scalp HFs expresses not only TRH receptors (TRH-R) but also TRH itself at the gene and protein level. Stimulation of microdissected, organ-cultured HFs with TRH promotes hair-shaft elongation, prolongs the hair cycle growth phase (anagen), and antagonizes its termination by TGF-beta2. It also increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of hair matrix keratinocytes. These TRH effects may be mediated in part by reducing the ATM/Atr-dependent phosphorylation of p53. By microarray analysis, several differentially up- or down-regulated TRH-target genes were detected (e.g., selected keratins). Thus, human scalp HFs are both a source and a target of TRH, which operates as a potent hair-growth stimulator. Human HFs provide an excellent discovery tool for identifying and dissecting nonclassical functions of TRH and TRH-mediated signaling in situ, which emerge as novel players in human epithelial biology.

  16. Family members CREB and CREM control thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression in the hypothalamus. (United States)

    Chiappini, Franck; Ramadoss, Preeti; Vella, Kristen R; Cunha, Lucas L; Ye, Felix D; Stuart, Ronald C; Nillni, Eduardo A; Hollenberg, Anthony N


    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is regulated by thyroid hormone (TH). cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has also been postulated to regulate TRH expression but its interaction with TH signaling in vivo is not known. To evaluate the role of CREB in TRH regulation in vivo, we deleted CREB from PVN neurons to generate the CREB1(ΔSIM1) mouse. As previously shown, loss of CREB was compensated for by an up-regulation of CREM in euthyroid CREB1(ΔSIM1) mice but TSH, T₄ and T₃ levels were normal, even though TRH mRNA levels were elevated. Interestingly, TRH mRNA expression was also increased in the PVN of CREB1(ΔSIM1) mice in the hypothyroid state but became normal when made hyperthyroid. Importantly, CREM levels were similar in CREB1(ΔSIM1) mice regardless of thyroid status, demonstrating that the regulation of TRH by T₃ in vivo likely occurs independently of the CREB/CREM family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parathyroid Hormone Injection (United States)

    ... have any questions about how to inject this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection comes in a cartridge to be mixed in ... and vitamin D while you are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue ...

  18. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs. (United States)

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J


    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. The QUIJOTE TGI control system (United States)

    Gómez-Reñasco, M. F.; Martín, Y.; Aguiar-González, M.; Cozar, J.; González-Cobos, N.; Hoyland, R.; Núñez Cagical, M.; Pérez-de-Taoro, M. R.; Sánchez-de la Rosa, V.; Vega-Moreno, A.; Viera-Curbelo, T.


    The QUIJOTE-CMB experiment (Q-U-I JOint TEnerife CMB experiment) has been described in previous publications. In particular, the architecture of the MFI instrument control system, the first of the three QUIJOTE instruments, was presented in [1]. In this paper we describe the control system architecture, hardware, and software, of the second QUIJOTE instrument, the TGI (Thirty GHz Instrument), which has been in the process of commissioning for a few weeks now. It is a 30 pixel 26-36 GHz polarimeter array mounted at the focus of the second QUIJOTE telescope. The polarimeter design is based on the QUIET polarimeter scheme, implementing phase switches of 90° and 180° to generate four states of polarisation. The TGI control system acquires the scientific signal of the four channels for each of the 30 polarimeters, sampled at 160 kHz; it controls the commutation of the 30 x 4 phase switches at 16 kHz or 8 kHz; it performs the acquisition and monitoring of the health of the complete instrument, acquiring housekeeping from the various subsystems and also controls the different operational modes of the telescope. It finally, implements a queue system that permits automation of the observations by allowing the programming of several days of observations with the minimum of human intervention. The acquisition system is based on a PXI-RT host from NI, the commutations of the phase switches are performed by a PXI-FPGA subsystem and the telescope control is based on an EtherCAT bus from Beckhoff.

  20. Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. (United States)

    Forsyth, I A


    Prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen form a family of structurally related hormones, which may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide. Prolactin and growth hormone are present in all mammals, but the biological activity associated with placental lactogen has been detected in only some groups. Attempts to detect placental lactogen using bioassay and radioreceptor assay are reported and have been unsuccessful in an insectivore (the shrew), a bat, an edentate (the armadillo), a lagomorph (the rabbit), several carnivores (dog, cat, ferret), perissodactyls (horse, zebra, rhino), and, within the artiodactyls, pigs. Placental lactogenic activity has been detected in primates (chimpanzee, orangutan), rodents (voles, Pinon mouse, guinea-pig, mara), and in numerous artiodactyls (llama, giraffe, several species of deer, antelope, gnu, gazelle, musk ox, cape buffalo, Barbary sheep, several sheep of the genus Ovis, goat, and cow). These results confirm and extend the work of others and are discussed in relation to the evolution of these hormones. In synergism with steroid and thyroid hormones, protein hormones of the prolactin and growth hormone family play a crucial role in stimulating the development of the mammary gland, the differentiation and function of mammary cells to secrete milk, and in the systemic adjustments in maternal metabolism in pregnancy and lactation. Studies in vitro have shown that mammary tissues from several species synthesize milk components in response to insulin plus adrenal corticoid plus prolactin. However, there are also species differences in minimal hormonal requirements for lactogenesis. In vivo, for example, rabbits will initiate or sustain lactation in response to prolactin alone, whereas sheep and goats require prolactin plus growth hormone plus adrenal corticoid plus thyroid hormone. Measurement of hormone concentrations in the plasma of pregnant animals shows considerable differences among species in the pattern of


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A closed-loop system consisting of a control system and an adaptive controller will be called tuning for a specified control objective if the real system and the ideal system defined below achieve the same value for the control objective. The real system is the system consisting of the unknown

  2. Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Conti


    Full Text Available Future space missions will involve satellites with great autonomy and stringent pointing precision, requiring of the Attitude Control Systems (ACS with better performance than before, which is function of the control algorithms implemented on board computers. The difficulties for developing experimental ACS test is to obtain zero gravity and torque free conditions similar to the SCA operate in space. However, prototypes for control algorithms experimental verification are fundamental for space mission success. This paper presents the parameters estimation such as inertia matrix and position of mass centre of a Satellite Attitude Control System Simulator (SACSS, using algorithms based on least square regression and least square recursive methods. Simulations have shown that both methods have estimated the system parameters with small error. However, the least square recursive methods have performance more adequate for the SACSS objectives. The SACSS platform model will be used to do experimental verification of fundamental aspects of the satellite attitude dynamics and design of different attitude control algorithm.

  3. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D


    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPUTER ASSISTED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM. Alebachew Dessalegn and R. N. Roy. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The basic purpose of holding inventories is to provide an essential decoupling between demand and unequal flow rate of materials in a supp~v ...

  5. Systemic intermittent parathyroid hormone treatment improves osseointegration of press-fit inserted implants in cancellous bone. (United States)

    Daugaard, Henrik; Elmengaard, Brian; Andreassen, Troels Torp; Lamberg, Anders; Bechtold, Joan Elisabeth; Soballe, Kjeld


    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) has an anabolic effect on bone, as confirmed in human osteoporosis studies, distraction osteogenesis, and fracture healing. PTH in rat models leads to improved fixation of implants in low-density bone or screw insertion transcortically. We examined the effect of human PTH (1-34) on the cancellous osseointegration of unloaded implants inserted press-fit in intact bone of higher animal species. 20 dogs were randomized to treatment with human PTH (1-34), 5 μg/kg/day subcutaneously, or placebo for 4 weeks starting on the day after insertion of a cylindrical porous coated plasma-sprayed titanium alloy implant in the proximal metaphyseal cancellous bone of tibia. Osseointegration was evaluated by histomorphometry and fixation by push-out test to failure. Surface fraction of woven bone at the implant interface was statistically significantly higher in the PTH group by 1.4 fold with (median (interquartile range) 15% (13-18)) in the PTH group and 11% (7-13) in control. The fraction of lamellar bone was unaltered. No significant difference in bone or fibrous tissue was observed in the circumferential regions of 0-500, 500-1,000, and 1,000-2,000 μm around the implant. Mechanically, the implants treated with PTH showed no significant differences in total energy absorption, maximum shear stiffness, or maximum shear strength. Intermittent treatment with PTH (1-34) improved histological osseointegration of a prosthesis inserted press-fit at surgery in cancellous bone, with no additional improvement of the initial mechanical fixation at this time point.

  6. Hormone-Inspired Behaviour Switching for the Control of Collective Robotic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tanev


    Full Text Available Swarming and modular robotic locomotion are two disconnected behaviours that a group of small homogeneous robots can be used to achieve. The use of these two behaviours is a popular subject in robotics research involving search, rescue and exploration. However, they are rarely addressed as two behaviours that can coexist within a single robotic system. Here, we present a bio-inspired decision mechanism, which provides a convenient way for evolution to configure the conditions and timing of behaving as a swarm or a modular robot in an exploration scenario. The decision mechanism switches among two behaviours that are previously developed (a pheromone-based swarm control and a sinusoidal rectilinear modular robot movement. We use Genetic Programming (GP to evolve the controller for these decisions, which acts without a centralized mechanism and with limited inter-robot communication. The results show that the proposed bio-inspired decision mechanism provides an evolvable medium for the GP to utilize in evolving an effective decision-making mechanism.

  7. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B


    OBJECTIVE. It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM. METHODS. The 24-h urinary growth hormone excretion and serum levels of insulin...

  8. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  9. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk


    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  10. Investigating the association between polymorphism of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene and ovarian response in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Sheikhha


    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of the study was to investigate the association between follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR gene polymorphism at Position 680 and the outcomes of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET in infertile women. Materials and Methods : One hundred and eight patients under 35 years of age who underwent IVF-ET procedures were included in this study. The hormonal profile and treatment of all patients were analyzed and FSHR polymorphism was examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Women from all groups were classified based on polymorphisms at Position 680, occupied either by asparagines (Asn or serine (Ser as Asn/Asn, Asn/Ser, and Ser/Ser genotype. Result : Our study showed that all patients in the Asn/Asn group were normal responders and in the Asn/Ser group 64.8% were normal responders and 21.1% and 14.1% were poor and hyper responders respectively. In the Ser/Ser group we did not have normal responders and 46.7% of these patients were poor responders and 53.3% were hyper responders. Conclusion : FSH receptor polymorphism is correlated with response to ovarian stimulation.

  11. Effects of Steroid Hormone Levels on the Ultrasound Appearance of the Preovulatory Endometrium in Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytul Corbacioglu


    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effects of serum estradiol (E2 and progesterone levels on preovulatory endometrial thickness and echogenicity in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH cycles for in vitro fertilization (IVF.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the data of 241 in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles. Cycles were classified into three groups according to endometrial thickness measured on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration as: i. ≤8 mm, ii. 8-14 mm, and iii. ≥14 mm. Echogenic patterns were described as trilaminar, isoechogenic, and hyperechogenic. Serum E2 and progesterone levels were evaluated on the day of hCG administration. Data were analyzed using X2 test, Student’s t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA.Results: Serum E2 levels increased in parallel with endometrial thickness, although differences among the three groups were insignificant. There was no correlation between serum progesterone levels and endometrial thickness. There was no significant difference in the steroid hormone concentrations between the echogenic patterns.Conclusion: Serum steroid hormone levels on the day of hCG administration do not affect the ultrasound appearance of the endometrium in COH cycles.

  12. Control for a class of hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. van Schuppen (Jan)


    textabstractA hybrid control system is a control theoretic model for a computer controlled engineering system. A definition of a hybrid control system is formulated that consists of a product of a finite state automaton and of a family of continuous control systems. An example of a transportation

  13. Encyclopedia of systems and control

    CERN Document Server

    Samad, Tariq


    The Encyclopedia of Systems and Control collects a broad range of short expository articles that describe the current state of the art in the central topics of control and systems engineering as well as in many of the related fields in which control is an enabling technology. The editors have assembled the most comprehensive reference possible, and this has been greatly facilitated by the publisher’s commitment continuously to publish updates to the articles as they become available in the future. Although control engineering is now a mature discipline, it remains an area in which there is a great deal of research activity, and as new developments in both theory and applications become available, they will be included in the online version of the encyclopedia. A carefully chosen team of leading authorities in the field has written the well over 200 articles that comprise the work. The topics range from basic principles of feedback in servomechanisms to advanced topics such as the control of Boolean networks...

  14. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem


    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust Lyapunov controller includes an inner closed loop Lyapunov controller and an outer closed loop error stabilizer. In another example, a method includes monitoring a system output of a process plant; generating an estimated system control input based upon a defined output reference; generating a system control input using the estimated system control input and a compensation term; and adjusting the process plant based upon the system control input to force the system output to track the defined output reference. An inner closed loop Lyapunov controller can generate the estimated system control input and an outer closed loop error stabilizer can generate the system control input.

  15. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov


    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  16. Isolation contactor state control system (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.


    A controller area network (CAN) installed on a hybrid electric vehicle provides one node with control of high voltage power distribution system isolation contactors and the capacity to energize a secondary electro-mechanical relay device. The output of the secondary relay provides a redundant and persistent backup signal to the output of the node. The secondary relay is relatively immune to CAN message traffic interruptions and, as a result, the high voltage isolation contactor(s) are less likely to transition open in the event that the intelligent output driver should fail.

  17. The effects of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine systems of elderly men: the role of cytokines and anabolic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Valéria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background a decline in immune and endocrine function occurs with aging. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine system of elderly men. The possible interaction between these systems was also analysed. Results elderly runners showed a significantly higher T cell proliferative response and IL-2 production than sedentary elderly controls. IL-2 production was similar to that in young adults. Their serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower than their sedentary peers. They also showed significantly lower IL-3 production in comparison to sedentary elderly subjects but similar to the youngs. Anabolic hormone levels did not differ between elderly groups and no clear correlation was found between hormones and cytokine levels. Conclusion highly conditioned elderly men seem to have relatively better preserved immune system than the sedentary elderly men. Long-term endurance training has the potential to decelerate the age-related decline in immune function but not the deterioration in endocrine function.

  18. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system (United States)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.


    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  19. Hormonal profile and the role of cell expansion in the germination control of Cerrado biome palm seeds. (United States)

    Dias, Daiane Souza; Ribeiro, Leonardo Monteiro; Lopes, Paulo Sérgio Nascimento; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Garcia, Queila Souza


    Little information is currently available concerning the mechanisms controlling palm seed germination. We compared the anatomical and physiological aspects of seeds of two neotropical palm species showing different levels of dormancy. The seeds of Attalea vitrivir and Butia capitata were evaluated for the endogenous contents of hormones (ABA, GAs, CKs, BRs, IAA, JA, SA and the ethylene precursor ACC) in their cotyledonary petiole and operculum (structures involved in germination control), the force necessary to displace the operculum, endo-β-mannanase activities, and embryo cell elongation. The analyses were carried out on with intact dry and imbibed seeds as well as with seeds with the operculum mechanically removed, 2, 5 and 10 days after sowing. The germinabilities of the intact seeds of A. vitrivir and B. capitata were 68% and 3%, respectively; the removal of the operculum increased germination to more than 90% in both species. Reductions of ABA and increases in GAs contents coincided with cell elongation, although there is no evidence that hormonal balance and endo-β-mannanase activity are involved in operculum weakening. The ratio between the embryo length and the force required for operculum displacement (EL/OF) was found to be 1.9 times greater in A. vitrivir than in B. capitata, which means that very small elongations in each cell would be sufficient to promote germination, resulting in a lower level of dormancy in the former species. EL/OF and cell growth control are therefore important for defining dormancy level in palm seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Controls and Machine Protection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E.


    Machine protection, as part of accelerator control systems, can be managed with a 'functional safety' approach, which takes into account product life cycle, processes, quality, industrial standards and cybersafety. This paper will discuss strategies to manage such complexity and the related risks, with particular attention to fail-safe design and safety integrity levels, software and hardware standards, testing, and verification philosophy. It will also discuss an implementation of a machine protection system at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).

  1. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  2. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir


    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  3. Control Systems for Logistics Performance


    Virolainen, V.-M.


    This text is concerned with identifying and outlining the various aspects of logistics control and performance measurement process. The objective is to identify, based on available literature, methods and techniques which can be used to measure the performance of logistics. Logistics management is essentially a task of balancing between minimizing cost and ensuring availability objectives. Availability can be seen as the output of logistics system. On the input side, management is concer...

  4. Semantic Linkage of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack


    Full Text Available Control systems are sets of interconnected hardware and software components which regulate the behaviour of processes. The software of modern control systems rises for some years by requirements regarding the flexibility and functionality. Thus the force of innovation grows on enterprises, since ever newer products in ever shorter time intervals must be made available. Associated hereby is the crucial shortening of the product life cycle, whose effects show up in reduced care of the software and the spares inventory. The aim, the concept presented here and developed in a modeling environment, is proved and ensures a minimum functionality of software components. Replacing software components of a control system verified for functionality by a framework at run-time and if necessary the software conditions will become adapted. Quintessential point of this implementation is the usage of an abstract syntax tree. Within its hierarchical structure meta information is attached to nodes and processed by the framework. With the development of the concept for semantic proving of software components the lifetime of software-based products is increased.

  5. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡ (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron


    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  6. Plant hormone cytokinins control cell cycle progression and plastid replication in apicomplexan parasites. (United States)

    Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Tahara, Michiru; Matsubara, Ryuma; Toyama, Tomoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Tanabe, Kazuyuki; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo


    Cytokinins are plant hormones that are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell and plastid development. Here, we show that the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium berghei, an opportunistic human pathogen and a rodent malaria agent, respectively, produce cytokinins via a biosynthetic pathway similar to that in plants. Cytokinins regulate the growth and cell cycle progression of T. gondii by mediating expression of the cyclin gene TgCYC4. A natural form of cytokinin, trans-zeatin (t-zeatin), upregulated expression of this cyclin, while a synthetic cytokinin, thidiazuron, downregulated its expression. Immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR analysis showed that t-zeatin increased the genome-copy number of apicoplast, which are non-photosynthetic plastid, in the parasite, while thidiazuron led to their disappearance. Thidiazuron inhibited growth of T. gondii and Plasmodium falciparum, a human malaria parasite, suggesting that thidiazuron has therapeutic potential as an inhibitor of apicomplexan parasites. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Fermilab Accelerator control system (United States)

    Bogert, Dixon


    With the advent of the Tevatron, considerable upgrades have been made to the controls of all the Fermilab Accelerators. The current system is based on making as large an amount of data as possible available to many operators or end-users. Specifically there are about 100 000 separate readings, settings, and status and control registers in the various machines, all of which can be accessed by seventeen consoles, some in the Main Control Room and others distributed throughout the complex. A "Host" computer network of approximately eighteen PDP-11/34's, seven PDP-11/44's, and three VAX-11/785's supports a distributed data acquisition system including Lockheed MAC-16's left from the original Main Ring and Booster instrumentation and upwards of 1000 Z80, Z8002, and M68000 microprocessors in dozens of configurations. Interaction of the various parts of the system is via a central data base stored on the disk of one of the VAXes. The primary computer-hardware communication is via CAMAC for the new Tevatron and Antiproton Source; certain subsystems, among them vacuum, refrigeration, and quench protection, reside in the distributed microprocessors and communicate via GAS, an in-house protocol. An important hardware feature is an accurate clock system making a large number of encoded "events" in the accelerator supercycle available for both hardware modules and computers. System software features include the ability to save the current state of the machine or any subsystem and later restore it or compare it with the state at another time, a general logging facility to keep track of specific variables over long periods of time, detection of "exception conditions" and the posting of alarms, and a central filesharing capability in which files on VAX disks are available for access by any of the "Host" processors.

  8. HTGR Resilient Control System Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynne M. Stevens


    A preeminent objective for corporate and government organizations is the protection of major investments, which is attained by achieving state awareness, a comprehensive understanding of security and safety, for critical infrastructures. Given the dependence of critical infrastructure on control systems for automation, the integrity of these systems and their ability to provide owner/operators a high degree of state awareness is essential in attaining a high degree of investment protection and public acceptance. Operators as well as government are therefore burdened to ensure they have a timely understanding of the status of their plant or all plants, respectively, to ensure efficient operations and investment and public protection. “This characterization is a significant objective that must consider many aspects of instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems in order to achieve the required result. These aspects include sensory, communication, analysis, decision, and human system interfaces necessary to achieve fusion of data and presentation of results that will provide an understanding of what issues are important and why.

  9. Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort. (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Sarink, Danja; Schock, Helena; Johnson, Theron; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Affret, Aurélie; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Gils, Carla H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lund, Eiliv; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, Maria-José; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf


    Circulating osteoprotegerin (OPG), a member of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) axis, may influence breast cancer risk via its role as the decoy receptor for both the RANK ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Circulating OPG and breast cancer risk has been examined in only one prior study. A case-control study was nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. A total of 2008 incident invasive breast cancer cases (estrogen receptor (ER)+, n = 1622; ER-, n = 386), matched 1:1 to controls, were included in the analysis. Women were predominantly postmenopausal at blood collection (77%); postmenopausal women included users and non-users of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT). Serum OPG was quantified with an electrochemiluminescence assay. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The associations between OPG and ER+ and ER- breast cancer differed significantly. Higher concentrations of OPG were associated with increased risk of ER- breast cancer (top vs. bottom tertile RR = 1.93 [95% CI 1.24-3.02]; p trend  = 0.03). We observed a suggestive inverse association for ER+ disease overall and among women premenopausal at blood collection. Results for ER- disease did not differ by menopausal status at blood collection (p het  = 0.97), and we observed no heterogeneity by HT use at blood collection (p het  ≥ 0.43) or age at breast cancer diagnosis (p het  ≥ 0.30). This study provides the first prospective data on OPG and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype. High circulating OPG may represent a novel risk factor for ER- breast cancer.

  10. 60 YEARS OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY: TRH, the first hypophysiotropic releasing hormone isolated: control of the pituitary-thyroid axis. (United States)

    Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Uribe, Rosa-María; Charli, Jean-Louis


    This review presents the findings that led to the discovery of TRH and the understanding of the central mechanisms which control hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) activity. The earliest studies on thyroid physiology are now dated a century ago when basal metabolic rate was associated with thyroid status. It took over 50 years to identify the key elements involved in the HPT axis. Thyroid hormones (TH: T4 and T3) were characterized first, followed by the semi-purification of TSH whose later characterization paralleled that of TRH. Studies on the effects of TH became possible with the availability of synthetic hormones. DNA recombinant techniques facilitated the identification of all the elements involved in the HPT axis, including their mode of regulation. Hypophysiotropic TRH neurons, which control the pituitary-thyroid axis, were identified among other hypothalamic neurons which express TRH. Three different deiodinases were recognized in various tissues, as well as their involvement in cell-specific modulation of T3 concentration. The role of tanycytes in setting TRH levels due to the activity of deiodinase type 2 and the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme was unraveled. TH-feedback effects occur at different levels, including TRH and TSH synthesis and release, deiodinase activity, pituitary TRH-receptor and TRH degradation. The activity of TRH neurons is regulated by nutritional status through neurons of the arcuate nucleus, which sense metabolic signals such as circulating leptin levels. Trh expression and the HPT axis are activated by energy demanding situations, such as cold and exercise, whereas it is inhibited by negative energy balance situations such as fasting, inflammation or chronic stress. New approaches are being used to understand the activity of TRHergic neurons within metabolic circuits. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Event-related brain potentials to emotional images and gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia and paired controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eChampagne


    Full Text Available Prominent disturbances in the experience, expression, and emotion recognition in patients with schizophrenia have been relatively well documented over the last few years. Furthermore, sex differences in behavior and brain activity, associated with the processing of various emotions, have been reported in the general population and in schizophrenia patients. Others proposed that sex differences should be rather attributed to testosterone, which may play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia. Also, it had been suggested that estradiol may play a protective role in schizophrenia. Surprisingly, few studies investigating this pathology have focused on both brain substrates and gonadal steroid hormone levels, in emotional processing. In the present study, we investigated electrocortical responses related to emotional valence and arousal as well as gonadal steroid hormone levels in patients with schizophrenia. Event-Related Potentials (ERP were recorded during exposition to emotional pictures in 18 patients with schizophrenia and in 24 control participants paired on intelligence, manual dominance and socioeconomic status. Given their previous sensitivity to emotional and attention processes, the P200, N200 and the P300 were selected for analysis. More precisely, emotional valence generally affects early components (N200, which reflect early process of selective attention, whereas emotional arousal and valence both influences the P300 component, which is related to memory context updating, and stimulus categorization. Results showed that, in the control group, the amplitude of the N200 was significantly more lateralized over the right hemisphere, while there was no such lateralization in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, significantly smaller anterior P300 amplitude was observed to the unpleasant, compared to the pleasant. That anterior P300 reduction was also correlated with negative symptoms.

  12. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F


    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  13. 49 CFR 193.2619 - Control systems. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control systems. 193.2619 Section 193.2619...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2619 Control systems. (a) Each control system must be properly adjusted to operate within design limits. (b) If a control system is out of service for 30 days or more, it...

  14. Plug-and-Play Control – Modifying Control Systems Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob


    Often, when new sensor or actuator hardware be- comes available for use in a control system, it is desirable to retain the existing control system and apply the new control capabilities in a gradual fashion rather than decommissioning the entire existing system and replacing it with an altogether...... new control system. However, this requires that the existing controller remains in action, and the new control law component is added to the existing system. This paper formally introduces the concept of Plug-and-Play control and proposes two different methods of introducing new control components...... in a smooth manner, providing stability guarantees during the transition phase as well as retaining the original control structure. The applicability of the methods is illustrated on two different practical example systems, a livestock stable climate control system and a laboratory-scale model of a district...

  15. Proteoglycans in Leiomyoma and Normal Myometrium: Abundance, Steroid Hormone Control, and Implications for Pathophysiology. (United States)

    Barker, Nichole M; Carrino, David A; Caplan, Arnold I; Hurd, William W; Liu, James H; Tan, Huiqing; Mesiano, Sam


    Uterine leiomyoma are a common benign pelvic tumors composed of modified smooth muscle cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). The proteoglycan composition of the leiomyoma ECM is thought to affect pathophysiology of the disease. To test this hypothesis, we examined the abundance (by immunoblotting) and expression (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction) of the proteoglycans biglycan, decorin, and versican in leiomyoma and normal myometrium and determined whether expression is affected by steroid hormones and menstrual phase. Leiomyoma and normal myometrium were collected from women (n = 17) undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy. In vitro studies were performed on immortalized leiomyoma (UtLM) and normal myometrial (hTERT-HM) cells with and without exposure to estradiol and progesterone. In leiomyoma tissue, abundance of decorin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were 2.6-fold and 1.4-fold lower, respectively, compared with normal myometrium. Abundance of versican mRNA was not different between matched samples, whereas versican protein was increased 1.8-fold in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. Decorin mRNA was 2.4-fold lower in secretory phase leiomyoma compared with proliferative phase tissue. In UtLM cells, progesterone decreased the abundance of decorin mRNA by 1.3-fold. Lower decorin expression in leiomyoma compared with myometrium may contribute to disease growth and progression. As decorin inhibits the activity of specific growth factors, its reduced level in the leiomyoma cell microenvironment may promote cell proliferation and ECM deposition. Our data suggest that decorin expression in leiomyoma is inhibited by progesterone, which may be a mechanism by which the ovarian steroids affect leiomyoma growth and disease progression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuma Matsubara

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2.

  17. Glial-gonadotrophin hormone (GnRH) neurone interactions in the median eminence and the control of GnRH secretion. (United States)

    Ojeda, S R; Lomniczi, A; Sandau, U S


    A wealth of information now exists showing that glial cells are actively involved in the cell-cell communication process generating and disseminating information within the central nervous system. In the hypothalamus, two types of glial cells, astrocytes and ependymal cells lining the latero-ventral portion of the third ventricle (known as tanycytes), regulate the secretory activity of neuroendocrine neurones. This function, initially described for astrocytes apposing magnocellular neurones, has been more recently characterised for neurones secreting gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone (GnRH). The available evidence suggests that glial cells of the median eminence regulate GnRH secretion via two related mechanisms. One involves the production of growth factors acting via receptors with tyrosine kinase activity. The other involves plastic rearrangements of glia-GnRH neurone adhesiveness. GnRH axons reach the median eminence, at least in part, directed by basic fibroblast growth factor. Their secretory activity is facilitated by insulin-like growth factor 1 and members of the epidermal growth factor family. A structural complement to these soluble molecules is provided by at least three cell-cell adhesion systems endowed with signalling capabilities. One of them uses the neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), another employs the synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM), and the third one consists of neuronal contactin interacting with glial receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta. It is envisioned that, within the median eminence, soluble factors and adhesion molecules work coordinately to control delivery of GnRH to the portal vasculature.

  18. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  19. Foetal and neonatal development of luteinising hormone and its regulatory systems in the pig. (United States)

    Parvizi, N


    This review is a short summary of the "state-of-the-art" regarding the ontogeny of LH and part of its control system in the pig. The maturity of pituitary gonadotropin cells and the vascular drainage between the hypothalamus and pituitary are probably the most important steps in the developmental process of gonadotropin (LH) secretion. In the pig, these are achieved at around day 80 of foetal age, when LH cell density is comparable to that observed in adults. The hypothalamus regulates foetal pituitary LH secretion via LHRH well ahead of parturition. However, the main prerequisite of ovarian activity (ovulation), the "GnRH pulse generator", is not ready to function in the foetus. Pulsatile LH release is inducible by treatment of the foetal pituitary with LHRH, but extrahypothalamic modulating systems are not fully functioning until after birth. Likewise, there is no gonadal steroid feedback control of pituitary LH secretion up to the second week of neonatal age.

  20. Hormone and growth interactions of scions and size-controlling rootstocks of young apple trees (United States)

    Size-controlling rootstocks are critical to grow small, efficient trees that enable early and high yield in high-density plantings of apple. Improved knowledge of scion and rootstock-related processes associated with size-control can be an important factor in rootstock breeding and cultural practic...

  1. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dziurka, M.; Janeczko, A.; Juhasz, C.; Gullner, G.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Saja, D.; Skoczowski, A.; Tobias, I.; Barna, B.


    Roč. 109, DEC (2016), s. 355-364 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tobacco-mosaic-virus * pathogenesis-related proteins * salicylic-acid * abscisic-acid * acquired- resistance * disease resistance * nicotiana-benthamiana * arabidopsis-thaliana * defense response * immune-responses * Brassinosteroids * Ethylene * Hormone * Pepper * Phenylalanine ammonia lyase * Progesterone * Salicylic acid * Tobamovirus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  2. Sex hormones and urticaria. (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B


    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  3. Advances and applications in nonlinear control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volos, Christos


    The book reports on the latest advances and applications of nonlinear control systems. It consists of 30 contributed chapters by subject experts who are specialized in the various topics addressed in this book. The special chapters have been brought out in the broad areas of nonlinear control systems such as robotics, nonlinear circuits, power systems, memristors, underwater vehicles, chemical processes, observer design, output regulation, backstepping control, sliding mode control, time-delayed control, variables structure control, robust adaptive control, fuzzy logic control, chaos, hyperchaos, jerk systems, hyperjerk systems, chaos control, chaos synchronization, etc. Special importance was given to chapters offering practical solutions, modeling and novel control methods for the recent research problems in nonlinear control systems. This book will serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering. The resulting design proce...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was

  6. Nuclear electric propulsion reactor control systems status (United States)

    Ferg, D. A.


    The thermionic reactor control system design studies conducted over the past several years for a nuclear electric propulsion system are described and summarized. The relevant reactor control system studies are discussed in qualitative terms, pointing out the significant advantages and disadvantages including the impact that the various control systems would have on the nuclear electric propulsion system design. A recommendation for the reference control system is made, and a program for future work leading to an engineering model is described.

  7. Contouring controller for precise motion control systems


    Golubovic, Edin; Baran, Eray Abdurrahman; Şabanoviç, Asif; Sabanovic, Asif


    This paper discusses the trajectory generation algorithm, contour error construction method and finally the contour controller design. In the trajectory generation algorithm combination of elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFD) and time based spline approximation (TBSA) is used to generate position, velocity and acceleration references.Contour error is constructed using transformation of trajectory tracking errors. Transformation is computationally efficient and requires only reference velocity...

  8. The gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is associated with schizophrenia in a Danish case-control sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demontis, Ditte; Nyegaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane H


    OBJECTIVE: The MCHR1 gene encoding the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 is located on chromosome 22q13.2 and has previously been associated with schizophrenia in a study of cases and controls from the Faroe Islands and Scotland. Herein we report an association between variations in the MCHR...

  9. Longitudinal Profiles of Metabolism and Bioenergetics Associated with Innate Immune Hormonal Inflammatory Responses and Amino-Acid Kinetics in Severe Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Children. (United States)

    Spanaki, Anna Maria; Tavladaki, Theonymfi; Dimitriou, Helen; Kozlov, Andrey V; Duvigneau, J Catharina; Meleti, Eftychia; Weidinger, Adelheid; Papakonstantinou, Evangelos; Briassoulis, George


    Experimental data indicate that sepsis influences the mitochondrial function and metabolism. We aim to investigate longitudinal bioenergetic, metabolic, hormonal, amino-acid, and innate immunity changes in children with sepsis. Sixty-eight children (sepsis, 18; systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], 23; healthy controls, 27) were enrolled. Plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); flow-cytometry expressed as mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of heat shock protein (HSP) levels from monocytes (m) and neutrophils (n); resistin, adiponectin, and extracellular (e) HSPs evaluated by ELISA; ATP levels in white blood cells by luciferase luminescent assay; lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) by colorimetric test; nitrite and nitrate levels by chemiluminescent assay; biliverdin reductase (BVR) activity by enzymatic assay; and energy-expenditure (EE) by E-COVX. Resistin, eHSP72, eHSP90α, and nitrate were longitudinally higher in sepsis compared with SIRS (pmetabolic pattern were repressed in sepsis compared with SIRS (pmetabolism, mHSP72, and induced resistin and adiponectin (pmetabolic-hormones and eHSP72/HSP90α, repression of bioenergetics and innate immunity, hypo-metabolism, and amino-acid kinetics changes discriminate sepsis from SIRS; malnutrition, hypo-metabolism, and persistently increased resistin and adiponectin are associated with poor outcome. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Two complementary methods to control gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccination (Improvac®) misuse in horseracing: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in plasma and steroidomics in urine. (United States)

    Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Loup, Benoit; Popot, Marie-Agnès; Dreau, Marie-Laure; Garcia, Patrice; Bruyas, Jean-François; Bonnaire, Yves


    Since the availability on the European market of the vaccine Improvac® dedicated to male pig immunological castration, the risk of misuse of this product in horses is now considered as a threat for the horseracing industry. Immunological castration is not allowed by the racing codes (immune system, Article 6). Indeed, this vaccination against the hypothalamic hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) will prevent the release from the anterior pituitary of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone, which are required for the development and activity of gonads in males (testes) and female (ovaries) and therefore all their subsequent physiological functions. This treatment will induce a strong hormonal variation resulting in a behaviour modification of the animals. In this work, four male standardbreds treated with Improvac® vaccine (two intramuscular injections within 4 weeks) were studied. Monitoring of the total scrotal width showed a decrease of the scrotum size (37%) and production of anti-GnRH antibodies was detected up to 200 days after the first injection. Anti-GnRH antibodies were detected in plasma after caprylic acid precipitation followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a rapid and efficient screening method applicable to routine analysis. These results were correlated to a switch of the sexual status from male group to gelding/female group obtained by a steroidomic approach with urine based on ten endogenous compounds. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sympathetic control of metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Christensen, N J


    with 6-hydroxydopamine or shamtreated. Two weeks later the rats had either rabbit-antiglucagon serum or normal rabbit serum injected. Subsequently the rats either rested or swam with a tail weight for 75 min. Immediately afterwards cardiac blood was drawn and liver and muscle tissue collected. In control...... rats in spite of an increase in blood glucose concentrati4ns during exercise plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged, while glucagon concentrations increased. In sympathectomized rats, compared to control rats, glucagon concentrations increased less, and insulin concentrations were higher...

  12. Effect of artificial pancreas systems on glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outpatient randomised controlled trials. (United States)

    Weisman, Alanna; Bai, Johnny-Wei; Cardinez, Marina; Kramer, Caroline K; Perkins, Bruce A


    Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have been in development for several years, including assessment in numerous varied outpatient clinical trials. We aimed to summarise the efficacy and safety of artificial pancreas systems in outpatient settings and explore the clinical and technical factors that can affect their performance. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing artificial pancreas systems (insulin only or insulin plus glucagon) with conventional pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII] with blinded continuous glucose monitoring [CGM] or unblinded sensor-augmented pump [SAP] therapy) in adults and children with type 1 diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published from 1946, to Jan 1, 2017. We excluded studies not published in English, those involving pregnant women or participants who were in hospital, and those testing adjunct medications other than glucagon. The primary outcome was the mean difference in percentage of time blood glucose concentration remained in target range (3·9-10 mmol/L or 3·9-8 mmol/L, depending on the study), assessed by random-effects meta-analysis. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number 2015:CRD42015026854. We identified 984 reports; after exclusions, 27 comparisons from 24 studies (23 crossover and one parallel design) including a total of 585 participants (219 in adult studies, 265 in paediatric studies, and 101 in combined studies) were eligible for analysis. Five comparisons assessed dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon), two comparisons assessed both dual-hormone and single-hormone (insulin only), and 20 comparisons assessed single-hormone artificial pancreas systems. Time in target was 12·59% higher with artificial pancreas systems (95% CI 9·02-16·16; partificial pancreas systems were associated with a greater improvement in time in target range compared with single-hormone


    Recent studies suggest that environmental substances that mimic endogenous estrogens (eg. estradiol) may disrupt the endocrine system. While high-level exposures to estrogenic substances are believed to contribute to such adverse effects as cancer, developmental disorders, and fe...

  14. Influence of thyroid hormones on biochemical parameters of liver function: a case-control study in North Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree Bhattacharjee


    Full Text Available Normal level of thyroid hormones is important for normal hepatic function and thyroid dysfunction may modulate metabolic function of liver. The purpose of this study is to determine whether liver function is associated with subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Thyroid and liver function tests were evaluated in 47 patients with overt (TSH ≥10.0 mIU/L and 77 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 6.0-9.9mIU/L and compared with 120 age-matched euthyroid controls. Subjects with overt hypothyroidism had significantly raised serum ALT, AST, ALP and total protein levels as compared to controls whereas subclinical hypothyroid patients had significantly increased levels of serum ALT, ALP and total protein. Further, TSH showed significant positive correlation with AST and ALP values whereas fT3 and fT4 had a negative correlation with AST in overt hypothyroidism. Thus, overt hypothyroid state is associated with significant derangement in biochemical parameters of liver function. Hence, liver function should be regularly monitored in hypothyroid patients.

  15. Physiological control of pituitary hormone secretory-burst mass, frequency, and waveform: a statistical formulation and analysis. (United States)

    Keenan, Daniel M; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Biermasz, Nienke; Veldhuis, Johannes D


    The present study investigates the time-varying control of pituitary hormone secretion over the day and night (D/N). To this end, we implemented an analytical platform designed to reconstruct simultaneously 1) basal (nonpulsatile) secretion, 2) single or dual secretory-burst waveforms, 3) random effects on burst amplitude, 4) stochastic pulse-renewal properties, 5) biexponential elimination kinetics, and 6) experimental uncertainty. The statistical solution is conditioned on a priori pulse-onset times, which are estimated in the first stage. Primary data composed of thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were monitored over 24 h in 27 healthy adults. According to statistical criteria, 21/27 profiles favored a dual compared with single secretory-burst waveform. An objectively defined waveform change point (D/N boundary) emerged at 2046 (+/-23 min), after which 1) the mass of TSH released per burst increases by 2.1-fold (P process. Further studies will be required to assess the generality of the foregoing distinctive control mechanisms in other hypothalamo-pituitary axes.

  16. Hormonal, functional and genetic biomarkers in controlled ovarian stimulation: tools for matching patients and protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, Carlo; Humaidan, Peter; Ezcurra, Diego


    Variability in the subfertile patient population excludes the possibility of a single approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) covering all the requirements of a patient. Modern technology has led to the development of new drugs, treatment options and quantitative methods that can identif...

  17. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  18. Globalization and localization of Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul


    Through an empirical case study this article examines the operation of multiple management control systems as a package in a Danish manufacturing company. The analysis focuses on four different management control systems; cybernetic controls, planning controls, reward controls, and administrative...... controls, through the theoretical lens of globalization, localization, and glocalization. The analysis documents that these different management control systems are affected differently by the processes of globalization and localization, whereby some are universal throughout the organization and others...... have more particular characteristics. Specifically, this study finds that cybernetic controls and administrative controls are designed as global management control systems. Planning controls are glocal systems and reward & compensation controls assume local characteristics. The finding leads...

  19. Curcumin and Quercetin Ameliorated Cypermethrin and Deltamethrin-Induced Reproductive System Impairment in Male Wistar Rats by Upregulating The Activity of Pituitary-Gonadal Hormones and Steroidogenic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma


    Full Text Available Background Dietary antioxidants protect tissues and organs against insecticides/xenobiotic-induced damage. In the present study, we evaluated the results of exposure to synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, cypermethrin (Cyp and deltamethrin (Del and possible protective effects of curcumin and quercetin on reproductive system in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods In this controlled experimental study, 42 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 6 animals. Group A served as control, group B was exposed to Cyp (2 mg/, group C was exposed to Del (2 mg/, group D was exposed to Cyp+Del (2 mg/ each, group E was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with curcumin (100 mg/, group F was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin (100 mg/ and group G was exposed to Cyp+Del and treated with quercetin+curcumin for 45 days. Results Exposure to Cyp and Del caused decreases in reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm motility, level of sex hormones viz. testosterone (T, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, steroidogenic enzymes viz. 3β-hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, non-enzymatic antioxi- dant glutathione (GSH and enzymatic antioxidants viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione reductase (GR activity and increases in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO. The exposure also adversely affected the histo-achitecture of testes. Single and combined treatment with curcumin and quercetin significantly ameliorated Cyp and Del-induced damage in reproductive system. Conclusion Curcumin and quercetin protected against Cyp and Del-induced reproductive system toxicity and oxidative damage in rats. The increases in activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD with concomitant increases in testosterone were mainly responsible for ameliorating effects of curcumin and quercetin. Curcumin showed slightly

  20. Automatic oscillator frequency control system (United States)

    Smith, S. F. (Inventor)


    A frequency control system makes an initial correction of the frequency of its own timing circuit after comparison against a frequency of known accuracy and then sequentially checks and corrects the frequencies of several voltage controlled local oscillator circuits. The timing circuit initiates the machine cycles of a central processing unit which applies a frequency index to an input register in a modulo-sum frequency divider stage and enables a multiplexer to clock an accumulator register in the divider stage with a cyclical signal derived from the oscillator circuit being checked. Upon expiration of the interval, the processing unit compares the remainder held as the contents of the accumulator against a stored zero error constant and applies an appropriate correction word to a correction stage to shift the frequency of the oscillator being checked. A signal from the accumulator register may be used to drive a phase plane ROM and, with periodic shifts in the applied frequency index, to provide frequency shift keying of the resultant output signal. Interposition of a phase adder between the accumulator register and phase plane ROM permits phase shift keying of the output signal by periodic variation in the value of a phase index applied to one input of the phase adder.

  1. Concentrations of prealbumin and some appetite-controlling hormones in pregnancies associated with hyperemesis gravidarium. (United States)

    Ozturk, Gulfer; Ozgu-Erdinc, A Seval; Ucar, Fatma; Ginis, Zeynep; Erden, Gonul; Danisman, Nuri


    Background Hyperemesis gravidarum, which affects 0.3-2.3% of pregnancies, is defined as excessive vomiting during pregnancy and usually starts in week 4 or 5 of gestation. Symptoms include weight loss, dehydration, ketonaemia, ketonuria, fasting acidosis, alkalosis due to hydrochloric acid loss and hypokalaemia and its exact cause is unknown. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between prealbumin, ghrelin, nesfatin-1 and obestatin concentrations in pregnancies associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Methods A total of 40 pregnant females with hyperemesis gravidarum and 38 pregnant females without hyperemesis gravidarum as controls were included in this study. Serum concentrations of prealbumin, ghrelin, obestatin and nesfatin-1 were measured. Results There were no significant differences in age, gestational week, gravidity and parity between the two groups. Body mass index was significantly lower in cases than in controls. Serum ghrelin and prealbumin concentrations were significantly lower in cases than in controls ( P  hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusions Decreased serum concentrations of ghrelin and prealbumin in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum are independent of body mass index. Based on our results, we believe that ghrelin may be considered to play a role in the aetiopathogenesis of hyperemesis gravidarum and that hyperemesis gravidarum may result in disruption of the relationship between nesfatin-1 and ghrelin. In addition, we believe that the measurement of serum prealbumin may be used for assessing nutritional status in pregnancy.

  2. Modeling Canadian Quality Control Test Program for Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer: Diagnostic Accuracy Study. (United States)

    Pérez, Teresa; Makrestsov, Nikita; Garatt, John; Torlakovic, Emina; Gilks, C Blake; Mallett, Susan

    The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program monitors clinical laboratory performance for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor tests used in breast cancer treatment management in Canada. Current methods assess sensitivity and specificity at each time point, compared with a reference standard. We investigate alternative performance analysis methods to enhance the quality assessment. We used 3 methods of analysis: meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity of each laboratory across all time points; sensitivity and specificity at each time point for each laboratory; and fitting models for repeated measurements to examine differences between laboratories adjusted by test and time point. Results show 88 laboratories participated in quality control at up to 13 time points using typically 37 to 54 histology samples. In meta-analysis across all time points no laboratories have sensitivity or specificity below 80%. Current methods, presenting sensitivity and specificity separately for each run, result in wide 95% confidence intervals, typically spanning 15% to 30%. Models of a single diagnostic outcome demonstrated that 82% to 100% of laboratories had no difference to reference standard for estrogen receptor and 75% to 100% for progesterone receptor, with the exception of 1 progesterone receptor run. Laboratories with significant differences to reference standard identified with Generalized Estimating Equation modeling also have reduced performance by meta-analysis across all time points. The Canadian Immunohistochemistry Quality Control program has a good design, and with this modeling approach has sufficient precision to measure performance at each time point and allow laboratories with a significantly lower performance to be targeted for advice.

  3. Effects of Calcium, Vitamin D, and Hormone Therapy on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the Women's Health Initiative: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F; Jiang, Xuezhi; Aragaki, Aaron K; Nudy, Matthew; OʼSullivan, David M; Williams, Mark; LeBlanc, Erin S; Martin, Lisa W; Manson, JoAnn E; Shikany, James M; Johnson, Karen C; Stefanick, Marcia L; Payne, Martha E; Cauley, Jane A; Howard, Barbara V; Robbins, John


    To analyze the treatment effect of calcium+vitamin D supplementation, hormone therapy, both, and neither on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial among Women's Health Initiative (WHI) participants. The predefined primary outcome was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Between September 1993 and October 1998, a total of 68,132 women aged 50-79 years were recruited and randomized to the WHI-Dietary Modification (n=48,835) and WHI-Hormone Therapy trials (n=27,347). Subsequently, 36,282 women from WHI-Hormone Therapy (16,089) and WHI-Dietary Modification (n=25,210) trials were randomized in the WHI-Calcium+Vitamin D trial to 1,000 mg elemental calcium carbonate plus 400 international units vitamin D3 daily or placebo. Our study group included 1,521 women who participated in both the hormone therapy and calcium+vitamin D trials and were in the 6% subsample of trial participants with blood sample collections at baseline and years 1, 3, and 6. The average treatment effect with 95% confidence interval, for LDL-C, compared with placebo, was -1.6, (95% confidence interval [CI] -5.5 to 2.2) mg/dL for calcium+vitamin D alone, -9.0 (95% CI -13.0 to -5.1) mg/dL for hormone therapy alone, and -13.8 (95% CI -17.8 to -9.8) mg/dL for the combination. There was no evidence of a synergistic effect of calcium+vitamin D+hormone therapy on LDL-C (P value for interaction=.26) except in those with low total intakes of vitamin D, for whom there was a significant synergistic effect on LDL (P value for interaction=.03). Reductions in LDL-C were greater among women randomized to both calcium+vitamin D and hormone therapy than for those randomized to either intervention alone or to placebo. The treatment effect observed in the calcium+vitamin D+hormone therapy combination group may be additive rather than synergistic. For clinicians and patients deciding to begin calcium+vitamin D supplementation, current use

  4. PID Fuzzy Logic Controller System for DC Motor Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Samsul Bachri


    Full Text Available A good controller system must have resilience to disturbance and must be able to response quickly and accurately. Problem usually appears when PID controller system was built sensitively hence the system's respon to the disturbance will yield big overshot/undershot then the possibility of  oscillation to be happened is excelsior. When the controller system was built insensitively, the overshot/undershot will be  small but the recovery time will be longer. Hybrid controller system could overcome those problems by combining PID control system with fuzzy logic. The main control of this system is PID controller while the fuzzy logic acts to reduce an overshot/undershot and a recovery time. The fuzzy logic controller is designed with two input error and delta error and one output of the motor speed. The output of fuzzy logic controller should be only half of the PID controller for limiting entirely fuzzy output. This hybrid system design has a better respon time controller system than PID controller without fuzzy logic.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. Work during this quarter centered on the testing of the rebuilt laboratory prototype and its conversion into a version that will be operable in the drilling tests at TerraTek Laboratories. In addition, formations for use in these tests were designed and constructed, and a test protocol was developed. The change in scope and no-cost extension of Phase II to January, 2006, described in our last report, were approved. The tests are scheduled to be run during the week of January 23, and should be completed before the end of the month.

  6. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn


    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...... to hinder surges and mechanical fractures. Experimental results verify the performance of the controllers....

  7. Controlled long-term release of small peptide hormones using a new microporous polypropylene polymer: its application for vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat and potential perinatal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisbrink, J.; Boer, G.J.


    Based on drug release by microporous hollow fibers and the recent introduction of microporous polymers, a new technique was developed for controlled delivery of peptides. Small-diameter microporous polypropylene tubing, lumen-loaded with microgram quantities of vasopressin, and coated with collodion, releases vasopressin after in vitro immersion slowly (1-100 ng/d) and constantly for months. The mechanism of pseudo-zero-order delivery is based on high adsorption of vasopressin, keeping the void volume concentration of dissolved vasopressin constant, which is consequently a constant driving force of outward diffusion. The collodion coating prevents the entry of proteinaceous compounds which would result in rapid desorption of vasopressin. The present delivery module provides a lasting release for other peptides as well (lysine-vasopressin, oxytocin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and, to a lesser extent, Met-enkephalin). The microporous polymer-collodion device is biocompatible and, loaded with vasopressin, successfully alleviates the diabetes insipidus of Brattleboro rats deficient for vasopressin. Subcutaneous implantation normalized diuresis for a period of 60 d and constant urine vasopressin excretion is observed. When the commercially available osmotic minipump is too large for implantation, the small size of the present controlled-delivery system allows peptide treatment of young and immature laboratory rats, even if located in utero.

  8. Reproductive Hormones and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir


    Full Text Available During the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast-feeding periods, as well as in menopausal and post-menopausal periods, the physiological and psychological processes that change according to the hormonal fluctuations influence every women similarly and each one differently. These physiological processes are controlled by neuroendocrine sequences, of which the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis are the most important ones. The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis affects mood, anxiety, cognition and pain. The interaction of these hormones with mood and behavior is bidirectional. The differences in phenomenology and epidemiology of mood disorders with regards to gender can be explained with the effects of hormones. All of the periods mentioned above are related with mood disorders at terms of risk factors, disease symptoms, progress of disease and response to treatment. Epidemiologic data supports the relationship between the mood disorders and reproductive processes. The prevalence of major depression increases in women with the menarche and ceases in post- menopausal period. Similarly, the initial symptoms of bipolar disorder begins around the menarche period in 50% of the cases. Despite proper treatment, some female patients with major depression experience recurrence during the premenstrual period of their menstrual cycles. The conformity and change in a woman’s brain during pregnancy is controlled dominantly by the neuroendocrine systems, while it is controlled by the external stimuli actively related to the baby during nursing period. The changes that occur are closely related to postpartum mood disorders. Again, all the changes and suspension of medication during this procedure are risk factors for early depressive and dysphoric situations. Variables of a wide range, from follicle stimulating hormone, melatonin, and sleep to body mass index interact with mood disorders in menopausal and post

  9. Short loop feedback control of the estrogen-induced luteinizing hormone surge in pigs. (United States)

    Ziecik, A J; Britt, J H; Esbenshade, K L


    This study examines whether hCG will block the estradiol-induced LH surge in ovariectomized gilts. Twenty post-puberal cross-bred gilts were ovariectomized at 6-7 months of age. Approximately 2 months later, the experiment was conducted, and all gilts were given estradiol benzoate (EB; 10 micrograms/kg, im) at 0 h. Controls (n = 6) received im saline 24 and 48 h after EB. Two groups of gilts received 2000 IU hCG im, at 24 h (hCG24; n = 5) or 48 h (hCG48; n = 5) after EB. The fourth group (n = 4) received hCG at 48 h and was then given iv a LHRH agonist (des-Gly10, [D-Ala6]LHRH ethylamide) in 100-ng boluses hourly from 54-96 h after EB. Blood samples for determination of LH and FSH were collected every 6 h from 0-96 h. In controls, EB alone suppressed LH from 3.9 +/- 1.9 ng/ml at 0 h to 1.0 +/- 0.2 during 6-48 h (negative feedback), but LH then increased to 4.5 +/- 0.5 between 54 and 96 h (positive feedback), with the peak of the surge (6.7 +/- 1.6) occurring at 72 h. Treatment with hCG did not alter LH during the negative feedback phase (1.1 +/- 0.1 and 1.0 +/- 0.1 for hCG24 and hCG48, respectively). However, there was no LH surge in gilts given hCG at 24 or 48 h (2.4 +/- 0.2 and 2.2 +/- 0.1 form 54-96 h; P less than 0.05). Hourly injections of the LHRH agonist evoked a surge in LH (8.3 +/- 1.3) and maintained elevated LH (4.5 +/- 0.6) between 54 and 96 h, similar (P greater than 0.05) to values for controls. Generally, FSH in gilts given hCG followed the same pattern as LH secretion during the negative feedback stage; however, due to randomization, means for the period from 0-48 h for gilts treated with hCG 24 or 48 h after EB were lower (P less than 0.05) than for controls or gilts given LHRH agonist (62.2 +/- 2.8 and 63.0 +/- 2.7 vs. 79.3 +/- 3.2 and 93.3 +/- 4.2 ng/ml, respectively). During the positive feedback phase (54-96 h), FSH was lower in gilts given hCG (hCG24, 63.4 +/- 2.3; hCG48, 67.3 +/- 2.0) than in controls (86.0 +/- 4.0), but in gilts given LHRH

  10. Control-based operating system design

    CERN Document Server

    Leva, Alberto; Papadopoulos, AV; Terraneo, F


    This book argues that computer operating system components should be conceived from the outset as controllers, synthesised and assessed in the system-theoretical world of dynamic models, and then realised as control algorithms.

  11. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.


    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  12. Growth hormone and epidermal growth factor together enhance amino acid transport systems B0,+ and A in remnant small intestine after massive enterectomy. (United States)

    Ray, Edward C; Avissar, Nelly E; Vukcevic, Dubravka; Toia, Liana; Ryan, Charlotte K; Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Sax, Harry C


    Sodium-dependent brush-border nutrient transport is decreased 2 weeks after massive enterectomy. This down-regulation is ameliorated by a 1-week infusion of parenteral growth hormone (GH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) started 1 week after resection. We hypothesize that glutamine (GLN) transport will be enhanced by earlier and longer growth factor infusion, with differential effects on the Na(+)-dependent GLN transport systems A, B(0,+), and B(0)/ASCT2. New Zealand White rabbits underwent 70% small bowel resection then immediately received parenteral EGF, GH, both EGF and GH, or neither for 2 weeks. Na(+)-dependent 3H-GLN uptake by jejunal and ileal brush-border membrane vesicles was measured and the contribution of systems A, B(0,+), and B(0) was then determined by competitive inhibition. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. In nonresected animals, the relative contribution of the systems was similar in jejunum (A 9%, B(0,+) 20%, and B(0) 71%) and ileum (A 13%, B(0,+) 27%, and B(0) 60%). Na(+)-dependent GLN uptake was reduced by one half in resected untreated controls, primarily because of decreased B(0) activity. EGF or GH alone did not affect Na(+)-dependent GLN transport, but, as a combination, there was increased uptake in the residual ileum and jejunum by 144% and 150%, respectively, over resected controls (P enterectomy, synergistically enhance GLN uptake by systems A and B(0,+).

  13. Growth hormone and epidermal growth factor together enhance amino acid transport systems B(0,+) and A in remnant small intestine after massive enterectomy. (United States)

    Ray, Edward C; Avissar, Nelly E; Vukcevic, Dubravka; Toia, Liana; Ryan, Charlotte K; Berlanga-Acosta, Jorge; Sax, Harry C


    Sodium-dependent brush border nutrient transport is decreased 2 weeks after massive enterectomy. This downregulation is ameliorated by a 1-week infusion of parenteral growth hormone (GH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) started 1 week after resection. We hypothesized that glutamine (GLN) transport would be enhanced by earlier and longer growth factor infusion, with differential effects on the Na(+)-dependent GLN transport systems A, B(0,+), and B0/ASCT2. New Zealand White rabbits underwent 70% small bowel resection then immediately received parenteral EGF, GH, both, or neither for 2 weeks. Na(+)-dependent 3H-GLN uptake by jejunal and ileal brush-border membrane vesicles was measured and the contribution of systems A, B(0,+), and B0 then determined by competitive inhibition. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. In nonresected animals, the relative contribution of the systems was similar in jejunum (A, 9%, B(0,+), 20%; and B0, 71%) and ileum (A, 13%; B(0,+), 27%; and B0, 60%). Na(+)-dependent GLN uptake was reduced by half in resected, untreated controls, primarily because of decreased B(0) activity. EGF or GH alone did not affect Na(+)-dependent GLN transport, but as a combination, increased uptake in the residual ileum and jejunum by 144% and 150%, respectively, over resected controls (Penterectomy, synergistically enhance GLN uptake by systems A and B(0,+).

  14. Model predictive control for a thermostatic controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob


    This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff...

  15. Noninteracting control of nonlinear systems based on relaxed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, B.


    In this paper, we propose methodology to solve noninteracting control problem for general nonlinear systems based on the relaxed control technique proposed by Artstein. For a class of nonlinear systems which cannot be stabilized by smooth feedback, a state-feedback relaxed control can be designed to

  16. Activation of arcuate nucleus neurons by systemic administration of leptin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-6 in normal and fasted rats. (United States)

    Luckman, S M; Rosenzweig, I; Dickson, S L


    Both leptin and growth hormone secretagogues are believed to have stimulatory effects on the hypothalamic growth hormone pulse generator, though whether these are achieved through the same pathway is unknown. Systemic administration of a normally maximal effective dose of the growth hormone secretagogue GHRP-6 to male rats causes the induction of c-Fos protein in the ventromedial aspect of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The effect of the same dose of GHRP-6 is, however, much greater in animals that have been fasted for 48 h, suggesting that in the food-replete rat, arcuate neurons either show reduced sensitivity to endogenous growth hormone secretagogues or they are under the tonic inhibitory influences of other factors. The major populations of arcuate neurons activated by GHRP-6 have been shown to contain neuropeptide Y or growth hormone-releasing factor, while leptin is thought to be inhibitory to neuropeptide Y neurons. Leptin did not alter the response of the rats to GHRP-6. However, it was able by itself to induce c-Fos protein immunoreactivity in the ventral, including the ventrolateral, arcuate nucleus of fasted rats. This is a clear demonstration of the acute activation of arcuate neurons in the rat following systemic leptin injection and suggests that GHRP-6 and leptin act on the growth hormone axis via different pathways.

  17. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per


    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  18. Seaway Information System Management and Control Requirements (United States)


    This report examines in detail the control and information system requirements of the St. Lawrence Seaway development program in terms of the needs of the vessel traffic controllers and the management users. Structural control models of Seaway operat...

  19. Progress in Controlled Gastroretentive Delivery Systems | Garg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress in Controlled Gastroretentive Delivery Systems. ... Abstract. Controlled release (CR) dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with several important drugs. However, the ... Keywords: Gastroretention, Oral controlled release, Swelling, Narrow absorption window, Floating dosage form. Tropical ...

  20. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (United States)

    Engel, Joshua Allen


    The Environmental Control System provides a controlled air purge to Orion and SLS. The ECS performs this function by processing 100% ambient air while simultaneously controlling temperature, pressure, humidity, cleanliness and purge distribution.

  1. An Integrated Expert Controller for the Oven Temperature Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagabhushana KATTE


    Full Text Available Paper presents a methodology for design of integrated fuzzy logic based an expert controller and its implementation for a real time oven temperature control system. Integrated expert controller (IEC is composed by cascading fuzzy logic controller with improved PID controller. Wherein, fuzzy controller evaluates the supplemental control actions and PID evaluates the final control actions. Temperature measurement of the oven with a precision of 16-bits is achieved through Pt100, instrumentation amplifier, and A/D converter and fuzzy plus PID computed control actions are given to the actuator via D/A converter (16-bits and PWM generator. Paper experimentally demonstrated the performance of IEC for oven temperature control application. The performance indexes of the system are presented in a comparative fashion with the conventional PID and expert controllers. Control algorithms are developed using C language.

  2. Design of Grain Dryers’ Control System (United States)

    Li, Shizhuang; Cao, Shukun; Meng, Wenjing


    TMS320F28335 which is a TI high-performance TMS320C28x series 32-bit floating point DSP processor is used as the core of the controller, and the hardware is designed, which includes temperature collection, temperature and humidity collection, moisture detection and motor control. The development environment of the system CCS, and then for the characteristics of grain dryer control system, the control system software modular design, the use of fuzzy control method to achieve food grain motor control, and MATLAB simulation analysis, Fuzzy control is used to control the feasibility of the grain moisture.

  3. Patients' perceptions and attitudes on recurrent prostate cancer and hormone therapy: Qualitative comparison between decision-aid and control groups. (United States)

    Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; O'Muircheartaigh, Siobhan; Mohile, Supriya; Dale, William


    To compare patients' attitudes towards recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) and starting hormone therapy (HT) treatment in two groups-Decision-Aid (DA) (intervention) and Standard-of-care (SoC) (Control). The present research was conducted at three academic clinics-two in the Midwest and one in the Northeast U.S. Patients with biochemical recurrence of PCa (n=26) and follow-up oncology visits meeting inclusion criteria were randomized to either the SoC or DA intervention group prior to their consultation. Analysts were blinded to group assignment. Semi-structured phone interviews with patients were conducted 1-week post consultation. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Qualitative analytic techniques were used to extract salient themes and conduct a comparative analysis of the two groups. Four salient themes emerged-1) knowledge acquisition, 2) decision-making style, 3) decision-making about timing of HT, and 4) anxiety-coping mechanisms. A comparative analysis showed that patients receiving the DA intervention had a better comprehension of Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), an improved understanding of HT treatment implications, an external locus-of-control, participation in shared decision-making and, support-seeking for anxiety reduction. In contrast, SoC patients displayed worse comprehension of PSA testing and HT treatment implications, internal locus-of-control, unilateral involvement in knowledge-seeking and decision-making, and no support-seeking for anxiety-coping. The DA was more effective than the SoC group in helping PCa patients understand the full implications of PSA testing and treatment; motivating shared decision-making, and support-seeking for anxiety relief. DA DVD interventions can be a useful patient education tool for bringing higher quality decision-making to prostate cancer care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adaptive control of port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksz, Daniel; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.


    Adaptive control is an alternative approach for controlling systems which are sensitive to parameter uncertainty. With adaptive control it is possible to estimate parameter errors and to compensate for those errors. This can result in a better performance of the controlled system. Some techniques

  5. 50 CFR 600.420 - Control system. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control system. 600.420 Section 600.420..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.420 Control system. (a) The Assistant Administrator maintains a control system to protect the identity of submitters of...

  6. Adrenal hormonal imbalance in acute intermittent porphyria patients: results of a case control study (United States)


    Background Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP) is a rare disease that results from a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase, the third enzyme of the heme biosynthetic pathway. AIP carriers are at risk of presenting acute life-threatening neurovisceral attacks. The disease induces overproduction of heme precursors in the liver and long-lasting deregulation of metabolic networks. The clinical history of AIP suggests a strong endocrine influence, being neurovisceral attacks more common in women than in men and very rare before puberty. To asses the hypothesis that steroidogenesis may be modified in AIP patients with biochemically active disease, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the urinary steroid metabolome. Methods A case–control study was performed by collecting spot morning urine from 24 AIP patients and 24 healthy controls. Steroids in urine were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Parent steroids (17-hydroxyprogesterone; deoxycorticosterone; corticoesterone; 11-dehydrocorticosterone; cortisol and cortisone) and a large number of metabolites (N = 55) were investigated. Correlations between the different steroids analyzed and biomarkers of porphyria biochemical status (urinary heme precursors) were also evaluated. The Mann–Whitney U test and Spearman’s correlation with a two tailed test were used for statistical analyses. Results Forty-one steroids were found to be decreased in the urine of AIP patients (P  0.51, P < 0.01). Conclusions Comprehensive study of the urinary steroid metabolome showed that AIP patients present an imbalance in adrenal steroidogenesis, affecting the biosynthesis of cortisol and resulting in decreased out-put of cortisol and metabolites. This may result from alterations of central origin and/or may originate in specific decreased enzymatic activity in the adrenal gland. An imbalance in steroidogenesis may be related to the maintenance of an active disease state among AIP patients. PMID

  7. Association of hormone therapy and incident gout: population-based case-control study. (United States)

    Bruderer, Saskia G; Bodmer, Michael; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R


    This study aims to assess the odds of developing incident gout in association with the use of postmenopausal estrogen-progestogen therapy, according to type, timing, duration, and route of administration of estrogen-progestogen therapy. We conducted a retrospective population-based case-control analysis using the United Kingdom-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified women (aged 45 y or older) who had a first-time diagnosis of gout recorded between 1990 and 2010. We matched one female control with each case on age, general practice, calendar time, and years of active history in the database. We used multivariate conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs (adjusted for confounders). The adjusted OR for gout with current use of oral formulations of opposed estrogens (estrogen-progestogen) was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.56-0.86) compared with never use. Current use was associated with a decreased OR for gout in women without renal failure (adjusted OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87) and hypertension (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87) compared with never use. Tibolone was associated with a decreased OR for gout (adjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95) compared with never use. Estrogens alone did not alter the OR for gout. Current use of oral opposed estrogens, but not unopposed estrogens, is associated with a decreased OR for incident gout in women without renal failure and is more pronounced in women with hypertension. Use of tibolone is associated with a decreased OR for incident gout. The decreased OR for gout may be related to the progestogen component rather than the estrogen component.

  8. Hormonal, follicular and endometrial dynamics in letrozole-treated versus natural cycles in patients undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunengraber Lisa N


    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to compare letrozole-stimulated cycles to natural cycles in 208 patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI between July of 2004 and January of 2007. Group I (n = 47 received cycle monitoring only (natural group, Group II (n = 125 received letrozole 2.5 mg/day on cycle days three to seven, and Group III (n = 36 received letrozole 5 mg/day on cycle days three to seven. There were no differences between the groups in endometrial thickness or P4 on the day of hCG. Estradiol levels had higher variation in the second half of the follicular phase in both letrozole-treated groups compared to the control group. Estradiol per preovulatory follicle was similar in both letrozole cycles to that observed in the natural cycles. LH was lower on the day of hCG administration in the letrozole 2.5 mg/day group vs. the natural group. In summary, letrozole results in some minor changes in follicular, hormonal and endometrial dynamics compared to natural cycles. Increased folliculogenesis and pregnancy rates were observed in the letrozole-treated groups compared to the natural group. These findings need to be confirmed in larger, prospective studies.

  9. Treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist before hysterectomy for leiomyomas: results of a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Vercellini, P; Crosignani, P G; Mangioni, C; Imparato, E; Ferrari, A; De Giorgi, O


    To ascertain whether uterine shrinkage induced by a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist before hysterectomy for fibroids increases the possibility of a vaginal procedure. A multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled study. One hundred and twenty-seven premenopausal women with a uterine volume of 12 to 16 gestational weeks. Twelve weeks of triptorelin depot treatment before hysterectomy or immediate surgery. Number of vaginal and abdominal hysterectomies, operating time, blood loss, degree of difficulty of the procedure, perioperative serum haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, hospital stay, and patients' overall satisfaction with treatment. After randomisation, four women withdrew from the study, leaving 60 women in the triptorelin arm and 63 in the immediate surgery arm. At baseline evaluation a vaginal hysterectomy was indicated in seven women allocated to pre-operative medical therapy (12%), and in 10 of those allocated to immediate surgery (16%). Clinical assessment after the 12-week GnRH agonist course showed that abdominal hysterectomy was no longer indicated in 25/53 women (47%) as a vaginal procedure appeared appropriate. Thus the overall rate of indication for a vaginal procedure in the pre-operative medical treatment arm was 32/60 cases (53%), with a between-group difference of 37% (95% CI, 26% to 51%; chi2(1) = 19.18, P fibroids and uterine volume of 12 to 16 gestational weeks.

  10. The effect of marjoram (Origanum majorana) tea on the hormonal profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomised controlled pilot study. (United States)

    Haj-Husein, I; Tukan, S; Alkazaleh, F


    In traditional medicine, marjoram herb (Origanum majorana) is locally reputed for its ability to restore hormonal balance and to regulate the menstrual cycle. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of marjoram tea on the hormonal profile of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Twenty-five patients were assigned to receive marjoram tea or a placebo tea twice daily for 1 month (intervention group: n = 14; placebo group: n = 11). The hormonal and metabolic parameters measured at baseline, as well as after the intervention, were: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, progesterone, oestradiol, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glucose to insulin ratio. Marjoram tea significantly reduced DHEA-S and fasting insulin levels (P < 0.05) by a mean (SD) of 1.4 (0.5) μmol L(-1) and 1.9 (0.8) μU mL(-1) , respectively. In comparison to the placebo group, the change was only significant for DHEA-S (P = 0.05) but not for insulin (P = 0.08). HOMA-IR was not reduced significantly in the intervention group (P = 0.06), although the change was significant compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). The results obtained in the present study show the beneficial effects of marjoram tea on the hormonal profile of PCOS women because it was found to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce the levels of adrenal androgens. Further research is needed to confirm these results and to investigate the active components and mechanisms contributing to such potential beneficial effects of marjoram herb. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahu Mati


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment. Methods The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial (EPHT, originally planned to continue for five years, was planned in co-operation with the Women's International Study of Long-Duration Oestrogen after Menopause (WISDOM in the UK. In addition to health outcomes, EPHT was specifically designed to study the impact of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT on health services utilization. Results After EPHT recruited in 1999–2001 the Women's Health Initiative (WHI in the USA decided to stop the estrogen-progestin trial after a mean of 5.2 years in July 2002 because of increased risk of breast cancer and later in 2004 the estrogen-only trial because HT increased the risk of stroke, decreased the risk of hip fracture, and did not affect coronary heart disease incidence. WISDOM was halted in autumn 2002. These decisions had a major influence on EPHT. Conclusion Changes in Estonian society challenged EPHT to find a balance between the needs of achieving responses to the trial aims with a limited budget and simultaneously maintaining the safety of trial participants. Flexibility was the main key for success. Rapid changes are not limited only to transiting societies but are true also in developed countries and the risk must be included in planning all long-term trials. The role of ethical and data monitoring committees in situations with emerging new data from other studies needs specification. Longer funding for preventive trials and more flexibility in budgeting are mandatory. Who should prove the effectiveness of an (old drug for a new preventive indication? In preventive drug trials companies may


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin E. Cobern


    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. As a result of the lower than expected performance of the MR damper noted last quarter, several additional tests were conducted. These dealt with possible causes of the lack of dynamic range observed in the testing: additional damping from the oil in the Belleville springs; changes in properties of the MR fluid; and, residual magnetization of the valve components. Of these, only the last was found to be significant. By using a laboratory demagnetization apparatus between runs, a dynamic range of 10:1 was achieved for the damper, more than adequate to produce the needed improvements in drilling. Additional modeling was also performed to identify a method of increasing the magnetic field in the damper. As a result of the above, several changes were made in the design. Additional circuitry was added to demagnetize the valve as the field is lowered. The valve was located to above the Belleville springs to reduce the load placed upon it and offer a greater range of materials for its construction. In addition, to further increase the field strength, the coils were relocated from the mandrel to the outer housing. At the end of the quarter, the redesign was complete and new parts were on order. The project is approximately three months behind schedule at this time.

  13. Towards Autonomous Control of HVAC Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brath, P.

    autonomous control. Together with better tuned controllers and more dedicated control it would be possible to decrease the energy consumption, save money and increase the indoor air climate. A flexible HVAC test system was designed and implemented. Standard components and sensors were used in the design......This thesis considered development of an autonomous control system for heating ventilation and air conditioning applications. By including auto-tuning, adaptation, diagnosis and supervision functions in the control system used in the HVAC industry will move the control of HVAC systems towards...... of the system, in order to achieve a realistic test environment. A new scheme for controlling the inlet air temperature was suggested and designed as a part of a cascade control strategy. The control scheme developed can be used in general for control of the inlet air temperature in an air handling unit. A room...

  14. Effects of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Anne S. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail:


    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ER{alpha}, ER{beta}) and androgen receptor-{beta} (AR{beta}). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-{alpha} (AhR{alpha}) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhR{beta} was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO

  15. Gonadotrophic hormone and reinforcement sensitivity systems in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder. (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Long, Cheng-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Ju-Yu


    Behavior inhibition and behavior approach system (BIS/BAS) determine the sensitivity to aversion and rewarding stimuli, respectively. This study aimed at evaluating the BIS/BAS of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and effect of estrogen and progesterone on the BIS/BAS. Women with PMDD without treatment and control subjects were recruited from the community. The PMDD diagnosis was based on psychiatric interviewing and the result of two-menstrual-cycle follow up. A total of 67 women with PMDD and 75 control subjects were recruited and entered the final analysis. They were evaluated with BIS/BAS scale and for estrogen and progesterone levels in both premenstrual and follicular phases. The results revealed that BAS score was higher among women with PMDD in both premenstrual and follicular phases. Progesterone level negatively correlated with fun-seeking, and its change in the menstrual cycle also negatively correlated to a change in fun-seeking score among women with PMDD. Women with PMDD had a higher score in BIS in the premenstrual phase and the BIS score correlated to depression, anxiety, and hostility among them. These results suggest reward sensitivity of women with PMDD is vulnerable to the effect of progesterone change in the menstrual cycle. Furthermore, the sensitivity to aversive stimuli plays an important role involving core symptoms of PMDD. The reinforcement sensitivity of PMDD deserves further detailed study. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  17. Predictive Approaches to Control of Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karer, Gorazd


    A predictive control algorithm uses a model of the controlled system to predict the system behavior for various input scenarios and determines the most appropriate inputs accordingly. Predictive controllers are suitable for a wide range of systems; therefore, their advantages are especially evident when dealing with relatively complex systems, such as nonlinear, constrained, hybrid, multivariate systems etc. However, designing a predictive control strategy for a complex system is generally a difficult task, because all relevant dynamical phenomena have to be considered. Establishing a suitable model of the system is an essential part of predictive control design. Classic modeling and identification approaches based on linear-systems theory are generally inappropriate for complex systems; hence, models that are able to appropriately consider complex dynamical properties have to be employed in a predictive control algorithm. This book first introduces some modeling frameworks, which can encompass the most frequ...

  18. Hormone Therapy (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  19. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... of GHD and/or hypopituitarism , such as: Decreased bone density Fatigue Adverse lipid changes, such as high cholesterol Reduced exercise tolerance Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing , ...

  20. Growth Hormone (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003706.htm . Accessed October 2010. (© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8688: Growth Hormone, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical ...

  1. Hormone Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  2. Fuzzy logic control and optimization system (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng [West Hartford, CT


    A control system (300) for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input signal (369) and an output for outputting an output signal (367), and a hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) operably connected to the chemical loop. The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) includes a plurality of fuzzy controllers (330). The hierarchical fuzzy control system (400) receives the output signal (367), optimizes the input signal (369) based on the received output signal (367), and outputs an optimized input signal (369) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  3. Role of Sex Hormones in the Control of Vegetative and Metabolic Functions of Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Monda


    Full Text Available Aims: In women's life, menopause is characterized by significant physiological changes often associated with an increase in body mass and obesity-associated sicknesses. Numerous researches described interdependencies of estrogen deficiency, aging, and resting energy expenditure (REE downfall in the obesity correlated with the menopause. The aim of this study was to determining whether healthy, obese menopausal women underwent HRT treatment, showed changes in their REE, autonomic asset, and assessment of oxidative stress in comparison with obese pre- and post-menopausal women.Methodology: In this study, we measured the body composition, the REE, the oxidative stress, the diet assimilation, and the autonomic nervous system activity in three groups: pre-menopause women (n = 50, post-menopause women following hormone-replacement therapy (HRT; n = 50, and post-menopause women not following HRT (n = 50.Results: In the group with HRT a significant increase of the sympathetic activity and REE was described. Finally this group showed a notable increment of oxidative stress compared with the others, and utilizing BIA instrument, the free fat mass was increased respect to the fat mass of obese women.Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of the HRT-related physiological changes that influence body weight in menopause women. This results are important because have a practical implications for prevention and/or treatment of the obesity.

  4. Role of Sex Hormones in the Control of Vegetative and Metabolic Functions of Middle-Aged Women. (United States)

    Monda, Vincenzo; Salerno, Monica; Fiorenzo, Moscatelli; Villano, Ines; Viggiano, Andrea; Sessa, Francesco; Triggiani, Antonio I; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Valenzano, Anna; Marsala, Gabriella; Zammit, Christian; Ruberto, Maria; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta


    Aims: In women's life, menopause is characterized by significant physiological changes often associated with an increase in body mass and obesity-associated sicknesses. Numerous researches described interdependencies of estrogen deficiency, aging, and resting energy expenditure (REE) downfall in the obesity correlated with the menopause. The aim of this study was to determining whether healthy, obese menopausal women underwent HRT treatment, showed changes in their REE, autonomic asset, and assessment of oxidative stress in comparison with obese pre- and post-menopausal women. Methodology: In this study, we measured the body composition, the REE, the oxidative stress, the diet assimilation, and the autonomic nervous system activity in three groups: pre-menopause women (n = 50), post-menopause women following hormone-replacement therapy (HRT; n = 50), and post-menopause women not following HRT (n = 50). Results: In the group with HRT a significant increase of the sympathetic activity and REE was described. Finally this group showed a notable increment of oxidative stress compared with the others, and utilizing BIA instrument, the free fat mass was increased respect to the fat mass of obese women. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of the HRT-related physiological changes that influence body weight in menopause women. This results are important because have a practical implications for prevention and/or treatment of the obesity.

  5. Control and estimation of piecewise affine systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun


    As a powerful tool to study nonlinear systems and hybrid systems, piecewise affine (PWA) systems have been widely applied to mechanical systems. Control and Estimation of Piecewise Affine Systems presents several research findings relating to the control and estimation of PWA systems in one unified view. Chapters in this title discuss stability results of PWA systems, using piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and piecewise homogeneous polynomial Lyapunov functions. Explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for the controllability and reachability of a class of PWA systems are

  6. Automatic synthesis of supervisory control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, E.; Babuska, R.

    Sequential composition is an effective supervisory control method for addressing control problems in nonlinear dynamical systems. It executes a set of controllers sequentially to achieve a control specification that cannot be realized by a single controller. Sequential composition focuses on the

  7. Automatic synthesis of supervisory control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafi, E.


    Sequential composition is an effective supervisory control method for addressing control problems in nonlinear dynamical systems. It executes a set of controllers sequentially to achieve a control specification that cannot be realized by a single controller. Sequential composition focuses on the

  8. Response to copper excess in Arabidopsis thaliana: Impact on the root system architecture, hormone distribution, lignin accumulation and mineral profile. (United States)

    Lequeux, Hélène; Hermans, Christian; Lutts, Stanley; Verbruggen, Nathalie


    Growth, in particular reorganization of the root system architecture, mineral homeostasis and root hormone distribution were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana upon copper excess. Five-week-old Arabidopsis plants growing in hydroponics were exposed to different Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 5 muM). Root biomass was more severely inhibited than shoot biomass and Cu was mainly retained in roots. Cu(2+) excess also induced important changes in the ionome. In roots, Mg, Ca, Fe and Zn concentrations increased, whereas K and S decreased. Shoot K, Ca, P, and Mn concentrations decreased upon Cu(2+) exposure. Further, experiments with seedlings vertically grown on agar were carried out to investigate the root architecture changes. Increasing Cu(2+) concentrations (up to 50 muM) reduced the primary root growth and increased the density of short lateral roots. Experiment of split-root system emphasized a local toxicity of Cu(2+) on the root system. Observations of GUS reporter lines suggested changes in auxin and cytokinin accumulations and in mitotic activity within the primary and secondary root tips treated with Cu(2+). At toxic Cu(2+) concentrations (50 muM), these responses were accompanied by higher root apical meristem death. Contrary to previous reports, growth on high Cu(2+) did not induce an ethylene production. Finally lignin deposition was detected in Cu(2+)-treated roots, probably impacting on the translocation of nutrients. The effects on mineral profile, hormonal status, mitotic activity, cell viability and lignin deposition changes on the Cu(2+)-induced reorganization of the root system architecture are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Control Systems and Number Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhuo Li


    and PID-controllers are applied successfully in the EV control by J.-Y. Cao and B.-G. Cao 2006 and Cao et al. 2007, which we may unify in our framework. Finally, we mention some similarities between control theory and zeta-functions.


    Miller, G.


    A nuclear reactor control rod mechanism is designed which mechanically moves the control rods into and out of the core under normal conditions but rapidly forces the control rods into the core by catapultic action in the event of an emergency. (AEC)

  11. Perturbation of estradiol-feedback control of luteinizing hormone secretion by immunoneutralization induces development of follicular cysts in cattle. (United States)

    Kaneko, H; Todoroki, J; Noguchi, J; Kikuchi, K; Mizoshita, K; Kubota, C; Yamakuchi, H


    We used immunoneutralization of endogenous estradiol to investigate deficiencies in the estradiol-feedback regulation of LH secretion as a primary cause of follicular cysts in cattle. Twenty-one cows in the prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha)-induced follicular phase were assigned to receive either 100 ml of estradiol antiserum produced in a castrated male goat (n = 11, immunized group) or the same amount of castrated male goat serum (n = 10, control group). The time of injection of the sera was designated as 0 h and Day 0. Five cows in each group were assigned to subgroups in which we determined the effects of estradiol immunization on LH secretion and follicular growth during the periovulatory period. The remaining six estradiol-immunized cows were subjected to long-term analyses of follicular growth and hormonal profiles, including evaluation of pulsatile secretion of LH. The remaining five control cows were used to determine pulsatile secretion of LH on Day 0 (follicular phase) and Day 14 (midluteal phase). The control cows exhibited a preovulatory LH surge within 48 h after injection of the control serum, followed by ovulation of the dominant follicle that had developed during the PGF(2alpha)-induced follicular phase. In contrast, the LH surge was not detected after treatment with estradiol antiserum. None of the 11 estradiol-immunized cows had ovulation of the dominant follicle, which had emerged before estradiol immunization and enlarged to more than 20 mm in diameter by Day 10. Long-term observation of the six immunized cows revealed that five had multiple follicular waves, with maximum follicular sizes of 20-45 mm at 10- to 30-day intervals for more than 50 days. The sixth cow experienced twin ovulations of the initial persistent follicles on Day 18. The LH pulse frequency in the five immunized cows that showed the long-term turnover of cystic follicles ranged from 0.81 +/- 0.13 to 0.97 +/- 0.09 pulses/h during the experiment, significantly (P follicular phase of

  12. Some proposals regarding the organization of the central nervous system control of penile erection. (United States)

    McKenna, K E


    Recent research on the central nervous control of penile erection is discussed. A framework for this control is based upon principles put forward by Frank Beach regarding the neuroendocrine regulation of male copulatory behavior. The current discussion is focused primarily on a subset, penile erection. The spinal cord contains all the necessary components for the production of penile erection. This requires a multisegmental coordination among penile vasodilator and vasoconstrictor autonomic neurons, pudendal motoneurons responsible for penile rigidity and autonomic neurons which control extra-penile blood flow. Genital sensory stimulation can activate this spinal network. The spinal cord is also under excitatory and inhibitory control from supraspinal sites. Penile erection can be driven by supraspinal input alone and supraspinal control can inhibit the erectile effects of genital stimulation.An important aspect of the CNS control of penile erection is that there are extensive interconnections between most of the brain sites identified to date. Most of the pathways are characterized by reciprocal connections. A large number of the CNS sites also receive genital sensory information. Thus, descending control may itself be modulated by ascending sensory pathways which relay information from the genitalia. This raises the possibility that penile erection may involve a positive feedback system. Receptors for gonadal hormones have been identified throughout the neuraxis. However, strong evidence for the control of male sexual function by gonadal hormones has been identified only for forebrain sites. The functional role of brainstem and spinal gonadal hormone receptors has not yet been clarified.

  13. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng


    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  14. Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Beibei; Chen, Chang; Fua, Cheng-Heng; Lee, Tong Heng


    Modeling, Control and Coordination of Helicopter Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of helicopter systems, ranging from related nonlinear flight dynamic modeling and stability analysis to advanced control design for single helicopter systems, and also covers issues related to the coordination and formation control of multiple helicopter systems to achieve high performance tasks. Ensuring stability in helicopter flight is a challenging problem for nonlinear control design and development. This book is a valuable reference on modeling, control and coordination of helicopter systems,providing readers with practical solutions for the problems that still plague helicopter system design and implementation. Readers will gain a complete picture of helicopters at the systems level, as well as a better understanding of the technical intricacies involved. This book also: Presents a complete picture of modeling, control and coordination for helicopter systems Provides a modeling platform for a general class of ro...

  15. Using Digital Images of the Zebra Finch Song System as a Tool to Teach Organizational Effects of Steroid Hormones: A Free Downloadable Module (United States)

    Grisham, William; Schottler, Natalie A.; Beck McCauley, Lisa M.; Pham, Anh P.; Ruiz, Maureen L.; Fong, Michelle C.; Cui, Xinran


    Zebra finch song behavior is sexually dimorphic: males sing and females do not. The neural system underlying this behavior is sexually dimorphic, and this sex difference is easy to quantify. During development, the zebra finch song system can be altered by steroid hormones, specifically estradiol, which actually masculinizes it. Because of the…

  16. Gain scheduling controller for pitch control of a TRMS system (United States)

    Bhagyalakshmi, R.; Rashmi, GP; Jaganatha Pandian, B.


    Gain scheduling is a control technique which is applied for the control of non-linear systems by using a family of linear controllers at different operating points so as to increase the range of operation of the process. The dynamics of any nonlinear system changes with respect to operating points. These operating points are characterized by one or more variables known as scheduling variables. In such cases, we linearize the system at different equilibrium points. Due to the high amount of non-linearities and complexity in the aerodynamic design, modelling of other unmanned aerial vehicles have been replaced here with twin rotor system. The linearized system is then controlled by using PID controllers which are designed with respect to the obtained operating points. Linearizing of the non-linear system, designing and tuning of PID are being implemented using different MATLAB functions.

  17. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) (United States)

    Dischinger, Portia


    This slide presentation presents NASA's Common Badging and Access Control System. NASA began a Smart Card implementation in January 2004. Following site surveys, it was determined that NASA's badging and access control systems required upgrades to common infrastructure in order to provide flexibly, usability, and return on investment prior to a smart card implantation. Common Badging and Access Control System (CBACS) provides the common infrastructure from which FIPS-201 compliant processes, systems, and credentials can be developed and used.

  18. Research on automatic control system of greenhouse (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Qi, Guoyang; Li, Zeyu; Wu, Qiannan; Meng, Yupeng


    This paper introduces a kind of automatic control system of single-chip microcomputer and a temperature and humidity sensor based on the greenhouse, describes the system's hardware structure, working principle and process, and a large number of experiments on the effect of the control system, the results show that the system can ideally control temperature and room temperature and humidity, can be used in indoor breeding and planting, and has the versatility and portability.

  19. Post-transcriptional control of c-myc proto-oncogene expression by glucocorticoid hormones in human T lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroder, M.; Vacca, A.; Screpanti, I.; Petrangeli, E.; Frati, L. (Univ. La Sapienza, Roma (Italy)); Martinotti, S.; Gulino, A. (Univ. of L' Aquila (Italy))


    The authors have studied the regulation of the human c-myc proto-oncogene by glucocorticoid hormones in T lymphoblastic leukemic cells. A significant decrease (50%) of the steady state levels of c-myc mRNA was observed as early as 3 hours after dexamethasone treatment of CEM-1.3 human lymphoma cells, reaching less than 5% values, with respect to untreated cells, 24 hours after hormone administration. Nuclear run-on experiments showed no modifications of the transcriptional rate from the first exon. However, a slight decrease (15%) of the transcript elongation from the first exon/first intron boundary was observed in the dexamethasone-treated cells. Using actinomycin D to block gene transcription, they observed a significant increase in the rate of c-myc RNA specific decay after dexamethasone treatment. The data suggest that dexamethasone is able to inhibit human c-myc gene expression primarily at the post-transcriptional level, through the synthesis of hormone-transcriptional level, through the synthesis of hormone-induced regulatory protein(s) controlling c-myc transcript stability.

  20. Access control and personal identification systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Dan M


    Access Control and Personal Identification Systems provides an education in the field of access control and personal identification systems, which is essential in selecting the appropriate equipment, dealing intelligently with vendors in purchases of the equipment, and integrating the equipment into a total effective system. Access control devices and systems comprise an important part of almost every security system, but are seldom the sole source of security. In order for the goals of the total system to be met, the other portions of the security system must also be well planned and executed

  1. A review on distribution and monitoring of hormones in the environment and their removal in wastewater treatment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahele Kafaei


    Full Text Available Steroid hormones of the Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC are steroid hormones, which cause negative effects on human health, animals and ecosystems balance, have become a major concern in modern societies. In recent years numerous studies have performed on hormone distribution in the environment, especially in aquatic environments and the ways that they have been removed. Hormones entrance into the environment primarily is through wastewater, municipal wastewater treatment sludge, hospital wastewater and livestock activity. Measured values in the wastewater treatment influent, livestock lagoons, surface water and groundwater, showed different concentrations of hormones in the range of ng/L. But it is important to know even in trace concentration of ng/L, hormones can have adverse effects on environment. By biodegradation, biosorption and biotransformation, hormones will be degraded and their activities will be decreased. Wastewater treatment processes includes preliminary, primary, secondary and advanced treatment, that are the most important ways to prevent the entrance of hormonal compounds to the environment. Sludge should be cleaned by available technology before entering the environment. Wastewater processes in both liquid and sludge phase, under various operating conditions, show different range of hormones removal. In this paper authors try to discuss about the problem and different environmental aspects of hormones.

  2. Model-based control of networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Eloy; Montestruque, Luis A


    This monograph introduces a class of networked control systems (NCS) called model-based networked control systems (MB-NCS) and presents various architectures and control strategies designed to improve the performance of NCS. The overall performance of NCS considers the appropriate use of network resources, particularly network bandwidth, in conjunction with the desired response of the system being controlled.   The book begins with a detailed description of the basic MB-NCS architecture that provides stability conditions in terms of state feedback updates . It also covers typical problems in NCS such as network delays, network scheduling, and data quantization, as well as more general control problems such as output feedback control, nonlinear systems stabilization, and tracking control.   Key features and topics include: Time-triggered and event-triggered feedback updates Stabilization of uncertain systems subject to time delays, quantization, and extended absence of feedback Optimal control analysis and ...

  3. Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum: a controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streym, Súsanna við; Møller, Ulla Kristine; Mosekilde, Leif


    changes in calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: We studied 153 women planning pregnancy (n = 92 conceived) and 52 non-pregnant, age-matched female controls. Samples were collected prior to pregnancy, once each trimester and 2, 16 and 36......Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation INTRODUCTION: We describe physiological...... weeks postpartum. The controls were followed in parallel. RESULTS: P-estradiol (E(2)), prolactin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) increased (p pregnancy, whereas plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (P-PTH) and calcitonin decreased (p 

  4. Changes in calcitropic hormones, bone markers and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during pregnancy and postpartum: a controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Mosekilde, Leif


    Pregnancy and lactation cause major changes in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. This population-based cohort study presents the physiological changes in biochemical indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation INTRODUCTION: We describe physiological...... changes in calcium homeostasis, calcitropic hormones and bone metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: We studied 153 women planning pregnancy (n = 92 conceived) and 52 non-pregnant, age-matched female controls. Samples were collected prior to pregnancy, once each trimester and 2, 16 and 36...... weeks postpartum. The controls were followed in parallel. RESULTS: P-estradiol (E(2)), prolactin and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) increased (p pregnancy, whereas plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (P-PTH) and calcitonin decreased (p 

  5. Superconducting Coil Winding Machine Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J. M. [Fermilab; Kotelnikov, S. [Fermilab; Makulski, A. [Fermilab; Walbridge, D. [Fermilab; Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermilab


    The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system, which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls. The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system.

  6. Cells co-expressing luteinising hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone are present in the ovine pituitary pars distalis but not the pars tuberalis: implications for the control of endogenous circannual rhythms of prolactin. (United States)

    Hodson, David J; Townsend, Julie; Tortonese, Domingo J


    A mammalian circannual pacemaker responsible for regulating the seasonal pattern of prolactin has been recently described in sheep. This pacemaker resides within the pars tuberalis, an area of the pituitary gland that densely expresses melatonin receptors. However, the chemical identity of the cell type which acts as the pacemaker remains elusive. Mathematical-modelling approaches have established that this cell must be responsive to the static melatonin signal as well as prolactin negative feedback. Considering that in sheep the gonadotroph is the only cell in the pars tuberalis which expresses the prolactin receptor, and that in other photoperiodic species the thyrotroph is the only cell expressing the melatonin receptor in this tissue, a cell type which expresses both proteins would fulfil the theoretical criteria of a circannual pacemaker. Pituitary glands were obtained from female sheep under short days (breeding season) and long days (non-breeding season) and double immunofluorescent staining was conducted to determine the prevalence of bi-hormonal cells in the pars distalis and pars tuberalis using specific antibodies to luteinising hormone-β and thyroid-stimulating hormone-β. The results reveal that whilst such a bihormonal cell is clearly present in the pars distalis and constitute 4% of the gonadotroph population in this region, the same cell type is completely absent from the pars tuberalis even though LH gonadotrophs are abundantly expressed. Based on these findings, together with existing data, we are able to propose an alternative model where the gonadotroph itself is controlled indirectly by neighbouring melatonin responsive cells, allowing it to act as a pacemaker. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Modelling Supervisory Controller for Hybrid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Alexandre De Lemos; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P.


    The modular concept described in this paper attempts to design standard supervisory controllers for different applications. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is gener...... and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals.......The modular concept described in this paper attempts to design standard supervisory controllers for different applications. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic...

  8. Control system design of active seat suspensions (United States)

    Maciejewski, I.


    This paper presents an approach to the control system design of seat suspension systems for the active vibration attenuation. The paper presents the studies of the active vibration control strategy based on the reverse dynamics of force actuator and the primary controller. The multi-criteria optimization procedure is utilized in order to calculate the primary controller settings which subsequently define the vibro-isolation characteristics of active suspensions. As an example of the proposed control system design, the seat with a pneumatic suspension is investigated and its vibro-isolation properties are shaped by an appropriate selection of the controller settings.

  9. Filtering and control of wireless networked systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dan; Yu, Li


    This self-contained book, written by leading experts, offers a cutting-edge, in-depth overview of the filtering and control of wireless networked systems. It addresses the energy constraint and filter/controller gain variation problems, and presents both the centralized and the distributed solutions. The first two chapters provide an introduction to networked control systems and basic information on system analysis. Chapters (3–6) then discuss the centralized filtering of wireless networked systems, presenting different approaches to deal with energy efficiency and filter/controller gain variation problems. The next part (chapters 7–10) explores the distributed filtering of wireless networked systems, addressing the main problems of energy constraint and filter gain variation. The final part (chapters 11–14) focuses on the distributed control of wireless networked systems. systems for communication and control applications, the bo...

  10. Jefferson Lab Data Acquisition Run Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardan Gyurjyan; Carl Timmer; David Abbott; William Heyes; Edward Jastrzembski; David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin


    A general overview of the Jefferson Lab data acquisition run control system is presented. This run control system is designed to operate the configuration, control, and monitoring of all Jefferson Lab experiments. It controls data-taking activities by coordinating the operation of DAQ sub-systems, online software components and third-party software such as external slow control systems. The main, unique feature which sets this system apart from conventional systems is its incorporation of intelligent agent concepts. Intelligent agents are autonomous programs which interact with each other through certain protocols on a peer-to-peer level. In this case, the protocols and standards used come from the domain-independent Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA), and the implementation used is the Java Agent Development Framework (JADE). A lightweight, XML/RDF-based language was developed to standardize the description of the run control system for configuration purposes.

  11. Improving industrial process control systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Epting, U; CERN. Geneva. TS Department


    System providers are today creating process control systems based on remote connectivity using internet technology, effectively exposing these systems to the same threats as corporate computers. It is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to patch/maintain the technical infrastructure monitoring and control systems to remove these vulnerabilities. A strategy including risk assessment, security policy issues, service level agreements between the IT department and the controls engineering groups must be defined. In addition an increased awareness of IT security in the controls system engineering domain is needed. As consequence of these new factors the control system architectures have to take into account security requirements, that often have an impact on both operational aspects as well as on the project and maintenance cost. Manufacturers of industrial control system equipment do however also propose progressively security related solutions that can be used for our active projects. The paper discusses ...

  12. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin


    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  13. Control system for glassing hot presses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.F.


    A software programmable control system has been developed that automates the glass fusing process used in the production of semiconductor thermopile elements. The new control system replaces an older, mostly manual, electromechanical design. This report describes the new control design and its functional features.

  14. Evolved Finite State Controller For Hybrid System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Jean-Francois; Fan, Zhun; Goodman, Erik


    This paper presents an evolutionary methodology to automatically generate nite state automata (FSA) controllers to control hybrid systems. FSA controllers for a case study of two-tank system have been successfully obtained using the proposed evolutionary approach. Experimental results show...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Starovoitov


    Full Text Available Features of biometric access control system design for control people's access to certain facilitiesare described. Basic algorithms for fingerprint processing and analysis are given in details. Construction schemes of three variants of an access control system are presented.

  16. Research study: Space vehicle control systems (United States)

    Likins, P. W.; Longman, R. W.


    From the control point of view, spacecraft are classified into two main groups: those for which the spacecraft is fully defined before the control system is designed; and those for which the control system must be specified before certain interchangeable parts of a multi-purpose spacecraft are selected for future missions. Consideration is given to both classes of problems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Strizhnev


    Full Text Available The paper considers a synthesis problem for automatic control systems, which operate in various modes, for example, tracking step-wise effects and slowly changing input signals. Generally, one controller cannot ensure the required qualitative characteristics in all operational modes. One of the methods to solve this problem is to create a reconfigurable control system. The authors propose a reconfigurable control system with two discrete-time controllers. The first one is placed in series with the forward path and the second one is connected in parallel with the reverse path having additional gain and unity feedback. Such system structure is characterized by its simplicity and qualitative operational ability to track step-wise and sinusoidal inputs with different amplitudes.The paper presents a developed block diagram of the reconfigurable system and describes its operational principle. Three various plants have been chosen with the purpose to check the operation of the system. Digital controllers have been selected and their parameters have been determined in accordance with the requirements to qualitative operational characteristics of the system. Mathematical modeling has been executed in order to check the operation of the proposed system with various plants and digital controllers. The modeling confirms good –speed performance of the automatic control system while tracking stepwise signals, provision of minimum dynamic error for the given controllers and time delay while tracking harmonic signals with various amplitudes. The obtained results have been successfully tested and can be used for development of automatic control systems that contain other plants and digital controllers, if there are various and occasionally contradictory requirements to their operational quality. 

  18. Architecting Joint Command and Control System of System Capability Certifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acosta, Jacob; Hoesly, Scot; Huseth, Scott; Krider, Steven; Lamb, Jeremy; Martin, Calvin; Medina, Vince; Medina, Jorge; Nguyen, Michael; Patel, Jaykant


    Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) systems, each originally designed to address a single warfighting function, have been assembled into an interdependent C4I System of Systems (SoS...

  19. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304835595


    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken

  20. Comparing the Effects of Continuous Hormone Replacement Therapy and Tibolone on the Genital Tract of Menopausal Women; A Randomized Controlled Trial


    Ziaei, Saeideh; Masoumi, Raziyeh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat


    Introduction Many postmenopausal women who are on hormone replacement therapy discontinue medications due to vaginal bleeding. Tibolone, a synthetic steroid, has minimal stimulatory effect on the endometrium. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of continuous HRT regimen and tibolone on the onset of vaginal bleeding and vaginal maturation value. Materials and Methods A total of 150 healthy women in postmenopausal period were randomly enrolled in this controlled clinical trial. Pati...

  1. A Molecular Circuit Composed of CPEB-1 and c-Jun Controls Growth Hormone-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Mouse Hippocampus


    Zearfoss, N. Ruth; Alarcon, Juan Marcos; Trifilieff, Pierre; Kandel, Eric; Richter, Joel D.


    Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB-1) resides at postsynaptic sites in hippocampal neurons in which it controls polyadenylation-induced translation. CPEB-1 knock-out (KO) mice display defects in some forms of synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent memories. To identify CPEB-1-regulated mRNAs, we used proteomics to compare polypeptides in wild-type (WT) and CPEB-1 KO hippocampus. Growth hormone (GH) was reduced in the KO hippocampus, as were the GH signaling mol...

  2. Impact of male hormonal contraception on prostate androgens and androgen action in healthy men: a randomized, controlled trial. (United States)

    Mostaghel, Elahe A; Lin, Daniel W; Amory, John K; Wright, Jonathan L; Marck, Brett T; Nelson, Peter S; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Bremner, William J; Page, Stephanie T


    Male hormonal contraception (MHC) combines hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis blockade with exogenous androgen delivery to maintain extragonadal androgen end-organ effects. Concern exists that MHC may adversely impact prostate health. The objective of the study was to determine the molecular impact of MHC on intraprostatic androgen concentrations and androgen action. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted at an academic medical center. 32 healthy men aged 25-55 yr participated in the study. Interventions included placebo, daily transdermal testosterone (T) (T-gel), T-gel + depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (T+DMPA), or T-gel + dutasteride daily (T+D) for 12 wk, and prostate biopsy during treatment wk 10. Serum and prostate androgen concentrations and prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were measured. Thirty men completed the study. Serum T levels were significantly increased in T-gel and T+D groups compared with baseline (P < 0.05) but were decreased with the addition of DMPA. Intraprostatic androgens were no different from placebo with T-gel treatment. Addition of DMPA to T resulted in 40% lower intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration (P = 0.0273 vs. placebo), whereas combining dutasteride with T resulted in a 90% decrease in intraprostatic DHT (P = 0.0012), 11-fold increased intraprostatic T (P = 0.0011), and 7-fold increased intraprostatic androstenedione (P = 0.0011). Significant differences in global or androgen-regulated prostate epithelial-cell gene expression were not observed. Androgen-regulated gene expression correlated with epithelial-cell androgen receptor and prostatic DHT in placebo, T-gel, and T+DMPA arms and with T and androstenedione levels in the T+D arm. MHC regimens do not markedly alter gene expression in benign prostate epithelium, suggesting they may not alter risk of prostate disease. Longer-term studies examining the impact of MHC on prostate health are needed.

  3. Linear systems optimal and robust control

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Alok


    Introduction Overview Contents of the Book State Space Description of a Linear System Transfer Function of a Single Input/Single Output (SISO) System State Space Realizations of a SISO System SISO Transfer Function from a State Space Realization Solution of State Space Equations Observability and Controllability of a SISO System Some Important Similarity Transformations Simultaneous Controllability and Observability Multiinput/Multioutput (MIMO) Systems State Space Realizations of a Transfer Function Matrix Controllability and Observability of a MIMO System Matrix-Fraction Description (MFD) MFD of a Transfer Function Matrix for the Minimal Order of a State Space Realization Controller Form Realization from a Right MFD Poles and Zeros of a MIMO Transfer Function Matrix Stability Analysis State Feedback Control and Optimization State Variable Feedback for a Single Input System Computation of State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multiinput System State Feedback Gain Matrix for a Multi...

  4. Development of systemic lupus erythematosus in a male-to-female transsexual: the role of sex hormones revisited. (United States)

    Chan, K L; Mok, C C


    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women of childbearing age. The infrequency of SLE in men and disease onset in prepubertal or postmenopausal women suggests a role of estrogen in the predisposition to the disease. Patients with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism are prone to the development of SLE, and the use of exogenous estrogens in women increases the relative risk of SLE onset and disease flares. These observations provide indirect evidence for an opposite role of estrogens and androgens in the pathogenesis of SLE. We report on a male-to-female transsexual who developed SLE 20 years after sex-reassignment surgery and prolonged estrogen therapy. The role of sex hormones in SLE is revisited.

  5. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash


    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: Adaptive Control (United States)

    Gibson, Nathan


    We have studied the application of the baseline Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm to the control of main fuel flow rate (WF36), variable bleed valve (AE24) and variable stator vane (STP25) control of a simulated high-bypass turbofan engine. Using reference trajectories for thrust and turbine inlet temperature (T41) generated by a simulated new engine, we have examined MPC for tracking these two reference outputs while controlling a deteriorated engine. We have examined the results of MPC control for six different transients: two idle-to-takeoff transients at sea level static (SLS) conditions, one takeoff-to-idle transient at SLS, a Bode power command and reverse Bode power command at 20,000 ft/Mach 0.5, and a reverse Bode transient at 35,000 ft/Mach 0.84. For all cases, our primary focus was on the computational effort required by MPC for varying MPC update rates, control horizons, and prediction horizons. We have also considered the effects of these MPC parameters on the performance of the control, with special emphasis on the thrust tracking error, the peak T41, and the sizes of violations of the constraints on the problem, primarily the booster stall margin limit, which for most cases is the lone constraint that is violated with any frequency.

  7. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Melnikovova


    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits.

  8. Effects of some humidity and IBA hormone dose applicatıons on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 26, 2010 ... ratio of cutting callus formation was found in control group (58%) in 95 - 100% humidity level and 2500 ppm IBA hormone dose ... Key words: M9, sooftwood top cutting, misting system, humidity, hormone, rooting. INTRODUCTION. Anatolia ... Turkey produced about 6 million pieces of apple saplings in 2007 ...

  9. A randomized controlled trial of three years growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in children with idiopathic short stature and intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Kamp; D. Mul (Dick); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); M. Jansen (Maarten); H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette); L. Verhoeven-Wind; M. Frölich (Marijke); W. Oostdijk (Wilma); J.M. Wit (Jan)


    textabstractWe assessed the effectiveness and safety of 3 yr combined GH and GnRH agonist (GnRHa) treatment in a randomized controlled study in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Gonadal suppression, GH reserve, and

  10. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik


    with two different dosages in healthy adults. Eight healthy male subjects aged 24-32 years were examined during three 2-week study periods in a double-blind placebo controlled study. They received, in random order, GH (3 or 6 IU m-2 daily) or placebo during 2 weeks. Bio-impedance was measured every 2nd day...

  11. Combined air and water pollution control system (United States)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)


    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  12. Modelling supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.; Bindner, H.; Lundsager, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Jannerup, O. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Automation, Lyngby (Denmark)


    Supervisory controllers are important to achieve optimal operation of hybrid power systems. The performance and economics of such systems depend mainly on the control strategy for switching on/off components. The modular concept described in this paper is an attempt to design standard supervisory controllers that could be used in different applications, such as village power and telecommunication applications. This paper presents some basic aspects of modelling and design of modular supervisory controllers using the object-oriented modelling technique. The functional abstraction hierarchy technique is used to formulate the control requirements and identify the functions of the control system. The modular algorithm is generic and flexible enough to be used with any system configuration and several goals (different applications). The modularity includes accepting modification of system configuration and goals during operation with minor or no changes in the supervisory controller. (au)

  13. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony


    In this report, the authors examine how businesses with social responsibility as part of their core strategy use related management control systems within the business strategy control model set forth...

  14. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas


    Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system...... for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...

  15. Analysis and control of underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choukchou-Braham, Amal; Djemaï, Mohamed; Busawon, Krishna


    This monograph provides readers with tools for the analysis, and control of systems with fewer control inputs than degrees of freedom to be controlled, i.e., underactuated systems. The text deals with the consequences of a lack of a general theory that would allow methodical treatment of such systems and the ad hoc approach to control design that often results, imposing a level of organization whenever the latter is lacking. The authors take as their starting point the construction of a graphical characterization or control flow diagram reflecting the transmission of generalized forces through the degrees of freedom. Underactuated systems are classified according to the three main structures by which this is found to happen—chain, tree, and isolated vertex—and control design procedures proposed. The procedure is applied to several well-known examples of underactuated systems: acrobot; pendubot; Tora system; ball and beam; inertia wheel; and robotic arm with elastic joint. The text is illustrated with MATL...

  16. Robust control of linear descriptor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu


    This book develops original results regarding singular dynamic systems following two different paths. The first consists of generalizing results from classical state-space cases to linear descriptor systems, such as dilated linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterizations for descriptor systems and performance control under regulation constraints. The second is a new path, which considers descriptor systems as a powerful tool for conceiving new control laws, understanding and deciphering some controller’s architecture and even homogenizing different—existing—ways of obtaining some new and/or known results for state-space systems. The book also highlights the comprehensive control problem for descriptor systems as an example of using the descriptor framework in order to transform a non-standard control problem into a classic stabilization control problem. In another section, an accurate solution is derived for the sensitivity constrained linear optimal control also using the descriptor framework. The boo...

  17. Control of self-organizing nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klapp, Sabine; Hövel, Philipp


    The book summarizes the state-of-the-art of research on control of self-organizing nonlinear systems with contributions from leading international experts in the field. The first focus concerns recent methodological developments including control of networks and of noisy and time-delayed systems. As a second focus, the book features emerging concepts of application including control of quantum systems, soft condensed matter, and biological systems. Special topics reflecting the active research in the field are the analysis and control of chimera states in classical networks and in quantum systems, the mathematical treatment of multiscale systems, the control of colloidal and quantum transport, the control of epidemics and of neural network dynamics.

  18. Improving the internal control system within universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu, M.


    Full Text Available This paper aims at improving the internal control systems of universities in Romania. The study is based on data from the literature on the implementation status of internal control in public sector universities. It analyzes the requirements of national regulations on internal control systems for public institutions and the requirements for quality assurance in higher education. The analysis concludes with the presentation of the major axes of action to increase the effectiveness of internal control and management quality.

  19. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C


    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  20. New generation control system at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melen, R.


    The proposed SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project will require an Instrumentation and Control system that provides integrated automatic monitoring and control functions. The present SLAC LINAC Instrumentation and Control system will be totally revamped and it will be expanded to include the support of all of the additional accelerator components that will be required for the whole SLC project. This paper describes the functional operation of the new system.

  1. Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    for automation of these procedures, that is to incorporate some "intelligence" in the control system, this project was started up. The main emphasis of this work has been on model based methods for system optimizing control in supermarket refrigeration systems. The idea of implementing a system optimizing......-couplings resulting in large disturbances. In supermarkets refrigeration systems the temperature control in the refrigerated display cases are maintained by hysteresis controllers. Based on a model predictive hybrid framework a novel approach for desynchronization is presented. The approach is applied.......e. by degrading the performance. The method has been successfully applied on a test frigeration system for minimization of the power consumption; the hereby gained experimental results will be presented. The present control structure in a supermarket refrigeration system is distributed, which means...

  2. Selective use of corifollitropin for controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF in patients with low anti-Müllerian hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anna Pors; Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Lemmen, Josephine G.


    Corifollitropin, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) analogue used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), does not allow individualization of dosage, and the ovarian response is similar to around 300 IU of daily recombinant FSH. This has raised concerns about the risk of ovarian hyperstim......Corifollitropin, a long-acting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) analogue used for in vitro fertilization (IVF), does not allow individualization of dosage, and the ovarian response is similar to around 300 IU of daily recombinant FSH. This has raised concerns about the risk of ovarian...

  3. Informing women on menopause and hormone therapy: Know The Menopause a multidisciplinary project involving local healthcare system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Donati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hormone therapy (HT in the menopause is still a tricky question among healthcare providers, women and mass media. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy was a Consensus Conference (CC organized in 2008: the project Know the Menopause has been launched to shift out the results to women and healthcare providers and to assess the impact of the cc's statement. METHODS: And Findings: The project, aimed at women aged 45-60 years, was developed in four Italian Regions: Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, each with one Local Health Unit (LHU as "intervention" and one as "control". Activities performed were: survey on the press; training courses for health professionals; educational materials for target populations; survey aimed at women, general practitioners (GPs, and gynaecologists; data analysis on HT drugs' prescription. Local activities were: training courses; public meetings; dissemination on mass media. About 3,700 health professionals were contacted and 1,800 participated in the project. About 146,500 printed leaflets on menopause were distributed to facilitate the dialogue among women and health care professionals. Training courses and educational cascade-process activities: participation ranged 25- 72% of GPs, 17-71% of gynaecologists, 14-78% of pharmacists, 34-85% of midwives. SURVEY: 1,281 women interviewed. More than 90% believed menopause was a normal phase in life. More than half did not receive information about menopause and therapies. HT prescription analysis: prevalence fell from 6% to 4% in five years. No differences in time trends before-after the intervention. Major limitations are: organizational difficulties met by LHU, too short time for some local activities. CONCLUSIONS: A huge amount of information was spread through health professionals and women. The issue of menopause was also used to discuss women's wellbeing. This project offered an opportunity to launch a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach to

  4. A computer-controlled adaptive antenna system (United States)

    Fetterolf, P. C.; Price, K. M.

    The problem of active pattern control in multibeam or phased array antenna systems is one that is well suited to technologies based upon microprocessor feedback control systems. Adaptive arrays can be realized by incorporating microprocessors as control elements in closed-loop feedback paths. As intelligent controllers, microprocessors can detect variations in arrays and implement suitable configuration changes. The subject of this paper is the application of the Howells-Applebaum power inversion algorithm in a C-band multibeam antenna system. A proof-of-concept, microprocessor controlled, adaptive beamforming network (BFN) was designed, assembled, and subsequent tests were performed demonstrating the algorithm's capacity for nulling narrowband jammers.

  5. Functional Characterization and Signaling Systems of Corazonin and Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone in the Green Shore Crab, Carcinus maenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L. Alexander


    Full Text Available Neuropeptides play a central role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and hormones in orchestrating arthropod physiology. The post-genomic surge in identified neuropeptides and their putative receptors has not been matched by functional characterization of ligand-receptor pairs. Indeed, until very recently no G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs had been functionally defined in any crustacean. Here we explore the structurally-related, functionally-diverse gonadotropin-releasing hormone paralogs, corazonin (CRZ and red-pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH and their G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs in the crab, Carcinus maenas. Using aequorin luminescence to measure in vitro Ca2+ mobilization we demonstrated receptor-ligand pairings of CRZ and RPCH. CRZR-activated cell signaling in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 0.75 nM and comparative studies with insect CRZ peptides suggest that the C-terminus of this peptide is important in receptor-ligand interaction. RPCH interacted with RPCHR with extremely high sensitivity (EC50 20 pM. Neither receptor bound GnRH, nor the AKH/CRZ-related peptide. Transcript distributions of both receptors indicate that CRZR expression was, unexpectedly, restricted to the Y-organs (YO. Application of CRZ peptide to YO had no effect on ecdysteroid biosynthesis, excepting a modest stimulation in early post-molt. CRZ had no effect on heart activity, blood glucose levels, lipid mobilization or pigment distribution in chromatophores, a scenario that reflected the distribution of its mRNA. Apart from the well-known activity of RPCH as a chromatophorotropin, it also indirectly elicited hyperglycemia (which was eyestalk-dependent. RPCHR mRNA was also expressed in the ovary, indicating possible roles in reproduction. The anatomy of CRZ and RPCH neurons in the nervous system is described in detail by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Each peptide has extensive but non-overlapping distribution in the CNS, and neuroanatomy

  6. Hormones and β-Agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van L.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Blokland, M.H.; Sterk, S.S.; Smits, N.G.E.; Pleadin, Jelka; Vulić, Ana


    This chapter provides some updated information on contemporary methods for hormone and β-agonist analyses. It deals with the classical approaches for the effective detection and identification of exogenous hormones. The chapter examines specific problems related to control strategies for natural

  7. Integrated Control System Engineering Support. (United States)


    the read/ write access type of all global variables and a list of the general registers and their access type. * Added the necessary software to...power approaches, using a Fresnel Lens Optical Landing System (FLOLS), and a ship’s-qualified Landing Signal Officer (LSO). All aproaches were terminated...34 and "read- write " 0 privilege levels. The CPL catalog software is written in FORTRAN 77 and operates on the SEL 32-77 computer system using an MPX

  8. System Optimization by Periodic Control. (United States)


    example, Improvement is impossible if the plant is modeled by linea r diffe rent ial equation s and the cost functional is convex. ________ Nt, $ c...problem for nonlinear systems. Previous efforts on such problems have focused on algebraic techniques , and the researc h rep orted In (2 ,4, 8), which...algorithms for minimal realizations of both linea r and polynomial nonlinear systems. This line of resea rch is being continued and should lead to

  9. Thyroid hormone and seasonal rhythmicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues eDardente


    Full Text Available Living organisms show seasonality in a wide array of functions such as reproduction, fattening, hibernation and migration. At temperate latitudes, changes in photoperiod maintain the alignment of annual rhythms with predictable changes in the environment. The appropriate physiological response to changing photoperiod in mammals requires retinal detection of light and pineal secretion of melatonin, but extraretinal detection of light occurs in birds. A common mechanism across all vertebrates is that these photoperiod-regulated systems alter hypothalamic thyroid hormone conversion. Here we review the evidence that a circadian clock within the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis links photoperiod decoding to local changes of thyroid hormone signalling within the medio-basal hypothalamus through a conserved thyrotropin/deiodinase axis. We also focus on recent findings which indicate that, beyond the photoperiodic control of its conversion, thyroid hormone might also be involved in longer term timing processes of seasonal programs. Finally, we examine the potential implication of kisspeptin and RFRP3, two RF-amide peptides expressed within the medio-basal hypothalamus, in seasonal rhythmicity.

  10. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.


    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  11. Massive Multi-Agent Systems Control (United States)

    Campagne, Jean-Charles; Gardon, Alain; Collomb, Etienne; Nishida, Toyoaki


    In order to build massive multi-agent systems, considered as complex and dynamic systems, one needs a method to analyze and control the system. We suggest an approach using morphology to represent and control the state of large organizations composed of a great number of light software agents. Morphology is understood as representing the state of the multi-agent system as shapes in an abstract geometrical space, this notion is close to the notion of phase space in physics.

  12. Control system for Siam photon source

    CERN Document Server

    Apiwatwaja, R; Isoyama, G; Ishii, T; Pairsuwan, W


    A new computer control system has been developed for Siam photon source, which is the first synchrotron light source in Thailand, personal computers and PLC's have been employed which are connected together through Ethernet. Man Machine Interface Stations (MMIS) at the front end act as a graphical user interface within Windows environment. The monitoring and controlling of individual devices is handled through several pairs of digital control station and the device interface located in each part of the synchrotron complex. The installation of the control system has been completed. The commissioning test of the control system is underway and the reliability of the system is on the positive side. Details of commissioning tests as well as characteristics of this newly built control system for the Siam photon source are described in this report.

  13. The MedAustron Accelerator Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Gutleber, J; Marchhart, M; Torcato de Matos, C; Dedic, J; Moser, R


    This paper presents the architecture and design of the MedAustron accelerator control system. This ion therapy and research facility is currently under construction in Wr. Neustadt, Austria. The accelerator and its control system are designed at CERN. This class of machine is characterized by rich sets of configuration data, real-time reconfiguration needs and high stability requirements. The machine is operated according to a pulse-to-pulse modulation scheme. Each beam cycle is described in terms of ion type, energy, beam dimensions, intensity and spill length. The control system is based on a multi-tier architecture with the aim to achieve a clear separation between front-end devices and their controllers. In-house developments cover a main timing system, a light-weight layer to standardize operation and communication of front-end controllers, fast and slow control of power converters and a procedure programming framework for automating high-level control and data analysis tasks.

  14. Control Architecture Modeling for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    on the development of models, diagrams, that support the conceptual design of control and operation strategies, where a central theme is the focus on modeling system goals and functions rather than system structure. The perspective is then shifted toward long-term energy scenarios and adaptation of power system...... the means-ends composition of control levels and development of principles for the consistent modeling of control structures, a formalization of control-as-a-service; secondly, the formal mapping of fluctuating and controllable resources to a multi-scale and multi-stage representation of control...... and operation structures; and finally the application to some concrete study cases, including a present system balancing, and proposed control structures such as Microgrids and Cells. In the second part, the main contributions are the outline of a formation strategy, integrating the design and model...

  15. Growth Hormone Alters the Glutathione S-Transferase and Mitochondrial Thioredoxin Systems in Long-Living Ames Dwarf Mice (United States)

    Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Rakoczy, Sharlene


    Ames dwarf mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone and live significantly longer than their wild-type (WT) siblings. The lack of GH is associated with stress resistance and increased longevity. However, the mechanism underlying GH’s actions on cellular stress defense have yet to be elucidated. In this study, WT or Ames dwarf mice were treated with saline or GH (WT saline, Dwarf saline, and Dwarf GH) two times daily for 7 days. The body and liver weights of Ames dwarf mice were significantly increased after 7 days of GH administration. Mitochondrial protein levels of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes, K1 and M4 (GSTK1 and GSTM4), were significantly higher in dwarf mice (Dwarf saline) when compared with WT mice (WT saline). GH administration downregulated the expression of GSTK1 proteins in dwarf mice. We further investigated GST activity from liver lysates using different substrates. Substrate-specific GST activity (bromosulfophthalein, dichloronitrobenzene, and 4-hydrox-ynonenal) was significantly reduced in GH-treated dwarf mice. In addition, GH treatment attenuated the activity of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin in liver mitochondria of Ames mice. Importantly, GH treatment suppressed Trx2 and TrxR2 mRNA expression. These data indicate that GH has a role in stress resistance by altering the functional capacity of the GST system through the regulation of specific GST family members in long-living Ames dwarf mice. It also affects the regulation of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, factors that regulate posttranslational modification of proteins and redox balance, thereby further influencing stress resistance. PMID:24285747

  16. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.


    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  17. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter


    challenging kind of system to design for independent extension. This thesis presents two new software technologies that improve the extensibility of control systems: First, the concept of dynamic links is introduced and Decouplink – an implementation of dynamic links for Java - is presented. Dynamic links......While the extensibility of many software systems has been greatly improved during the past two decades, nontrivial control systems remain to be a category of software systems that are remarkably difficult for independent parties to extend. Support for independent extension is the ability...... is introduced, and an implementation is presented. The extensible controller is a component framework designed to automatically resolve conflicts among mutually unaware components in a control system. The solution is based on the idea that independent components implement different kinds of control concerns...

  18. IT Security Aspects of Industrial Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Holecko


    Full Text Available This paper discusses a set of general network system architectures for industrial process control systems as well as vulnerabilities related to these systems and the IT threats these systems are exposed to from the point of view of Common Criteria methodology and ITU-T recommendation X.805.

  19. Modular supervisory controller for hybrid power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos Pereira, A. de


    The power supply of remote places has been commonly provided by thermal power plants, usually diesel generators. Although hybrid power systems may constitute the most economical solution in many applications their widespread application to the electrification schemes of remote areas still depends on improvements in the issues of design and operation control. The main limitations of the present hybrid power systems technology, which are identified in this work, are related to the control and supervision of the power system. Therefore this thesis focuses on the modularity of supervisory controllers in order to design cost-competitive and reliable hybrid power systems. The modular supervisory controller created in this project is considered an important part of a system design approach that aims to overcome the technical difficulties of the current engineering practice and contribute to open the market of hybrid power systems. The term modular refers to a set of design characteristics that allows the use of basically the same supervisory controller in different projects. The modularization and standardisation of the controller include several issues such as interfacing components, communication protocols, modelling, programming and control strategies. The modularity can reduce the highly specialised system engineering related to the integration of components, operation and control. It can also avoid the high costs for installation, service and maintenance. A modular algorithm for supervisory controllers has been developed (a Matlab program called SuperCon) using an object-oriented design and it has been tested through several simulations using different hybrid system configurations and different control strategies. This thesis presents a complete control system design process which can be used as the basis for the development and implementation of intelligent and autonomous supervisory controllers for hybrid power systems with modular characteristics. (au)

  20. Distributed and recoverable digital control system (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)


    A real-time multi-tasking digital control system with rapid recovery capability is disclosed. The control system includes a plurality of computing units comprising a plurality of redundant processing units, with each of the processing units configured to generate one or more redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors are employed for detecting data errors in the control commands. One or more recovery triggers are provided for initiating rapid recovery of a processing unit if data errors are detected. The control system also includes a plurality of actuator control units each in operative communication with the computing units. The actuator control units are configured to initiate a rapid recovery if data errors are detected in one or more of the processing units. A plurality of smart actuators communicates with the actuator control units, and a plurality of redundant sensors communicates with the computing units.

  1. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test (United States)

    ... feedback system to maintain stable amounts of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the blood ... their thyroid gland removed is receiving too little thyroid hormone replacement medication and the dose may need to ...

  2. Twenty-one hormones fail to inhibit the brain to blood transport system for Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins in mice. (United States)

    Banks, W A; Kastin, A J


    Tyr-MIF-1 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-amide) and methionine enkephalin are transported intact across the blood-brain barrier by a saturable, stereospecific system. This system has been found to be modulated by a few non-peptide substances and by certain conditions such as ageing and some stresses. We investigated the possibility that hormones structurally unrelated to Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins might also be capable of modulating this transport. Twenty-one hormones were tested including steroids, proteins, glycoproteins, peptides, and thyroid hormones, in doses ranging from 0.01 pmol to 1 nmol/mouse by injecting each hormone directly into the lateral ventricle simultaneously with [125I]Tyr-MIF-1. No clear effect on transport could be established for any of the substances at the doses tested. None of these substances seemed able to act as competitive inhibitors, to share their respective transport systems with Tyr-MIF-1, or to modulate immediately the saturable transport system.

  3. Functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eComasco


    Full Text Available The level of gonadal hormones to which the female brain is exposed considerably changes across the menopausal transition, which in turn, is likely to be of great relevance for neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological consequences of these hormone fluctuations and of hormone replacement therapy in the menopause have only begun to be understood. This review summarizes the findings of thirty-four studies of human brain function, including functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron and single-photon computed emission tomography studies, in peri- and postmenopausal women treated with estrogen, or estrogen-progestagen replacement therapy. Seven studies using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist intervention as a model of hormonal withdrawal are also included. Cognitive paradigms are employed by the majority of studies evaluating the effect of unopposed estrogen or estrogen-progestagen treatment on peri- and postmenopausal women’s brain. In randomized-controlled trials, estrogen treatment enhances activation of fronto-cingulate regions during cognitive functioning, though in many cases no difference in cognitive performance was present. Progestagens seems to counteract the effects of estrogens. Findings on cognitive functioning during acute ovarian hormone withdrawal suggest a decrease in activation of the inferior frontal gyrus, thus essentially corroborating the findings in postmenopausal women. Studies of the cholinergic and serotonergic systems indicate these systems as biological mediators of hormonal influences on the brain. More, hormonal replacement appears to increase cerebral blood flow in cortical regions. On the other hand, studies on emotion processing in postmenopausal women are lacking. These results call for well-powered randomized-controlled multi-modal prospective neuroimaging studies as well as investigation on the related molecular mechanisms of effects of menopausal hormonal

  4. Endocrine archeology: do insects retain ancestrally inherited counterparts of the vertebrate releasing hormones GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF? (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold; Lindemans, Marleen; Liu, Feng; De Groef, Bert; Schoofs, Liliane


    Vertebrate releasing hormones include gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). They are synthesized in the hypothalamus and stimulate the release of pituitary hormones. Here we review the knowledge on hormone releasing systems in the protostomian lineage. We address the question: do insects have peptides that may be phylogenetically related to an ancestral GnRH, GHRH, TRH, and CRF? Such endocrine archeology has become possible thanks to the growing list of fully sequenced genomes as well as to the continuously improving bioinformatic tool set. It has recently been shown that the ecdysozoan (nematodes and arthropods) adipokinetic hormones (AKHs), the lophotrochozoan (annelids and mollusks) GnRHs as well as the protochordate GnRHs are structurally related. The adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs), in locusts encoded by the same gene that contains the AKH-coding region, have been forwarded as the structural counterpart of GHRH of vertebrates. CRF is relatively well conserved in insects, in which it functions as a diuretic hormone. Members of TRH-receptor family seem to have been conserved in some arthropods, but other elements of the thyroid hormone signaling system are not. A challenging idea is that in insects the functions of the thyroid hormones were taken over by juvenile hormone (JH). Our reconstruction suggests that, perhaps, the ancestral releasing hormone precursors played a role in controlling energy metabolism and water balance, and that releasing hormone functions as present in extant vertebrates were probably secondarily acquired. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidermal growth factor and human growth hormone induce two sodium-dependent arginine transport systems after massive enterectomy. (United States)

    Iannoli, P; Miller, J H; Sax, H C


    A combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and human growth hormone (hGH) after massive enterectomy induces a 400% increase in arginine transport in the remnant distal small intestine. The kinetic mechanism(s) responsible for enhanced arginine transport under these conditions is unknown. New Zealand White rabbits underwent 70% midjejunoileal resection. After a 1-week recovery period, animals received hGH (0.2 mg/kg/d IM), EGF (1.5 microg/kg/h SC), hGH + EGF, or vehicle (equal volume) for 7 days. Transport of tritiated arginine into brush border membrane vesicles prepared from distal remnant small intestinal mucosa was quantified in the presence and absence of a sodium gradient over a range of arginine concentrations (25 to 5000 micromol/L). Eadie-Hofstee transformation of the kinetic data demonstrates two sodium-dependent arginine transport systems, comprising a high-capacity, low-affinity system and a low-capacity, high-affinity system. A combination of EGF and hGH significantly upregulates both the high-capacity (685%) and low-capacity (350%) maximum transport velocity (Vmax). Additionally, EGF alone significantly upregulates Vmax by 200% in the low-capacity system. There were no significant changes in transport affinity (Km) in either system. There are two quiescent sodium-dependent arginine transport systems in the distal small intestine. A combination of EGF and hGH after massive enterectomy increase arginine transport by Vmax upregulation in both the high-capacity/low-affinity and low-capacity/high-affinity systems.

  6. Preliminary AFBITS Network Control System (United States)


    divided into time slots. This provides essentially simultaneous digital data service to a large number of individual subscribers. In a normal...model telephone switch, modern exchanges such as those developed by the Bell System or the independent Telco suppliers give a good indication of

  7. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems (United States)

    Subramanian, Devika


    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  8. Reactivity capacity of NPR control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D.E.


    The reactivity control capacity of the N-reactor control systems has been calculated by methods which take into account the absorption of epithermal as well as thermo neutrons. Earlier calculations were made using a method which is satisfactory in control calculations for the existing Hanford reactors but which largely neglects the epithermal absorption. The new calculations were undertaken because of recent evidence that the epithermal absorption is more important to the NPR control strength and because of some concern regarding the margin between previously calculated control strength and anticipated control requirements. The calculational methods used in the present study and the resulting calculated control capacities are reported in this document.

  9. Wind turbine control and model predictive control for uncertain systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Sven Creutz

    This thesis presents both an applied study and a theoretical study within the field of control theory. Control theory is an interdisciplinary branch between mathematics and engineering dealing with the manipulation of systems to produce a desired output. The applied study deals with wind turbine...... as disturbance models for controller design. The theoretical study deals with Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC is an optimal control method which is characterized by the use of a receding prediction horizon. MPC has risen in popularity due to its inherent ability to systematically account for time......-domain constraints on signals. During the last decades several theoretical advances have been made, so that it can handle a wide variety of system structures. In this thesis, the focus is on handling uncertain linear system description. To this end the so-called Youla parameterizations have been used. Two methods...

  10. H∞ Control Theory Using in the Air Pollution Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingya Yang


    Full Text Available In recent years, air pollution control has caused great concern. This paper focuses on the primary pollutant SO2 in the atmosphere for analysis and control. Two indicators are introduced, which are the concentration of SO2 in the emissions (PSO2 and the concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere (ASO2. If the ASO2 is higher than the certain threshold, then this shows that the air is polluted. According to the uncertainty of the air pollution control systems model, H∞ control theory for the air pollution control systems is used in this paper, which can change the PSO2 with the method of improving the level of pollution processing or decreasing the emissions, so that air pollution system can maintain robust stability and the indicators ASO2 are always operated within the desired target.

  11. Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control for Generator Excitation Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiu-yu


    Full Text Available For the generator excitation control system which is equipped with static var compensator (SVC and unknown parameters, a novel adaptive dynamic surface control scheme is proposed based on neural network and tracking error transformed function with the following features: (1 the transformation of the excitation generator model to the linear systems is omitted; (2 the prespecified performance of the tracking error can be guaranteed by combining with the tracking error transformed function; (3 the computational burden is greatly reduced by estimating the norm of the weighted vector of neural network instead of the weighted vector itself; therefore, it is more suitable for the real time control; and (4 the explosion of complicity problem inherent in the backstepping control can be eliminated. It is proved that the new scheme can make the system semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results show the effectiveness of this control scheme.

  12. Advanced Controllers for Electromechanical Motion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duy Cuong


    The aim of this research is to develop advanced controllers for electromechanical motion systems. In order to increase efficiency and reliability, these control systems are required to achieve high performance and robustness in the face of model uncertainty, measurement noise, and reproducible

  13. Generic control of material handling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.


    Material handling systems (MHSs) are in general complex installations that raise challenging design and control problems. In the literature, design and control problems have received a lot of attention within distinct business sectors or systems, but primarily from a system’s user perspective. Much

  14. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment. (United States)

    Begg, Robert T.


    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  15. Controller Reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.K.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.


    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting

  16. Report on the SLC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, N.


    The SLC control system is based on a VAX 11/780 Host computer with approximately 50 microprocessor clusters which provide distributed intelligence and control of all CAMAC interface modules. This paper will present an overview of the system including current status and a description of the software architecture and communication protocols. 8 refs.

  17. Managers’ Use of Multiple Management Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Jeanette

    This dissertation addresses the topic Management Control Systems (MCS) as a Package. Many research studies investigate management and control systems individually, whereas fewer research studies take a holistic view and include a larger part of all the MCS managers use to guide and direct subordi...

  18. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control (United States)


    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  19. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems (United States)


    ... clarified the location of the gas injection and mixing arrangement relative to the vapor processing unit or... Parts 35 and 39 Marine Vapor Control Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 136... Parts 154, 155, and 156 46 CFR Parts 35 and 39 RIN 1625-AB37 Marine Vapor Control Systems AGENCY: Coast...

  20. Documenting control system functionality for digital control implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harber, J.; Borairi, M.; Tikku, S.; Josefowicz, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)


    In past CANDU designs, plant control was accomplished by a combination of digital control computers, analogue controllers, and hardwired relay logic. Functionality for these various control systems, each using different hardware, was documented in varied formats such as text based program specifications, relay logic diagrams, and other various specification documents. The choice of formats was influenced by the hardware used and often required different specialized skills for different applications. The programmable electronic systems in new CANDU designs are realized in a manner consistent with latest international standards (e.g., the IEC 61513 standard). New CANDU designs make extensive use of modern digital control technology, with the benefit that functionality can be implemented on a limited number of control platforms, reducing development and maintenance cost. This approach can take advantage of tools that allow the plant control system functional and performance requirements to be documented using graphical representations. Modern graphical methods supplemented by information databases can be used to provide a clear and comprehensive set of requirements for software and system development. Overview diagrams of system functionality provide a common understanding of the system boundaries and interfaces. Important requirements are readily traced through the development process. This improved reviewability helps to ensure consistency with the safety and and production design requirements of the system. Encapsulation of commonly used functions into custom-defined function blocks, such as typical motor control centre interfaces, process interlocks, median selects etc, eases the burden on designers to understand and analyze the detailed functionality of each instance of use of this logic. A library of encapsulated functions will be established for complex functions that are reused in the control logic development. By encapsulation and standardisation of such

  1. Intelligent Controlling System of Aquiculture Environment (United States)

    Zhao, Deshen; Hu, Xuemei

    The paper has analyzed present aquiculture conditions and controlling problems of water environment factors of aquiculture, and constructed effective security aquiculture breeding intelligence controlling system suitable to Chinese situation, and presented the control strategy of neural network realizing dynamic decoupling for the factory aquiculture, and specially solved the water environment control and so on the key questions. The long term practice has shown that the system operation is simple and effective safe by applying some breeding bases in Zhenjiang, the system has met the requirements of culturists and enhanced international market competition for aquiculture.

  2. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario


    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  3. Multibody system dynamics, robotics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Gerstmayr, Johannes


    The volume contains 19 contributions by international experts in the field of multibody system dynamics, robotics and control. The book aims to bridge the gap between the modeling of mechanical systems by means of multibody dynamics formulations and robotics. In the classical approach, a multibody dynamics model contains a very high level of detail, however, the application of such models to robotics or control is usually limited. The papers aim to connect the different scientific communities in multibody dynamics, robotics and control. Main topics are flexible multibody systems, humanoid robots, elastic robots, nonlinear control, optimal path planning, and identification.

  4. Control theory of digitally networked dynamic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lunze, Jan


    The book gives an introduction to networked control systems and describes new modeling paradigms, analysis methods for event-driven, digitally networked systems, and design methods for distributed estimation and control. Networked model predictive control is developed as a means to tolerate time delays and packet loss brought about by the communication network. In event-based control the traditional periodic sampling is replaced by state-dependent triggering schemes. Novel methods for multi-agent systems ensure complete or clustered synchrony of agents with identical or with individual dynamic

  5. Abundance and fate of antibiotics and hormones in a vegetative treatment system receiving cattle feedlot runoff (United States)

    Vegetative treatment systems (VTS) have been developed and built as an alternative to conventional holding pond systems for managing run-off from animal feeding operations. Initially developed to manage runoff nutrients via uptake by grasses, their effectiveness at removing other runoff contaminant...

  6. Control method for physical systems and devices (United States)

    Guckenheimer, John


    A control method for stabilizing systems or devices that are outside the control domain of a linear controller is provided. When applied to nonlinear systems, the effectiveness of this method depends upon the size of the domain of stability that is produced for the stabilized equilibrium. If this domain is small compared to the accuracy of measurements or the size of disturbances within the system, then the linear controller is likely to fail within a short period. Failure of the system or device can be catastrophic: the system or device can wander far from the desired equilibrium. The method of the invention presents a general procedure to recapture the stability of a linear controller, when the trajectory of a system or device leaves its region of stability. By using a hybrid strategy based upon discrete switching events within the state space of the system or device, the system or device will return from a much larger domain to the region of stability utilized by the linear controller. The control procedure is robust and remains effective under large classes of perturbations of a given underlying system or device.

  7. Building systems and smoke control (United States)

    Kawagoe, K.; Wakamatsu, T.; Morishita, Y.; Yamana, T.

    The cost effectiveness of different approaches to fire prevention - sprinklers and detectors, increased use of smoke control devices, increased flammability standards, increased public education, increase fire prevention efforts, increased public fire services, etc. - need to be studied further as a guide to determining the emphasis appropriate for each. It is clear that detectors and sprinklers are making a difference in the fight to reduce fire losses. With continued effort the detectors' and sprinklers' full potential for saving lives and property from fire can be realized.

  8. A fuzzy classifier system for process control (United States)

    Karr, C. L.; Phillips, J. C.


    A fuzzy classifier system that discovers rules for controlling a mathematical model of a pH titration system was developed by researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Fuzzy classifier systems successfully combine the strengths of learning classifier systems and fuzzy logic controllers. Learning classifier systems resemble familiar production rule-based systems, but they represent their IF-THEN rules by strings of characters rather than in the traditional linguistic terms. Fuzzy logic is a tool that allows for the incorporation of abstract concepts into rule based-systems, thereby allowing the rules to resemble the familiar 'rules-of-thumb' commonly used by humans when solving difficult process control and reasoning problems. Like learning classifier systems, fuzzy classifier systems employ a genetic algorithm to explore and sample new rules for manipulating the problem environment. Like fuzzy logic controllers, fuzzy classifier systems encapsulate knowledge in the form of production rules. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the ability of fuzzy classifier systems to generate a fuzzy logic-based process control system.

  9. Roles of plant hormones in the regulation of host-virus interactions. (United States)

    Alazem, Mazen; Lin, Na-Sheng


    Hormones are tuners of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. They are involved in various complicated networks, through which they modulate responses to different stimuli. Four hormones primarily regulate plant defence to pathogens: salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (Et) and abscisic acid (ABA). In susceptible plants, viral infections result in hormonal disruption, which manifests as the simultaneous induction of several antagonistic hormones. However, these antagonistic hormones may exhibit some sequential accumulation in resistant lines. Virus propagation is usually restricted by the activation of the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral machinery and/or SA signalling pathway. Several studies have investigated these two systems, using different model viruses. However, the roles of hormones other than SA, especially those with antagonistic properties, such as ABA, have been neglected. Increasing evidence indicates that hormones control components of the small RNA system, which regulates many processes (including the siRNA antiviral machinery and the microRNA system) at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. Consequently, cross-talk between the antagonistic SA and ABA pathways modulates plant responses at multiple levels. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the different roles of hormones in the regulation of plant-virus interactions, which are helping us to elucidate the fine tuning of viral and plant systems by hormones. © 2014 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD AND BSPP.

  10. Boundary controllability of integrodifferential systems in Banach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the regularity of optimal boundary controls for parabolic equations with quadratic cost criterion. Recently Han and Park [7] derived a set of sufficient conditions for the boundary controllability of a semilinear system with a nonlocal condition. The purpose of this paper is to study the boundary controllability of nonlinear ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  12. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis


    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  13. Control of System with Defined Risk Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Tomasov


    Full Text Available In the following paper the basic requirements for system control with defined risk level is presented. The paper should be an introduction to describe of theoretical apparatus, which was created during some years of research work in the Department of information and safety systems in this area. It a modification or creation of new parts of Information theory, System theory, and Control theory means. This parts are necessary for the analysis and synthesis tasks in the systems where dominant attribute of control is defined risk level. The basic problem is the creation of protect mechanism again the threats from inside and from controlled system environs. For each risk reduction mechanism is needed some redundancy which should be into control algorithm to put by exactly determined way.

  14. Individualised growth response optimisation (iGRO) tool: an accessible and easy-to-use growth prediction system to enable treatment optimisation for children treated with growth hormone. (United States)

    Loftus, Jane; Lindberg, Anders; Aydin, Ferah; Gomez, Roy; Maghnie, Mohamad; Rooman, Raoul; Steinkamp, Heinz; Doerr, Helmuth; Ranke, Michael; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia


    Growth prediction models (GPMs) exist to support clinical management of children treated with growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Currently, no prediction system has been widely adopted. The objective was to develop a stand-alone web-based system to enable the widespread use of an 'individualised growth response optimisation' (iGRO) tool across European endocrinology clinics. A modern platform was developed to ensure compatibility with IT systems and web browsers. Seventeen GPMs derived from the KIGS database were included and tested for accuracy. The iGRO system demonstrated prediction accuracy and IT compatibility. The observed discrepancies between actual and predicted height may support clinicians in investigating the reasons for deviations around the expected growth and optimise treatment. This system has the potential for wide access in endocrinology clinics to support the clinical management of children treated with GH for these three indications.

  15. Multicopter control with Navio using REX control system (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Ozana, Stepan


    This article deals with study of possible connection of the REXcontrols platform with Raspberry Pi based control system and Navio2 expansion board. This board is designed for development of autonomous robotic platforms type car, plane or multicopter. In this article, control system REXcontrols is introduced and its integration possibilities for control board Navio2 are discussed. The main discussed aspects are communication possibilities of the REXcontrols system with external scripts which further on allow control of this board. The main reasons for this undertaking are vast possibilities of archiving, visualization, signal processing and control which REXcontrols system allows. The control itself of the navio2 board is done through numerous interfaces. Specifically it is a pair of SPI data buses, an I2C data bus, UART and multiple GPIO pins. However, since REXcontrols control system has only limited access to these data buses, it is necessary to establish the communication through external scripts. For this purpose REXcontrols is equipped with mechanisms; SILO, EPC and REXLANG which are described in the article. Due to its simple implementation into REXcontrols and the option to utilize available libraries for communication with Navio2 board in external script, an EPC block was selected for the final implementation.

  16. Controlled unknown quantum operations on hybrid systems (United States)

    He, Yong; Luo, Ming-Xing


    Any unknown unitary operations conditioned on a control system can be deterministically performed if ancillary subspaces are available for the target systems [Zhou X Q, et al. 2011 Nat. Commun. 2 413]. In this paper, we show that previous optical schemes may be extended to general hybrid systems if unknown operations are provided by optical instruments. Moreover, a probabilistic scheme is proposed when the unknown operation may be performed on the subspaces of ancillary high-dimensional systems. Furthermore, the unknown operations conditioned on the multi-control system may be reduced to the case with a control system using additional linear circuit complexity. The new schemes may be more flexible for different systems or hybrid systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61303039 and 61201253), Chunying Fellowship, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2682014CX095).

  17. Variable speed wind turbine control system (United States)

    Conley, E.

    Variable speed wind turbine operation offers potential increased energy production if the turbine rotor is controlled to operate at constant blade tip speed to wind speed ratio. Two variable speed control systems are compared to a constant speed control system during field tests of a 5m Darrieus type wind turbine generator. Data indicates that a simple variable speed control scheme using wind rotor RPM as the single input signal can control the Darrieus test machine to operate at roughly constant blade tip to wind speed ratio and thus maximize energy production.

  18. Structural Control Systems Implemented in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pastia


    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a great interest has been generated by the use of protection systems to mitigate the effects of dynamic environmental hazards on civil engineering structures, such as earthquakes and strong wind. These control systems develop controllable forces to add or dissipate energy in a structure, or both, due to specific devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real – time process to operate. The paper includes the advantages of these technologies consisting of the following sections: 1 represents an introduction, 2 deals with passive control system, 3 regards some control techniques, 4 concerns hybrid control techniques, 5 contains semi – active control techniques, and 6 is dedicated to general conclusions.

  19. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Komareji, Mohammad


    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices, it is often the case that systems, which...... are needed to be controlled, are nonlinear, and linear models are insufficient to describe the behavior of the processes. The focus of this work is on the problem of control configuration selection for such systems. A gramian-based interaction measure for control configuration selection of MIMO nonlinear...... processes is described. In general, most of the results on the control configuration selection, which have been proposed so far, can only support linear systems. The proposed gramian-based interaction measure not only supports nonlinear processes but also can be used to propose a richer sparse or block...

  20. Types of hormone therapy (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...