WorldWideScience

Sample records for horizontal orbital angle

  1. Impact on Spin Tune From Horizontal Orbital Angle Between Snakes and Orbital Angle Between Spin Rotators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai,M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.

    2008-10-01

    To keep the spin tune in the spin depolarizing resonance free region is required for accelerating polarized protons to high energy. In RHIC, two snakes are located at the opposite side of each accelerator. They are configured to yield a spin tune of 1/2. Two pairs of spin rotators are located at either side of two detectors in each ring in RHIC to provide longitudinal polarization for the experiments. Since the spin rotation from vertical to longitudinal is localized between the two rotators, the spin rotators do not change the spin tune. However, due to the imperfection of the orbits around the snakes and rotators, the spin tune can be shifted. This note presents the impact of the horizontal orbital angle between the two snakes on the spin tune, as well as the effect of the vertical orbital angle between two rotators at either side of the collision point on the spin tune.

  2. Influence of Atmospheric Refraction on Horizontal Angle Surveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenglu; DENG Yong; LUO Changlin; MEI Wensheng

    2006-01-01

    Side-refraction is the main error source of horizontal angle surveying, but it has little influence on the sides by analyzing the influence of atmospheric-infraction on the ultrahigh-precision side and angle surveying. Choosing oriented direction is crucial to distance and angle measurement in triangulateration network. How to select the oriented direction during angle measurement is presented, and the means to check the quality of auto-surveying with Georobot is brought forward as well. At last some solutions to reduce the influence of side-refraction while disposing and surveying ultrahigh-precision triangulateration network are put forward.

  3. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  4. Angles-only relative navigation in highly elliptical orbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jia; CUI Nai-gang

    2010-01-01

    For angles-only relative navigation system only measures line-of-sight information,there are inherent problems in the ability to determine the range between Chaser and Target.Angles-only relative navigation is an at tractive alternative for inspecting or rendezvous with noncooperative target,if adequate accuracy can be achieved.Angles-only relative navigation model considering J2 perturbation is presented for tracking and rendezvous with nonco operative target in highly elliptical orbit.Impulsive out-of-plane maneuvers of the Chaser axe used to improve the navigation accuracy.The frrst impulse burns in cross-track directions to change the orbit inclination of the Chaser.The second impulse burns after one orbit period to change the orbit of the Chaser back.The simulation results show that the relative navigation system without maneuvers can' t correct the initial state errors,while impulsive out-of plane maneuvers of the Chaser improves the navigation accuracy.Angles-only relative navigation with chaser vehicle maneuvers to improve observability is effective when the spacecrafts are in highly elliptical orbits.

  5. Dealing with uncertainties in angles-only initial orbit determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-08-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available, DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available, high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  6. Statistical contact angle analyses; "slow moving" drops on a horizontal silicon-oxide surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M; Grub, J; Heib, F

    2015-06-01

    Sessile drop experiments on horizontal surfaces are commonly used to characterise surface properties in science and in industry. The advancing angle and the receding angle are measurable on every solid. Specially on horizontal surfaces even the notions themselves are critically questioned by some authors. Building a standard, reproducible and valid method of measuring and defining specific (advancing/receding) contact angles is an important challenge of surface science. Recently we have developed two/three approaches, by sigmoid fitting, by independent and by dependent statistical analyses, which are practicable for the determination of specific angles/slopes if inclining the sample surface. These approaches lead to contact angle data which are independent on "user-skills" and subjectivity of the operator which is also of urgent need to evaluate dynamic measurements of contact angles. We will show in this contribution that the slightly modified procedures are also applicable to find specific angles for experiments on horizontal surfaces. As an example droplets on a flat freshly cleaned silicon-oxide surface (wafer) are dynamically measured by sessile drop technique while the volume of the liquid is increased/decreased. The triple points, the time, the contact angles during the advancing and the receding of the drop obtained by high-precision drop shape analysis are statistically analysed. As stated in the previous contribution the procedure is called "slow movement" analysis due to the small covered distance and the dominance of data points with low velocity. Even smallest variations in velocity such as the minimal advancing motion during the withdrawing of the liquid are identifiable which confirms the flatness and the chemical homogeneity of the sample surface and the high sensitivity of the presented approaches.

  7. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  8. Design and Pitch Angle Optimisation of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine with Constant Tip Speed Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Nigam Suyash; Bansal Shubham; Nema Tanmay; Sharma Vansh; Singh Raj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Booming population and associated energy demands, looming threat of exhaustion of conventional sources of energy and the severe environmental repercussions of the same call for alternate sources of clean energy. Hydrokinetic turbine is one such developing technology which harnesses zero-head free flow of water and affects hydrological ecology minimally. This paper discusses the optimisation of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine (HAHkT) blade chord length and twist angle using blade element ...

  9. THE PEAK LATENCY OF ORBITAL PRESACCADIC SPIKE POTENTIAL WITH HORIZONTAL EYE MOVEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单扬; MarkL.Moster; RichardA.Roemer[

    1996-01-01

    Purpose.To investigate the peak latency of the orbital presaccedic spike potential (SP) with horizontal eyemovement in normals.Methods. Orbital SP was recorded in 28 normal subjects from 8 electrodes around the eyes with Pz as the reference while performing 5°,10°,20°,30° and 40° horizontal saccedes to visual targets. SP peak latencywas measured from SP onset to SP peak on averaged data aligned on SP peak.Re,Its. Significant main effects on SP peak latency are found for saccade size (P0. 05). No significant main effect on SP peak htency is found for eye (P>0. 05). SP peak latency increases with increasing saccade size from 5° to 40°. SP peak latency is longer with saccades back to center than away from center, and with abducting saccades than with adducting saccades. SP peak latency differs at the electrode sites with an order from shorter to longer as follows; innercanth° (IC); inferior orbit (IO); outer canthus (OC); superior orbit (SO).Conclusions. The effects on the peak latency of orbital SP can be explained by the saccade dynamic property, volume conduction as weft as physiologic and anatomic factors of the eyes and orbits. The peak latency of orbital SP can be used to reflect the temporal characteristics of ocular motor units controlling saccedic eye movement.

  10. Design and Pitch Angle Optimisation of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine with Constant Tip Speed Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigam Suyash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Booming population and associated energy demands, looming threat of exhaustion of conventional sources of energy and the severe environmental repercussions of the same call for alternate sources of clean energy. Hydrokinetic turbine is one such developing technology which harnesses zero-head free flow of water and affects hydrological ecology minimally. This paper discusses the optimisation of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbine (HAHkT blade chord length and twist angle using blade element momentum (BEM theory to achieve a constant optimal angle of attack (AoA, thus maximising the power output. To achieve this while maintaining robustness at the hub end and eliminate cavitation, two different hydrofoils (S832 and E817 are selected. S832 is simulated using ANSYS 14.0 at low (00 and high (150 angles of attack and compared against more widely used NACA 4412 to study flow separation characteristics. This is followed by calculating angles of relative flow, ratios of chord length and subsequently twist angles for each blade element using MATLAB simulations. A blade model is thus developed for visualisation using computer aided designing after obtaining optimal chord lengths and pitch angles.

  11. Effects of dynamic contact angle on liquid infiltration into horizontal capillary tubes: (semi)-analytical solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus

    2009-09-01

    We generalize Washburn's analytical solution for capillary flow in a horizontally oriented tube by accounting for a dynamic contact angle. We consider two general models for dynamic contact angle: the uncompensated Young force on the contact line depends on the capillary number in the form of either (1) a power law with exponent beta or (2) a power series. By considering the ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the velocity of the gas-liquid interface instead of the ODE for the interface position, we are able to derive new analytical solutions. For both dynamic contact angle models, we derive analytical solutions for the travel time of the gas-liquid interface as a function of interface velocity. The interface position as a function of time can be obtained through numerical integration. For the power law and beta=1 (an approximation of Cox's model for dynamic contact angle), we obtain an analytical solution for both interface position and velocity as a function of time. For the power law and beta=3, we can express the interface velocity as a function of time.

  12. A giant planet orbiting the 'extreme horizontal branch' star V 391 Pegasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvotti, R; Schuh, S; Janulis, R; Solheim, J-E; Bernabei, S; Østensen, R; Oswalt, T D; Bruni, I; Gualandi, R; Bonanno, A; Vauclair, G; Reed, M; Chen, C-W; Leibowitz, E; Paparo, M; Baran, A; Charpinet, S; Dolez, N; Kawaler, S; Kurtz, D; Moskalik, P; Riddle, R; Zola, S

    2007-09-13

    After the initial discoveries fifteen years ago, over 200 extrasolar planets have now been detected. Most of them orbit main-sequence stars similar to our Sun, although a few planets orbiting red giant stars have been recently found. When the hydrogen in their cores runs out, main-sequence stars undergo an expansion into red-giant stars. This expansion can modify the orbits of planets and can easily reach and engulf the inner planets. The same will happen to the planets of our Solar System in about five billion years and the fate of the Earth is matter of debate. Here we report the discovery of a planetary-mass body (Msini = 3.2M(Jupiter)) orbiting the star V 391 Pegasi at a distance of about 1.7 astronomical units (au), with a period of 3.2 years. This star is on the extreme horizontal branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, burning helium in its core and pulsating. The maximum radius of the red-giant precursor of V 391 Pegasi may have reached 0.7 au, while the orbital distance of the planet during the stellar main-sequence phase is estimated to be about 1 au. This detection of a planet orbiting a post-red-giant star demonstrates that planets with orbital distances of less than 2 au can survive the red-giant expansion of their parent stars.

  13. Angles-Only Initial Relative Orbit Determination Performance Analysis using Cylindrical Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, David K.; Lovell, T. Alan

    2016-09-01

    The solution of the initial relative orbit determination problem using angles-only measurements is important for orbital proximity operations, satellite inspection and servicing, and the identification of unknown space objects in similar orbits. In this paper, a preliminary relative orbit determination performance analysis is conducted utilizing the linearized relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates. The relative orbital equations of motion in cylindrical coordinates are rigorously derived in several forms included the exact nonlinear two-body differential equations of motion, the linear-time-varying differential equations of motion for an elliptical orbit chief, and the linear-time-invariant differential equations of motion for a circular orbit chief. Using the nonlinear angles-only measurement equation in cylindrical coordinates, evidence of full-relative-state observability is found, contrary to the range observability problem exhibited in Cartesian coordinates. Based on these results, a geometric approach to assess initial relative orbit determination performance is formulated. To facilitate a better understanding of the problem, the focus is on the 2-dimensional initial orbit determination problem. The results clearly show the dependence of the relative orbit determination performance on the geometry of the relative motion and on the time-interval between observations. Analysis is conducted for leader-follower orbits and flyby orbits where the deputy passes directly above or below the chief.

  14. Quantum correlations in optical angle-orbital angular momentum variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Jonathan; Jack, Barry; Romero, Jacqui; Jha, Anand K; Yao, Alison M; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Ireland, David G; Boyd, Robert W; Barnett, Stephen M; Padgett, Miles J

    2010-08-06

    Entanglement of the properties of two separated particles constitutes a fundamental signature of quantum mechanics and is a key resource for quantum information science. We demonstrate strong Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen correlations between the angular position and orbital angular momentum of two photons created by the nonlinear optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The discrete nature of orbital angular momentum and the continuous but periodic nature of angular position give rise to a special sort of entanglement between these two variables. The resulting correlations are found to be an order of magnitude stronger than those allowed by the uncertainty principle for independent (nonentangled) particles. Our results suggest that angular position and orbital angular momentum may find important applications in quantum information science.

  15. PITCH ANGLE RESTRICTIONS IN LATE-TYPE SPIRAL GALAXIES BASED ON CHAOTIC AND ORDERED ORBITAL BEHAVIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Villegas, A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Velazquez, H. M., E-mail: barbara@astroscu.unam.mx [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 877, 22800 Ensenada (Mexico)

    2012-01-20

    We built models for low bulge mass spiral galaxies (late type as defined by the Hubble classification) using a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for spiral arms, and analyzed the orbital dynamics as a function of pitch angle, ranging from 10 Degree-Sign to 60 Degree-Sign . Indirectly testing orbital self-consistency, we search for the main periodic orbits and studied the density response. For pitch angles up to approximately {approx}20 Degree-Sign , the response closely supports the potential readily permitting the presence of long-lasting spiral structures. The density response tends to 'avoid' larger pitch angles in the potential by keeping smaller pitch angles in the corresponding response. Spiral arms with pitch angles larger than {approx}20 Degree-Sign would not be long-lasting structures but would rather be transient. On the other hand, from an extensive orbital study in phase space, we also find that for late-type galaxies with pitch angles larger than {approx}50 Degree-Sign , chaos becomes pervasive, destroying the ordered phase space surrounding the main stable periodic orbits and even destroying them. This result is in good agreement with observations of late-type galaxies, where the maximum observed pitch angle is {approx}50 Degree-Sign .

  16. An Algorithm to Determine the Optimum Tilt Angle of a Solar Panel from Global Horizontal Solar Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the optimum tilt angle of solar panels by means of global horizontal solar radiation data, provided from Earth-based meteorological stations. This mathematical modeling is based on the maximization of the theoretical expression of the global solar irradiation impinging on an inclined surface, with respect to the slope and orientation of the panel and to the solar hour angle. A set of transcendent equations resulted, whose solutions give the optimu...

  17. Wigner functions for the pair angle and orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, H. A.

    2016-12-01

    The problem of constructing physically and mathematically well-defined Wigner functions for the canonical pair angle θ and angular momentum p is solved. While a key element for the construction of Wigner functions for the planar phase space {(q ,p ) ∈R2} is the Heisenberg-Weyl group, the corresponding group for the cylindrical phase space {(θ ,p ) ∈S1×R } is the Euclidean group E (2 ) of the plane and its unitary representations. Here the angle θ is replaced by the pair (cosθ ,sinθ ) , which corresponds uniquely to the points on the unit circle. The main structural properties of the Wigner functions for the planar and the cylindrical phase spaces are strikingly similar. A crucial role is played by the s i n c function, which provides the interpolation for the discontinuous quantized angular momenta in terms of the continuous classical ones, in accordance with the famous Whittaker cardinal function well known from interpolation and sampling theories. The quantum mechanical marginal distributions for the angle (continuous) and angular momentum (discontinuous) are, as usual, uniquely obtained by appropriate integrations of the (θ ,p ) Wigner function. Among the examples discussed is an elementary system of simple cat states.

  18. Possible Implications of the Planet Orbiting the Red Horizontal Branch Star HIP 13044

    CERN Document Server

    Bear, Ealeal; Harpaz, Amos

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scenario to account for the surprising orbital properties of the planet orbiting the metal poor red horizontal branch star HIP 13044. The orbital period of 16.2 days implies that the planet went through a common envelope phase inside the red giant branch (RGB) stellar progenitor of HIP 13044. The present properties of the star imply that the star maintained a substantial envelope mass of 0.3Mo, raising the question of how the planet survived the common envelope before the envelope itself was lost? If such a planet enters the envelope of an RGB star, it is expected to spiral-in to the very inner region within <100yr, and be evaporated or destructed by the core. We speculate that the planet was engulfed by the star as a result of the core helium flash that caused this metal poor star to swell by a factor of ~3-4. The evolution following the core helium flash is very rapid, and some of the envelope is lost due to the interaction with the planet, and the rest of the envelope shrinks within about a...

  19. Horizontal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG; Chunping

    2005-01-01

    [1]Wu, H., Bochner technique in differential geometry, Advance in Math. (in Chinese), 1981, 10(1): 57-76.[2]Morrow, J., Kodaira, K., Complex Manifolds, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.[3]Abate, M., Aikou, T., Patrizio, G., Preface for Complex Finsler Geometry, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence,RI: Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 97-100.[4]Abate, M., Patrizio, G., Finsler Metrics-A global approach with applications to geometric function theory,Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 1591, Bedin: Springer-Verlag, 1994.[5]Antonelli, P. L., Lackey, B.(eds.), The Theory of Finslerian Laplacians and Applications, MAIA 459, Dordrecht:Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.[6]Bao, D., Lackey, B., A Hodge decomposition theorem for Finsler spaces, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 323, Serie 1,1996, 51-56.[7]Munteanu, O., Weitzenbock formulas for horizontal and vertical Laplacians, Houston Journal of Mathematics,2003, 29(4): 889-900.[8]Faran, J. J., The equivalence problem for complex Finsler Hamiltonians, Cont. Math.,Vol. 196, Providence, RI:Amer. Math. Soc., 1996, 133-144.[9]Kobayashi, S., Complex Finsler vector bundles, Cont. Math., Vol. 196, Providence, RI: Amer. Math. Soc.,1996,145-153.[10]Aikou, T., On complex Finsler manifolds, Rep. Fac. Sci. Kagoshima Univ. (Math. Phys. & Chem.), 1991, 24:9-25.

  20. An Algorithm to Determine the Optimum Tilt Angle of a Solar Panel from Global Horizontal Solar Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Calabrò

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm to calculate the optimum tilt angle of solar panels by means of global horizontal solar radiation data, provided from Earth-based meteorological stations. This mathematical modeling is based on the maximization of the theoretical expression of the global solar irradiation impinging on an inclined surface, with respect to the slope and orientation of the panel and to the solar hour angle. A set of transcendent equations resulted, whose solutions give the optimum tilt and orientation of a solar panel. A simulation was carried out using global horizontal solar radiation data from the European Solar Radiation Atlas and some empirical models of diffuse solar radiation. The optimum tilt angle resulted was related to latitude by a linear regression with significant correlation coefficients. The standard error of the mean values resulted increased significantly with latitude, suggesting that unreliable values can be provided at high latitudes.

  1. Interpretation of Gravity Data using 3D Euler Deconvolution, Tilt Angle, Horizontal Tilt Angle and Source Edge Approximation of the North-West Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Gopal K.

    2016-08-01

    The collision of the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate created shortening and imbrications with thrusting and faulting which influences northward tectonic movement. This plate movement has divided the Himalaya into four parts, viz. Outer Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, Greater Himalaya, and Tethys Himalaya. The crystalline basement rock plays an imperative role for structural and tectonic association. The study has been carried out near Rishikesh-Badrinath neighborhood in the northwestern part of the Himalayan girdle with multifarious tectonic set up with thrusted and faulted geological setting. In this study area, 3D Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient analysis, tilt angle (TILT) and horizontal tilt angle (TDX) analysis have been carried out using gravity data to delineate the subsurface geology and heterogeneity in the northwestern part of Himalaya. The Euler depth solutions suggest the source depth of about 12 km and various derivative analyses suggest the trend of the delineation thrust-fault boundaries along with the dip and strike direction in the study area.

  2. Pitch Angle Restrictions in Late Type Spiral Galaxies Based on Chaotic and Ordered Orbital Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Villegas, Angeles; Moreno, Edmundo; Peimbert, Antonio; Velazquez, Hector M

    2011-01-01

    We built models for low bulge mass spiral galaxies (late type as defined by the Hubble classification) using a 3-D self-gravitating model for spiral arms, and analyzed the orbital dynamics as a function of pitch angle, going from 10$\\deg$ to 60$\\deg$. Testing undirectly orbital self-consistency, we search for the main periodic orbits and studied the density response. For pitch angles up to approximately $\\sim 20\\deg$, the response supports closely the potential permitting readily the presence of long lasting spiral structures. The density response tends to "avoid" larger pitch angles in the potential, by keeping smaller pitch angles in the corresponding response. Spiral arms with pitch angles larger than $\\sim 20\\deg$, would not be long-lasting structures but rather transient. On the other hand, from an extensive orbital study in phase space, we also find that for late type galaxies with pitch angles larger than $\\sim 50\\deg$, chaos becomes pervasive destroying the ordered phase space surrounding the main sta...

  3. Angle Dependence of the Orbital Magnetoresistance in Bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Collaudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present an extensive study of angle-dependent transverse magnetoresistance in bismuth, with a magnetic field perpendicular to the applied electric current and rotating in three distinct crystallographic planes. The observed angular oscillations are confronted with the expectations of semiclassic transport theory for a multivalley system with anisotropic mobility and the agreement allows us to quantify the components of the mobility tensor for both electrons and holes. A quadratic temperature dependence is resolved. As Hartman argued long ago, this indicates that inelastic resistivity in bismuth is dominated by carrier-carrier scattering. At low temperature and high magnetic field, the threefold symmetry of the lattice is suddenly lost. Specifically, a 2π/3 rotation of magnetic field around the trigonal axis modifies the amplitude of the magnetoresistance below a field-dependent temperature. By following the evolution of this anomaly as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we map the boundary in the (field, temperature plane separating two electronic states. In the less symmetric state, confined to low temperature and high magnetic field, the three Dirac valleys cease to be rotationally invariant. We discuss the possible origins of this spontaneous valley polarization, including a valley-nematic scenario.

  4. Identification of variations of angle of attack and lift coefficient for a large horizontal-axis wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Arjomandi, Maziar; Kotsonis, Marios;

    2015-01-01

    The current paper investigates the effects of various elements including turbulence, wind shear, yawed inflow, tower shadow, gravity, mass and aerodynamic imbalances on variations of angle of attack and lift coefficient for a large horizontal-axis wind turbine. It will identify the individual...... and the aggregate effect of elements on variations of mean value and standard deviation of the angle of attack and lift coefficient in order to distinguish the major contributing factors. The results of the current study is of paramount importance in the design of active load control systems for wind turbine....

  5. The Effect of Contact Angle on Dynamics of Dry Spots Spreading in a Horizontal Layer of Liquid at Local Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of equilibrium contact angle on dynamics of dry spot spreading at disruption of a horizontal water layer heated locally from the substrate was studied using the high-speed Schlieren technique. Different methods of working surface processing were applied; this allowed variations of the equilibrium contact angle from 27±6° to 74±9° without a change in thermal properties of the system. It is found out that substrate wettability significantly affects the propagation velocity of dry spot and its final size. It is also found out that the velocity of contact line propagation is higher in the areas of substrate with a higher temperature.

  6. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  7. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  8. Lepton mixing angle $\\theta_{13} = 0$ with a horizontal symmetry $D_4$

    CERN Document Server

    Grimus, Walter; Kaneko, S; Lavoura, L; Tanimoto, M

    2004-01-01

    We discuss a model for the lepton sector based on the seesaw mechanism and on a $D_4$ family symmetry. The model predicts the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ to vanish. The solar mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$ is free--it will in general be large if one does not invoke finetuning. The model has an enlarged scalar sector with three Higgs doublets, together with two real scalar gauge singlets $\\chi_i$ ($ i = 1, 2$) which have vacuum expectation values _0$ at the seesaw scale. The atmospheric mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ is given by $\\tan \\theta_{23} = _0$ /_0$, and it is maximal if the Lagrangian is $D_4$-invariant; but $D_4$ may be broken softly, by a term of dimension two in the scalar potential, and then m_2 > m_1$) and allows successful leptogenesis if $m_1 \\sim 4 \\times 10^{-3} \\mathrm{eV}$; these properties of the model are independent of the presence and strength of the soft $D_4$ breaking.

  9. Lepton mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} = 0 with a horizontal symmetry D{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimus, W. E-mail: walter.grimus@univie.ac.at; Joshipura, A.S.; Kaneko, S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M

    2004-07-01

    We discuss a model for the lepton sector based on the seesaw mechanism and on a D{sub 4} family symmetry. The model predicts the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} to vanish. The solar mixing angle {theta}{sub 12} is free-it will in general be large if one does not invoke fine tuning. The model has an enlarged scalar sector with three Higgs doublets, together with two real scalar gauge singlets {chi}{sub i} (i = 1,2) which have vacuum expectation values {chi}{sub i0} at the seesaw scale. The atmospheric mixing angle {theta}{sub 23} is given by tan {theta}{sub 23} = X{sub 20}/{chi}{sub 10}, and it is maximal if the Lagrangian is D{sub 4}-invariant; but D{sub 4} may be broken softly, by a term of dimension two in the scalar potential, and then {chi}{sub 20} becomes different from {chi}{sub 10}. Thus, the strength of the soft D{sub 4} breaking controls the deviation of {theta}{sub 23} from {pi}/4. The model predicts a normal neutrino mass spectrum (m{sub 3} > m{sub 2} > m{sub 1}) and allows successful leptogenesis if m{sub 1} {approx} 4 x 10{sup -3}eV; these properties of the model are independent of the presence and strength of the soft D{sub 4} breaking. (author)

  10. Orbit Determination with Angle-only Data from the First Korean Optical Satellite Tracking System, OWL-Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Jo, J.

    2016-09-01

    The optical satellite tracking data obtained by the first Korean optical satellite tracking system, Optical Wide-field patrol - Network (OWL-Net), had been examined for precision orbit determination. During the test observation at Israel site, we have successfully observed a satellite with Laser Retro Reflector (LRR) to calibrate the angle-only metric data. The OWL observation system is using a chopper equipment to get dense observation data in one-shot over 100 points for the low Earth orbit objects. After several corrections, orbit determination process was done with validated metric data. The TLE with the same epoch of the end of the first arc was used for the initial orbital parameter. Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for an analysis of a performance of orbit estimation using the angle-only measurements. We have been developing batch style orbit estimator.

  11. Action-angle formulation of generalized, orbit-based, fast-ion diagnostic weight functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagner, L.; Heidbrink, W. W.

    2017-09-01

    Due to the usually complicated and anisotropic nature of the fast-ion distribution function, diagnostic velocity-space weight functions, which indicate the sensitivity of a diagnostic to different fast-ion velocities, are used to facilitate the analysis of experimental data. Additionally, when velocity-space weight functions are discretized, a linear equation relating the fast-ion density and the expected diagnostic signal is formed. In a technique known as velocity-space tomography, many measurements can be combined to create an ill-conditioned system of linear equations that can be solved using various computational methods. However, when velocity-space weight functions (which by definition ignore spatial dependencies) are used, velocity-space tomography is restricted, both by the accuracy of its forward model and also by the availability of spatially overlapping diagnostic measurements. In this work, we extend velocity-space weight functions to a full 6D generalized coordinate system and then show how to reduce them to a 3D orbit-space without loss of generality using an action-angle formulation. Furthermore, we show how diagnostic orbit-weight functions can be used to infer the full fast-ion distribution function, i.e., orbit tomography. In depth derivations of orbit weight functions for the neutron, neutral particle analyzer, and fast-ion D-α diagnostics are also shown.

  12. Stellar Orbital Studies in Normal Spiral Galaxies I: Restrictions to the Pitch Angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Villegas, A; Moreno, E

    2013-01-01

    We built a family of non-axisymmetric potential models for normal non-barred or weakly-barred spiral galaxies as defined in the simplest classification of galaxies: the Hubble sequence. For this purpose a three-dimensional self-gravitating model for spiral arms PERLAS is superimposed to the galactic axisymmetric potentials. We analyze the stellar dynamics varying only the pitch angle of the spiral arms, from 4$\\deg$ to 40$\\deg$, for an Sa galaxy, from 8$\\deg$ to 45$\\deg$, for an Sb galaxy, and from 10$\\deg$ to 60$\\deg$, for an Sc galaxy. Self-consistency is indirectly tested through periodic orbital analysis, and through density response studies for each morphological type. Based on ordered behavior, periodic orbits studies show that for pitch angles up to approximately $15\\deg$, $18\\deg$, and $20\\deg$ for Sa, Sb and Sc galaxies, respectively, the density response supports the spiral arms potential, a requisite for the existence of a long-lasting large-scale spiral structure. Beyond those limits, the density ...

  13. Approximate action-angle variables for the figure-eight and periodic three-body orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuvakov, Milovan; Dmitrašinović, V

    2011-05-01

    We use the maximally permutation-symmetric set of three-body coordinates that consist of the "hyper-radius" R=√[ρ(2)+λ(2)], the "rescaled area of the triangle" √[3]/2R(2) |ρ×λ|), and the (braiding) hyperangle Φ=arctan(2ρ·λ/λ(2)-ρ(2)) to analyze the "figure-eight" choreographic three-body motion discovered by Moore [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3675 (1993)] in the Newtonian three-body problem. Here ρ,λ are the two Jacobi relative coordinate vectors. We show that the periodicity of this motion is closely related to the braiding hyperangle Φ. We construct an approximate integral of motion ̅G that together with the hyperangle Φ forms the action-angle pair of variables for this problem and show that it is the underlying cause of figure-eight motion's stability. We construct figure-eight orbits in two other attractive permutation-symmetric three-body potentials. We compare the figure-eight orbits in these three potentials and discuss their generic features, as well as their differences. We apply these variables to two new periodic, but nonchoreographic, orbits: One has a continuously rising Φ in time t, just like the figure-eight motion, but with a different, more complex, periodicity, whereas the other one has an oscillating Φ(t) temporal behavior.

  14. Tracking on-orbit stability of the response versus scan angle for the S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Cao, Changyong

    2016-09-01

    Built on strong heritage of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) carried on Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite (http://npp.gsfc.nasa.gov/viirs.html) has been in operation for nearly five fives. The on-board calibration of the VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) relies on a solar diffuser (SD) located at a fixed scan angle and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The VIIRS response versus scan angle (RVS) was characterized prelaunch in lab ambient conditions and is currently used to determine the on orbit response for all scan angles relative to the SD scan angle. Since the RVS is vitally important to the quality of calibrated level 1B products, it is important to monitor its on-orbit stability. In this study, the RVS stability is examined based on reflectance trends collected from 16-day repeatable orbits over preselected pseudo-invariant desert sites in Northern Africa. These trends cover nearly entire Earth view scan range so that any systematic drifts in the scan angle direction would indicate a change in RVS. This study also compares VIIRS RVS on-orbit stability results with those from Aqua and Terra MODIS over the first four years of mission for a few selected bands, which provides further information on potential VIIRS RVS on-orbit changes.

  15. Horizontal and low-angle cross-stratifications from volcaniclastic sedimentary sequences: Outburst flood deposits, Numazawa and Ontake volcanoes, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kyoko

    2017-04-01

    This talk focuses on the formation and preservation of sedimentary structures such as horizontal and low-angle cross-stratifications in volcaniclastic sedimentary (lahar) sequences. The 5 ka outburst flood deposits in the Tadami river catchment, Numazawa volcano, Japan is presented as a first example. The flood, with a peak discharge of > 37,000-58,000 m^3/s from ignimbrite-dammed valley left pumiceous gravelly sediments with meter-sized boulders in the flow path (Kataoka et al., 2008). Up to 30 m thick sequence attributed to the flood formed a low gradient fan of 10 km long and 1.5-3 km wide, covering an area of 18 km2 with a total volume of > 0.5 km3 at the downstream end of the Tadami River. Outcrop observations accompanied with extensive surveys of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) along 200 to 500 m lateral and longitudinal transects over the flood fan revealed bedforms of the deposits. The profiles show large internal cross structures with 2-5 m amplitude and 10s m wavelength indicating lateral/downstream accretion in flood fan deposits. Some of them are slightly inclined towards upstream (backsets) which may suggest upstream migration of bedforms. These cross stratifications in the GPR profiles correspond to low-angle cross-stratifications or horizontal stratifications observed in outcrops. In outcrops, the stratified flood deposits mainly comprises rounded pumice pebble and cobble gravel and sand sized mineral grains. Bedding structures include horizontal stratifications and low-angle, low-amplitude, long wavelength cross-stratifications that occasionally climb. Individual 5 cm to decimeters-thick bed sets are commonly inversely graded. The deposits imply 1) high sediment concentration within a flow and 2) aggradation and bedform migration occurred in relation with traction carpet sedimentation. Especially thick traction carpets were probably formed because of 1) high stream power to drive near bed layer deeper and 2) a density contrast among volcaniclastic

  16. Simulated Performance of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, J. F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Orbiting Wide-angle Light collectors (OWL) experiment is in NASA's mid-term strategic plan and will stereoscopically image, from equatorial orbit, the air fluorescence signal generated by airshowers induced by the ultrahigh energy (E greater than few x 10(exp 19) eV) component of the cosmic radiation. The use of a space-based platform enables an extremely large event acceptance aperture and thus will allow a high statistics measurement of these rare events. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are required to quantify the physics potential of the mission as well as optimize the instrumental parameters. This paper reports on the results of the GSFC Monte Carlo simulation for two different, OWL instrument baseline designs. These results indicate that, assuming a continuation of the cosmic ray spectrum (theta approximately E(exp -2.75), OWL could have an event rate of 4000 events/year with E greater than or equal to 10(exp 20) eV. Preliminary results, based upon these Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that events can be accurately reconstructed in the detector focal plane arrays for the OWL instrument baseline designs under consideration.

  17. 角度风对转角塔水平荷载的影响%Effect of Wind Angle on the Horizontal Load for Tension Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑚; 李健; 徐维毅; 周魁; 张冯硕

    2013-01-01

    分析了转角杆塔设计时的荷载取值,将杆塔水平荷载分为水平风压荷载和水平张力荷载2种,考虑风对转角塔2侧电线的作用及对电线张力的影响,得出角度风作用下转角杆塔的综合水平荷载公式,并根据实际算例,探讨了杆塔最大水平荷载与大风角度的关系.结果表明,对于转角度数较大的转角杆塔,有必要根据实际情况计算角度风对水平荷载的影响.%This paper analyzes loads on the tension steel tower for the tower design.The horizontal load on the tower is divided into horizontal wind load and horizontal tension load.Considering the wind pressure on the conductor at both sides of the tension tower and the tensile force of the conductor,the paper establishes a comprehensive formula for the horizontal load for the tension tower under the wind angle.Based on an actual example,the paper discusses the effects of the wind angle on the maximum comprehensive horizontal load.The result of the study shows that for those tension towers with large angles,it is necessary to calculate the angle of the wind on the horizontal load of tension towers based on the actual situation.

  18. Accelerator Physics Studies for KEKB: Electron Trapping, Electron Cloud in the HER, Closed-Orbit Drift, Horizontal Instability and Tune Shift.

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2002-01-01

    In this report, I address 4 different items: (1) the trapping of electrons in a quadrupole field, (2) the electron- cloud build up inside an HER dipole magnet, (3) the closed orbit drift with SVD correction, and (4) the transverse tune shifts and horizontal instability in the HER. The appendix presents preliminary electron-cloud simulations for the two JKJ rings.

  19. Spin-orbit angle measurements for six southern transiting planets; New insights into the dynamical origins of hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Queloz, Didier; Anderson, David R; Gillon, Michaël; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Loeillet, Benoît; Maxted, Pierre F; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard G; Wheatley, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    For transiting planets, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect allows the measurement of the sky-projected angle beta between the stellar rotation axis and a planet's orbital axis. Using the HARPS spectrograph, we observed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for six transiting hot Jupiters found by the WASP consortium. We combine these with long term radial velocity measurements obtained with CORALIE. We found that three of our targets have a projected spin-orbit angle above 90 degrees: WASP-2b: beta = 153 (+11 -15), WASP-15b: beta = 139.6 (+5.2 -4.3) and WASP-17b: beta = 148.5 (+5.1 -4.2); the other three (WASP-4b, WASP-5b and WASP-18b) have angles compatible with 0 degrees. There is no dependence between the misaligned angle and planet mass nor with any other planetary parameter. All orbits are close to circular, with only one firm detection of eccentricity on WASP-18b with e = 0.00848 (+0.00085 -0.00095). No long term radial acceleration was detected for any of the targets. Combining all previous 20 measurements of bet...

  20. The EBLM project. I. Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the brown dwarf limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Hebb, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Cargile, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; Doyle, A. P.; Faedi, F.; Gillon, M.; Gomez Maqueo Chew, Y.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 ± 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects have projected spin-orbit angles aligned with their primaries' rotation. Neither primaries are synchronous. J1219-39b has a modestly eccentric orbit and is in agreement with the theoretical mass-radius relationship, whereas WASP-30b lies above it. Using WASP-South photometric observations (Sutherland, South Africa) confirmed with radial velocity measurement from the CORALIE spectrograph, photometry from the EulerCam camera (both mounted on the Swiss 1.2 m Euler Telescope), radial velocities from the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO's 3.6 m Telescope (prog ID 085.C-0393), and photometry from the robotic 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope, all located at ESO, La Silla, Chile. The data is publicly available at the CDS Strasbourg and on demand to the main author.Tables A.1-A.3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgPhotometry tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/549/A18

  1. The horizontal inclination angle is associated with the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury during the extraction of mandibular third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, S; Abe, S; Moro, A; Yokomizo, N; Kobayashi, Y

    2017-07-29

    The extraction of mandibular third molars can lead to injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. Hence, it is important to assess the proximity of the root to the inferior alveolar canal before extraction. The classification system of Pell and Gregory and the Winter classification are commonly used to evaluate the positional relationship of the third molar based on radiographs. This retrospective study involving 105 mandibular third molars was performed to assess whether these systems reflect the proximity of the root to the canal (based on computed tomography images), and to identify risk factors for nerve injury. Regarding the prediction of computed tomography-verified canal invasion, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were high for each Pell and Gregory category when there was radiographic evidence. The mean distance of invasion was significantly greater in class III than in class I. However, there were no significant differences between the Winter inclination categories. The mean distance differed significantly between a horizontal inclination angle to the buccal side of >5° and an angle of ≤5°. Thus, a horizontal inclination angle >5° represents a novel risk factor for nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative Method of On-Orbit Response-Versus-Scan-Angle Characterization for MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongda; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Geng, Xu; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering a spectral range from 0.41 to 2.2 microns, which are calibrated on-orbit using its onboard calibrators, which include a solar diffuser, a solar diffuser stability monitor, and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly. A space view (SV) port is used to provide a background reference and also facilitates near-monthly lunar observations through a spacecraft roll. In every scan, the Earth's surface, SV, and onboard calibrators are viewed via a two-sided scan mirror, the reflectance of which depends on the angle of incidence (AOI) as well as the wavelength of the incident light. Response-versus-scan-angle (RVS) is defined as a dependence function of the scan mirror's reflectance over AOI. An initial RVS for each RSB was measured prelaunch for both Terra and Aqua MODIS. Algorithms have been developed to track the on-orbit RVS variation using the measurements from the onboard calibrators, supplemented with the earth view (EV) trends from pseudoinvariant desert targets obtained at different AOI. Since the mission beginning, the MODIS characterization support team (MCST) has dedicated efforts in evaluating approaches of characterizing the on-orbit RVS. A majority of the approaches focused on fitting the data at each AOI over time and then deriving the relative change at different AOI. The current version of the on-orbit RVS algorithm, as implemented in the collection 6 (C6) level-1B (L1B), is also based on the above rationale. It utilizes the EV response trends from the pseudoinvariant Libyan desert targets to supplement the gain derived from the onboard calibrators. The primary limitation of this approach is the assumption of the temporal stability of these desert sites. Consequently, MCST developed an approach that derives the on-orbit RVS change using measurements from a single desert site, combined with the on-orbit lunar measurements. In addition, the EV and onboard

  3. Two-particle scattering on the lattice: Phase shifts, spin-orbit coupling, and mixing angles

    CERN Document Server

    Borasoy, Bugra; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2007-01-01

    We determine two-particle scattering phase shifts and mixing angles for quantum theories defined with lattice regularization. The method is suitable for any nonrelativistic effective theory of point particles on the lattice. In the center-of-mass frame of the two-particle system we impose a hard spherical wall at some fixed large radius. For channels without partial-wave mixing the partial-wave phase shifts are determined from the energies of the nearly-spherical standing waves. For channels with partial-wave mixing further information is extracted by decomposing the standing wave at the wall boundary into spherical harmonics, and we solve coupled-channels equations to extract the phase shifts and mixing angles. The method is illustrated and tested by computing phase shifts and mixing angles on the lattice for spin-1/2 particles with an attractive Gaussian potential containing both central and tensor force parts.

  4. Approximate action-angle variables for the figure-eight and other periodic three-body orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Suvakov, Milovan; 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.056603

    2011-01-01

    We use the maximally permutation symmetric set of three-body coordinates, that consist of the "hyper-radius" $R = \\sqrt{\\rho^{2} + \\lambda^{2}}$, the "rescaled area of the triangle" $\\frac{\\sqrt 3}{2 R^2} |{\\bm \\rho} \\times {\\bm \\lambda}|$) and the (braiding) hyper-angle $\\phi = \\arctan(\\frac{2{\\bm \\rho} \\cdot {\\bm \\lambda}}{\\lambda^2 - \\rho^2})$, to analyze the "figure-eight" choreographic three-body motion discovered by Moore \\cite{Moore1993} in the Newtonian three-body problem. Here ${\\bm \\rho}, {\\bm \\lambda}$ are the two Jacobi relative coordinate vectors. We show that the periodicity of this motion is closely related to the braiding hyper-angle $\\phi$. We construct an approximate integral of motion ${\\bar{G}}$ that together with the hyper-angle $\\phi$ forms the action-angle pair of variables for this problem and show that it is the underlying cause of figure-eight motion's stability. We construct figure-eight orbits in two other attractive permutation-symmetric three-body potentials. We compare the figur...

  5. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang

    2008-01-01

    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  6. 3D spin-orbit angle of Kepler-25 and HAT-P-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benomar Othman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of discovered exoplanets now exceeds 1500, mostly due to the Kepler space instrument observations. Many of these planet orbit in less than a week around their host stars. This implies that the inward migration of those planets is a basic ingredient of successful theories of planet formation and evolution. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the observed periods, which lead to different orbit eccentricity and obliquity distributions. Here we summarise and discuss the results of obliquities for two Kepler stars: HAT-P-7 and Kepler-25. These are interesting stellar systems as we could carry out a joint analysis using asteroseismology, transit lightcurve and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect in order to measure the three dimensional obliquity.

  7. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  8. Polymorph separation induced by angle distortion and electron delocalization effect via orbital modification in V O2 epitaxial thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Hu, Kai; Tao, Zhuchen; Zhao, Jiangtao; Pan, Nan; Wang, Xiaoping; Lu, Minghui; Yang, Yuanjun; Luo, Zhenlin; Gao, Chen

    2017-02-01

    Since Morin discovered that vanadium dioxide (V O2 ) undergoes a reversible and dramatic structural phase transition coupled with an abrupt metal-insulator transition, extensive attention has been paid to V O2 due to its importance in fundamental condensed state physics and its potential technological applications. Here, we observed that the precipitated phases of V O2 (insulating and metallic polymorphs) could be controlled by relaxing the dimerization of the vanadium-vanadium (V-V) atomic chain. In particular, the monoclinic metallic phase can be stabilized even at room temperature with the assistance of the angle-distortion-induced (β =120∘ ) metallization through symmetry matching between the V O2 epitaxial thin films and the (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates. Concomitantly, the insulating phase (M1 ,β =122 .6∘ ) that separates from the metallic matrix may supply another driving force for stabilizing the metallic phase, as indicated by scattering-type scanning near-field optical infrared microscopy and further confirmed by synchrotron radiation high-resolution x-ray diffraction characterizations. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy results showed that the orbital features of the monoclinic metallic phase are analogous to those of the high-temperature metallic rutile V O2 (R) phase. First-principles calculations further demonstrate the angle-distortion-induced reduction of the V-V atomic dimerization, which enhances the electron delocalization and thus the conductivity. Therefore, the angle distortion results in the metallic monoclinic phase and stabilizes it with the assistance of the nanoscale insulating V O2 (M1) domains at room temperature. These results are of great importance for understanding the contributions of various polymorphs to the metal-insulator transition and for the design of novel artificially heterointerfacial devices based on V O2 nanoscale polymorphs.

  9. On Selecting the Correct Root of Angles-Only Initial Orbit Determination Equations of Lagrange, Laplace, and Gauss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Ahn, Jaemyung

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a classical yet still mystifying problem regarding multiple roots of the angles-only initial orbit determination (IOD) polynomial equations of Lagrange, Laplace, and Gauss of the form: f( x) = x 8+ a x 6+ b x 3+ c=0 where a, c0 has been extensively treated in the celestial mechanics literature. However, the literature on applied astrodynamics has not treated this multiple-root issue in detail, and not many specific numerical examples with multiple roots are available in the literature. In this paper, a very simple method of determining the correct root from two or three non-spurious roots is presented, which doesn't utilize any a priori knowledge and/or additional observations of the object. The proposed method exploits a simple approximate polynomial equation of the form: g( x) = x 8+ a x 6=0. An approximate polynomial equation, either g( x) = x 8+ c=0 or g( x) = x 8+ a x 6= x 6( x 2+ a) = 0, can also be used for quickly estimating an initial guess of the correct root.

  10. The EBLM Project I-Physical and orbital parameters, including spin-orbit angles, of two low-mass eclipsing binaries on opposite sides of the Brown Dwarf limit

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Anderson, David R; Cargile, Phill; Cameron, Andrew Collier; Doyle, Amanda P; Faedi, Francesca; Gillon, Michaël; Chew, Yilen Gomez Maqueo; Hellier, Coel; Jehin, Emmanuel; Maxted, Pierre; Naef, Dominique; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Queloz, Didier; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Stassun, Keivan; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of papers aiming to study the dozens of low mass eclipsing binaries (EBLM), with F, G, K primaries, that have been discovered in the course of the WASP survey. Our objects are mostly single-line binaries whose eclipses have been detected by WASP and were initially followed up as potential planetary transit candidates. These have bright primaries, which facilitates spectroscopic observations during transit and allows the study of the spin-orbit distribution of F, G, K+M eclipsing binaries through the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here we report on the spin-orbit angle of WASP-30b, a transiting brown dwarf, and improve its orbital parameters. We also present the mass, radius, spin-orbit angle and orbital parameters of a new eclipsing binary, J1219-39b (1SWAPJ121921.03-395125.6, TYC 7760-484-1), which, with a mass of 95 +/- 2 Mjup, is close to the limit between brown dwarfs and stars. We find that both objects orbit in planes that appear aligned with their primaries' equatorial plane...

  11. Evaluation of the relation between the horizontal condylar angle and the internal derangement of the TMJ - a magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida Rocha [Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB), Salvador (Brazil); Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores; Rubira, Izabel Regina Fischer [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. of Propedeutica e Clinica Integrada; Panella, Jurandyr [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Radiologia; Mendes, Carlos Mauricio Cardeal [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicine

    2003-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the relation between the horizontal condylar angle (HCA) and the internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), as a result of interference by the T MJ disk, in individuals undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) scans. The sample included a total of 144 TMJs (sagittal and coronal views) of 72 subjects, 15 of whom were male and 57 female, with ages ranging from 15 to 70. The scans were made in a Signa system model at a magnetic field magnitude of 1.5 T. Sixty-eight TMJs were found to be normal, while 46 showed anterior displacement with reduction. Of these, 41 had some kind of adaptive change in the condyle, while 5 showed degenerative changes. Anterior displacement without reduction was found in 29 joints, 12 of which showed adaptive changes in the condyle, while 17 showed degenerative changes. Only one posterior displacement of the articular disk was recorded. For the TMJs in which disk displacement was found, such values achieved 24.69 deg on the right side, and 22.94 deg on the left side. Hence, it was possible for us to conclude that the HCA tends to increase in those TMJs where ID is present. For contralateral TMJs, a strong association was observed between HCA values (57.8%), state of normality (69.7%), and ID (66.7%). To corroborate such findings, a correlation between contralateral HCA values (63.31%) and the diagnosis for contralateral TMJs (68.05%) was determined. Thus, we could infer that there is a tendency between contralateral TMJs to share characteristics and conditions. (author)

  12. Bond angle variations in XH3 [X = N, P, As, Sb, Bi]: the critical role of Rydberg orbitals exposed using a diabatic state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S

    2015-10-14

    Ammonia adopts sp(3) hybridization (HNH bond angle 108°) whereas the other members of the XH3 series PH3, AsH3, SbH3, and BiH3 instead prefer octahedral bond angles of 90-93°. We use a recently developed general diabatic description for closed-shell chemical reactions, expanded to include Rydberg states, to understand the geometry, spectroscopy and inversion reaction profile of these molecules, fitting its parameters to results from Equation of Motion Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations using large basis sets. Bands observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum of NH3 at 18.3 eV, 30 eV, and 33 eV are reassigned from Rydberg (formally forbidden) double excitations to valence single-excitation resonances. Critical to the analysis is the inclusion of all three electronic states in which two electrons are placed in the lone-pair orbital n and/or the symmetric valence σ* antibonding orbital. An illustrative effective two-state diabatic model is also developed containing just three parameters: the resonance energy driving the high-symmetry planar structure, the reorganization energy opposing it, and HXH bond angle in the absence of resonance. The diabatic orbitals are identified as sp hybrids on X; for the radical cations XH3(+) for which only 2 electronic states and one conical intersection are involved, the principle of orbital following dictates that the bond angle in the absence of resonance is acos(-1/5) = 101.5°. The multiple states and associated multiple conical intersection seams controlling the ground-state structure of XH3 renormalize this to acos[3 sin(2)(2(1/2)atan(1/2))/2 - 1/2] = 86.7°. Depending on the ratio of the resonance energy to the reorganization energy, equilibrium angles can vary from these limiting values up to 120°, and the anomalously large bond angle in NH3 arises because the resonance energy is unexpectedly large. This occurs as the ordering of the lowest Rydberg orbital and the σ* orbital swap, allowing

  13. On turbulence driven by axial precession and tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle of close-in giant planets

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    The spin axis of a rotationally deformed planet is forced to precess about its orbital angular momentum vector, due to the tidal gravity of its host star, if these directions are misaligned. This induces internal fluid motions inside the planet that are subject to a hydrodynamic instability. We study the turbulent damping of precessional fluid motions, as a result of this instability, in the simplest local computational model of a giant planet (or star), with and without a weak internal magnetic field. Our aim is to determine the outcome of this instability, and its importance in driving tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle in precessing planets (and stars). We find that this instability produces turbulent dissipation that is sufficiently strong that it could drive significant tidal evolution of the spin-orbit angle for hot Jupiters with orbital periods shorter than about 10-18 days. If this mechanism acts in isolation, this evolution would be towards alignment or anti-alignment, depending on the initial a...

  14. Canonical Angles In A Compact Binary Star System With Spinning Components: Approximative Solution Through Next-To-Leading-Order Spin-Orbit Interaction for Circular Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Tessmer, Manuel; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This publication will deal with an explicit determination of the time evolution of the spin orientation axes and the evolution of the orbital phase in the case of circular orbits under next-to-leading order spin-orbit interactions. We modify the method of Schneider and Cui proposed in ["Theoreme \\"uber Bewegungsintegrale und ihre Anwendungen in Bahntheorien", Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, volume 212, 2005.] to iteratively remove oscillatory terms in the equations of motion for different masses that were not present in the case of equal masses. Our smallness parameter is chosen to be the difference of the symmetric mass ratio to the value 1/4. Before the first Lie transformation, the set of conserved quantities consists of the total angular momentum, the amplitudes of the orbital angular momentum and of the spins, $L, S_1,$ and $S_2$. In contrary, the magnitude of the total spin $S=|S_1+S_2|$ is not conserved and we wish to shift its non-conservation to higher orders of the smallness para...

  15. Determination of the Fermi velocity by angle-dependent periodic orbit resonance measurements in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Qualls, J. S.

    2002-10-01

    We report on detailed angle-dependent studies of the microwave (ν=50-90 GHz) interlayer magnetoelectrodynamics of a single crystal sample of the organic charge-density-wave (CDW) conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4. Recently developed instrumentation enables both magnetic-field (B) sweeps for a fixed sample orientation and angle sweeps at fixed ν/B. We observe series' of resonant absorptions, which we attribute to periodic orbit resonances (POR)-a phenomenon closely related to cyclotron resonance. The angle dependence of the POR indicates that they are associated with the low-temperature quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermi surface (FS) of the title compound; indeed, all of the resonance peaks collapse onto a single set of ν/B versus angle curves, generated using a semiclassical magnetotransport theory for a single Q1D FS. We show that Q1D POR measurements provide one of the most direct methods for determining the Fermi velocity, without any detailed assumptions concerning the band structure; our analysis yields an average value of vF=6.5×104 m/s. Quantitative analysis of the POR harmonic content indicates that the Q1D FS is strongly corrugated. This is consistent with the assumption that the low-temperature FS derives from a reconstruction of the high-temperature quasi-two-dimensional FS, caused by the CDW instability. Detailed analysis of the angle dependence of the POR yields parameters associated with the CDW superstructure, which are consistent with published results. Finally, we address the issue as to whether or not the interlayer electrodynamics are coherent in the title compound. We obtain a relaxation time from the POR linewidths, which is considerably longer than the interlayer hopping time, indicating that the transport in this direction is coherent.

  16. 铝熔炼炉燃烧器水平夹角的优化模拟%Optimization and Simulation of Horizontal Angle between Burners in an Aluminum Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王计敏; 闫红杰; 周孑民; 李世轩; 贵广臣

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the energy efficiency and melt quality and to reduce the pollutant emission, based on validating results by heat balance test for regenerative aluminum melting furnace from a company, a reasonable model of aluminum melting furnace was established to optimize processing parameters. CFD software Fluent was used to simulate and optimize coupling field between liquid aluminum and combustion space at the varied horizontal angle between burners of the aluminum melting furnace. The results show that the desirable melting performance can be obtained with the horizontal angle between burners of 90°.%为提升铝熔炼炉热效率、降低污染物排放和提高熔体质量,在对某厂蓄热式铝熔炼炉热平衡测试的基础上,建立合理的铝熔炼炉模型,提出了优化准则.运用计算流体力学软件Fluent对铝熔炼炉燃烧器不同水平夹角下铝液和炉膛的耦合物理场进行了仿真优化.经过对不同燃烧器水平夹角下的优化分析,结果表明,燃烧器水平夹角为90°时,铝熔炼炉能获得最佳的熔炼性能.

  17. Radiometric stability of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) following 15 years on-orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegge, Carol J.; Val, Sebastian; Diner, David J.; Jovanovic, Veljko; Gray, Ellyn; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu

    2014-09-01

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) has successfully operated on the EOS/ Terra spacecraft since 1999. It consists of nine cameras pointing from nadir to 70.5° view angle with four spectral channels per camera. Specifications call for a radiometric uncertainty of 3% absolute and 1% relative to the other cameras. To accomplish this, MISR utilizes an on-board calibrator (OBC) to measure camera response changes. Once every two months the two Spectralon panels are deployed to direct solar-light into the cameras. Six photodiode sets measure the illumination level that are compared to MISR raw digital numbers, thus determining the radiometric gain coefficients used in Level 1 data processing. Although panel stability is not required, there has been little detectable change in panel reflectance, attributed to careful preflight handling techniques. The cameras themselves have degraded in radiometric response by 10% since launch, but calibration updates using the detector-based scheme has compensated for these drifts and allowed the radiance products to meet accuracy requirements. Validation using Sahara desert observations show that there has been a drift of ~1% in the reported nadir-view radiance over a decade, common to all spectral bands.

  18. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Krizmanic, John F; Streitmatter, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    OWL uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above ~4 x 10^19 eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by ~1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate ~10^6 km^2 sr yr of exposure with full aperture at ~6 x 10^19 eV. Observations at different altitudes and sp...

  19. The New Method Judged Horizontal Distribution Pattern by Uniform Angle Index%角尺度判断林木水平分布格局的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中华; 惠刚盈; 胡艳波; 张弓乔

    2016-01-01

    正态分布检验林分(树种)平均角尺度判断林木水平分布格局方法对2个林分/种群的判断结果与 Ripley’s L函数点格局分析方法判断结果完全一致,而聚集指数 R与 Ripley’s L检验的判断结果的差别明显增加,说明置信水平对水平分布格局判断结果影响比较明显。【结论】研究提出的正态分布检验林分(树种)平均角尺度判断林木水平分布格局的方法克服了统一的置信区间不适用于评判抽样调查或群落中数量较少的种群水平分布格局问题,进一步完善了角尺度判断林木水平分布格局理论,提升了角尺度判断林木水平分布格局的准确性与适用范围。%Objective]This paper proposed a new method to judge tree horizontal distribution pattern by uniform angle index in order to further improve the theory of the uniform angle index to judge tree horizontal distribution pattern.[Method]6 000 simulated stands with an area of 70 m × 70 m and with different densities and distribution patterns were produced by stand spatial structure analysis software ( Winkelmass) ,the 2 field-tested broad-leaved korean pine forests in northeast China were then used to verify the accuracy of the new method for judging the stand and population horizontal distribution pattern,and the results were also compared with R aggregation index and Ripley’s L.[Result]According to the conclusion of the mean value of uniform angle index ( W ) of random distribution stand conform to the normal distribution and its relationships with the standard deviation,this contribution proposed the new method of judgment stand/population spatial horizontal distribution pattern by uniform angle index. The 6 000 simulated stands with different density and horizontal distribution patterns were produced by Winkelmass with an area of 70 m × 70 m. The results of simulation data showed that the coincidence rate of uniform angle index normal distribution test method was 100% to different density

  20. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  1. Spin orbit splitting in the valence bands of ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2−x}: Angle resolved photoemission and density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, Mohamed, E-mail: moustafa@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Engineering, Pharos University in Alexandria, Canal El Mahmoudia Str., Alexandria (Egypt); Ghafari, Aliakbar; Paulheim, Alexander; Janowitz, Christoph; Manzke, Recardo [Institut für Physik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We performed high resolution ARPES on 1T–ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2−x}. ► A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived VB along high symmetry directions was observed. ► The splitting size at the A point of the BZ is found to increase from 0.06 to 0.31 eV from ZrS{sub 2} towards ZrSe{sub 2}. ► Electronic structure calculations based on the DFT were performed using the model of TB–MBJ. ► The calculations show that the splitting is due to SO coupling of the valence bands. -- Abstract: Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation has been performed on 1T–ZrS{sub x}Se{sub 2−x}, where x varies from 0 to 2, in order to study the influence of the spin-orbit interaction in the valence bands. The crystals were grown by chemical vapour transport technique using Iodine as transport agent. A characteristic splitting of the chalcogen p-derived valence bands along high symmetry directions has been observed experimentally. The size of the splitting increases with the increase of the atomic number of the chalcogenide, e.g. at the A point of the Brillouin zone from 0.06 eV to 0.31 eV with an almost linear dependence with x, as progressing from ZrS{sub 2} towards ZrSe{sub 2}, respectively. Electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed using the model of Tran–Blaha [1] and the modified version of the exchange potential proposed by Becke and Johnson [2] (TB–MBJ) both with and without spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The calculations show that the splitting is mainly due to spin-orbit coupling and the degeneracy of the valance bands is lifted.

  2. The rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Yu; Peng Jing-Cui; Wang Hui; Peng Zhi-Hua

    2008-01-01

    Rehybridization of electronic orbitals in carbon nanotubes contains tilting angles of π orbital, electrons wavefunc-tions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, etc. In this paper, we have obtained analytical formulas of tilting angle of π orbital relative to tube surface, electrons wavefunctions of π orbital and σ orbital, degrees of hybridization, separately, as well as the numerical results.

  3. Molecular-orbital decomposition of the ionization continuum for a diatomic molecule by angle- and energy-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. I. Formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hongkun; Zare, Richard N.

    1996-03-01

    A theoretical formalism is developed for the quantum-state-specific photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) from the direct photoionization of a diatomic molecule in which both the ionizing state and the state of the ion follow Hund's case (b) coupling. The formalism is based on the molecular-orbital decomposition of the ionization continuum and therefore fully incorporates the molecular nature of the photoelectron-ion scattering within the independent electron approximation. The resulting expression for the quantum-state-specific PADs is dependent on two distinct types of dynamical quantities, one that pertains only to the ionization continuum and the other that depends both on the ionizing state and the ionization continuum. Specifically, the electronic dipole-moment matrix element rlλ exp(iηlλ) for the ejection of a photoelectron with orbital angular momentum quantum number l making a projection λ on the internuclear axis is expressed as ΣαλŪlαλλ exp (iπτ¯αλλ) Mαλλ, where Ūλ is the electronic transformation matrix, τ¯αλλ is the scattering phase shift associated with the αλth continuum molecular orbital, and Mαλλ is the real electronic dipole-moment matrix element that connects the ionizing orbital to the αλth continuum molecular orbital. Because Ūλ and τ¯αλλ depend only on the dynamics in the ionization continuum, this formalism allows maximal exploitation of the commonality between photoionization processes from different ionizing states. It also makes possible the direct experimental investigation of scattering matrices for the photoelectron-ion scattering and thus the dynamics in the ionization continuum by studying the quantum-state-specific PADs, as illustrated in the companion article on the photoionization of NO.

  4. Evaluation of the relation between the horizontal condylar angle and the internal derangement of the TMJ - a magnetic resonance imaging study Avaliação da relação entre o ângulo horizontal do côndilo e o desarranjo interno da ATM, por meio de ressonância magnética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iêda Margarida Rocha Crusoé-Rebello

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at assessing the relation between the horizontal condylar angle (HCA and the internal derangement (ID of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, as a result of interference by the TMJ disk, in individuals undergoing magnetic resonance (MR scans. The sample included a total of 144 TMJs (sagittal and coronal views of 72 subjects, 15 of whom were male and 57 female, with ages ranging from 15 to 70. The scans were made in a Signa system (GE model at a magnetic field magnitude of 1.5 T. Sixty-eight TMJs were found to be normal, while 46 showed anterior displacement with reduction. Of these, 41 had some kind of adaptive change in the condyle, while 5 showed degenerative changes. Anterior displacement without reduction was found in 29 joints, 12 of which showed adaptative changes in the condyle, while 17 showed degenerative changes. Only one posterior displacement of the articular disk was recorded. For the TMJs in which disk displacement was found, such values achieved 24.69º on the right side, and 22.94º on the left side. Hence, it was possible for us to conclude that the HCA tends to increase in those TMJs where ID is present. For contralateral TMJs, a strong association was observed between HCA values (57.8%, state of normality (69.7%, and ID (66.7%. To corroborate such findings, a correlation between contralateral HCA values (63.31% and the diagnosis for contralateral TMJs (68.05% was determined. Thus, we could infer that there is a tendency between contralateral TMJs to share characteristics and conditions.Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar a relação entre o valor do ângulo horizontal do côndilo (AHC e o desarranjo interno (DI, por interferência do disco da articulação temporomandibular (ATM, de indivíduos indicados para exame por ressonância magnética (RM. A amostra perfez um total de 144 ATMs (cortes sagital e coronal de 72 indivíduos, na faixa etária de 15 a 70 anos, 15 do gênero masculino e 57 do g

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  6. Patterns of orbital disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses various patterns of presentations of orbital lesions. Since this article has been authored by an otolaryngologist, the entire concept has been viewed from otolaryngologist's angle. With the advent of nasal endoscope trans nasal access to orbit is becoming the order of the day. Major advantage being that external skin incision is avoided.

  7. Horizontally oriented plates in clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Bréon, François-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Horizontally oriented plates in clouds generate a sharp specular reflectance signal in the glint direction, often referred to as "subsun". This signal (amplitude and width) may be used to analyze the relative area fraction of oriented plates in the cloud top layer and their characteristic tilt angle to the horizontal. We make use of spaceborne measurements from the POLDER instrument to provide a statistical analysis of these parameters. More than half of the clouds show a detectable maximum reflectance in the glint direction, although this maximum may be rather faint. The typical effective fraction (area weighted) of oriented plates in clouds lies between 10-3 and 10-2. For those oriented plates, the characteristic tilt angle is less than 1 degree in most cases. These low fractions imply that the impact of oriented plates on the cloud albedo is insignificant. The largest proportion of clouds with horizontally oriented plates is found in the range 500-700 hPa, in agreement with typical in situ observation of p...

  8. Calculation and Spectra Analysis of Horizontal Acceleration Correction (HACC) for Airborne Gravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Pan; SUN Zhongmiao; XIAO Yun

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of a sinusoidal model of the disturbed horizontal acceleration, the spectrum characteristics of misaligned angle and horizontal acceleration correction are analyzed. In an airborne gravimetry test, the misaligned angle of platform and horizontal acceleration correction are calculated. They are 5'and 3 mGal, respectively, when the flight is stable.

  9. Horizontal roof gap of backfill hydraulic support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 张吉雄; 邰阳; 方坤; 殷伟

    2015-01-01

    For the backfill hydraulic support as the key equipment for achieving integration of backfilling and coal mining simultaneously in the practical process, its characteristics will directly influence the backfill body’s compression ratio. Horizontal roof gap, as a key parameter of backfilling characteristics, may impact the backfilling effect from the aspects of control of roof subsidence in advance, support stress, backfilling process and the support design. Firstly, the reason why horizontal roof gap exists was analyzed and its definition, causes and connotation were introduced, then adopting the Pro/E 3D simulation software, three typical 3D entity models of backfill hydraulic supports were built, based on the influence of horizontal roof gap on backfilling effect, and influence rules of four factors, i.e. support height, suspension height, suspension angle and tamping angle, were emphatically analyzed on horizontal roof gap. The results indicate that, the four factors all have significant impacts on horizontal roof gap, but show differences in influence trend and degree, showing negative linear correlation, positive linear correlation, positive semi-parabolic correlation and negative semi-parabolic correlation, respectively. Four legs type is the most adaptive to the four factors, while six legs (II) type has the poorest adaptability, and the horizontal roof gap is small under large support height, small suspension height, small suspension angle and large tamping angle situation. By means of optimizing structure components and their positional relation and suspension height of backfill scrape conveyor in the process of support design and through controlling working face deployment, roof subsidence in advance, mining height and backfilling during engineering application, the horizontal roof gap is optimized. The research results can be served as theoretical basis for support design and guidance for backfill support to have better performance in backfilling.

  10. Results of a 0.03- scale aerodynamic characteristics investigation of Boeing 747 carrier (model no. AX 1319 I-1) mated with a space shuttle orbiter (model 45-0) conducted in the Boeing transonic wind tunnel (CA5), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, D.; Mulkey, T. L.; Lindahl, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The performance, stability, and control characteristics of various carrier aircraft configurations are presented. Aerodynamic characteristics of the carrier mated with the Orbiter, carrier alone, and Orbiter alone were investigated. Carrier support system tare and interference effects were determined. Six-component force and moment data were recorded for the carrier and Orbiter. Buffet onset characteristics of the carrier vertical tail and horizontal tail were recorded. Angles of attack from -3 deg through 26 deg and angles of slideslip between +12 deg and -12 deg were investigated at Mach numbers from 0.15 through 0.70. Photographs are included.

  11. Mud and cement for horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurdo, C.; Georges, C.; Martin, M.

    1986-01-01

    High-angle and horizontal well bores raise many questions concerning the characteristics of mud and cement. This paper is a summary of the authors' knowledge and work on these two subjects. For all research carried out, large or full-scale laboratory test plants were used. Cutting transport is not only a problem in horizontal conditions but hole angles of 25 to 65/sup 0/ can be even more critical when parameters such as mud rheological properties and velocities are not optimized. Drilling a long horizontal drain creates a dynamic annulus pressure unbalance. This can lead to a loss and kick situation. Two test benches were thus used to obtain a good understanding of the inefficiency of conventional plugging methods and of the difficulties of gas migration control in subhorizontal well bores. High concentrations of LCM, high rheological properties of fluids and low flow rates increase the changes of solving the first problem. The results of the second bench demonstrate the difficulties of annulus gas evacution for angles varying from 90 to 100 degrees, or from over-gauged sections in horizontal holes.

  12. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  13. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  14. Orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  15. Estudio del horizonte local

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Ferré, Rosa Maria

    2009-01-01

    El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical).

  16. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  17. Study of orbit stability in the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min; HUANG Nan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of the beam orbit stability and conceptual study of the dynamic orbit feedback inthe SSRF storage ring are presented. It is shown that beam orbit position movement at the photon source points issmaller than the orbit stability requirements in horizontal plane, but exceeds the orbit stability requirements in verticalplane. A dynamic global orbit feedback system, which consists of 38 high-bandwidth air-coil correctors and 40high-precise BPMs, is proposed to suppress the vertical beam orbit position movement. Numerical simulations showthat this dynamic orbit feedback system can stabilize the vertical beam orbit position movement in the frequencyrange up to 100 Hz.

  18. Sliding Downhill Horizontally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2005-04-01

    We study the motion of object sliding on a rough incline plane. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the surface and the object is such that the magnitude of the gravitational force along the incline F is equal to the magnitude of the kinetic friction S. If the initial velocity of the object is along the incline, the object slides down the incline with constant velocity. We study the case when the object in launched in horizontal direction. We derive exact expressions for the terminal speed of the object and the maximum horizontal displacement of the object.

  19. Projection angles of mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the true projection angles of film-side mandibular condyles in panoramic and transcranial radiographs. 52 panoramic and transcranial radiographs of 4 condyles from two human dry mandibles with gradual horizontal and vertical angle changes were taken. The results were compared with the standard panoramic and transcranial radiographs and the identical pairs were selected. Panoramic radiography projected 10 degree to the film-sided condyles both horizontally and vertically. Transcranial radiography projected 15 degree to the film-sided condyles vertically. The medical and lateral poles were not forming the outline of condylar images in both projections when the horizontal angles of condyles were not sufficiently big enough.

  20. Extracting Accurate and Precise Topography from Lroc Narrow Angle Camera Stereo Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, M. R.; Manheim, M. R.; Speyerer, E. J.; Robinson, M. S.; LROC Team

    2016-06-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) includes two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) that acquire meter scale imaging. Stereo observations are acquired by imaging from two or more orbits, including at least one off-nadir slew. Digital terrain models (DTMs) generated from the stereo observations are controlled to Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) elevation profiles. With current processing methods, digital terrain models (DTM) have absolute accuracies commensurate than the uncertainties of the LOLA profiles (~10 m horizontally and ~1 m vertically) and relative horizontal and vertical precisions better than the pixel scale of the DTMs (2 to 5 m). The NAC stereo pairs and derived DTMs represent an invaluable tool for science and exploration purposes. We computed slope statistics from 81 highland and 31 mare DTMs across a range of baselines. Overlapping DTMs of single stereo sets were also combined to form larger area DTM mosaics, enabling detailed characterization of large geomorphic features and providing a key resource for future exploration planning. Currently, two percent of the lunar surface is imaged in NAC stereo and continued acquisition of stereo observations will serve to strengthen our knowledge of the Moon and geologic processes that occur on all the terrestrial planets.

  1. Horizontal Connection and Horizontal Mean Curvature in Carnot Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Hai TAN; Xiao Ping YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we give a geometric interpretation of the notion of the horizontal mean curvature which is introduced by Danielli-Garofalo-Nhieu and Pauls who recently introduced sub-Riemannian minimal surfaces in Carnot groups. This will be done by introducing a natural nonholonomic connection which is the restriction (projection) of the natural Riemannian connection on the horizontal bundle. For this nonholonomic connection and (intrinsic) regular hypersurfaces we introduce the notions of the horizontal second fundamental form and the horizontal shape operator. It turns out that the horizontal mean curvature is the trace of the horizontal shape operator.

  2. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician′s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care, which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36% OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2% teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8% of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001. Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3% have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7% have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment

  3. Horizontally mounted solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is collected by using a vertical deflector assembly, a stationary reflector and a horizontally mounted solar collector. The deflector assembly contains a plurality of vanes which change the direction of the solar energy to the vertical, while constantly keeping the same side of the deflector facing the sun. The vertical rays are then reflected off the stationary reflector and are then absorbed by the collector.

  4. Effects of slant angle and illumination angle on MTF estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available .085 0.09 0.095 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements _20120302_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.05 0.055 0.06 0....065 0.07 0.075 0.08 0.085 0.09 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements_20120303_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression Figure 6. Regression of positive slant...

  5. Influence of equilibrium contact angle on spreading dynamics of a heated droplet on a horizontal plate%平衡接触角对受热液滴在水平壁面上铺展特性的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶学民; 李永康; 李春曦

    2016-01-01

    droplet and the wall keeps constant, leading to a uniform wettability on the wall. When the liquid-solid interfacial tension or the liquid-gas interfacial tension is more sensitive to temperature than the other two interfaces, the equilibrium contact angle increases and the wettability tends to be worse, presenting a more hydrophobic substrate, which decelerates the spreading of the droplet with the contact line moving to the colder region. As the solid-gas interfacial tension is more sensitive to temperature than the other two interfaces, the equilibrium contact angle tends to lessen, and the contact line feels a more hydrophilic substrate (the droplet wets perfectly when the equilibrium contact angle decreases to zero), hence the spreading is enhanced. The present results indicate that the equilibrium contact angle plays a key role in the evolution of a heated droplet on a horizontal plate. The simulation conclusions can provide a theoretical basis for relevant experimental findings, which promotes the understanding of the relationship between wall temperature and its wettability.%壁面温度是影响壁面润湿性的重要外部条件。为解决液滴铺展中三相接触线处应力集中问题,已有研究多采用预置液膜假设,但无法探究壁面温度对润湿性的影响。本文针对受热液滴在固体壁面上的铺展过程,基于润滑理论建立了演化模型,通过数值模拟,从平衡接触角角度分析了温度影响壁面润湿性及铺展过程的内部机理。研究表明:随温度梯度增大,液滴所受Marangoni效应增强,致使液滴向低温区的铺展速率加快;铺展过程中,位于高温区的接触线与液滴主体部分间形成一层薄液膜,重力与热毛细力先后主导该区域的铺展;当液-固或气-液界面张力对温度的敏感度高于另两个界面时,低温区方向的平衡接触角不断增大,使壁面润湿性恶化,导致液滴铺展减慢;而当气-固界面

  6. Minimum-fuel aerodynamic orbital plane change maneuvers. [for Space Shuttle Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.; Pierson, B. L.

    1981-01-01

    Several minimum-fuel, aerodynamically controlled, orbital plane change problems are formulated and solved as optimal control problems. A gradient projection algorithm is used to iteratively modify both the control functions, angle of attack and bank angle, and two control parameters to obtain the optimal trajectory. The atmospheric flight profile is combined with two Keplerian (two-body vacuum flight) arcs so that a complete orbit-to-orbit analysis results. The vehicle used in this investigation is the Space Transportation System Shuttle Orbiter. The effects of heat load constraint level and plane change angle are analysed.

  7. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Possible role of bonding angle and orbital mixing in iron pnictide superconductivity: Comparative electronic structure studies of LiFeAs and Sr2VO3FeAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. K.; Koh, Y. Y.; Kyung, W. S.; Han, G. R.; Lee, B.; Kim, Kee Hoon; Ok, J. M.; Kim, Jun Sung; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Mo, S.-K.; Kim, C.

    2015-07-01

    A well-known universal feature among iron pnictide superconductors is the correlation between the As-Fe-As bonding angle and the superconducting transition temperature. However, the origin of such a correlation has not been clearly understood despite its potential importance in understanding the mechanism of superconductivity. Here, we present comparative electronic structure studies of LiFeAs and Sr2VO3FeAs , two representative systems without any dopant that can show bonding angle dependence of the electronic structure. Captured distinct features of the higher Tc compound Sr2VO3FeAs such as an unusual kz modulation and anomalous polarization dependence suggest that the difference between the two systems is in the interorbital coupling strength. This could be the essential element of the bonding angle dependence that allows an enhanced pairing instability and Tc.

  9. The globe and orbit in Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, L; Konen, O; Lilos, P; Laron, Z

    2011-09-01

    Patients with LS have an inborn growth hormone resistance, resulting in failure to generate IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of the eye and orbit in LS. We retrospectively reviewed the MR imaging of the brain in 9 patients with LS for the following parameters: axial diameter of the globe, interzygomatic distance, perpendicular distance from the interzygomatic line to margins of the globe, medial-to-lateral diameter of the orbit at the anterior orbital rim, distance from the anterior orbital rim to the anterior globe, maximal distance between the medial walls of the orbits, lateral orbital wall angle, lateral orbital wall length, and mediolateral thickness of the intraorbital fat in the most cranial image of the orbit. All measurements were made bilaterally. Twenty patients referred for MR imaging for unrelated reasons served as control subjects. Compared with the control group, the patients with LS had a significantly smaller maximal globe diameter and shallower but wider orbits due to a shorter lateral wall, a smaller medial distance between the orbits, and a larger angle of the orbit. The ratio between the most anterior orbital diameter and the globe was greater than that in controls. The position of the globe was more anterior in relation to the interzygomatic line. Shallow and wide orbits and small globes relative to orbital size are seen in LS and may be secondary to IGF-1 deficiency.

  10. Contact Angle Effects in Boiling Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Urquiola, Erwin; Fujita, Yasunobu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports boiling experiments with pure water and surfactant solutions of SDS on horizontal heating surface. The static contact angle, rather than the surface tension value, was found to be the leading factor for the results and probably its prev

  11. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Rodríguez, Julián Blanco; Cally, Paul S; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H; Solanki, Sami K

    2014-01-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21 deg (up to 34 deg by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3 x 10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provi...

  12. Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.

  13. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.D.S. Keuengoua

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well planning to avoid drilling of unnecessary wells. This study presents the concept of drainage area on horizontal well and horizontal productivity indices with different equations and their applications. A user friendly Excel Spreadsheet program was developed to calculate the productivity values of horizontal wells using three major available productivity equations. Also, the developed spreadsheet program was used to evaluate the effect of well spacing on the productivities of horizontal wells using productivity index approach and drainage area concept. It also helps to review the comparison between vertical and horizontal wells spacing based on drainage area concept. This program was validated, and then was used to study the effect of horizontal well length on the ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity. The results show that higher ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity values are obtained with increase length of the horizontal well. It is a very useful tool for making decision about the application of well spacing for horizontal wells.

  14. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  15. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  16. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  17. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  18. Orbit Alignment in Triple Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2017-08-01

    The statistics of the angle Φ between orbital angular momenta in hierarchical triple systems with known inner visual or astrometric orbits are studied. A correlation between apparent revolution directions proves the partial orbit alignment known from earlier works. The alignment is strong in triples with outer projected separation less than ∼50 au, where the average Φ is about 20^\\circ . In contrast, outer orbits wider than 1000 au are not aligned with the inner orbits. It is established that the orbit alignment decreases with the increasing mass of the primary component. The average eccentricity of inner orbits in well-aligned triples is smaller than in randomly aligned ones. These findings highlight the role of dissipative interactions with gas in defining the orbital architecture of low-mass triple systems. On the other hand, chaotic dynamics apparently played a role in shaping more massive hierarchies. The analysis of projected configurations and triples with known inner and outer orbits indicates that the distribution of Φ is likely bimodal, where 80% of triples have {{Φ }}< 70^\\circ and the remaining ones are randomly aligned.

  19. PRODUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Antolović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest and performance of horizontal drilling and completions has increased during the last two decades. Horizontal wells are advantageous compared to vertical wells in thin reservoirs, reservoirs with favorable vertical permeability and reservoirs with water and gas coning problems. In many reservoirs, the ratio of horizontal permeability to the vertical permeability is substantially larger than one and often is close to 10. Thus, these reservoirs are very good candidates for hydraulic fracturing. By hydraulic fracturing one or more fractures are created, which can be longitudinal or orthogonal. By that, flow is altered and it mostly conducts horizontally through reservoir toward horizontal wellbore. With this altered flow, fluid is produced faster, with less pressure loss by fluid unit of produced fluid. Some of the existing mathematical models to determine the productivity of multifractured horizontal wells are presented in this work (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Orbital pseudotumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goodlick TA, Kay MD, Glaser JS, Tse DT, Chang WJ. Orbital disease and neuro-ophthalmology. In: Tasman ... 423. Review Date 8/20/2016 Updated by: Franklin W. Lusby, MD, ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La ...

  1. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  2. Meniscectomy of horizontal tears of the lateral meniscus anterior horn using the joystick technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ill Ho; Kim, Sung Jae; Choi, Duck Hyun; Lee, Su Chan; Park, Ha Young; Jung, Kwang Am

    2014-01-01

    Unstable inferior leaves of the anterior horn in horizontal tears of the lateral meniscus are challenging lesions for most orthopedic surgeons due to the poor viewing angle and the instability of these lesions. Resection of an exact volume is required for the successful treatment of horizontal tears in the lateral meniscus anterior horn. We report a method based on the joystick technique.

  3. Near-term Horizontal Launch for Flexible Operations: Results of the DARPA/NASA Horizontal Launch Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Schaffer, Mark G.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Voland, Randall T.; Voracek, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal launch has been investigated for 60 years by over 130 different studies. During this time only one concept, Pegasus, has ever been in operation. The attractiveness of horizontal launch is the capability to provide a "mobile launch pad" that can use existing aircraft runways, cruise above weather, loiter for mission instructions, and provide precise placement for orbital intercept, rendezvous, or reconnaissance. A jointly sponsored study by DARPA and NASA, completed in 2011, explored the trade space of horizontal launch system concepts which included an exhaustive literature review of the past 70 years. The Horizontal Launch Study identified potential near- and mid-term concepts capable of delivering 15,000 lb payloads to a 28.5 due East inclination, 100 nautical-mile low-Earth orbit. Results are presented for a range of near-term system concepts selected for their availability and relatively low design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) costs. This study identified a viable low-cost development path forward to make a robust and resilient horizontal launch capability a reality.

  4. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova Evgenija; Feoktistov Dmitriy; Kuznetsov Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It...

  5. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy; Kuznetsov, Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  6. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlova Evgenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  7. Diplopia and orbital wall fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-01-01

    Diplopia is a symptom that is frequently associated with orbital wall fractures. The aim of this article was to present the incidence and patterns of diplopia after orbital wall blow-out fractures in 2 European centers, Turin and Amsterdam, and to identify any correlation between this symptom and such fractures. This study is based on 2 databases that have continuously recorded data of patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures between 2001 and 2010. On the whole, 447 patients (334 males, 113 females) with pure blow-out orbital wall fractures were included. The most frequently involved orbital site was the floor (359 fractures), followed by medial wall (41 fractures) and lateral wall (5 fractures). At presentation, 227 patients (50.7%) had evidence of diplopia. In particular, in most patients, a diplopia in all directions was referred (78 patients). Statistically significant associations were found between diplopia on eye elevation and orbital floor fractures (P diplopia and medial wall fractures (P diplopia on eye elevation and horizontal diplopia at presentation could be useful clinical indicators orbital floor and medial wall fractures, respectively.

  8. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  9. International transferability of accident modification functions for horizontal curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between characteristics of horizontal curves and accident rate have been reported in several countries. The characteristic most often studied is the radius of a horizontal curve. Functions describing the relationship between the radius of horizontal curves and accident rate have been developed in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Great Britain, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the United States. Other characteristics of horizontal curves that have been studied include deflection angle, curve length, the presence of transition curves, super-elevation in curves and distance to adjacent curves. This paper assesses the international transferability of mathematical functions (accident modification functions) that have been developed to relate the radius of horizontal curves to their accident rate. The main research problem is whether these functions are similar, which enhances international transferability, or dissimilar, which reduces international transferability. Accident modification functions for horizontal curve radius developed in the countries listed above are synthesised. The sensitivity of the functions to other characteristics of curves than radius is examined. Accident modification functions developed in different countries have important similarities. The functions diverge with respect to accident rate in the sharpest curves.

  10. The Apsidal Precession for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkelzen Cakaj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By nodal regression and apsidal precession, the Earth flattering at satellite low Earth orbits (LEO is manifested. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun. Nodal regression is orbit feature utilized for circular orbits to be Sun synchronized. A sun¬-synchronized orbit lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-Sun direction. In the low Earth Sun synchronized circular orbits are suited the satellites that accomplish their photo imagery missions. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the respective orbital altitudes the inclination window for the Sun synchronization to be attained is determined. The apsidal precession represents major axis shift, respectively the argument of perigee deviation. The apsidal precession simulation, for inclination window of sun synchronized orbital altitudes, is provided through this paper.

  11. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  12. Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, NASA's first Earth Observing System (EOS)...

  13. Variations of refraction angles from observations of the Moon from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S V; Sokolovskiy, S V

    1994-12-20

    We present the results of measurements of optical refraction angles from photographs of the Moon taken from the orbital station Mir. We made estimations of rms fluctuations of refraction angles and of the characteristics of multipath propagation.

  14. Horizontal and Vertical Line Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students learn about the artist Piet Mondrian and create their own abstract artworks. Focuses on geometric shapes using horizontal and vertical lines. Includes background information about the artist. (CMK)

  15. Horizon-T Experiment Calibrations - Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, D; Iakovlev, A; Makhataeva, Z; Vildanova, M I; Yelshibekov, K; Zhukov, V V

    2016-01-01

    An innovative detector system called Horizon-T is constructed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the energy range above 1016 eV coming from a wide range of zenith angles (0o - 85o). The system is located at Tien Shan high-altitude Science Station of Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at approximately 3340 meters above the sea level. The detector consists of eight charged particle detection points separated by the distance up to one kilometer as well as optical detector to view the Vavilov-\\v{C}erenkov light from the EAS. Each detector connects to the Data Acquisition system via cables. The calibration of the time delay for each cable and the signal attenuation is provided in this article.

  16. Experimental investigation of horizontal convection

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Córdoba, Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Fluid circulation driven by buoyancy forces due to a thermal gradient on a horizontal boundary, known as horizontal convection, is experimentally studied. For that purpose, a methacrylate box with inner dimensions 300x150x150 mm3 (LxWxH) whose bottom is composed by a heat exchanger and a printed circuit board is lled with water. The heat exchanger provides a uniform temperature boundary condition while the printed circuit board provides a boundary condition of uniform heat ...

  17. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁科; 侯自新

    2001-01-01

    Vogan conjectured that the parabolic induction of orbit data is independent of the choice of the parabolic subgroup. In this paper we first give the parabolic induction of orbit covers, whose relationship with geometric orbit datum is also induced. Hence we show a geometric interpretation of orbit data and finally prove the conjugation for geometric orbit datum using geometric method.

  18. Pattern selection in a horizontally vibrated container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laveron-Simavilla, A; Lopez, C A, E-mail: jeff.porter@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    We present results of an experimental and numerical investigation of the patterns realized by surface waves within an open rectangular container subjected to horizontal vibrations at frequencies of 40-100 Hz. The first instability exhibited by the primary harmonic wave field is subharmonic, and may be identified with the cross-wave instability often seen in wave tank experiments. We show that, contrary to common theoretical and experimental assumptions, and despite their name, these subharmonic waves are not oriented crosswise, but at an intermediate angle with respect to the axis of vibration. Hence, the pattern selection problem for horizontally forced Faraday waves is more complex than has previously been assumed. We establish the robustness of this obliquely oriented surface wave pattern by varying the forcing frequency and amplitude, the fluid viscosity, the fluid depth, and the boundary conditions. Previous work on cross-waves is reviewed and discussed in relation to the current results. Finally, numerical simulations using a reduced model with an appropriate forcing term are used to support the generality of the experimental observations. (paper)

  19. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured......, temperature of inlet flow and collector tilt angle are shown. Based on the investigations preliminary recommendations for the operation of the investigated collector are given. For instance, minimum flow rate in order to avoid boiling in the horizontal strips is recommended....

  20. Quantitative evaluation of orbital hybridization in carbon nanotubes under radial deformation using π-orbital axis vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Ohnishi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When a radial strain is applied to a carbon nanotube (CNT, the increase in local curvature induces orbital hybridization. The effect of the curvature-induced orbital hybridization on the electronic properties of CNTs, however, has not been evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the strength of orbital hybridization in CNTs under homogeneous radial strain was evaluated quantitatively. Our analyses revealed the detailed procedure of the change in electronic structure of CNTs. In addition, the dihedral angle, the angle between π-orbital axis vectors of adjacent atoms, was found to effectively predict the strength of local orbital hybridization in deformed CNTs.

  1. Radio Detection of Horizontal Extensive Air Showers with AERA

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    AERA, the Auger Engineering Radio Array, located at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Malarg\\"ue, Argentina measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range and is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60$^{\\circ}$ zenith angle. In this contribution the motivation, the status, and first results of the analysis of horizontal air showers with AERA will be presented.

  2. Horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kowalik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regional inequalities are currently a challenge for the majority of the countries, in particular the large ones. The problem of public income redistribution emerges due to possible differentiation of the economic development level of territorial units. The most often considered problem is the vertical distribution. The horizontal division of income is far less frequently considered. Horizontal fiscal imbalance or regional tax inequalities seem to be graver than the vertical imbalance, particularly in developing countries. The public finance system, in particular in federations, is often very complex. Public finance of federations and federated states are not often based on the same assumptions. This leads to differences among regions, both vertical and horizontal. The use of the presented measures helps identify those differences and permits developing mechanisms equalising those inequalities. It should be remembered that those measures may have certain drawbacks, and they mainly focus on certain specific values of income redistribution. Thereby several measures should be applied in measurements and the obtained results should be compared. There are no up-to-date measurements and comparisons of horizontal fiscal imbalance among countries.. The aim of this paper is to measure horizontal fiscal imbalance in Germany, especially after reunification, which represents one of two models of federalism. At the beginning it shows the static and dynamic measurements presented in the literature that can be used to measure the horizontal fiscal imbalance. And then it is followed by the results of calculations for Germany in the period 1970-2013. As expected, horizontal imbalance was much lower before than after the reunification of Germany. After the reunification there were large disparities between "old" and "new" länder. This imbalance is gradually reduced. In comparison with the results obtained for the USA [Kowalik 2014, pp. 144-148] it can be said

  3. Managing resonant trapped orbits in our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre >~80 km/s). We explain how the Torus Mapper code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.

  4. Analysis of Near Horizontal Muons at HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Ahron; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) gamma ray observatory observes muons with nearly horizontal trajectories. HAWC is located at an altitude of 4100 meters a.s.l. on Sierra Negra in Mexico. The Gamma and Cosmic Ray detector is composed of 300 water tanks, 7.3 m in diameter and 4.5 m tall, spread over a physical area of 22,000 m2. Due to its thickness of 4.5 m, HAWC acts as a hodoscope capable of observing muons with trajectories at zenith angles greater than 75 degrees to just over 90 degrees. These muon trajectories have a unique signal in that they are linear and travel at nearly the speed of light. CORSIKA simulations indicate that these muons originate from high zenith angle cosmic ray events, where the air shower core is located at great distance from HAWC. I will present the angular distribution and rate at which HAWC observes these muon events. High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory.

  5. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  6. Orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  7. Inflammation of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Exams, Study Finds Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  8. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  9. The harmonic structure of generic Kerr orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Rebecca; Perez-Giz, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Generic Kerr orbits exhibit intricate three-dimensional motion. We offer a classification scheme for these intricate orbits in terms of periodic orbits. The crucial insight is that for a given effective angular momentum $L$ and angle of inclination $\\iota$, there exists a discrete set of orbits that are geometrically $n$-leaf clovers in a precessing {\\it orbital plane}. When viewed in the full three dimensions, these orbits are periodic in $r-\\theta$. Each $n$-leaf clover is associated with a rational number, $1+q_{r\\theta}=\\omega_\\theta/\\omega_r$, that measures the degree of perihelion precession in the precessing orbital plane. The rational number $q_{r\\theta}$ varies monotonically with the orbital energy and with the orbital eccentricity. Since any bound orbit can be approximated as near one of these periodic $n$-leaf clovers, this special set offers a skeleton that illuminates the structure of all bound Kerr orbits, in or out of the equatorial plane.

  10. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-01-01

    Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only...

  11. Numerical Simulation of Coalbed Methane Seepage in Pinnate Horizontal Well Based on Multi-Flow Coupling Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tingting Jiang; Xiujuan Yang; Xiangzhen Yan; Yunhong Ding; Xin Wang; Tongtao Wang

    2012-01-01

    The motive of the study is to establish a seepage flow model of pinnate horizontal well in infinite reservoir according to the characteristics of 3D distribution of CBM pinnate horizontal well. Taking flow pressure drop along the main and branch boreholes into consideration, the fluid flow formulas of CBM pinnate horizontal well are proposed. The corresponding calculation program has been achieved based on C++ computer language to analyze the effects of branch symmetry, angle between main and...

  12. Orbital liposarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Morales-Baños, D R; Martínez-Nava, L R; Garrido-Sánchez, G A; López-Hernández, C M; Velasco-Ramos, P

    2017-02-01

    The case is presented of a 46-year-old male with right eye proptosis and conjunctival hyperaemia, of 18 months onset. A well-defined intraconal mass was found in the computed tomography. In magnetic resonance this was hypo-intense on T1, enhanced with gadolinium and hyperintense on T2. Excisional biopsy was performed, which was reported as a well-differentiated liposarcoma in the histopathology study. Liposarcoma is a malignant adipose tissue tumour. It is very rare in the orbit, with 5 histological types, the most common being myxoid. The treatment of choice is wide surgical excision and may be accompanied with radiotherapy. As it is an infiltrative tumour, It has a high rate of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  14. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, D Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Erpenbeck, Eric A

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60 degrees) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10 degrees, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  15. Shoulder horizontal abduction stretching effectively increases shear elastic modulus of pectoralis minor muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Fujita, Kosuke; Kusano, Ken; Nishishita, Satoru; Araki, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Yanase, Ko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-07-01

    Stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle, which involve shoulder horizontal abduction or scapular retraction, are performed in clinical and sports settings because the tightness of this muscle may contribute to scapular dyskinesis. The effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle is unclear in vivo. The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness of stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. Eighteen healthy men participated in this study. Elongation of the pectoralis minor muscle was measured for 3 stretching maneuvers (shoulder flexion, shoulder horizontal abduction, and scapular retraction) at 3 shoulder elevation angles (30°, 90°, and 150°). The shear elastic modulus, used as the index of muscle elongation, was computed using ultrasonic shear wave elastography for the 9 aforementioned stretching maneuver-angle combinations. The shear elastic modulus was highest in horizontal abduction at 150°, followed by horizontal abduction at 90°, horizontal abduction at 30°, scapular retraction at 30°, scapular retraction at 90°, scapular retraction at 150°, flexion at 150°, flexion at 90°, and flexion at 30°. The shear elastic moduli of horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150° were significantly higher than those of other stretching maneuvers. There was no significant difference between horizontal abduction at 90° and horizontal abduction at 150°. This study determined that shoulder horizontal abduction at an elevation of 90° and horizontal abduction at an elevation of 150° were the most effective stretching maneuvers for the pectoralis minor muscle in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  17. As-placed contact angles for sessile drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, Rafael; Yadav, Preeti S

    2008-01-01

    As-placed contact angle is the contact angle a drop adapts as a result of its placement on a surface. As expected, the as-placed contact angle, thetaAP, of a sessile drop on a horizontal surface decreases with the drop size due to the increase in hydrostatic pressure. We present a theoretical prediction for thetaAP which shows that it is a unique function of the advancing contact angle, thetaA, drop size, and material properties (surface tensions and densities). We test our prediction with published and new data. The theory agrees with the experiments. From the relation of the as-placed contact angle to drop size the thermodynamic equilibrium contact angle is also calculated.

  18. John F. Kennedy Space Center's Wireless Hang Angle Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The technology is a high-precision, wireless inclinometer. The system was designed for monitoring the suspension angle of the Orbiter vehicle during loading onto the Solid Rocket Boosters of the Space Shuttle. Originally, operators manually measured the alignment of the Orbiter with a hand-held inclinometer on a nonrigid surface. The measurement was open to interpretation by the loader. If the Orbiter is misaligned, it can crush ball joints and delay the loading while repairs are made. With this system, the Orbiter can be loaded without damage and without manual measurement.

  19. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: orbit quality and gravity field estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mao, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of the Precision Orbit Determination work undertaken by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, in order to meet the position knowledge accuracy requirements (50-m total position) and to precisely geolocate the LRO datasets. In addition to the radiometric tracking data, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth stations and the spacecraft are made possible by a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. The LOLA timing system enables 5-s LR normal points with precision better than 10cm. Other types of geodetic constraints are derived from the altimetric data itself. The orbit geometry can be constrained at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). Due to the Moon's slow rotation, orbit solutions and normal equations including altimeter crossovers are processed and created in one month batches. Recent high-resolution topographic maps near the lunar poles are used to produce a new kind of geodetic constraints. Purely geometric, those do not necessitate actual groundtrack intersections. We assess the contributions of those data types, and the quality of our orbits. Solutions which use altimetric crossover meet the horizontal 50-m requirement, and perform usually better (10-20m). We also obtain gravity field solutions based on LRO and historical data. The various LRO data are accumulated into normal equations, separately for each one month batch and for each measurement type, which enables the final weights to be adjusted during the least-squares inversion step. Expansion coefficients to degree and order 150 are estimated, and a Kaula rule is still needed to stabilize the farside field. The gravity field solutions are compared to previous solutions (GLGM-3, LP150Q, SGM100h) and the geopotential predicted from the latest LOLA spherical harmonic expansion.

  20. Orbit Response Measurements at the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2004-01-01

    The optics of the SPS ring and the TT40 transfer line have been analyzed using the closed orbit (respectively trajectory) response to controlled corrector magnet deflections. A large amount of information on the machine model, beam position monitor quality and orbit corrector calibrations can be extracted from te response data. The data was analyzed with the LOCO fit program that was adapted to the SPS machine model. A large amount of data was collected on the SPS ring, and the modelling was tested under a number of different conditions. The SPS ring data showed that a significant number of horizontal SPS orbit correctors do not provide the nominal kick strength and are damaged at the level of the magnet coil. This note describes the experience that has been gained at the SPS, the information that could be extracted from orbit data and some of the limitations of the analysis procedure in the context of the SPS.

  1. Small Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Borsten, L; Ferrara, S; Marrani, A; Rubens, W

    2012-01-01

    We study both the "large" and "small" U-duality charge orbits of extremal black holes appearing in D = 5 and D = 4 Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories with symmetric scalar manifolds. We exploit a formalism based on cubic Jordan algebras and their associated Freudenthal triple systems, in order to derive the minimal charge representatives, their stabilizers and the associated "moduli spaces". After recalling N = 8 maximal supergravity, we consider N = 2 and N = 4 theories coupled to an arbitrary number of vector multiplets, as well as N = 2 magic, STU, ST^2 and T^3 models. While the STU model may be considered as part of the general N = 2 sequence, albeit with an additional triality symmetry, the ST^2 and T^3 models demand a separate treatment, since their representative Jordan algebras are Euclidean or only admit non-zero elements of rank 3, respectively. Finally, we also consider minimally coupled N = 2, matter coupled N = 3, and "pure" N = 5 theories.

  2. Horizontal segregation of mono-layer granules coordinated by vertical motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, S-Y; Chung, F F; Liaw, S-S

    2011-06-01

    We experimentally investigate the segregation of a binary mixture of spherical beads confined between two horizontal vertically vibrating plates. The two kinds of beads are of equal diameter and mass but have different restitution coefficients. Segregation occurs in particular ranges of vibration amplitude and frequency. We find that the collisions between beads at an angle to the horizontal plane induce an effective horizontal repulsive force. When one or both bead types bounce up and down in synchronization, the effective repulsive force between the two types of beads is likely to be larger than that found within a single bead type, resulting in the mixture segregating. Non-horizontal collisions also play a role in stabilizing the segregation state by transferring the horizontal kinetic energy back into vertical motion.

  3. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and accompanied by progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. It occurs due to mutation in ROBO 3 gene/chromosome 11q23-q25. We report a case of a 60-year-old lady who presented with complaints of defective vision in both eyes. On examination, she had scoliosis with restricted abduction and adduction in both eyes with intact elevation and depression. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit showed brainstem hypoplasia with absence of facial colliculi, presence of a deep midline pontine cleft (split pons sign, and a butterfly configuration of the medulla, which are the radiological findings seen in this disorder.

  4. Updates in Orbital Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nila; F.Moeloek

    1993-01-01

    Orbital anatomy, the clinical features of orbital tumors, the recent development of the diagnosis and management of orbital tumors were described. The incidence of orbital tumors in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in the past years were introduced. The principle of management of orbital tumors and their prognosis were discussed.

  5. Horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongcai; Wu, Lin

    2015-07-10

    We present the design of a horizontally staggered lightguide solar concentrator with lateral displacement tracking for high concentration applications. This solar concentrator consists of an array of telecentric primary concentrators, a horizontally staggered lightguide layer, and a vertically tapered lightguide layer. The primary concentrator is realized by two plano-aspheric lenses with lateral movement and maintains a high F-number over an angle range of ±23.5°. The results of the simulations show that the solar concentrator achieves a high concentration ratio of 500× with ±0.5° of acceptance angle by a single-axis tracker and dual lateral translation stages.

  6. Partial Horizontal Laryngectomy and Epiglottiplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the availability of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis to treat somepatients with specific supraglottic carcinomas and hypopharyngeal carcinomas, 17 cases of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas were retrospectively analyzed, whose tumors were located at the lateral margin of epiglottis, aryepiglottic fold, medial wall of piriformfossa and were treated by the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and anaplasty of epiglottis. The results showed that all cases took food by mouth in postoperative 9-14 days and subjected to decannulation in postoperative 9-15 days. Three cases had postoperative hoarse voice. The free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 71.4 % in 14 cases followed up after the first surgical therapy, and the overall free-disease survival rate of 3 years was 85.7 % after the second surgical therapy. It was concluded that the manipulations of the lateral horizontal laryngectomy and epiglottiplasty were simple. It could alleviate the postoperative symptoms of aspiration and bucking remarkably and shorten their postoperative recovery time, yet does not lower the survival rate of patients if laryngocarcinoma or hypopharyngeal carcinoma cases were properly selected.

  7. Two-Centered Magical Charge Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Marrani, Alessio; Trigiante, Mario

    2011-01-01

    We determine the two-centered generic charge orbits of magical N = 2 and maximal N = 8 supergravity theories in four dimensions. These orbits are classified by seven U-duality invariant polynomials, which group together into four invariants under the horizontal symmetry group SL(2,R). These latter are expected to disentangle different physical properties of the two-centered black-hole system. The invariant with the lowest degree in charges is the symplectic product (Q1,Q2), known to control the mutual non-locality of the two centers.

  8. Orbiting droplets on a vibrated bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Burger, Loic; Gilet, Tristan; Microfluidics, university of liege Team

    2015-11-01

    A millimeter-sized oil droplet can bounce on a vertically vibrated liquid bath for unlimited time. It may couple to the surface wave it emits; leading to horizontal self-propulsion called walking. When several walkers coexist close to one another, they either repel or attract each other, in response to the superposition of the waves they generate. Attraction leads to various bound states, including droplets that orbit around each other. We have experimentally investigated the variety of quantized orbital motions exhibited by two, three and more identical walkers, as a function of forcing acceleration. Each motion is quantified in terms of droplet and wave energy.

  9. Orbiter spacecraft weight and center of gravity determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure for determination of the weight and the location of the center of gravity (c.g.) of a Space Shuttle Orbiter Spacecraft, at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This task is performed at the completion of the horizontal processing of each Orbiter in conjunction with jack down and preparation for vertical mating to the Shuttle launch vehicle. The operation is performed in the Orbiter Processing Facility. The paper contains a brief description of the general characteristics and physical dimensions of the Orbiter spacecraft, the program requirements and test procedure for weight and c.g. determination, data evaluation and a summary.

  10. Study of orbit correction for eRHIC FFAG design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Litvinenko, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-03

    The unique feature of the orbits in the eRHIC Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) design is that multiple accelerating and decelerating bunches pass through the same magnets with different horizontal offsets. Therefore, it is critical for the eRHIC FFAG to correct multiple orbits in the same vacuum pipe for better spin transmission and alignment of colliding beams. In this report, the effects on orbits from multiple error sources will be studied. The orbit correction method will be described and results will be presented.

  11. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  12. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  13. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-01-01

    Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may al...

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Brylow, Scott; Foote, Marc; Garvin, James; Kasper, Justin; Keller, John; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Paige, David; Raney, Keith; Robinson, Mark; Sanin, Anton; Smith, David; Spence, Harlan; Spudis, Paul; Stern, S. Alan; Zuber, Maria

    2007-04-01

    NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP), formulated in response to the President’s Vision for Space Exploration, will execute a series of robotic missions that will pave the way for eventual permanent human presence on the Moon. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is first in this series of LPRP missions, and plans to launch in October of 2008 for at least one year of operation. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources, Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration, Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits, Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRa

  15. Liquid droplet movement on horizontal surface with gradient surface energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Qiang; WANG Hong; ZHU Xun; LI Mingwei

    2006-01-01

    A surface with gradient surface energy was fabricated on a silicon wafer by using the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technology with the dodecyltrichlorosilane (C12H25Cl3Si) vapor which was adsorbed chemically on the surface of the silicon wafer to form a self-assemble monolayer (ASM) and thus a gradient profile of wettability. The microscopic contours of the gradient surface were measured with Seiko SPA400 atom force microscope (AFM). And the surface wettability profile was characterized by the sessile drop method, measuring the contact angle of fine water droplets that lay on the gradient surface, to represent the distribution of the surface energy on the surface. Using a high-speed video imaging system, the motion of water droplet on the horizontal gradient surface was visualized and the transient velocity was measured under ambient condition. The experimental results show that the liquid droplets can be driven to move from hydrophobic side to hydrophilic side on the horizontal gradient surface and the velocity of droplet can reach up to 40 mm/s. In addition, the motion of the water droplet can be generally divided into two stages: an acceleration stage and a deceleration stage. The droplet presents a squirming movement on the surface with a lower peak velocity and a larger extent of deceleration motion. And the static advancing contact angle of the droplet is obviously larger than the dynamic advancing contact angle on the gradient energy surface.

  16. Bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, P D; Char, D. H.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral orbital lesions are rare. The differential diagnosis includes orbital pseudotumour, metastasis, leukaemia, lymphoma, Wegener's granulomatosis, and neurofibromatosis. We report what we believe to be the first case of bilateral orbital cavernous haemangiomas.

  17. Uplift Pressure of Waves on A Horizontal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周益人; 陈国平; 黄海龙; 王登婷

    2003-01-01

    Uplift pressures of waves acting on horizontal plates are the important basis for design of maritime hollow-trussed structures. In this paper, an experimental study on the uplift pressures of waves on a horizontal plate is conducted by use of a series of model tests. Detailed analysis has been given to the formation mechanism of uplift pressures of waves. It is considered that the impact pressure intensity is mainly affected by geometrical factors (tangential angle of waves), dynamic factors (wave height, wave velocity, etc.) and air cushion. Based on the test results, an equation for calculation of the maximum uplift pressure intensity of waves on a plate is presented. A large quantity of test data shows good agreement of the present equation with the test results.

  18. Kepler's Constant and WDS Orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Siregar, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work are to find a Kepler's constant by using polynomial regression of the angular separation \\rho = \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta = \\theta(t). The Kepler's constant obtained is used to derive the element of orbit. As a case study the angular separation and the position angle of the WDS 00063 +5826 and the WDS 04403-5857 were investigated. For calculating the element of orbit the Thiele-Innes van den Bos method is used. The rough data of the angular separation \\rho(t) and the position angle \\theta(t) are taken from the US Naval Observatory, Washington. This work also presents the masses and absolute bolometric magnitudes of each star.These stars include into the main-sequence stars with the spectral class G5V for WDS04403-5857and the type of spectrum G3V for WDS 00063+5826. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 04403-5857 nearly equal to 20 Gyr. The life time of the primary star and the secondary star of WDS 00063+5826 are 20 Gyr and 19 Gyr, respectively.

  19. Bifurcation of Homoclinic Orbits with Saddle-Center Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingbo LIU; Xianlong FU; Deming ZHU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors develop new global perturbation techniques for detecting the persistence of transversal homoclinic orbits in a more general nondegenerated system with action-angle variable. The unperturbed system is assumed to have saddlecenter type equilibrium whose stable and unstable manifolds intersect in one dimensional manifold, and does not have to be completely integrable or near-integrable. By constructing local coordinate systems near the unperturbed homoclinic orbit, the conditions of existence of transversal homoclinic orbit are obtained, and the existence of periodic orbits bifurcated from homoclinic orbit is also considered.

  20. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  1. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  2. Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Duchesne, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    A drop of moderate size deposited inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid remains trapped at the shock front and does not coalesce. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  3. Oscillations of Relative Inclination Angles in Compact Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Juliette C

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission has detected dozens of compact planetary systems with more than four transiting planets. This sample provides a collection of close-packed planetary systems with relatively little spread in the inclination angles of the inferred orbits. A large fraction of the observational sample contains limited multiplicity, begging the question whether there is a true diversity of multi transiting systems, or if some systems merely possess high mutual inclinations, allowing them to appear as single-transiting systems in a transit-based survey. This paper begins an exploration of the effectiveness of dynamical mechanisms in exciting orbital inclination within exoplanetary systems of this class. For these tightly packed systems, we determine that the orbital inclination angles are not spread out appreciably through self-excitation. In contrast, the two Kepler multi-planet systems with additional non-transiting planets are susceptible to oscillations of their inclination angles, which means their currently...

  4. Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Webster

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar system described here (CMOR comprises a basic 5-element receiving system, co-located with a pulsed transmitter, specifically designed to observe meteor echoes and to determine their position in space with an angular resolution of ~1° and a radial resolution of ~3 km. Two secondary receiving sites, a few km distant and arranged to form approximately a right angle with the base station, allow the determination of the velocity (speed and direction of the meteor that, together with the time of occurrence, lead to an estimate of the orbit of the original meteoroid. Some equipment details are presented along with a method used to determine the orbits. Representative echoes are shown and observations on the 2002 Leonid shower presented.

  5. The effect of knee joint angle on torque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Voudrie, Stefani J; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the author's investigation was to examine the effect of knee joint angle on torque control of the quadriceps muscle group. In all, 12 healthy adults produced maximal voluntary contractions and submaximal torque (15, 30, and 45% MVC [maximal voluntary contraction]) at leg flexion angles of 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees below the horizontal plane. As expected, MVC values changed with respect to joint angle with maximum torque output being greatest at 60 degrees and least at 15 degrees . During the submaximal tasks, participants appropriately scaled their torque output to the required targets. Absolute variability (i.e., standard deviation) of torque output was greatest at 60 degrees and 90 degrees knee flexion. However, relative variability as indexed by coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as joint angle increased, with the greatest CV occurring at 15 degrees . These results are congruent with the hypothesis that joint angle influences the control of torque.

  6. Projectile Motion in the "Language" of Orbital Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurcher, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    We consider the orbit of projectiles launched with arbitrary speeds from the Earth's surface. This is a generalization of Newton's discussion about the transition from parabolic to circular orbits, when the launch speed approaches the value [image omitted]. We find the range for arbitrary launch speeds and angles, and calculate the eccentricity of…

  7. How a GNSS Receiver Is Held May Affect Static Horizontal Position Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Steven A; Ucar, Zennure; Bettinger, Pete; Merry, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The static horizontal position accuracy of a mapping-grade GNSS receiver was tested in two forest types over two seasons, and subsequently was tested in one forest type against open sky conditions in the winter season. The main objective was to determine whether the holding position during data collection would result in significantly different static horizontal position accuracy. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether the time of year (season), forest type, or environmental variables had an influence on accuracy. In general, the F4Devices Flint GNSS receiver was found to have mean static horizontal position accuracy levels within the ranges typically expected for this general type of receiver (3 to 5 m) when differential correction was not employed. When used under forest cover, in some cases the GNSS receiver provided a higher level of static horizontal position accuracy when held vertically, as opposed to held at an angle or horizontally (the more natural positions), perhaps due to the orientation of the antenna within the receiver, or in part due to multipath or the inability to use certain satellite signals. Therefore, due to the fact that numerous variables may affect static horizontal position accuracy, we only conclude that there is weak to moderate evidence that the results of holding position are significant. Statistical test results also suggest that the season of data collection had no significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy, and results suggest that atmospheric variables had weak correlation with horizontal position accuracy. Forest type was found to have a significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy in one aspect of one test, yet otherwise there was little evidence that forest type affected horizontal position accuracy. Since the holding position was found in some cases to be significant with regard to the static horizontal position accuracy of positions collected in forests, it may be beneficial to have an

  8. How a GNSS Receiver Is Held May Affect Static Horizontal Position Accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A Weaver

    Full Text Available The static horizontal position accuracy of a mapping-grade GNSS receiver was tested in two forest types over two seasons, and subsequently was tested in one forest type against open sky conditions in the winter season. The main objective was to determine whether the holding position during data collection would result in significantly different static horizontal position accuracy. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether the time of year (season, forest type, or environmental variables had an influence on accuracy. In general, the F4Devices Flint GNSS receiver was found to have mean static horizontal position accuracy levels within the ranges typically expected for this general type of receiver (3 to 5 m when differential correction was not employed. When used under forest cover, in some cases the GNSS receiver provided a higher level of static horizontal position accuracy when held vertically, as opposed to held at an angle or horizontally (the more natural positions, perhaps due to the orientation of the antenna within the receiver, or in part due to multipath or the inability to use certain satellite signals. Therefore, due to the fact that numerous variables may affect static horizontal position accuracy, we only conclude that there is weak to moderate evidence that the results of holding position are significant. Statistical test results also suggest that the season of data collection had no significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy, and results suggest that atmospheric variables had weak correlation with horizontal position accuracy. Forest type was found to have a significant effect on static horizontal position accuracy in one aspect of one test, yet otherwise there was little evidence that forest type affected horizontal position accuracy. Since the holding position was found in some cases to be significant with regard to the static horizontal position accuracy of positions collected in forests, it may be beneficial

  9. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  10. Horizontal versus vertical plate motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuffaro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We review both present and past motions at major plate boundaries, which have the horizontal component in average 10 to 100 times faster (10–100 mm/yr than the vertical component (0.01–1 mm/yr in all geodynamic settings. The steady faster horizontal velocity of the lithosphere with respect to the upward or downward velocities at plate boundaries supports dominating tangential forces acting on plates. This suggests a passive role of plate boundaries with respect to far field forces determining the velocity of plates. The forces acting on the lithosphere can be subdivided in coupled and uncoupled, as a function of the shear at the lithosphere base. Higher the asthenosphere viscosity, more significant should be the coupled forces, i.e., the mantle drag and the trench suction. Lower the asthenosphere viscosity, more the effects of uncoupled forces might result determinant, i.e., the ridge push, the slab pull and the tidal drag. Although a combination of all forces acting on the lithosphere is likely, the decoupling between lithosphere and mantle suggests that a torque acts on the lithosphere independently of the mantle drag. Slab pull and ridge push are candidates for generating this torque, but, unlike these boundary forces, the advantage of the tidal drag is to be a volume force, acting simultaneously on the whole plates, and being the decoupling at the lithosphere base controlled by lateral variations in viscosity of the low-velocity layer.

  11. Angle-Ply Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.

  12. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  13. Drop shape analysis for determination of dynamic contact angles by double sided elliptical fitting method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael J.

    2017-01-01

    Contact angle measurements are a fast and simple way to measure surface properties and is therefore widely used to measure surface energy and quantify wetting of a solid surface by a liquid substance. In common praxis contact angle measurements are done with sessile drops on a horizontal surface ...

  14. Luminosity Anti-leveling with Crossing Angle (MD 1669)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Ponce, Laurette; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the LHC luminosity ($\\sim$30\\% in 2016) is lost due to the presence (and necessity) of the crossing angles at the IPs. At the LHC the crossing angle is typically set to a value that provides sufficient separation of the beams at the start of fills for the peak bunch intensities. As the bunch intensity decays during a fill, it is possible to reduce the crossing angle and recover some luminosity. A smooth crossing angle reduction procedure must be developed to take advantage of this option during stable beam operation. During this MD a smooth procedure for luminosity leveling with crossing angle was tested. It was demonstrated that the orbit was well controlled, beam losses were low and the offset leveled experiments ALICE and LHCb were not affected by crossing angle leveling in ATLAS and CMS.

  15. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  16. A note on the horizontal momentum exchange in combined waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf; Okayasu, Akio; Frederiksen, Jørgen Hansgaard

    1998-01-01

    The horizontal exchange of momentum due to the organized motion in combined waves and current has been analyzed. The combination of the vertical orbital wave motion and the mean current gives a periodic variation in the horizontal velocity in addition to the wave orbital motion. This periodic var....... It is demonstrated that the new contribution changes the resulting momentum exchange considerably. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....... variation, combined with the wave orbital motion, gives a significant contribution to the momentum exchange. Two examples are considered, the interaction of a pure wave motion and a current normal to the direction of wave propagation, and a wave driven longshore current with an undertow velocity profile...

  17. Horizontal Distance Travelled by a Mobile Experiencing a Quadratic Drag Force: Normalized Distance and Parametrization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the horizontal distance travelled by a mobile experiencing a quadratic drag force. We show that by introducing a normalized distance, the problem can be greatly simplified. In order to parametrize this distance, we use the Pearson VII function, and we find that the optimal launch angle as a function of the initial…

  18. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  19. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle of the Komarapalayam population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohila Kandhasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic features are different from one race to another, and this should be considered during the treatment planning. The great variance in soft tissue drape of the human face complicates accurate assessment. The nose-lip-chin relationships are exceedingly important in determining the facial esthetics. One important soft tissue parameter in orthodontic diagnosis is the nasolabial angle. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for nasolabial angle as proposed by Fitzgerald for the Komarapalayam population. Normative data for the three nasolabial parameters were produced from a sample of 40 (20 male and 20 female adults determined by the authors to have well-balanced faces. Mean and standard deviation values from this pooled sample demonstrated a lower border of the nose to Frankfort horizontal plane angle of 18° ± 7°, upper lip to Frankfort horizontal plane angle of 98° ± 5°, and nasolabial angle of 116° ± 10°. No statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the values for men and women in this study, but men did have a slightly larger nasolabial angle.

  20. Objects orbiting the Earth in deep resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Sampaio, J C; de Moraes, R Vilhena; Fernandes, S S

    2012-01-01

    The increasing number of objects orbiting the Earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, the TLE (Two-Line Elements) of the NORAD are studied observing the resonant period of the objects orbiting the Earth and the main resonance in the LEO region. The time behavior of the semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  1. Dealing with Uncertainties in Initial Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; Di Lizia, Pierluigi; Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    A method to deal with uncertainties in initial orbit determination (IOD) is presented. This is based on the use of Taylor differential algebra (DA) to nonlinearly map the observation uncertainties from the observation space to the state space. When a minimum set of observations is available DA is used to expand the solution of the IOD problem in Taylor series with respect to measurement errors. When more observations are available high order inversion tools are exploited to obtain full state pseudo-observations at a common epoch. The mean and covariance of these pseudo-observations are nonlinearly computed by evaluating the expectation of high order Taylor polynomials. Finally, a linear scheme is employed to update the current knowledge of the orbit. Angles-only observations are considered and simplified Keplerian dynamics adopted to ease the explanation. Three test cases of orbit determination of artificial satellites in different orbital regimes are presented to discuss the feature and performances of the proposed methodology.

  2. Applying Contact Angle to a 2D Multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Samareh, Babak; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrium contact angle of liquid drops over horizontal surfaces has been modeled using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The model is capable of accurate implementation of contact angles to stationary and moving contact lines. In this scheme, the desired value for stationary or dynamic contact angle is used to correct the profile near the triple point. This is achieved by correcting the surface normals near the contact line and also interpolating the drop profile into the boundaries. ...

  3. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  4. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  5. Optimization of horizontal well staggered patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Chunsen; Li Peijing; Guan Dan; Liu Qingjuan

    2008-01-01

    Staggered line-drive patterns are widely used in oilfields. In this paper, to optimize a staggered pattern of horizontal wells, a 3D problem was divided into two 2D (x-y plane and y-z plane) problems with the pseudo-3D method, conformal transformation and superposition principle. A productivity equation for a horizontal well was deduced, which can be used to optimize the well pattern. A relationship between the length of horizontal wells and the shape factor of well patterns was established. The result shows that optimized well patterns can improve oil production from horizontal wells. This provides a theoretical basis for horizontal well applications to the development of oilfieids, especially for overall development of oilfields by horizontal wells.

  6. Dynamical angled brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.

  7. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  8. Investigating the auroral electrojets with low altitude polar orbiting satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretto, T.; Olsen, Nils; Ritter, P.

    2002-01-01

    Three geomagnetic satellite missions currently provide high precision magnetic field measurements from low altitude polar orbiting spacecraft. We demonstrate how these data can be used to determine the intensity and location of the horizontal currents that flow in the ionosphere, predominantly...

  9. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  10. Resonant Orbital Dynamics in LEO Region: Space Debris in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of objects orbiting the earth justifies the great attention and interest in the observation, spacecraft protection, and collision avoidance. These studies involve different disturbances and resonances in the orbital motions of these objects distributed by the distinct altitudes. In this work, objects in resonant orbital motions are studied in low earth orbits. Using the two-line elements (TLE of the NORAD, resonant angles and resonant periods associated with real motions are described, providing more accurate information to develop an analytical model that describes a certain resonance. The time behaviors of the semimajor axis, eccentricity, and inclination of some space debris are studied. Possible irregular motions are observed by the frequency analysis and by the presence of different resonant angles describing the orbital dynamics of these objects.

  11. Measurement of sextupole orbit offsets in the APS storage ring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, M.

    1999-04-16

    Horizontal orbit errors at the sextuples in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring can cause changes in tune and modulation of the beta functions around the ring. To determine the significance of these effects requires knowing the orbit relative to the magnetic center of the sextuples. The method considered here to determine the horizontal beam position in a given sextupole is to measure the tune shift caused by a change in the sextupole strength. The tune shift and a beta function for the same plane uniquely determine the horizontal beam position in the sextupole. The beta function at the sextupole was determined by propagating the beta functions measured at nearby quadrupoles to the sextupole location. This method was used to measure the sextupole magnetic center offset relative to an adjacent beam position monitor (BPM) at a number of sextupole locations. We report on the successes and problems of the method as well as an improved method.

  12. Widespread horizontal transfer of retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ali Morton; Kortschak, R Daniel; Gardner, Michael G; Bertozzi, Terry; Adelson, David L

    2013-01-15

    In higher organisms such as vertebrates, it is generally believed that lateral transfer of genetic information does not readily occur, with the exception of retroviral infection. However, horizontal transfer (HT) of protein coding repetitive elements is the simplest way to explain the patchy distribution of BovB, a long interspersed element (LINE) about 3.2 kb long, that has been found in ruminants, marsupials, squamates, monotremes, and African mammals. BovB sequences are a major component of some of these genomes. Here we show that HT of BovB is significantly more widespread than believed, and we demonstrate the existence of two plausible arthropod vectors, specifically reptile ticks. A phylogenetic tree built from BovB sequences from species in all of these groups does not conform to expected evolutionary relationships of the species, and our analysis indicates that at least nine HT events are required to explain the observed topology. Our results provide compelling evidence for HT of genetic material that has transformed vertebrate genomes.

  13. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  14. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  15. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  16. Polygons in billiard orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Don, Henk

    2011-01-01

    We study the geometry of billiard orbits on rectangular billiards. A truncated billiard orbit induces a partition of the rectangle into polygons. We prove that thirteen is a sharp upper bound for the number of different areas of these polygons.

  17. Traumatic transconjunctival orbital emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Stroh, E M; Finger, P T

    1990-01-01

    Orbital emphysema can be produced by trans-conjunctival migration of air from a high pressure airgun. In an industrial accident an 8 mm conjunctival laceration was produced in the superior fornix which acted as a portal of entry for air into the subconjunctival, subcutaneous, and retrobulbar spaces. Computed tomography revealed no evidence of orbital fracture and showed that traumatic orbital emphysema occurred without a broken orbital bone.

  18. Dynamic study of a wind turbine blade with horizontal axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousi, R.; El-Batanony, I.; Tritsch, J.B.; Naji, H.; Landjerit, B. [EUDIL, Dept. Mecanique, LML, CNRS URA 1441, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2001-04-01

    The study of the dynamic behavior of a wind turbine with horizontal axis can be undertaken by various methods of analysis. The effects of the change of the aerodynamic flow (in the steady and unsteady cases), the variation of parameters of the cinematic movement (angle of attack, pitch angle and yaw angle) and the definition of subsystems characteristics that makes the wind turbine (blade, nacelle and pylon) allow one to characterize the structural dynamic behavior of the wind turbine. It is therefore necessary to develop these items. Once this is done, the structural dynamic behavior of the system can be improved. The term 'improve' means the increase of the life duration by mastering the fatigue effects and the reduction of cost without sacrificing the aerodynamic output. The present study aims to examine the behavior of the blade, which is the main part of the wind turbine in that it that transmits forces to all other parts of the structure. The model is based on the theory of three-dimensional beams, under the assumption of variable sections of the type NACA 4415 airfoil, and takes into account membrane, transversal shear, flexion and free torsion effects. With regards to the aerodynamic loads (the lift, the drag and the pitching moment), a validation has been undertaken by considering experimental data and numerical results obtained by a CFD code (Fluent). The forces are obtained by means of a parametric CAD method interpolation of the aerodynamic poles by Bezier patch under geometrical constraints solved by a Simplex type algorithm. The emphasis is put on dynamic aspects by a complete processing of the dynamic equilibrium equation, applied to the wind turbine blade with horizontal axis. (authors)

  19. The Artificial Sky Luminance And The Emission Angles Of The Upward Light Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Cinzano, P

    1998-01-01

    The direction of the upward light emission has different polluting effects on the sky depending on the distance of the observation site. We studied with detailed models for light pollution propagation the ratio $(b_{H})/(b_{L})$, at given distances from a city, between the artificial sky luminance $b_{H}$ produced by its upward light emission between a given threshold angle by its upward light emission between the horizontal and the threshold angle effects of the emission at high angles above the horizontal decrease relative to the effects of emission at lower angles above the horizontal. Outside some kilometers from cities or towns the light emitted between the horizontal and 10\\deg ~is as important as the light emitted at all the other angles in producing the artificial sky luminance. Therefore the protection of a site requires also a careful control of this emission which needs to be reduced to at most 1/10 of the remaining emission. The emission between the horizontal and 10\\deg ~is mostly produced by spi...

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  1. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  2. DESIGN OF ILC EXTRACTION LINE FOR 20 MRAD CROSSING ANGLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Woods, M.; /SLAC; Arnold, R.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Oliver, W.; /Tufts U.; Parker, B.; /Brookhaven; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U.

    2005-05-16

    One of the two ILC Interaction Regions will have a large horizontal crossing angle which would allow to extract the spent beams in a separate beam line. In this paper, the extraction line design for 20 mrad crossing angle is presented. This beam line transports the primary e{sup +}/e{sup -} and beamstrahlung photon beams from the IP to a common dump, and includes diagnostic section for energy and polarization measurements. The optics is designed for a large energy acceptance to minimize losses in the low energy tail of the disrupted beam. The extraction optics, diagnostic instrumentation and particle tracking simulations are described.

  3. Contact angle hysteresis of a drop spreading over metal surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Geniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental data on the contact angle hysteresis of the distilled water drop spreading over the surfaces of non-ferrous metals. The measurements of the advancing and receding contact angles were carried out by method of sitting drop on the horizontal surface during increasing and decreasing drop volume with a syringe pump. It was found that the contact line speed has a great influence on the hysteresis of the polished non-elastic substrates. The mechanism of spreading was described using the balance of the forces from the physical point of view.

  4. Static contact angle in lattice Boltzmann models of immiscible fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latva-Kokko, M; Rothman, Daniel H

    2005-10-01

    We study numerically the capillary rise between two horizontal plates and in a rectangular tube, using a lattice Boltzmann (LB) method. We derive an equation for the static fluid-solid contact angle as a function of the wetting tendency of the walls and test its validity. We show that the generalized Laplace law with two independent radii of curvature is followed in capillary rise in rectangular tubes. Our method removes the history dependence of the fluid-solid contact angle that had been present in earlier LB schemes.

  5. Extracting accurate and precise topography from LROC narrow angle camera stereo observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, M. R.; Manheim, M. R.; Burns, K. N.; Seymour, P.; Speyerer, E. J.; Deran, A.; Boyd, A. K.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Rosiek, M. R.; Archinal, B. A.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) includes two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC) that each provide 0.5 to 2.0 m scale images of the lunar surface. Although not designed as a stereo system, LROC can acquire NAC stereo observations over two or more orbits using at least one off-nadir slew. Digital terrain models (DTMs) are generated from sets of stereo images and registered to profiles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) to improve absolute accuracy. With current processing methods, DTMs have absolute accuracies better than the uncertainties of the LOLA profiles and relative vertical and horizontal precisions less than the pixel scale of the DTMs (2-5 m). We computed slope statistics from 81 highland and 31 mare DTMs across a range of baselines. For a baseline of 15 m the highland mean slope parameters are: median = 9.1°, mean = 11.0°, standard deviation = 7.0°. For the mare the mean slope parameters are: median = 3.5°, mean = 4.9°, standard deviation = 4.5°. The slope values for the highland terrain are steeper than previously reported, likely due to a bias in targeting of the NAC DTMs toward higher relief features in the highland terrain. Overlapping DTMs of single stereo sets were also combined to form larger area DTM mosaics that enable detailed characterization of large geomorphic features. From one DTM mosaic we mapped a large viscous flow related to the Orientale basin ejecta and estimated its thickness and volume to exceed 300 m and 500 km3, respectively. Despite its ∼3.8 billion year age the flow still exhibits unconfined margin slopes above 30°, in some cases exceeding the angle of repose, consistent with deposition of material rich in impact melt. We show that the NAC stereo pairs and derived DTMs represent an invaluable tool for science and exploration purposes. At this date about 2% of the lunar surface is imaged in high-resolution stereo, and continued acquisition of stereo observations will serve to strengthen our

  6. Horizontal eye position affects measured vertical VOR gain on the video Head Impulse Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A. McGarvie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. With the video Head Impulse Test (vHIT, the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity, but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40º from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease.Study Design. 10 healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP canal plane, with gaze at one of 5 horizontal gaze positions (40º (aligned with the LARP plane, 20º, 0º, -20º, -40º.Methods. Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered every impulse. Results. The canal stimulus remained identical across trials, but the measured vertical VOR gain decreased as horizontal gaze angle was shifted away from alignment with the LARP canal plane.Conclusion. In measuring vertical VOR gain with vHIT the horizontal gaze angle should be aligned with the canal plane under test.

  7. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  8. Horizontal Canal Benign Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaram Najafi

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a syndrome characterized by transient episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position in Dix-Halpike Maneuver. This kind of vertigo is thought to be caused by migration of otoconial debris into canals other than the posterior canal, such as the anterior or lateral canals. It is also theoretically possible for many aberrant patterns of BPPV to occur from an interaction of debris in several canals, location of debris within the canal, and central adaptation patterns to lesions. The symptoms of BPPV are much more consistent with free-moving densities (canaliths in the posterior SCC rather than fixed densities attached to the cupula. While the head is upright, the particles sit in the PSC at the most gravity-dependent position. The best method to induce and see vertigo and nystagmus in BPPV of the lateral semicircular canal is to rotate head 90°while patient is in the supine position, nystagmus would appear in the unaffected side weaker but longer than the affected side. canal paresis has been described in one third of the patients with BPPV. Adaptation which is one of the remarkable features of BPPV in PSC is rarely seen in LSC. Rotations of 270° or 360° around the yaw axis (the so-called barbecue maneuver toward the unaffected ear are popular methods for the treatment of geotropic HC-BPPV. These maneuvers consist of sequential head turning of 90° toward the healthy side while supine. With these maneuvers, the free-floating otoconial debris migrates in the ampullofugal direction, finally entering the utricle through the nonampullated end of the horizontal canal. This kind of vertigo recovers spontaneously more rapidly and suddenly.

  9. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  10. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  11. Generalised action-angle coordinates defined on island chains

    CERN Document Server

    Dewar, Robert L; Gibson, Ashley M

    2012-01-01

    Straight-field-line coordinates are very useful for representing magnetic fields in toroidally confined plasmas, but fundamental problems arise regarding their definition in 3-D geometries because of the formation of islands and chaotic field regions, ie non-integrability. In Hamiltonian dynamical systems terms these coordinates are a form of action-angle variables, which are normally defined only for integrable systems. In order to describe 3-D magnetic field systems, a generalisation of this concept was proposed recently by the present authors that unified the concepts of ghost surfaces and quadratic-flux-minimising (QFMin) surfaces. This was based on a simple canonical transformation generated by a change of variable $\\theta = \\theta(\\Theta,\\zeta)$, where $\\theta$ and $\\zeta$ are poloidal and toroidal angles, respectively, with $\\Theta$ a new poloidal angle chosen to give pseudo-orbits that are a) straight when plotted in the $\\zeta,\\Theta$ plane and b) QFMin pseudo-orbits in the transformed coordinate. Th...

  12. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labousse, M.; Oza, A. U.; Perrard, S.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  13. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Labousse, Matthieu; Perrard, Stéhane; Bush, John W M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  14. Managing resonant-trapped orbits in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binney, James

    2016-11-01

    Galaxy modelling is greatly simplified by assuming the existence of a global system of angle-action coordinates. Unfortunately, global angle-action coordinates do not exist because some orbits become trapped by resonances, especially where the radial and vertical frequencies coincide. We show that in a realistic Galactic potential such trapping occurs only on thick-disc and halo orbits (speed relative to the guiding centre ≳ 80 km s- 1). We explain how the TORUS MAPPER code (TM) behaves in regions of phase space in which orbits are resonantly trapped, and we extend TM so that trapped orbits can be manipulated as easily as untrapped ones. The impact that the resonance has on the structure of velocity space depends on the weights assigned to trapped orbits. The impact is everywhere small if each trapped orbit is assigned the phase space density equal to the time average along the orbit of the DF for untrapped orbits. The impact could be significant with a different assignment of weights to trapped orbits.

  15. Tidal interactions in spin-orbit misaligned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yufeng; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit misalignments have been detected in exoplanetary systems and binary star systems. Tidal interactions may have played an important role in the evolution of the spin-orbit angle. In this study, we investigate the tidal interactions in spin-orbit misaligned systems. In particular, we focus on the tidal response of a rotating fluid body to the obliquity tide, which may be important for the evolution of the spin-orbit angle but hardly affects the orbital evolution. The obliquity tide also provides a torque for the mutual precession of the spin and orbital axes around the total angular momentum vector, which has not yet been considered in previous studies on the tidal interactions. In this paper, we first formulate a set of linearized equations describing the tidal response in spin-orbit misaligned systems, taking into account the precessional motion. Numerical solutions in a homogeneous fluid and in a polytrope of index 1 show that dissipative inertial waves can be excited on top of precession by the obliquity tide in the presence of a rigid core. The tidal quality factor associated with the obliquity tide Q^' }_{210} can be several orders of magnitude smaller than those associated with other tidal components if their frequencies fall outside the frequency range of inertial waves. Therefore, it is possible that the spin-orbit misalignment undergoes much more rapid decay than the orbital decay in hot Jupiter systems owing to the enhanced dissipation of the obliquity tide.

  16. On non-coplanar Hohmann Transfer using angles as parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, Angel; Lacruz, Elvis; Abellan, Gabriel; Diaz, Sttiwuer

    2015-01-01

    We study a more complex case of Hohmann orbital transfer of a satellite by considering non-coplanar and elliptical orbits, instead of planar and circular orbits. We use as parameter the angle between the initial and transference planes that minimizes the energy, and therefore the fuel of a satellite, through the application of two non-tangential impulses for all possible cases. We found an analytical expression that minimizes the energy for each configuration. Some reasonable physical constraints are used: we apply impulses at perigee or apogee of the orbit, we consider the duration of the impulse to be short compared to the duration of the trip, we take the nodal line of three orbits to be coincident and the three semimajor axes to lie in the same plane. We study the only four possible cases but assuming non-coplanar elliptic orbits. In addition, we validate our method through a numerical solution obtained by using some of the actual orbital elements of Sputnik I and Vanguard I satellites. For these orbits, ...

  17. Measurement and Effects of the Magnetic Hysteresis on the LHC Crossing Angle and Separation Bumps

    CERN Document Server

    Sammut, N J; Burkhardt, H; Giloux, C; Venturini-Delsolaro, W

    2008-01-01

    The superconducting orbit corrector magnets (MCBC, MCBY and MCBX) in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be used to generate parallel separation and crossing angles at the interaction points during the different phases that will bring the LHC beams into collision. However, the field errors generated by the inherent hysteresis in the operation region of the orbit correctors may lead to unwanted orbit perturbations that could have a critical effect on luminosity. This paper presents the results obtained from dedicated cryogenic measurements on the orbit correctors and the resulting simulations performed to quantify the impact of the hysteresis on the LHC orbit.

  18. Painless orbital myositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul T Chakor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  19. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  20. Femoral varus: what's the angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars; Eriksen, Thomas

    only been assessed for one technique. Seven grossly normal right femora were radiographed with the diaphysis positioned horizontally and inclined at both 12.5° and 25° to the horizontal. Radiographs were blinded, randomised and read twice by one observer using ImageJ. Using coordinate data, varus...

  1. Lunar ring dikes from orbiter I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Cameron, W S

    1967-01-01

    Orbiter photographs of the wall of a large circular formation on the moon show that the wall is a convex body resembling a flow of viscous lava. The slopes are less than the angle of repose of dry rock; hence an explanation in terms of mass wastage is hard to support. The viscosity is approximately 10(13) centimeter-gram- second units, indicating an acid lava.

  2. Stochastic Analysis of Orbital Lifetimes of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasamoto, Washito; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses (1) a Monte-Carlo-based methodology for probabilistic prediction and analysis of orbital lifetimes of spacecraft and (2) Orbital Lifetime Monte Carlo (OLMC)--a Fortran computer program, consisting of a previously developed long-term orbit-propagator integrated with a Monte Carlo engine. OLMC enables modeling of variances of key physical parameters that affect orbital lifetimes through the use of probability distributions. These parameters include altitude, speed, and flight-path angle at insertion into orbit; solar flux; and launch delays. The products of OLMC are predicted lifetimes (durations above specified minimum altitudes) for the number of user-specified cases. Histograms generated from such predictions can be used to determine the probabilities that spacecraft will satisfy lifetime requirements. The document discusses uncertainties that affect modeling of orbital lifetimes. Issues of repeatability, smoothness of distributions, and code run time are considered for the purpose of establishing values of code-specific parameters and number of Monte Carlo runs. Results from test cases are interpreted as demonstrating that solar-flux predictions are primary sources of variations in predicted lifetimes. Therefore, it is concluded, multiple sets of predictions should be utilized to fully characterize the lifetime range of a spacecraft.

  3. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression ... such a granular material is sharp, making a steep .... study. Therefore, grains had to be condi- tioned to the respective moisture contents by adding ...

  4. Isometric torque-angle relationships of the elbow flexors and extensors in the transverse plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Ilona J; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, A J Knoek; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2010-10-01

    Maximal voluntary isometric torque-angle relationships of elbow extensors and flexors in the transverse plane (humerus elevation angle of 90 degrees ) were measured at two different horizontal adduction angles of the humerus compared to thorax: 20 degrees and 45 degrees . For both elbow flexors and extensors, the torque-angle relationship was insensitive to this 25 degrees horizontal adduction of the humerus. The peak in torque-angle relationship of elbow extensors was found at 55 degrees (0 degrees is full extension). This is closer to full elbow extension than reported by researchers who investigated this relationship in the sagittal plane. Using actual elbow angles during contraction, as we did in this study, instead of angles set by the dynamometer, as others have done, can partly explain this difference. We also measured electromyographic activity of the biceps and triceps muscles with pairs of surface electrodes and found that electromyographic activity level of the agonistic muscles was correlated to measured net torque (elbow flexion torque: Pearson's r=0.21 and extension torque: Pearson's r=0.53). We conclude that the isometric torque-angle relationship of the elbow extensors found in this study provides a good representation of the force-length relationship and the moment arm-angle relationship of the elbow extensors, but angle dependency of neural input gives an overestimation of the steepness. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing of Culture Conditionin Horizontal Rotating Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionBioreactor is the most important equipment in tissue engineering. It can mimic the micro-environment of cell growth in vitro. At present, horizontal rotating bioreactor is the most advanced equipment for cell culture in the world. 2 Rotating bioreactors2.1 Working principleThere are two kinds of horizontal rotating bioreactor: HARV(high aspect ratio vessel) and RCCS (rotary cell culture system). It is drived by step motor with horizontal rotation, the culture medium and cell is filled between ...

  6. Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Dutta; Archana Pan

    2002-02-01

    Bacterial genomes are extremely dynamic and mosaic in nature. A substantial amount of genetic information is inserted into or deleted from such genomes through the process of horizontal transfer. Through the introduction of novel physiological traits from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological and pathogenic character of bacterial species and thereby promotes microbial diversification and speciation. This review discusses how the recent influx of complete chromosomal sequences of various microorganisms has allowed for a quantitative assessment of the scope, rate and impact of horizontally transmitted information on microbial evolution.

  7. Phonons with orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.

  8. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Jason T; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Han, Eunkyu; Feng, Ying; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W; Valenti, Jeff A; Anderson, Jay; Piskunov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    We present a database of well determined orbital parameters of exoplanets. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 421 planets orbiting 357 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form on the Web at http://exoplanets.org through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanets Data Explorer Plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the selection different biase...

  9. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  10. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the available academic literature on this topic, many practical examples, and an empirical investigation of opportunities and impediments. Furthermore, three enabling concepts for

  11. LROC - Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M. S.; Eliason, E.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; McEwen, A.; Malin, M. C.; Ravine, M. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) went into lunar orbit on 23 June 2009. The LRO Camera (LROC) acquired its first lunar images on June 30 and commenced full scale testing and commissioning on July 10. The LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) that provide 0.5 m scale panchromatic images over a combined 5 km swath, and a wide-angle camera (WAC) to provide images at a scale of 100 m per pixel in five visible wavelength bands (415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm) and 400 m per pixel in two ultraviolet bands (321 nm and 360 nm) from the nominal 50 km orbit. Early operations were designed to test the performance of the cameras under all nominal operating conditions and provided a baseline for future calibrations. Test sequences included off-nadir slews to image stars and the Earth, 90° yaw sequences to collect flat field calibration data, night imaging for background characterization, and systematic mapping to test performance. LRO initially was placed into a terminator orbit resulting in images acquired under low signal conditions. Over the next three months the incidence angle at the spacecraft’s equator crossing gradually decreased towards high noon, providing a range of illumination conditions. Several hundred south polar images were collected in support of impact site selection for the LCROSS mission; details can be seen in many of the shadows. Commissioning phase images not only proved the instruments’ overall performance was nominal, but also that many geologic features of the lunar surface are well preserved at the meter-scale. Of particular note is the variety of impact-induced morphologies preserved in a near pristine state in and around kilometer-scale and larger young Copernican age impact craters that include: abundant evidence of impact melt of a variety of rheological properties, including coherent flows with surface textures and planimetric properties reflecting supersolidus (e.g., liquid melt) emplacement, blocks delicately perched on

  12. The "Horizon-T" Experiment: Extensive Air Showers Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Beisembaev, R U; Dalkarov, O D; Ryabov, V A; Stepanov, A V; Vildanov, N G; Vildanova, M I; Zhukov, V V; Baigarin, K A; Beznosko, D; Sadykov, T X; Suleymenov, N S

    2016-01-01

    Horizon-T is an innovative detector system constructed to study Extensive Air Showers (EAS) in the energy range above 10^16 eV coming from a wide range of zenith angles (0 - 85 degrees). The system is located at Tien Shan high-altitude Science Station of Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences at approximately 3340 meters above the sea level. It consists of eight charged particle detection points separated by the distance up to one kilometer as well as optical detector subsystem to view the Vavilov-Cerenkov light from the EAS. The time resolution of charged particles and Vavilov-Cerenkov light photons passage of the detector system is a few ns. This level of resolution allows conducting research of atmospheric development of individual EAS.

  13. Shear horizontal (SH) ultrasound wave propagation around smooth corners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcher, P A; Burrows, S E; Dixon, S

    2014-04-01

    Shear horizontal (SH) ultrasound guided waves are being used in an increasing number of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications. One advantage SH waves have over some wave types, is their ability to propagate around curved surfaces with little energy loss; to understand the geometries around which they could propagate, the wave reflection must be quantified. A 0.83mm thick aluminium sheet was placed in a bending machine, and a shallow bend was introduced. Periodically-poled magnet (PPM) electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs), for emission and reception of SH waves, were placed on the same side of the bend, so that reflected waves were received. Additional bending of the sheet demonstrated a clear relationship between bend angles and the reflected signal. Models suggest that the reflection is a linear superposition of the reflections from each bend segment, such that sharp turns lead to a larger peak-to-peak amplitude, in part due to increased phase coherence.

  14. Stability limits for the horizontal ribbon growth of silicon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggolu, Parthiv; Yeckel, Andrew; Bleil, Carl E.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    A rigorous, thermal-capillary model, developed to couple heat transfer, melt convection and capillary physics, is employed to assess stability limits of the HRG system for growing silicon ribbons. Extending the prior understanding of this process put forth by Daggolu et al. [Thermal-capillary analysis of the horizontal ribbon growth of silicon crystals, Journal of Crystal Growth 355 (2012) 129-139], model results presented here identify additional failure mechanisms, including the bridging of crystal onto crucible, the spilling of melt from the crucible, and the undercooling of melt at the ribbon tip, that are consistent with prior experimental observations. Changes in pull rate, pull angle, melt height, and other parameters are shown to give rise to limits, indicating that only narrow operating windows exist in multi-dimensional parameter space for stable growth conditions that circumvent these failure mechanisms.

  15. Boiling heat transfer in horizontal and inclined rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morcos, S.M.; Mobarak, A.; Hilal, M.; Mohareb, M.R. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1987-05-01

    The present experimental investigation is concerned with boiling heat transfer of water inside both horizontal and inclined rectangular channels under a relatively low heat flux. These configurations simulate the absorber channel of line-focus solar concentrations under boiling conditions. The experimental facility includes electrically heated aluminum rectangular channels with aspect ratios of 2.67 and 0.37. The experimental results of the two-phase Nusselt number for the two aspect ratios and for the inclination angles 0, 15, 30, and 45 deg were correlated in terms of a ratio of the two-phase to the liquid-phase Reynolds number for the forced-convection vaporization region. The proposed correlations agree well with previous investigations. In the present work, classifications of the various flow patterns were made by direct observation through a glass window at the end of the test section.

  16. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Akçay; Gamze Dereli Can; Nurullah Çağıl

    2014-01-01

    Preseptal cellulitis (PC) is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC) is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites) or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epid...

  17. Orbital inflammation: Corticosteroids first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi Glass, Lora R; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Orbital inflammation is common, and may affect all ages and both genders. By combining a thorough history and physical examination, targeted ancillary laboratory testing and imaging, a presumptive diagnosis can often be made. Nearly all orbital inflammatory pathology can be empirically treated with corticosteroids, thus obviating the need for histopathologic diagnosis prior to initiation of therapy. In addition, corticosteroids may be effective in treating concurrent systemic disease. Unless orbital inflammation responds atypically or incompletely, patients can be spared biopsy.

  18. Geometric orbit datum and orbit covers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Ke(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Vogan, D. , Dixmier algebras, sheets and representation theory (in Actes du colloque en I' honneur de Jacques Dixmier),Progress in Math. 92, Boston: Birkhauser Verlag, 1990, 333-397.[2]McGovern, W., Dixmier Algebras and Orbit Method, Operator Algebras, Unitary Representations and Invariant Theory,Boston: Birkhauser, 1990, 397-416.[3]Liang, K. , Parabolic inductions of nilpotent geometric orbit datum, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese) , 1996, 41 (23):2116-2118.[4]Vogan, D., Representations of Real Reductive Lie Groups, Boston-Basel-Stuttgart: Birkhauser, 1981.[5]Lustig, G., Spaltenstein, N., Induced unipotent class, J. London Math. Soc., 1997, 19. 41-52.[6]Collingwood, D. H. , McGovern, W. M. , Nilpotent Orbits in Semisimple Lie Algebras, New York: Van Nostremt Reinhold,1993.

  19. Family of Orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  20. From order to chaos in Earth satellite orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Gachet, Fabien; Rosengren, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semi-major axes where the perturbing effects of Earth's oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees of freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angles-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances which are of first importance to the space debris...

  1. Angle-deviation optical profilometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.

  2. Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2016-10-12

    The horizontal transversely isotropic model, with arbitrary symmetry axis orientation, is the simplest effective representative that explains the azimuthal behaviour of seismic data. Estimating the anisotropy parameters of this model is important in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous elliptic background model (which might be obtained from velocity analysis and well velocities). This is accomplished through a Taylor\\'s series expansion of the travel-time solution (of the eikonal equation) as a function of parameter η and azimuth angle ϕ. The accuracy of the travel time expansion is enhanced by the use of Shanks transform. This results in an accurate approximation of the solution of the non-linear eikonal equation and provides a mechanism to scan simultaneously for the best fitting effective parameters η and ϕ, without the need for repetitive modelling of travel times. The analysis of the travel time sensitivity to parameters η and ϕ reveals that travel times are more sensitive to η than to the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ. Thus, η is better constrained from travel times than the azimuth. Moreover, the two-parameter scan in the homogeneous case shows that errors in the background model affect the estimation of η and ϕ differently. While a gradual increase in errors in the background model leads to increasing errors in η, inaccuracies in ϕ, on the other hand, depend on the background model errors. We also propose a layer-stripping method valid for a stack of arbitrary oriented symmetry axis horizontal transversely isotropic layers to convert the effective parameters to the interval layer values.

  3. Evaluation of extremely small horizontal emittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Okugi

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available The KEK Accelerator Test Facility (KEK-ATF was constructed to develop technologies for producing a low-emittance beam which will be required by future linear colliders. The KEK-ATF consists of an injector linac, a damping ring, and a beam extraction line. The basic optical structure of the damping ring is a FOBO lattice, which reduces the horizontal dispersion at the center of the bending magnets and, as a consequence, can produce an extremely small emittance beam. To verify the performance of such a unique, low-emittance lattice, it is crucial to measure the horizontal emittance. The horizontal emittance was measured using wire scanners in the beam extraction line. Since the horizontal beam position was not stable, we established a method to correct the measured beam size for position fluctuation (“jitter” and we succeeded in the observation of the so far smallest horizontal emittance in any accelerator. The measured horizontal emittance was 1.37±0.03nm at a beam energy of 1.285 GeV and a bunch population of \\(3–5\\×10^{9}, in agreement with the design value of 1.27–1.34 nm at the beam energy and the bunch population.

  4. The Australian MRI-Linac Program: measuring profiles and PDD in a horizontal beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, J.; George, A.; Alnaghy, S. J.; Causer, T.; Alharthi, T.; Glaubes, L.; Dong, B.; Goozee, G.; Liney, G.; Holloway, L.; Keall, P.

    2017-02-01

    The Australian MRI-Linac consists of a fixed horizontal photon beam combined with a MRI. Commissioning required PDD and profiles measured in a horizontal set-up using a combination of water tank measurements and gafchromic film. To validate the methodology, measurements were performed comparing PDD and profiles measured with the gantry angle set to 0 and 90° on a conventional linac. Results showed agreement to within 2.0% for PDD measured using both film and the water tank at gantry 90° relative to PDD acquired using gantry 0°. Profiles acquired using a water tank at both gantry 0 and 90° showed agreement in FWHM to within 1 mm. The agreement for both PDD and profiles measured at gantry 90° relative to gantry 0° curves indicates that the methodology described can be used to acquire the necessary beam data for horizontal beam lines and in particular, commissioning the Australian MRI-linac.

  5. A horizontal parallax table-top floating image system with freeform optical film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ping-Yen; Huang, Yi-Pai; Liao, Chien-Chung; Chang, Chuan-Chung; Chuang, Fu-Ming Fleming; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a new structure of horizontal parallax light field 3D floating image display system was proposed. The structure consists of pico-projectors, Fresnel lens, micro-lens array and sub-lens array with freeform shape. By the functions of optical components, each light field of projectors could be controlled as a fan ray, which has high directivity in horizontal and wide scattered angle in vertical. Furthermore, according to the reverse light tracing and integral image display technique, horizontal parallax floating 3D could be demonstrated in the system. Simulated results show that the proposed 3D display structure has a good image quality and the crosstalk is also limited below 22.9%. Compared with other 3D technologies, this structure could have more benefits, including displaying real high resolution floating image, unnecessary of physical hardware on the image plane, scalability of large size system, without the noise from spinning component, and so on.

  6. Experimental investigation of coarse particles-water mixture flow in horizontal and inclined pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasák Pavel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid concentration and mixture velocity on the flow behaviour, pressure drops, and concentration distribution of coarse particle-water mixtures in horizontal, vertical, and inclined smooth stainless steel pipes of inner diameter D = 100 mm was experimentally investigated. Graded basalt pebbles were used as solid particles. The study revealed that the coarse-grained particle-water mixtures in the horizontal and inclined pipes were significantly stratified. The solid particles moved principally in a layer close to the pipe invert; however for higher and moderate flow velocities, particle saltation became the dominant mode of particle conveyance. Frictional pressure drops in the horizontal pipe were found to be markedly higher than in the vertical pipe, while the frictional pressure drops in the ascending pipe increased with inclination angle up to about 30°.

  7. Interpretation of horizontal well performance in complicated systems by the boundary element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongkittinarukorn, K.; Tiab, D. [Oklahoma Univ., School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering (United States); Escobar, F. H. [Surcolombiana Univ., Dept. of Petroleum Engineering (Colombia)

    1998-12-31

    A solution obtained by using the boundary element method to simulate pressure behaviour of horizontal wells in complicated reservoir-wellbore configurations is presented. Three different types of well bore and reservoir models were studied, i.e. a snake-shaped horizontal wellbore intersecting a two-layer reservoir with cross flow, a horizontal well in a three-layer reservoir with cross flow, and a vertical well intersecting a two-layer reservoir without cross flow. In each case, special attention was paid to the influence of wellbore inclination angle, the distance from the wellbore to the different boundaries and the permeability ratio. Performance of each of these types of wells are discussed. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    ) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... vertical velocity, whereas the error due to flow inhomogeneity on the horizontal mean wind speed is independent of the lidar beam angle. For the presented measurements over forest, it is evaluated that the systematic error due to the inhomogeneity of the flow is less than 0.2°. The results of the vertical...... conical scans were promising, and yielded positive flow angles for a sector where the forest is fetch-limited. However, more data and analysis are needed for a complete evaluation of the lidar technique....

  9. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  10. Biomechanical modeling of eye trauma for different orbit anthropometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Loftis, Kathryn L; Duma, Stefan M; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-04-29

    In military, automotive, and sporting safety, there is concern over eye protection and the effects of facial anthropometry differences on risk of eye injury. The objective of this study is to investigate differences in orbital geometry and analyze their effect on eye impact injury. Clinical measurements of the orbital aperture, brow protrusion angle, eye protrusion, and the eye location within the orbit were used to develop a matrix of simulations. A finite element (FE) model of the orbit was developed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of an average male and transformed to model 27 different anthropometries. Impacts were modeled using an eye model incorporating lagrangian-eulerian fluid flow for the eye, representing a full eye for evaluation of omnidirectional impact and interaction with the orbit. Computational simulations of a Little League (CD25) baseball impact at 30.1m/s were conducted to assess the effect of orbit anthropometry on eye injury metrics. Parameters measured include stress and strain in the corneoscleral shell, internal dynamic eye pressure, and contact forces between the orbit, eye, and baseball. The location of peak stresses and strains was also assessed. Main effects and interaction effects identified in the statistical analysis illustrate the complex relationship between the anthropometric variation and eye response. The results of the study showed that the eye is more protected from impact with smaller orbital apertures, more brow protrusion, and less eye protrusion, provided that the orbital aperture is large enough to deter contact of the eye with the orbit.

  11. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON CIRCULATION HEIGHT OF CIRCULATION FLOW WITH THE HORIZONTAL AXIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between circulation heights of circulation flow with horizontal axis and incident flow conditions as well as side slope angles of trenches was systematically analyzed on the basis of the velocity distribution data observed in a series of model tests in a flume, and the related formula for the circulation height was proposed. Moreover, the variation of circulation flow intensity was also analyzed.

  13. Criterion for dry spot development in isothermal liquid film on a horizontal substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the criterion for development of dry spots in isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate and the formulas for gravity and surface tension forces applied at a given contact angle in the plane of the substrate on the liquid rim element surrounding a dry spot. The balance of these forces determines further pattern of initial small dry spot – whether it will disappear or develop into a large spot.

  14. Behavior of human horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex in response to high-acceleration stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, E. F.; Huebner, W. P.; Seidman, S. H.; Leigh, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during transient, high-acceleration (1900-7100 deg/sec-squared) head rotations was studied in four human subjects. Such stimuli perturbed the angle of gaze and caused illusory movement of a viewed target (oscillopsia). The disturbance of gaze could be attributed to the latency of the VOR (which ranged from 6-15 ms) and inadequate compensatory eye rotations (median VOR gain ranged from 0.61-0.83).

  15. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  16. Probing Spin-Orbit Misalignment Processes Around Early-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2016-10-01

    Planets in early-type systems seem to frequently misalign from their host star's spin axis. These spin-orbit misaligned systems challenge conventional planet-formation theories because planets probably do not form with initially misaligned orbits -- their angular momenta must be conserved with the stellar nursery in which they formed. In such a case, planets must migrate to their misaligned positions. However, very few transiting exoplanets have had their spin-orbit alignment angles measured. Our model constrains spin-orbit alignment angles via photometry and asteroseismology while accounting for the brightness effects of stellar variability and rapid rotation that commonly occur in early-type stars, making the analysis of hundreds of Kepler transit light curves possible for the first time. We will employ these techniques to probe spin-orbit misalignment theories by empirically testing the spin-orbit state of exoplanets orbiting early-type stars.

  17. LUNISOLAR INVARIANT RELATIVE ORBITS

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Ali Rahoma

    2013-01-01

    The present study deal with constructing an analytical model within Hamiltonian formulation to design invariant relative orbits due to the perturbation of J2 and the lunisolar attraction. To fade the secular drift separation over the time between two neighboring orbits, two second order conditions that guarantee that drift are derived and enforced to be equal.

  18. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  19. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  20. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  1. Analysis of Mixing Principle and Optimization of Parameter on the Single-shaft Horizontal Total Mixed Ration Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WANG Defu

    2008-01-01

    The main structure and working principle of the single-shaft horizontal total mixed ration mixer was discussed.For studying the mixing principle,the analysis of force and motion of the material on the paddle were made,and paddle angle and rotational speed of the rotor were determined by the experiment,the main mixing ways were explained.

  2. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, ...

  3. Spin-Orbital Superstructure in Strained Ferrimagnetic Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, J.; Yamasaki, Y.; Nakao, H.; Kumai, R.; Murakami, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2013-07-01

    We have investigated the Co-3d spin-orbital state in a thin film of perovskite LaCoO3 to clarify the origin of strain induced spontaneous magnetization (TC=94K) by means of x-ray diffraction, optical spectroscopy, and magnetization measurements. A lattice distortion with the propagation vector (1/4 -​​1/4 1/4) and an anomalous activation of optical phonons coupled to Co-3d orbital are observed below 126 K. Combined with the azimuthal angle analysis of superlattice reflection, we propose that the ordering of Co-3d orbital promoted by an epitaxial strain produces a unique ferrimagnetic structure.

  4. Condensation of Refrigerant-11 on the outside of horizontal and inclined enhanced tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, N.

    1982-12-01

    Heat transfer condensation tests with Refrigerant-11 were performed on the outside of a smooth tube and a variety of enhanced tubes oriented horizontally and at various tube inclinations. One smooth tube and seven enhanced (externally fluted, roped, spiraled, and externally finned) tubes of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.17-m (4-ft) length were tested. Several of the tested tubes featured internal enhanced geometries, which were caused by the heat transfer enhancing geometry on the tube's external surface. Condensing heat transfer coefficients are reported as composite coefficients, which combine the resistance of the condensing film and the tube wall, and are based on total tube outside surface area. Results show that in the horizontal condensing mode, the rank order (best to worst) of the tube geometries tested was spiral-shaped tubes, rope-shaped tubes, smooth tube, externally finned tube, and externally fluted tube. For a spiral-shaped tube, horizontal composite coefficients were up to 2.0 times the corresponding horizontal smooth tube values. For tilt angles greater than or equal to 60/sup 0/ from the horizontal, the condensing performance of the externally fluted tube was best of all the tubes tested.

  5. Diffuser Augmented Horizontal Axis Tidal Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewal energy technologies are increasingly popular to ensure future energy sustenance and address environmental issues. The tides are enormous and consistent untapped resource of renewable energy. The growing interest in exploring tidal energy has compelling reasons such as security and diversity of supply, intermittent but predictable and limited social and environmental impacts. The tidal energy industry is undergoing an increasing shift towards diffuser augmented turbines. The reason is the higher power output of diffuser augmented turbines compared to conventional open turbines. The purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive review of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines. The components, relative advantages, limitations and design parameters of diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are presented in detail. CFD simulation of NACA 0016 airfoil is carried out to explore its potential for designing a diffuser. The core issues associated with diffuser augmented horizontal axis tidal current turbines are also discussed.

  6. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  7. Horizontal stirring in the global ocean

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Carrasco, I; Hernández-García, E; Turiel, A

    2011-01-01

    Horizontal mixing and the distribution of coherent structures in the global ocean are analyzed using Finite-Size Lyapunov Exponents (FSLE), computed for the surface velocity field derived from the Ocean general circulation model For the Earth Simulator (OFES). FSLEs measure horizontal stirring and dispersion; additionally, the transport barriers which organize the oceanic flow can roughly be identified with the ridges of the FSLE field. We have performed a detailed statistical study, particularizing for the behaviour of the two hemispheres and different ocean basins. The computed Probability Distributions Functions (PDFs) of FSLE are broad and asymmetric. Horizontal mixing is generally more active in the northern hemisphere than in the southern one. Nevertheless the Southern Ocean is the most active ocean, and the Pacific the less active one. A striking result is that the main currents can be classified in two 'activity classes': Western Boundary Currents, which have broad PDFs with large FSLE values, and Eas...

  8. Evaluation of non-circular orbit in thallium-201 myocardial SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Shinya; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Takeishi, Yasuchika (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-09-01

    A non-circular orbit in thallium-201 myocardial SPECT was evaluated using phantom studies. Spatial resolution, data uniformity, and defect detectability were compared with those obtained by a circular orbit. Spatial resolution in the horizontal direction was better by a non-circular orbit than by a circular orbit; however, there was little or no improvement in the vertical direction. A non-circular orbit was a little inferior to a circular orbit for data uniformity in SPECT with 180deg data acquisition. It had higher ability to detect perfusion defects in the anterior, septal, and lateral walls, corresponding to the areas where spatial resolution was improved. There was no difference in posterior defect between non-circular and circular orbits. (N.K.).

  9. Nearly horizon skimming orbits of Kerr black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, S A

    2001-01-01

    An unusual set of orbits about extreme Kerr black holes resides at the Boyer-Lindquist radius $r = M$, the coordinate of the hole's event horizon. These ``horizon skimming'' orbits have the property that their angular momentum $L_z$ {\\it increases} with inclination angle, opposite to the familiar behavior one encounters at larger radius. In this paper, I show that this behavior is characteristic of a larger family of orbits, the ``nearly horizon skimming'' (NHS) orbits. NHS orbits exist in the very strong field of any black hole with spin $a\\agt 0.952412M$. Their unusual behavior is due to the locking of particle motion near the event horizon to the hole's spin, and is therefore a signature of the Kerr metric's extreme strong field. An observational hallmark of NHS orbits is that a small body spiraling into a Kerr black hole due to gravitational-wave emission will be driven into orbits of progressively smaller inclination angle, toward the equator. This is in contrast to the ``normal'' behavior. For circular ...

  10. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, pingpong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities.The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remotesensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically,this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available fromseveral commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures.

  11. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  12. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  13. Prototyping LHC Orbit Control

    CERN Document Server

    Wijnands, Thijs; Srinivasan, B

    2002-01-01

    Orbit correction consists in adjusting the strengths of the corrector magnets to make the measured beam position match a predefined reference. In the LHC, this involves around 2000 sensors and more than 1000 actuators that are distributed along both rings. The orbit correction scheme should be able to compensate for very slow orbit drifts in the range of a 10-2 Hz but also for fast motions (vibrations) up to 1 Hz. In this paper we investigate correction schemes that could be used in either case. The choice of design formalisms is based on the experience we gained with the SPS and the LEP.

  14. El horizonte estético

    OpenAIRE

    Perniola, Mario

    2004-01-01

    La existencia de un horizonte estético depende de la coexistencia de múltiples factores de distinta naturaleza que interactúan entre ellos. No bastan las reflexiones en torno a lo bello y al arte para crear un horizonte estético. La palabra “estética” es introducida en el Settecento por la filosofía para indicar una articulación disciplinar propia que pudiera ubicarse cerca de la lógica; esta circunstancia histórica, sin embargo, no debe hacernos olvidar que la filosofía es desde su nacimient...

  15. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  16. Horizontal Roll Vortices and Crown Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Donald A.

    1982-06-01

    Observational evidence from nine crown fires suggests that horizontal roll vortices are a major mechanism in crown-fire spread. Post-burn aerial photography indicates that unburned tree-crown streets are common with crown fire. Investigation of the understory of these crown streets after two fires showed uncharred tree trunks along a center line. This evidence supports a hypothesis of vortex action causing strong downward motion of air along the streets. Additionally, photographs of two ongoing crown fires show apparent horizontal roll vortices. Discussion also includes laboratory and numerical studies in fluid dynamics that may apply to crown fires.

  17. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  18. Gyroscope precession along unbound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along unbound equatorial plane geodesic orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed with respect to a static reference frame whose axes point towards the "fixed stars." The accumulated precession angle after a complete scattering process is evaluated and compared with the corresponding change in the orbital angle. Limiting results for the non-rotating Schwarzschild black hole case are also discussed.

  19. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  20. Envelopes of Cometary Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijajlović, Ž.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss cometary orbits from the standpoint of Nonstandard (Leibnitz analysis, a relatively new branch of mathematics. In particular, we consider parabolic cometary paths. It appears that, in a sense, every parabola is an ellipse.

  1. A numerical study of thermocapillary migration of a small liquid droplet on a horizontal solid surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy-Bich; Chen, Jyh-Chen

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, the transient thermocapillary migration of a small liquid droplet on a horizontal solid surface is numerically investigated. The droplet has a large static contact angle and a high aspect ratio of the maximum height of the droplet to its footprint. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations for both the droplet and surrounding air are solved through the finite element method. The evolution of the isotherms, the flow fields and the contact angle hysteresis are presented. Two asymmetric thermocapillary vortices appear inside the droplet. The variation of the size of the thermocapillary vortex during the migration process causes the speed of the droplet to first increase significantly, and then decrease gradually to approach a constant value. The higher imposed temperature gradient causes the droplet velocity to reach its maximal value earlier and have a higher final speed. If the static contact angle of the droplet is less than (or higher) than 90°, the droplet speed is lower (or higher) since the net thermocapillary momentum in the horizontal direction is diminished (or enhanced) by the presence of capillary force. The present results for the migration velocity and the contact angle hysteresis for a squalane droplet are also in good agreement with the previous experimental results.

  2. A rapid and accurate two-point ray tracing method in horizontally layered velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yue; CHEN Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for two-point ray tracing in horizontally layered velocity model is presented in this paper. Numerical experiments show that this method provides stable and rapid convergence with high accuracies, regardless of various 1-D velocity structures, takeoff angles and epicentral distances. This two-point ray tracing method is compared with the pseudobending technique and the method advanced by Kim and Baag (2002). It turns out that the method in this paper is much more efficient and accurate than the pseudobending technique, but is only applicable to 1-D velocity model. Kim(s method is equivalent to ours for cases without large takeoff angles, but it fails to work when the takeoff angle is close to 90o. On the other hand, the method presented in this paper is applicable to cases with any takeoff angles with rapid and accurate convergence. Therefore, this method is a good choice for two-point ray tracing problems in horizontally layered velocity model and is efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of seismic problems.

  3. Structured light system calibration method with optimal fringe angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2014-11-20

    For structured light system calibration, one popular approach is to treat the projector as an inverse camera. This is usually performed by projecting horizontal and vertical sequences of patterns to establish one-to-one mapping between camera points and projector points. However, for a well-designed system, either horizontal or vertical fringe images are not sensitive to depth variation and thus yield inaccurate mapping. As a result, the calibration accuracy is jeopardized if a conventional calibration method is used. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a novel calibration method based on optimal fringe angle determination. Experiments demonstrate that our calibration approach can increase the measurement accuracy up to 38% compared to the conventional calibration method with a calibration volume of 300(H)  mm×250(W)  mm×500(D)  mm.

  4. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  5. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  6. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  7. A Case Study of Horizontal Teacher Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Trav D.

    Horizontal teacher evaluation increases understanding of teaching through the critical examination of educational goals and classroom practices. This examination includes teachers' classroom observations of one another coupled with in-depth teacher conversations or dialogue about teaching aims and practices. A qualitative case study of a…

  8. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  9. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  10. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  11. Fermion mass hierarchy and global horizontal symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, G.B.; Gerard, J.M.; Yanagida, T.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1984-02-02

    We present a mechanism for quark mass generation in zeroth order using induced representations rather than the minimization of the horizontal potential. Using a simplicity criterion, we derive a realistic mass matrix. We also discuss a possible application of the mechanism to various models.

  12. Horizontal gene transfer in the phytosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Turner, S.; Bailey, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Here, the ecological aspects of gene transfer processes between bacteria in the phytosphere are examined in the context of emerging evidence for the dominant role that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played in the evolutionary shaping of bacterial communities. Moreover, the impact of the putative

  13. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...

  15. Teaching Activities on Horizontal Nuclear Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, John

    1990-01-01

    Provides learning activities concerning the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons. Includes step-by-step directions for four activities: (1) the life cycle of nuclear weapons; (2) nuclear nonproliferation: pros and cons; (3) the nuclear power/nuclear weapons connection; and (4) managing nuclear proliferation. (NL)

  16. Extracting Closed Classical Orbits from Quantum Recurrence Spectra of a Non-Hydrogenic Atom in Parallel Electric and Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua; LIN Sheng-Lu

    2004-01-01

    @@ We show how to extract the closed orbits from the quantum spectra data. According to the closed orbit theory,each closed orbit produces a sharp peak in the recurrence spectra of a non-hydrogenic atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields. For a given initial state, closed-orbit theory gives the dependence of this recurrence amplitude on the initial angle of an orbit. By comparing the recurrence amplitude for different initial states, we can determine the initial angles of the closed classical orbits from the quantum recurrence spectra. Therefore, by integrating the Hamiltonian motion equations, we can obtain the closed orbits directly. This method can also be used to extract the closed orbits from the experimental data.

  17. Connectedness underlies the underestimation of the horizontal vertical illusion in L-shaped configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongchun; Wang, Ci; Song, Chao; Li, Zhi

    2017-05-01

    L-shaped configuration is a commonly used stimulus configuration in studying horizontal vertical illusion. Here, we report that the horizontal vertical illusion is substantially underestimated when the L-shaped configuration is used for evaluating the illusion. Experiment 1 found that, in a length perception task, the perceived length of a vertical bar was about 10% longer than that of a horizontal bar with the same physical size. Similar amount of HVI was found in a length comparison task, in which the length of a horizontal bar was compared to that of a vertical bar and the two bars were presented separately in space or in time. In contrast, when the length comparison task was conducted with the two bars being arranged in a connected L-shape, the illusion was halved in strength. Experiment 2 and 3 studied what might be the cause of this L-shape induced HVI-underestimation. Two factors were investigated: the connectedness of the two lines, and the 45° absolute orientation or the 45° inner angle information embedded in the upright isosceles L-shape. The results showed that the HVI strength was not much affected when the 45° absolute orientation and the 45° angle information was made useless for the length comparison task. In contrast, the illusion was significantly reduced in strength whenever the two lines were separated as compared to when they were connected. These results suggested that the connectedness of the two lines must underlie the underestimation of the horizontal vertical illusion in the L-shaped configurations.

  18. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  19. The Gravitational Interaction between Planets on Inclined Orbits and Protoplanetary Disks As the Origin of Primordial Spin–Orbit Misalignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh

    2017-02-01

    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.

  20. Direct mapping of spin and orbital entangled wave functions under interband spin-orbit coupling of giant Rashba spin-split surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Ryo; Kuroda, Kenta; Yaji, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Sakano, M.; Harasawa, A.; Kondo, Takeshi; Komori, F.; Shin, S.

    2017-01-01

    We use spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SARPES) combined with a polarization-variable laser and investigate the spin-orbit coupling effect under interband hybridization of Rashba spin-split states for the surface alloys Bi/Ag(111) and Bi/Cu(111). In addition to the conventional band mapping of photoemission for Rashba spin splitting, the different orbital and spin parts of the surface wave function are directly imaged into energy-momentum space. It is unambiguously revealed that the interband spin-orbit coupling modifies the spin and orbital character of the Rashba surface states leading to the enriched spin-orbital entanglement and the pronounced momentum dependence of the spin polarization. The hybridization thus strongly deviates the spin and orbital characters from the standard Rashba model. The complex spin texture under interband spin-orbit hybridization proposed by first-principles calculation is experimentally unraveled by SARPES with a combination of p - and s -polarized light.

  1. THE MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF THE HORIZONTAL IRREGULARITIES IN PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Across the track superstructure (TSS there are structures where standard approach to the decision on the future of their operation is not entirely correct or acceptable. In particular, it concerns the track sections which are sufficiently quickly change their geometric parameters: the radius of curvature, angle of rotation, and the like. As an example, such portions of TSS may include crossovers where their component is within the so-called connecting part, which at a sufficiently short length, substantially changes curvature. The estimation of the position in terms of a design on the basis of the existing technique (by the difference in the adjacent arrows bending is virtually impossible. Therefore it is proposed to complement and improve the methodology for assessing the situation of the curve in plan upon difference in the adjacent versine. Methodology. The possible options for measuring horizontal curves in the plan were analyzed. The most adequate method, which does not contradict existing on the criterion of the possibility of using established standards was determined. The ease of measurement and calculation was took into account. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative verification of the proposed and existing methods showed very good agreement of the measurement results. This gives grounds to assert that this methodology can be recommended to the workers of track facilities in the assessment of horizontal irregularities in plan not only curves, but also within the connecting part of switch congresses. Originality. The existing method of valuation of the geometric position of the curves in the plan was improved. It does not create new regulations, and all results are evaluated by existing norms. Practical value. The proposed technique makes it possible, without creating a new regulatory framework, to be attached to existing one, and expanding the boundaries of its application. This method can be used not only for ordinary curves

  2. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS) configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP). The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan t...

  3. Simulating Galaxies: Investigating Spiral Pitch Angle and the Efficiency of Radial Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifset, Noah; Barbano, Luke; Daniel, Kathryne J.

    2017-01-01

    Radial mixing refers to the permanent rearrangement of orbital angular momenta in a galactic disk due to interactions with transient spiral arms. A star is subject to this dynamical process when it is temporarily in a trapped orbit between the spiral arms near the corotation radius. The purpose of this research was to numerically investigate how spiral shape affects the efficiency of radial mixing. This was done by designing an orbital integrator that numerically simulated the motion of test particles in a 2D disk potential that had a steady spiral pattern and was populated using a Monte Carlo simulation. Several realizations of N=10^4 orbits were simulated and analyzed using the open source, distributed computing service Open Science Grid (OSG). The results were in agreement with previous theoretical predictions, and preliminary analysis of the data indicates that the RMS change in orbital angular momentum for stars in trapped orbits depends on spiral arm pitch angle.

  4. From Order to Chaos in Earth Satellite Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkolias, Ioannis; Daquin, Jérôme; Gachet, Fabien; Rosengren, Aaron J.

    2016-11-01

    We consider Earth satellite orbits in the range of semimajor axes where the perturbing effects of Earth’s oblateness and lunisolar gravity are of comparable order. This range covers the medium-Earth orbits (MEO) of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems and the geosynchronous orbits (GEO) of the communication satellites. We recall a secular and quadrupolar model, based on the Milankovitch vector formulation of perturbation theory, which governs the long-term orbital evolution subject to the predominant gravitational interactions. We study the global dynamics of this two-and-a-half degrees-of-freedom Hamiltonian system by means of the fast Lyapunov indicator (FLI), used in a statistical sense. Specifically, we characterize the degree of chaoticity of the action space using angle-averaged normalized FLI maps, thereby overcoming the angle dependencies of the conventional stability maps. Emphasis is placed upon the phase-space structures near secular resonances, which are of primary importance to the space debris community. We confirm and quantify the transition from order to chaos in MEO, stemming from the critical inclinations and find that highly inclined GEO orbits are particularly unstable. Despite their reputed normality, Earth satellite orbits can possess an extraordinarily rich spectrum of dynamical behaviors and, from a mathematical perspective, have all the complications that make them very interesting candidates for testing the modern tools of chaos theory.

  5. Orbits for sixteen binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361−2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB,WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB,WDS 08017−0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277−0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 = STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  6. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  7. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  8. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  9. Charge Order Induced in an Orbital Density-Wave State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Takimoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by recent angle resolved photoemission measurements [D. V. Evtushinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 147201 (2010)] and evidence of the density-wave state for the charge and orbital ordering [J. García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107202 (2012)] in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4, the issue of charge and orbital ordering in a two-orbital tight-binding model for layered manganite near half doping is revisited. We find that the charge order with the ordering wavevector 2{Q} = (π ,π ) is induced by the orbital order of d-/d+-type having B1g representation with a different ordering wavevector Q, where the orbital order as the primary order results from the strong Fermi-surface nesting. It is shown that the induced charge order parameter develops according to TCO - T by decreasing the temperature below the orbital ordering temperature TCO, in addition to the usual mean-field behavior of the orbital order parameter. Moreover, the same orbital order is found to stabilize the CE-type spin arrangement observed experimentally below TCE < TCO.

  10. Angular observation of joints of geckos moving on horizontal and vertical surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongKai; DAI ZhenDong; SHI AiJu; ZHANG Hao; SUN JiuRong

    2009-01-01

    Because of their outstanding climbing and motor coordination ability, geckos have provided the basis for a peculiar bionic model leading to the development of a gecko-robot. A three-dimensional locomo-tion observation system was constructed to measure angular orientations of joints while geckos trotted (337.1 mm/s) and walked (66.7 mm/s) on horizontal surfaces, and trotted (241.5mm/s) and walked (30.6mm/s) on vertical surfaces. Moving over horizontal surfaces, the joints rotated more quickly the greater the speed, and the swinging scope of forelimbs stayed nearly at 59 degrees when swinging forward, but extended from 72 degrees to 79.2 degrees when swinging backward. The lifting angle of forelimbs was always positive to keep the center of mass close to the surface when moving up vertical surfaces, the scope of the forward swinging forelimbs forward extended from 33.7 degrees to 36.7 de-grees with increasing speed, while the scope of backward swinging forelimbs remained almost the same at 87.5 degrees. Alternative gaits had little effect on the swing angle of hindlimbs of the geckos moving on both horizontal and vertical surfaces.

  11. Automated pavement horizontal curve measurement methods based on inertial measurement unit and 3D profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pavement horizontal curve is designed to serve as a transition between straight segments, and its presence may cause a series of driving-related safety issues to motorists and drivers. As is recognized that traditional methods for curve geometry investigation are time consuming, labor intensive, and inaccurate, this study attempts to develop a method that can automatically conduct horizontal curve identification and measurement at network level. The digital highway data vehicle (DHDV was utilized for data collection, in which three Euler angles, driving speed, and acceleration of survey vehicle were measured with an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The 3D profiling data used for cross slope calibration was obtained with PaveVision3D Ultra technology at 1 mm resolution. In this study, the curve identification was based on the variation of heading angle, and the curve radius was calculated with kinematic method, geometry method, and lateral acceleration method. In order to verify the accuracy of the three methods, the analysis of variance (ANOVA test was applied by using the control variable of curve radius measured by field test. Based on the measured curve radius, a curve safety analysis model was used to predict the crash rates and safe driving speeds at horizontal curves. Finally, a case study on 4.35 km road segment demonstrated that the proposed method could efficiently conduct network level analysis.

  12. Performance measurement of broadband, wide-angle polarizing beam splitter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-bin; ZHENG Zhen-rong; GU Pei-fu; ZHANG Yue-guang

    2007-01-01

    Polarizing beam splitter (PBS) is a critical optical component in projection display system because PBS performance greatly influences the contrast and brightness of the system. PBS performance is usually measured by spectrophotometer after coating and cementing, but the measured result cannot represent the actual performance in practice because people usually change the incident angle in one plane (horizontal plane) and do not consider the other plane (vertical plane). Geometrical polarization rotation occurring at reduced F-number influences the measuring precision of s-polarization transmittance (Ts) and p-polarization reflectance (Rp). A more accurate and practical way to measure the performance of broadband, wide-angle PBS is presented in this paper.

  13. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  14. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Characteristics of QZSS Satellite Orbit and Clock Products during Yaw Attitude Model Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Peiyuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Yaw attitude model switching of navigation satellites have great impact on its orbit and clock products derived from precise orbit determination. Firstly, the yaw attitude and solar radiation model of QZSS is given briefly. Then, using QZSS precise orbit and clock products provided by IGS MGEX analysis center, precision of orbit and clock is analyzed by satellite laser ranging residuals and polynomial fit residuals respectively. Finally, spectral analysis and modified Allan variance is carried out on clock products to reveal its periodic variations. Research on QZSS satellite orbit and clock products of 2014 shows that there are two eclipse seasons of 20 days and the beta angle is fluctuating with a period of half-year. And there is significant correlation between the precision of orbit and clock products and beta angle. Moreover, the satellite clock offset has periodic variations similar to orbit periods and its amplitude is changing with the beta angle which indicates problems of current orbit determination strategies. In view of similarities between QZSS and BeiDou IGSO and MEO satellites in yaw attitude model, the conclusion is beneficial to improve BeiDou precise orbit determination.

  16. Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang

    and smoke. Air flow through vertical openings has been widely investigated but little is known about the flow in the horizontal openings, especially when they are driven by buoyancy. A literature survey shows that the brine-water system and the scale model are normally used forthe research work of air flow...... through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made...

  17. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... of scoliosis. The approach used is simple. These results are sufficient for a first visual analysis furnishing significant clinical information in all three anatomical planes. This visualization represents a reasonable compromise between mathematical purity and practical use....

  18. Kinematics of horizontal and vertical caterpillar crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griethuijsen, Linnea I; Trimmer, Barry A

    2009-05-01

    Unlike horizontal crawling, vertical crawling involves two counteracting forces: torque rotating the body around its center of mass and gravity resisting forward movement. The influence of these forces on kinematics has been examined in the soft-bodied larval stage of Manduca sexta. We found that crawling and climbing are accomplished using the same movements, with both segment timing and proleg lift indistinguishable in horizontal and vertical locomotion. Minor differences were detected in stride length and in the delay between crawls, which led to a lower crawling speed in the vertical orientation. Although these differences were statistically significant, they were much smaller than the variation in kinematic parameters between animals. The ability of Manduca to crawl and climb using the same movements is best explained by Manduca's relatively small size, slow speed and strong, controlled, passive grip made possible by its proleg/crochets.

  19. Detecting series periodicity with horizontal visibility graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Núñez, Angel M; Valero, Eusebio; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Luque, Bartolo

    2011-01-01

    The horizontal visibility algorithm has been recently introduced as a mapping between time series and networks. The challenge lies in characterizing the structure of time series (and the processes that generated those series) using the powerful tools of graph theory. Recent works have shown that the visibility graphs inherit several degrees of correlations from their associated series, and therefore such graph theoretical characterization is in principle possible. However, both the mathematical grounding of this promising theory and its applications are on its infancy. Following this line, here we address the question of detecting hidden periodicity in series polluted with a certain amount of noise. We first put forward some generic properties of horizontal visibility graphs which allow us to define a (graph theoretical) noise reduction filter. Accordingly, we evaluate its performance for the task of calculating the period of noisy periodic signals, and compare our results with standard time domain (autocorre...

  20. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the airflow patterns are highly transient and unstable, and that the airflow rate oscillates with time. Correlations between the Froude (Archimedes) number Fr (Ar) and the L/D ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit...

  1. Horizontal Bilayer for Electrical and Optical Recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Honigmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bilayer containing reconstituted ion channels, transporters and pumps serve as a well-defined model system for electrophysiological investigations of membrane protein structure–function relationship. Appropriately constructed microchips containing horizontally oriented bilayers with easy solution access to both sides provide, in addition, the possibility to investigate these model bilayer membranes and the membrane proteins therein with high resolution fluorescence techniques up to the single-molecule level. Here, we describe a bilayer microchip system in which long-term stable horizontal free-standing and hydrogel-supported bilayers can be formed and demonstrate its prospects particularly for single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and high resolution fluorescence microscopy in probing the physicochemical properties like phase behavior of the bilayer-forming lipids, as well as in functional studies of membrane proteins.

  2. Effect of horizontal fast electron beam position feedback on the performance of ESRF beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Pascarelli, S

    2001-01-01

    ESRF is a state of the art third generation synchrotron light source optimized to produce very bright and collimated hard X-ray beams using insertion devices. Instabilities of the electron beam, resulting in source point transverse displacements, spoil these outstanding beam qualities. At the beginning of operation a fast active feedback system was installed to damp the transverse motion of the electron beam in the vertical plane. Recently it became evident that also the relatively smaller horizontal instabilities may have specific detrimental effects on the operation of particularly sensitive beamlines. The dispersive XAS beamline (ID24) was the first to benefit from the activation of a local horizontal feedback. Optimized to perform time-resolved studies and high-pressure experiments, its operation was strongly perturbed. This paper briefly describes the work carried out to identify and solve these problems, presenting the outcome of the implementation of a fast orbit feedback on this beamline.

  3. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  4. Horizontal Symmetry: Bottom Up and Top Down

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    2011-01-01

    A group-theoretical connection between horizontal symmetry $\\G$ and fermion mixing is established, and applied to neutrino mixing. The group-theoretical approach is consistent with a dynamical theory based on $U(1)\\times \\G$, but the dynamical theory can be used to pick out the most stable mixing that purely group-theoretical considerations cannot. A symmetry common to leptons and quarks is also discussed. This higher symmetry picks $A_4$ over $S_4$ to be the preferred symmetry for leptons.

  5. Convection in horizontally shaken granular material

    OpenAIRE

    Saluena, Clara; Poeschel, Thorsten

    1998-01-01

    In horizontally shaken granular material different types of pattern formation have been reported. We want to deal with the convection instability which has been observed in experiments and which recently has been investigated numerically. Using two dimensional molecular dynamics we show that the convection pattern depends crucial on the inelastic properties of the material. The concept of restitution coefficient provides arguments for the change of the behaviour with variing inelasticity.

  6. R&D investments fostering horizontal mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Cabolis, C.; Manasakis, C.; MORENO, Diego; Petrakis, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We study a homogenous good triopoly in which firms first choose their cost-reducing R&D investments and consider alternative merger proposals, and then compete à la Cournot in the ensuing industry. We identify conditions under which both horizontal mergers and non integration are sustained by Coalition-Proof Nash equilibria (CPNE). These conditions involve the effectiveness of the R&D technology, as well as the distribution of the bargaining power between the acquirer and the acquiree, which ...

  7. Optical orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775

  8. Optical orbital angular momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  9. Circular Orbit Target Capture Using Space Tether-Net System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space tether-net system for on-orbit capture is proposed in this paper. In order to research the dynamic behaviors during system deployment, both free and nonfree deployment dynamics in circular orbit are developed; the system motion with respect to Local Vertical and Local Horizontal frame is also researched with analysis and simulation. The results show that in the case of free deployment, the capture net follows curve trajectories due to the relative orbit dynamic perturbation, and the initial deployment velocities are planned by state transformation equations for static and floating target captures; in the case of non-free deployment, the system undergoes an altitude libration along the Local Vertical, and the analytical solutions that describe the attitude libration are obtained by using variable separation and integration. Finally, the dynamics of postdeployment system is also proved marginally stable if the critical initial conditions are satisfied.

  10. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassner, Georg; Ruland, Robert; /SLAC

    2008-12-05

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 {micro}m over a distance of 150 m or 25 {micro}m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ & FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments.

  11. Some experiments on Yaw stability of wind turbines with various coning angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, D.; Dugundji, J.

    1981-01-01

    A horizontal axis wind turbine was constructed to study the effect of coning angle on the yawing moments produced. Coning angles of 0 deg, +10 deg and -10 deg were studied in the upwind and downwind cases. Moment and rotational frequency of the blades at each yaw angle setting were taken. It was found that as the coning angle increased from -10 deg to +10 deg in either the upwind or downwind case the stability decreased. The downwind case was slightly more stable for all coning angles than was the upwind case. It is found that all the previous cases were stable for high rotation speeds, but at lower rotation speeds, they were all unstable and could not self start unless held in the wind.

  12. Some experiments on yaw stability of wind turbines with various coning angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundas, D.; Dugundji, J.

    1981-07-01

    A horizontal axis wind turbine, 0.61-m (2.0-ft) diameter, was constructed to study the effect of coning angle on the yawing moments produced. Coning angles of 0/sup 0/, +10/sup 0/, and -10/sup 0/ were studied in the upwind and downwind cases. Moment and rotational frequency of the blades at each yaw angle setting were taken. It was found that as the coning angle was increased from -10/sup 0/ to +10/sup 0/ in either the upwind or downwind case the stability was decreased. Also, the downwind case was slightly more stable for all coning angles than was the upwind case. These findings are compared with theoretical predictions. It was found that all the previous cases were stable for high rotation speeds, but at lower rotation speeds, they were all unstable and could not self-start unless held in the wind.

  13. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  15. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  16. Oriented angles in affine space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Waliszewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a smooth oriented angle in an arbitrary affine space is introduced. This concept is based on a kinematics concept of a run. Also, a concept of an oriented angle in such a space is considered. Next, it is shown that the adequacy of these concepts holds if and only if the affine space, in question, is of dimension 2 or 1.

  17. RHIC 10 Hz global orbit feedback system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michnoff, R.; Arnold, L.; Carboni, L.; Cerniglia, P; Curcio, A.; DeSanto, L.; Folz, C.; Ho, C.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.; Karl, R.; Luo, Y.; Liu, C.; MacKay, W.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Popken, P.; Przybylinski, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Schoenfeld, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weston, A.; White, J.; Ziminski, P.; Zimmerman, P.

    2011-03-28

    Vibrations of the cryogenic triplet magnets at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are suspected to be causing the horizontal beam perturbations observed at frequencies around 10 Hz. Several solutions to counteract the effect have been considered in the past, including a local beam feedback system at each of the two experimental areas, reinforcing the magnet base support assembly, and a mechanical servo feedback system. However, the local feedback system was insufficient because perturbation amplitudes outside the experimental areas were still problematic, and the mechanical solutions are very expensive. A global 10 Hz orbit feedback system consisting of 36 beam position monitors (BPMs) and 12 small dedicated dipole corrector magnets in each of the two 3.8 km circumference counter-rotating rings has been developed and commissioned in February 2011. A description of the system architecture and results with beam will be discussed.

  18. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  19. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper;

    2011-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a set of local orthonormal Hartree–Fock (HF) molecular orbitals can be obtained for both the occupied and virtual orbital spaces by minimizing powers of the orbital variance using the trust-region algorithm. For a power exponent equal to one, the Boys localization function...... is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  20. Guidewire bias in rotational atherectomy in the angled lesion: evaluation based on the thickness of the ablated intima and media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yoshihiko; Okamoto, Mitsunori; Sueda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Masaki; Karakawa, Shinji; Kambe, Masayuki

    2002-07-01

    The effect of guidewire bias on angled-lesion ablation by rotational atherectomy (RA) was assessed by measuring the changes in vertical lumen diameter, horizontal lumen diameter and the intima-media thickness of the coronary artery, using intravascular ultrasound in 10 lesions with an angle greater than 10 degrees. The vertical and horizontal diameters significantly increased after RA. The intima-media thickness at the 4 orthogonal sites significantly decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between vertical diameter change and angle (r=0.642, p=0.045), but none between horizontal diameter change and angle. There was no correlation between intima-media thickness change at 0 degrees and angle; however, at 180 degrees there was a tendency to correlation with angle (r=0.602, p=0.066). These data suggest that in cases of angled lesions, the increase in vertical lumen diameter is caused more by ablation of the 180 degrees wall than by that of the 0 degrees wall, which is brought about by guidewire bias toward the vascular wall at 180 degrees.

  1. Solar Orbiter Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly; St. Cyr, Orville Chris; Mueller, Daniel; Zouganelis, Yannis; Velli, Marco

    2017-08-01

    With the delivery of the instruments to the spacecraft builder, the Solar Orbiter mission is in the midst of Integration & Testing phase at Airbus in Stevenage, U.K. This mission to “Explore the Sun-Heliosphere Connection” is the first medium-class mission of ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program and is being jointly implemented with NASA. The dedicated payload of 10 remote-sensing and in-situ instruments will orbit the Sun as close as 0.3 A.U. and will provide measurments from the photosphere into the solar wind. The three-axis stabilized spacecraft will use Venus gravity assists to increase the orbital inclination out of the ecliptic to solar latitudes as high as 34 degrees in the extended mission. The science team of Solar Orbiter has been working closely with the Solar Probe Plus scientists to coordinate observations between these two highly-complementary missions. This will be a status report on the mission development; the interested reader is referred to the recent summary by Müller et al., Solar Physics 285 (2013).

  2. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  3. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  4. Sedna Orbit Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  5. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S.

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  6. Contact angle hysteresis and pinning at periodic defects in statics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Nikolayev, Vadim S

    2014-07-01

    This article deals with the theoretical prediction of the wetting hysteresis on nonideal solid surfaces in terms of the surface heterogeneity parameters. The spatially periodical chemical heterogeneity is considered. We propose precise definitions for both the advancing and the receding contact angles for the Wilhelmy plate geometry. It is well known that in such a system, a multitude of metastable states of the liquid meniscus occurs for each different relative position of the defect pattern on the plate with respect to the liquid level. As usual, the static advancing and receding angles are assumed to be a consequence of the preceding contact line motion in the respective direction. It is shown how to select the appropriate states among all metastable states. Their selection is discussed. The proposed definitions are applicable to both the static and the dynamic contact angles on heterogeneous surfaces. The static advancing and receding angles are calculated for two examples of periodic heterogeneity patterns with sharp borders: the horizontal alternating stripes of a different wettability (studied analytically) and the doubly periodic pattern of circular defects on a homogeneous base (studied numerically). The wetting hysteresis is determined as a function of the defect density and the spatial period. A comparison with the existing results is carried out.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions HGPPS horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... collapse boxes. Description Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis ( HGPPS ) is a disorder that affects vision and ...

  8. Maximum orbit plane change with heat-transfer-rate considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. Y.; Hull, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Two aerodynamic maneuvers are considered for maximizing the plane change of a circular orbit: gliding flight with a maximum thrust segment to regain lost energy (aeroglide) and constant altitude cruise with the thrust being used to cancel the drag and maintain a high energy level (aerocruise). In both cases, the stagnation heating rate is limited. For aeroglide, the controls are the angle of attack, the bank angle, the time at which the burn begins, and the length of the burn. For aerocruise, the maneuver is divided into three segments: descent, cruise, and ascent. During descent the thrust is zero, and the controls are the angle of attack and the bank angle. During cruise, the only control is the assumed-constant angle of attack. During ascent, a maximum thrust segment is used to restore lost energy, and the controls are the angle of attack and bank angle. The optimization problems are solved with a nonlinear programming code known as GRG2. Numerical results for the Maneuverable Re-entry Research Vehicle with a heating-rate limit of 100 Btu/ft(2)-s show that aerocruise gives a maximum plane change of 2 deg, which is only 1 deg larger than that of aeroglide. On the other hand, even though aerocruise requires two thrust levels, the cruise characteristics of constant altitude, velocity, thrust, and angle of attack are easy to control.

  9. Angle-Dependent Ionization of Small Molecules by Time-Dependent Configuration Interaction and an Absorbing Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2015-06-04

    The angle-dependence of strong field ionization of O2, N2, CO2, and CH2O has been studied theoretically using a time-dependent configuration interaction approach with a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). Calculation of the ionization yields as a function of the direction of polarization of the laser pulse produces three-dimensional surfaces of the angle-dependent ionization probability. These three-dimensional shapes and their variation with laser intensity can be interpreted in terms of ionization from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lower lying orbitals, and the Dyson orbitals for the ground and excited states of the cations.

  10. Orbit and Attitude Control of Asymmetric Satellites in Polar Near-Circular Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the general problem about the orbit and attitude dynamic model is discussed. A feedback linearization control method is introduced for this model. Due to the asymmetric structure, the orbital properties of such satellites are the same as traditional symmetric ones, but the attitude properties are greatly different from the symmetric counterparts. With perturbations accumulate with time, the attitude angles increase periodically with time, but the orbital elements change much slower than the attitude angles. In the attitude dynamic model, chaos could appear. Traditional linear controllers can not compensate enough for asymmetric satellite when the mission is complex, especially in maneuver missions. Thus nonlinear control method is required to solve such problem in large scale. A feedback linearization method, one robust nonlinear control method, is introduced and applied to the asymmetric satellite in this paper. Some simulations are also given and the results show that feedback linearization controller not only stabilizes the system, but also exempt the chaos in the system.

  11. A Prediction Model for Condensation on Single Horizontal Rectangular Fin Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXijuan; MaTongze; 等

    1997-01-01

    A model was established to predict condensation heat transfer coefficient on horizontal rectangularfinned tube.Drop-Off zone at the tube bottom was considered and determined,the known Honda (and Owen) expression of retention angle was also modified as a result of considering drop-off zone.Heat flux on fin tips in the unflooded region,fin flanks,fin spacings and fin tips in the flooded region were analyzed respectively.COndensation on fin tips in emphasized by considering the variation of film thickness along circumference as well as horizontally.FIn efficiency was considered in calculation.The prediction results were compared with several researchers' experimental data for three kinds of working fluids on seven different tube geometries and for various temperature differences,These data under about 60 test conditions were predicted with discrepancy of ±10% .Prediction by the present model for steam and R-113 condensation were compared with previous models.

  12. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL ABSORBER STRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal strips. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  13. Age characteristic of morphometric parameters of an orbit in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubyna S.O.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The knowledge of a morphometric characteristics of an orbit are important in planning of surgical interventions after craniofacial injuries and a number of ophthalmologic and oncological diseases. Objective. To determine the standard morphometric parameters of an orbit in humans of different age groups. Methods. Research was performed in Donetsk diagnostic center with the use of computer tomography-scans. 96 people aged from 21 to 74 years took part in the research with their consent; 32 people – the first period of mature age (men – 22-35 years, women – 21-35 years; 32 people – the second period of mature age (men – 36-60 years, women – 36-55 years; 32 people –aged group (men – 61-74 years, women – 56-74 years – without pathologies of a craniofacial zone. Orbit length, its depth, angle between medial and lateral walls, width and height of an orbital entrance, inclination angle were measured. Results. Significant asymmetry in values of the length of the lower orbital wall in the first period of mature age was revealed. It affects the value of this parameter as a morphometric standard during surgical intervention, and justifies the measurement at least in two planes: frontal and axial. Conclusion. It was established that there are no reliable differences between morphometric parameters of an orbit in persons of various age groups, except the depth of an orbit and length of its lower wall in the second period of the mature age. Citation: Dubyna SO, Yabluchansky MI. [Age characteristic of morphometric parameters of an orbit in adults]. Morphologia. 2015;9(1:29-33. Ukrainian.

  14. Analysis of an Underground Horizontal Electrically Small Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about a horizontal electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. To solve this problem, the expressions of the magnetic vector potential and the electric field are derived. Further, a quasi-static situation is considered in the condition of extremely low frequency (ELF or super low frequency (SLF to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy calculation. The method of moments (MOM is used to solve the current distribution along the antenna surface at different frequencies, which lays a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the three components of the electric field along the radial distance at different polar angles on the ground are investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, some influence factors of the antenna are analyzed in order to know the operating characteristics of the antenna better. The results indicate that the antenna length and relative permittivity have a positive correlation with the radial component of the electric field magnitude, while the buried depth, frequency, and conductivity have a negative correlation with that. The influence of these factors on electric field is obvious except the relative permittivity.

  15. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  16. Angle of repose and segregation in cohesive granular matter*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2002-03-01

    We study the effect of fluids on the angle of repose and the segregation of granular matter in two experimental systems. In the regime where the volume fraction of the introduced fluid (liquid) is small, liquid bridges between particles are formed thus giving rise to cohesive forces between particles. In the first series of experiments, we pour the mixture of granular matter and liquid from a reservoir into a silo and imaging the resulting pile through the transparent glass side walls [1]. The angle of repose is observed to increase sharply with the volume fraction of the fluid and then saturate at a value that depends on the size of the particles. The viscosity of the fluid is observed to have a significant effect on the angle of repose and the extent of segregation. Similar phenomena is observed in both the angle of repose and the maximum angle of stability, when the granular-fluid mixture is placed inside a horizontal cylindrical container and rotated. In case of bidisperse particles, segregation is observed to decrease and finally saturate depending on the size ratio of the particles and the viscosity of the fluid. Preferential clumping of small particles causes layering to occur when the size of the clumps of small particles exceeds the size of large particles. We also report experiments in which the particles are poured into a silo filled with a fluid to understand the limit of maximum volume fraction of the fluid. In this case the angle of repose is observed to be unchanged from the dry case. However, the segregation is observed to decrease with an increase in the viscosity of the fluid. * Work in collaboration with Azadeh Samadani, and funded by NSF under Grant No. DMR-9983659. [1]: A. Samadani and A. Kudrolli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5102 (2000); Phys. Rev. E 64, 051301 (2001).

  17. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  18. 3-dimensional analysis of scaphoid fracture angle morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Schwarcz, Yonatan; Wollstein, Ronit; Emelife, Patrick; Zinger, Gershon; Peleg, Eran

    2015-03-01

    Scaphoid fractures are classified according to their 2-dimensional radiographic appearance, and transverse waist fractures are considered the most common. Our hypothesis was that most scaphoid fractures are not perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the scaphoid (ie, not transverse). Computerized 3-dimensional analyses were performed on 124 computed tomography scans of acute scaphoid fractures. Thirty of the fractures were displaced and virtually reduced. The angle between the scaphoid's first principal axis (longitudinal axis) and the fracture plane was analyzed for location and displacement. The distal radius articular surface was used to depict the volar-dorsal vector of the wrist. There were 86 fractures of the waist, 13 of the distal third, and 25 of the proximal third. The average angle between the scaphoid longitudinal axis and the fracture plane was 53° for all fractures and 56° for waist fractures, both differing significantly from a 90°, transverse fracture. The majority of fracture planes were found to have a volar distal to dorsal proximal (horizontal oblique) inclination relative to the volar-dorsal vector. Most waist fractures were horizontal oblique and not transverse. According to these findings, fixation of all fractures along the longitudinal axis of the scaphoid may not be the optimal mode of fixation for most. A different approach may be needed in accordance with the fracture plane. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dual-frequency laser displacement and angle interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shijie; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Traditional laser angular interferometers based on a Michelson Interferometer or its modifications have the same principle: changing the angle displacement to an optical path difference. However, measuring the angular error of stage travels is a dynamic process. The main trouble is lack of displacement information and need to be solved urgently. A obvious method is using two dual-frequency interferometers to get the displacement and angular. In this paper, a new kind of displacement and angle interferometer (DIAI) is introduced. In this DIAI, displacement and angular are measured simultaneously by special optical path. The DIAI consists of a stabilized orthogonal polarization dualfrequency laser, a monolithic prism and additional optical and electronic components. The dual-frequency laser is divided into reference light and measurement light by a beam-splitting prism. The measurement light spatially separated into horizontal polarized light and vertical polarized light by the polarization splitting prism. Changing by a fixed 45°- tilted reflector, the vertical polarized light is parallel to the horizontal polarized light. These parallel lights reflected by two corner cube retroreflectors at a moving target. Compared with the reference light, the displacement and angular are measured. Different from the traditional method, there is only one reference corner cube retroreflector in this system. Thus, the angular measurement accuracy is better. The accuracy of the DIAI is better than +/-0.25 arcsec in comparison with an autocollimator.

  20. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  1. Galileo Declassified: IOV Spacecraft Metadata and Its Impact on Precise Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilssner, Florian; Schönemann, Erik; Springer, Tim; Flohrer, Claudia; Enderle, Werner

    2017-04-01

    center corrections ("igs08.atx"). Results are evaluated according to several internal and external metrics, such as carrier phase residuals, satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, satellite clock residuals, day-to-day orbit overlap differences, and narrow-lane (NL) double differences as a measure of the quality of the unresolved phase ambiguity estimates. We demonstrate that the use of the new IOV BW and antenna models brings substantial improvements over the standard approach without the a priori model and with igs08.atx. Particularly striking here is the reduction of the SLR residual RMS by a factor of two to three as well as the five-to-ten-times-tighter distribution of the NL residuals - an important aspect for standard NL integer ambiguity resolution. During eclipse season, when the sun's elevation angle is small, the combination of the standard ECOM with the BW model even outperforms the enhanced ECOM ("ECOM2"). Moreover, we elaborate on the Galileo IOV yaw attitude scheme and evaluate noon- and midnight-turn maneuvers by way of reverse point positioning (RPP). The RPP technique takes advantage of the approximately 17 cm horizontal offset of the IOV NAVANT from the spacecraft's yaw axis to estimate the yaw angle. Finally, we estimate the NAVANT's PCO and PCV parameters by utilizing multiple years of IGS tracking data and compare them against the chamber calibration values.

  2. Horizontal routes: current paths of literary criticism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Costa da Mata

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the tendency towards horizontality became visible, particularly (but not only in social movements. Horizontality implies a new architecture in human organizations and pushes for changes in the way knowledge is produced and organized. More than a simple erosion of frontiers between fields, horizontality means the decentralization and dissemination of power.

  3. Application of Horizontal Well Technology to Liaohe Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HanYun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Horizontal well technology has become one of the main technologies enabling Liaohe Oilfield to realize stable development. By the end of 2006, 296 horizontal wells of various kinds had been completed in Liaohe Oil Field,273 wells had been put into production, Among uhich 237 were horizontal wells (see Table 1).

  4. YPF uses horizontal reentry to aid thin bed production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, M.R.; Leiro, F.A.; Sesano, G.S. [Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, La Paz (Bolivia); Hill, D.

    1997-01-01

    Reentry and horizontal drilling/completion techniques have proven themselves useful in exploiting thin beds. A pilot horizontal reentry contracted by Yacimiento Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF) for a marginal well in its Lomita Sur field resulted in decreased water coning and production rates four times greater than expected. Further horizontal reentries in this thin-bed field are planned.

  5. Seawifs Technical Report Series. Volume 2: Analysis of Orbit Selection for Seawifs: Ascending Versus Descending Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Gregg, Watson W.

    1992-01-01

    Due to range safety considerations, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color instrument may be required to be launched into a near-noon descending node, as opposed to the ascending node used by the predecessor sensor, the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The relative importance of ascending versus descending near-noon orbits was assessed here to determine if descending node will meet the scientific requirements of SeaWiFS. Analyses focused on ground coverage, local times of coverage, solar and viewing geometries (zenith and azimuth angles), and sun glint. Differences were found in the areas covered by individual orbits, but were not important when taken over a 16 day repeat time. Local time of coverage was also different: for ascending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the morning and the Southern Hemisphere in the afternoon, while for descending node orbits the Northern Hemisphere was observed in the afternoon and the Southern in the morning. There were substantial differences in solar azimuth and spacecraft azimuth angles both at equinox and at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice. Negligible differences in solar and spacecraft zenith angles, relative azimuth angles, and sun glint were obtained at the equinox. However, large differences were found in solar zenith angles, relative azimuths, and sun glint for the solstice. These differences appeared to compensate across the scan, however, an increase in sun glint in descending node over that in ascending node on the western part of the scan was compensated by a decrease on the eastern part of the scan. Thus, no advantage or disadvantage could be conferred upon either ascending node or descending node for noon orbits. Analyses were also performed for ascending and descending node orbits that deviated from a noon equator crossing time. For ascending node, afternoon orbits produced the lowest mean solar zenith angles in the Northern Hemisphere, and morning orbits produced

  6. Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Richard A.; Matthews, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The parameters and restrictions for a horizontal flow ISO Class 6 Clean room to support the assembly of the new LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) were unusual. The project time line was critical. A novel Clean room design was developed and built within the time restraints. This paper describes the design criteria, timing, successful performance, and future benefits of this unique Clean room project.

  7. Special ISO Class 6 Cleanroom for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Richard A.; Matthews, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    The parameters and restrictions for a horizontal flow ISO Class 6 Clean room to support the assembly of the new LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) were unusual. The project time line was critical. A novel Clean room design was developed and built within the time restraints. This paper describes the design criteria, timing, successful performance, and future benefits of this unique Clean room project.

  8. Comparison of viewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shiro; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Dogomori, Kiyoshi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-07-01

    It is known that the performance of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, such as the luminance and contrast ratio, is dependent on the viewing angle. Our purpose in this study was to compare the angular performance and the effect on observer performance of different types of LCD monitors. The luminance performance and contrast ratio as a function of viewing angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees) in each direction for two types of LCD monitors, namely, a general-purpose LCD monitor and one especially designed for medical use, were measured in this study. Furthermore, the observer performance at various viewing angles in the horizontal direction for a medical-grade LCD monitor was investigated by eight observers based on a contrast-detail diagram. The two types of LCD monitors showed notable variations in luminance and contrast ratio as a function of the viewing angle. Acceptable viewing angles in terms of the contrast ratio were much smaller in each direction than those for nominal viewing angles in the specifications provided by the manufacturers, and those for the medical-grade LCD monitor in the horizontal and vertical directions were broader than those of the general-purpose LCD monitor. There was no significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 40 degrees. On the other hand, our results showed a statistically significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 60 degrees.

  9. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  10. Orbit correction algorithm for SSRF fast orbit feedback system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming; YIN Chongxian; LIU Dekang

    2009-01-01

    A fast orbit feedback system is designed at SSRF to suppress beam orbit disturbance within sub-micron in the bandwidth up to 100 Hz.The SVD (Singular value decomposition) algorithm is applied to calculate the inverse response matrix in global orbit correction.The number of singular eigenvalues will influence orbit noise suppression and corrector strengths.The method to choose singular eigenvalue rejection threshold is studied in this paper,and the simulation and experiment results are also presented.

  11. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  12. Horizontal distribution of mixed cloud type scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, A.; Kahn, B. H.; Yue, Q.; Wong, S.; Manipon, G.; Hua, H.; Wilson, B. D.; Wang, T.; Fetzer, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel method to uniquely characterize and quantify the scale dependence of mixed cloud scene geometry using cloud type classification reported with the 94GHz CloudSat radar. Only a fraction of all possible combinations of cloud types are observed at any along-track length scale considered. Cloud scenes most frequently contain only one or two cloud types. We show how cloud occurrence depends on the grid cell spatial resolution used to define cloud scenes. A maximum number of observed cloud scenes occur near 100 km with fewer cloud type combinations at smaller and larger scales. We then quantify the cloud lengths along the CloudSat track using both the cloud top classification and the vertical structure of cloud classification separately for each of the nine cloud types defined by CloudSat and for all clouds considered independent of cloud type. While the individual cloud types do not follow a clear power law behavior as a function of horizontal or vertical scale, a robust power law scaling of cloud geometry is observed when cloud type is not considered. The power law scaling exponent of horizontal length is approximated by β ≈ -5/3 over two to three orders of magnitude. The power law scaling exponent of vertical length is approximated by β ≈ -7/3 over two orders of magnitude. These exponents are in agreement with previous studies using numerical models, satellite, and in situ aircraft observations. In particular, the anisotropy in the horizontal and vertical scaling are nearly identical to recent aircraft observations of wind kinetic energy spectra, suggesting the underlying three-dimensional cloud geometry is strongly related to kinetic energy spectra.

  13. Horizontal Symmetries $\\Delta(150)$ and $\\Delta(600)$

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, C S

    2013-01-01

    Using group theory of mixing to examine all finite subgroups of SU(3) with an order less than 512, we found recently that only the group $\\Delta(150)$ can give rise to a correct reactor angle $\\th_{13}$ of neutrino mixing without any free parameter. It predicts $\\sin^22\\th_{13}=0.11$ and a sub-maximal atmospheric angle with $\\sin^22\\th_{23}=0.94$, in good agreement with experiment. The solar angle $\\th_{12}$, the CP phase $\\d$, and the neutrino masses $m_i$ are left as free parameters. In this article we provide more details of this case, discuss possible gain and loss by introducing right-handed symmetries, and/or valons to construct dynamical models. A simple model is discussed where the solar angle agrees with experiment, and all its mixing parameters can be obtained from the group $\\Delta(600)$ by symmetry alone. The promotion of $\\Delta(150)$ to $\\Delta(600)$ is on the one hand analogous to the promotion of $S_3$ to $S_4$ in the presence of tribimaximal mixing, and on the other hand similar to the extens...

  14. A NEARLY POLAR ORBIT FOR THE EXTRASOLAR HOT JUPITER WASP-79b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D.; Zhou, G.; Schmidt, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A., E-mail: b.addison@unsw.edu.au [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We report the measurement of a spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b, a recently discovered, bloated hot Jupiter from the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) survey. Data were obtained using the CYCLOPS2 optical-fiber bundle and its simultaneous calibration system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We have used the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to determine the sky-projected spin-orbit angle to be {lambda}= -106{sup +19}{sub -13} {sup o}. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet-the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. WASP-79 is consistent with other stars that have T{sub eff} > 6250 K and host hot Jupiters in spin-orbit misalignment.

  15. Variation in terminology: capoeira in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Nardelli Cambraia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study we analyzed the variation in the terminology of capoeira in Belo Horizonte. The terms referring to 69 videotaped movements of capoeira were collected from 10 informants (5 men and 5 women, aged between 25 and 32 years, capoeira teachers. As a result we obtained 294 different terms whose patterns of variation are distributed among 15 types. We tested the hypothesis that the figurative terms tend to be replaced by non-figurative ones, and it was confirmed by the collected data. This trend was the result of a search for transparency in terminology, making the terms more descriptive in relation to capoeira’s movements.

  16. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingxin Leng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ∼ 95% (88% ∼ 98% of the incident peak force (energy under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ∼ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  17. Does horizontal transmission invalidate cultural phylogenies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Simon J; Currie, Thomas E; Gray, Russell D

    2009-06-22

    Phylogenetic methods have recently been applied to studies of cultural evolution. However, it has been claimed that the large amount of horizontal transmission that sometimes occurs between cultural groups invalidates the use of these methods. Here, we use a natural model of linguistic evolution to simulate borrowing between languages. The results show that tree topologies constructed with Bayesian phylogenetic methods are robust to realistic levels of borrowing. Inferences about divergence dates are slightly less robust and show a tendency to underestimate dates. Our results demonstrate that realistic levels of reticulation between cultures do not invalidate a phylogenetic approach to cultural and linguistic evolution.

  18. Fluidization of a horizontally driven granular monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckel, Michael; Sack, Achim; Kollmer, Jonathan E; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    We consider the transition of a horizontally vibrated monodisperse granular monolayer between its condensed state and its three-dimensional gaseous state as a function of the vibration parameters, amplitude, and frequency as well as particle number density. The transition is characterized by an abrupt change of the dynamical state which leaves its fingerprints in several measurable quantities including dissipation rate, sound emission, and a gap size which characterizes the sloshing motion of the material. The transition and its pronounced hysteresis is explained through the energy due to the collective motion of the particles relative to the container.

  19. Horizontal stability of a bouncing ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBennett, Brendan G.; Harris, Daniel M.

    2016-09-01

    We present an investigation of a partially elastic ball bouncing on a vertically vibrated concave parabolic surface in two dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that simple vertical motion, wherein the ball bounces periodically at the parabola's vertex, is unstable to horizontal perturbations when the parabolic coefficient defining the surface shape exceeds a critical value. The result is a new periodic solution where the ball bounces laterally over the vertex. As the parabola is further steepened, this new solution also becomes unstable which gives rise to other complex periodic and chaotic bouncing states, all characterized by persistent lateral motion.

  20. A method to increase the hologram viewing angle by the beam reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Naoyuki; Kang, Hoonjong; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2008-02-01

    A liquid crystal panel is often used for holographic television. However, its pixel size and pixel number are not enough for practical holographic 3D display. Therefore, multi-panel configuration is often used to increase the viewing angle and displayed image size. However, many spatial light modulators should be used in them. In this paper, we propose a novel method to increase the viewing angle of a holographic display system. The proposed method, which is implemented by a mirror module, is to reconfigure the beam shape reflected by a spatial light modulator. In this paper, the equipment is applied to a holographic display system, which has only a single spatial light modulator and can display a hologram in wider viewing angle than that of the conventional method. By the proposed method, the resolution of the reconfigured spatial light modulator has double resolution in horizontal direction. Inversely, the vertical resolution is decreased because the human get more 3D information in horizontal direction. We have experimented using a Liquid Crystal on Silicon, whose resolution is 4,096 x 2,160 pixels. And the reconfigured resolution by the mirror module is 8,192 x 1,080 pixels. From the experimental results, the horizontal viewing angle is almost two times wider than that of the conventional method without the mirror module. We have achieved that the hologram can be observed binocularly.

  1. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  2. Diplopia secondary to orbital surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, David I; Matta, Noelle S; Singman, Eric L

    2012-01-01

    Diplopia may occur following any type of ocular or pericocular surgery. The surgeries most frequently associated with postoperative diplopia include: repair of orbital fracture, endoscopic sinus surgery (from inadvertent orbital penetration), and orbital decompression for thyroid-related immune orbitopathy (TRIO). Postoperative diplopia after orbital tumor resection has been reported--e.g., after excision of fibrous dysplasia and osteoma. However, a recent case series suggests diplopia after orbital tumor resection is uncommon and transient. Surgical intervention for orbital trauma carries the highest risk of postoperative diplopia and will be the focus of this review. We will also present a case report of worsening diplopia following repair of orbital floor fracture to highlight potential motility issues that can arise when implants are employed to treat orbital floor fractures.

  3. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  4. Flow distribution in a solar collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    dynamics (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m(2) solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...... rate, properties of solar collector fluid, solar collector fluid inlet temperature and collector tilt angle are shown. The flow distribution through the absorber fins is uniform if high flow rates are used. By decreased flow rate and decreased content of glycol in the glycol/water mixture used as solar...

  5. Some features of horizontally oriented low-current electric arc in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazmeev, Kh. K., E-mail: tazmeevh@mail.ru [Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Naberezhnye Chelny Institute (Russian Federation); Tazmeev, B. Kh., E-mail: tazmeevb@mail.ru [National Research Technical University, Naberezhnye Chelny Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The properties of an electric arc operating in open air at currents of lower than 1 A were studied experimentally. The rod cathode was oriented horizontally. Cylindrical rods and plane plates either installed strictly vertically in front of the cathode end or tilted at a certain angle served as the anode. It is shown that, with such an electrode configuration, it is possible to form a discharge channel much longer than the electrode gap length. Regimes of regular oscillations are revealed, and conditions for their appearance are established. The electric field strength in the arc column and the electron temperature near the anode are calculated.

  6. Theoretical model of static semi-ellipsoidal droplet on a horizontal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Li, D.; Shen, S.; Tao, Y.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work is to establish a theoretical static force equilibrium equation of the semi-ellipsoidal droplet on a horizontal wall by analyzing the forces acting on the differential element and deducing the expressions of surface tension as well as the internal pressure acting on the droplet. The relationship between the static spreading radius, the density, the volume, the surface tension coefficient and the contact angle of the droplet is given. The results from the equation are compared with the experimental data and show a good agreement. The data from the numerical simulation using the volume of fluid method also agree well with those from the theoretical equation.

  7. Phase distribution in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase bubbly flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    An investigation on phase distribution in air-water two-phaseflow in horizontal circular channel was conducted by using the double-sensor resistivity probe. The variations of phase distribution with variations ofgas and liquid volumetric fluxes were analyzed and the present data werecompared with some of other researcher's data and existing models. It wasfound there exists more complicated phase distribution pattern in horizontalflow system than in vertical flow. The radial local void fraction profilesare similar at the same measurement angle with various gas and liquid flowrates. However, an asymmetric profile can be observed at a given slice ofthe pipe cross-section.

  8. Stratigraphic control and formation evaluation of horizontal wells with MWD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L.R.B. (Eastman Teleco (United States)); Sellers, D.H.; Fisher, E.K. (Texaco Inc. (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico typically do not form horizontal planes, and a predetermined course for a horizontal well cannot ensure that the well path will remain within the producing interval throughout the horizontal section. Detecting approaching bed boundaries and fluid contacts early enough to make the changes necessary to keep the well path in the producing interval is an important technical issue during the planning and drilling of horizontal wells. This paper reports that the first two horizontal wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico achieved this objective with measurement-while-drilling (MWD) resistivity measurements and with supporting computer modeling for bed boundary detection.

  9. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    CERN Document Server

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-01-01

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  10. Effect of slope height and horizontal forces on the bearing capacity of strip footings near slopes in cohesionless soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal......, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing...... capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable...

  11. Function of the heterocercal tail in sharks: quantitative wake dynamics during steady horizontal swimming and vertical maneuvering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, C D; Lauder, G V

    2002-08-01

    The function of the heterocercal tail in sharks has long been debated in the literature. Previous kinematic data have supported the classical theory which proposes that the beating of the heterocercal caudal fin during steady horizontal locomotion pushes posteroventrally on the water, generating a reactive force directed anterodorsally and causing rotation around the center of mass. An alternative model suggests that the heterocercal shark tail functions to direct reaction forces through the center of mass. In this paper, we quantify the function of the tail in two species of shark and compare shark tail function with previous hydrodynamic data on the heterocercal tail of sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. To address the two models of shark heterocercal tail function, we applied the technique of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to quantify the wake of two species of shark swimming in a flow tank. Both steady horizontal locomotion and vertical maneuvering were analyzed. We used DPIV with both horizontal and vertical light sheet orientations to quantify patterns of wake velocity and vorticity behind the heterocercal tail of leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) and bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium punctatum) swimming at 1.0Ls(-1), where L is total body length. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras allowed simultaneous measurement of shark body position and wake structure. We measured the orientation of tail vortices shed into the wake and the orientation of the central jet through the core of these vortices relative to body orientation. Analysis of flow geometry indicates that the tail of both leopard and bamboo shark generates strongly tilted vortex rings with a mean jet angle of approximately 30 degrees below horizontal during steady horizontal swimming. The corresponding angle of the reaction force is much greater than body angle (mean 11 degrees ) and the angle of the path of motion of the center of mass (mean approximately 0 degrees ), thus strongly

  12. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  13. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  14. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...

  15. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  16. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  17. Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauson, T.L.

    1999-08-31

    The Horizontal Air Bearing Experiment No.1 is a series of tests intended to further the understanding of rotational dynamics. A simple experimental assembly is rotated using the Horizontal Air Bearing and allowed to spin freely as the internal rotational damping is measured. The low friction of the bearing effectively isolates the test assembly, allowing the internal damping of the test object to be evaluated. The experimental assembly is composed of an aluminum ball within a spherical cavity. A flanged pipe section and an auxiliary adapter plate secure the assembly to the Air Bearing interface plate. Three aluminum balls are interchanged to vary test parameters. The aluminum balls are free to move independently as the entire assembly rotates. The aluminum balls vary in diameter and/or surface finish. While the diameter and surface finish is varied, the space between the ball and socket is dry. To examine the effect of viscosity, the space is filled with a lubricant while the ball diameter and surface finish is held constant.

  18. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W

    1995-01-01

    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  19. Applying GPS to check horizontal control quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Vincent

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available GPS technologies can also be used for check quality in available horizontal point set with coordinates CJ of the frame S-JTSK. When survey and setting-out tasks should be performed in certain area, one can found in it allways some points of the fundamental and detail state controls. To use these points for some actual aims, it is necessary to investigate their compatibility (among the point mark positions and the point coordinate of control points. This can be done using GPS surveying that may be at the same time employed to determine the new point in the relevant area.Principle of quality investigatingf an existing control is founded on determination of point coordinates CJt from GPS measurements. Then, based on discrepancies among the "official" netpoint coordinates CJ and coordinates CJt "given by GPS", it can be estimated the degree and the real compatibility dislocations in the network structure of the existing points.Realisation procedure for the introduced investigation is demonstrated on GPS checking (by SOKKIA STRATUS receivers horizontal control for reconstruction of a railway bridge on river Bodrog in East Slovakia.It can be shown from the results in Table 3, that points P3 and P7 are useless due to their incompatibility (inconsistency in the inspected point set. For other 7 points (Table 7 the average measure of incompatibility reads 9.8 mm that make possible applying these points for precise setting-out

  20. Chaos Behaviour of Molecular Orbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-Tang; SUN Fu-Yan; SHEN Shu-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Based on H(u)ckel's molecular orbit theory,the chaos and;bifurcation behaviour of a molecular orbit modelled by a nonlinear dynamic system is studied.The relationship between molecular orbit and its energy level in the nonlinear dynamic system is obtained.

  1. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  2. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  3. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. (Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  4. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc.`s, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. [Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  5. Horizontal Devonian shale well, Columbia Natural Resources, Inc. 's, Pocohontas Development Corp. Well 21747, Martin County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziar, G.; Ahmad, M.M.; Friend, L.L.; Friend, M.L.; Rothman, E.M.; Stollar, R.L. (Columbia Gas System Service Corp., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Columbia Gas and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have successfully completed field work on a horizontally drilled Devonian shale well located in Martin County, Kentucky. The objective of this cofunded project is to assess the effectiveness and economic feasibility of applying horizontal drilling and hydraulically fracturing stimulation techniques to enhance the extraction of natural gas from the Devonian shale. The well is comprised of three segments: a conventional vertical section, an angle build section and a horizontal section. The well reached a measured depth (MD) of 6263 feet, 3810 feet true vertical depth (TVD), with a horizontal displacement of 2812 feet achieved in the desired direction of N10{degrees}W. Both air and foam were used as drilling fluids. The vertical, lateral and tangent sections were drilled using conventional rotary drilling methods. Downhole motors were used to build angle. A total combined final open flow of 3.1 MMcfd was measured from all zones. Total well expenditures are approximately $1,460,000. Of this amount, $700,000 is directly related to the research and learning curve experience aspects. It is projected that the same horizontal well could be drilled with existing technology for $700,000. If advanced can be made in MWD systems for air drilling environments, wells of this type could be drilled routinely for $500,000. It appears that application of horizontal drilling will result in at least acceleration of gas production and possibly the addition of recoverable reserves from the Devonian shale. Production data, necessary to validate this statement, are also required to determine the economics. As we gain experience and technology advances, cost reductions will occur; this will result in economic improvement.

  6. Shuttle orbit IMU alignment. Single-precision computation error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    The source of computational error in the inertial measurement unit (IMU) onorbit alignment software was investigated. Simulation runs were made on the IBM 360/70 computer with the IMU orbit alignment software coded in hal/s. The results indicate that for small IMU misalignment angles (less than 600 arc seconds), single precision computations in combination with the arc cosine method of eigen rotation angle extraction introduces an additional misalignment error of up to 230 arc seconds per axis. Use of the arc sine method, however, produced negligible misalignment error. As a result of this study, the arc sine method was recommended for use in the IMU onorbit alignment software.

  7. The horizontal and stepped osteotomy technique for mandibular reconstruction using fibular free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, Wesam; Jones, Keith; Laugharne, David

    2011-09-01

    The mandible is an important component of the orofacial skeleton, and resection of part of the mandible as part of head and neck oncological procedures can have dramatic impact on both function and cosmesis. In this article, we describe a new technique in the resection osteotomy and flap fixation that improves the stability and aesthetic outcome of the reconstruction. The mandibular resection is performed utilizing a horizontal osteotomy above the mandibular angle on one side and a stepped body or angle osteotomy on the other side. Our technique is unique as it allows flexibility in adjusting the chin point projection to give the best possible aesthetic outcome; it allows more bone-to-bone contact, which increases the stability; it reduces rotation; and it allows for use of miniplate fixation, facilitating future rehabilitation with implants. We have been using this technique with great success in our hospital, and we recommend its use for its improved flexibility, stability, and aesthetic outcome.

  8. Moderate positive spin Hall angle in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Simranjeet; Anguera, Marta; Barco, Enrique del, E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Springell, Ross [H. H. Will Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom); Miller, Casey W., E-mail: delbarco@ucf.edu, E-mail: cwmsch@rit.edu [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We report measurements of spin pumping and the inverse spin Hall effect in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/uranium bilayers designed to study the efficiency of spin-charge interconversion in a super-heavy element. We employ broad-band ferromagnetic resonance on extended films to inject a spin current from the Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) into the uranium layer, which is then converted into an electric field by the inverse spin Hall effect. Surprisingly, our results suggest a spin mixing conductance of order 2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} and a positive spin Hall angle of 0.004, which are both merely comparable with those of several transition metals. These results thus support the idea that the electronic configuration may be at least as important as the atomic number in governing spin pumping across interfaces and subsequent spin Hall effects. In fact, given that both the magnitude and the sign are unexpected based on trends in d-electron systems, materials with unfilled f-electron orbitals may hold additional exploration avenues for spin physics.

  9. Mercury's spin-orbit model and its physical libration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaux, N.

    2004-12-01

    The upcoming space missions, MESSENGER and BepiColombo with onboard instrumentation capable of measuring the rotational parameters stimulate the objective to reach an accurate theory of the rotational motion of Mercury. Our work deals with the physical and dynamical causes that induce librations of Mercury in order to evaluate accurately the rotational motion of this planet. In this aim, we have extended our BJV relativistic model of solar system integration including the spin-orbit coupled motion of the Moon to the spin-orbit coupling of terrestrial planets and particularly to Mercury (the BJV model was previously built by Bois, Journet and Vokrouhlicky in accordance with the requirements of the Lunar Laser Ranging observational accuracy). The model is at present called SONYR, acronym of Spin-Orbit N-BodY Relativistic model. Using the model, we can analyze the different families of rotational librations and identify their causes such as the planetary interactions or the impact of the parameters describing the dynamical figure of Mercury. In addition, the spin-orbit motion of Mercury is characterized by two proper frequencies (15.847 and 1066 years). Mercury presents also, between its angle of precession and the ascending node of the orbit, a second synchronism of 278898 years, which can be understood as a spin-orbit secular resonance. Besides, within the SONYR model, which integrates simultaneously the orbital and rotational motion of Mercury, we have been able to improve the Hermean's mean obliquity (1.665 arcminutes) and we identify the non-linear relationship between the dynamical figure and both the obliquity and the angle of libration in longitude. These determinations provide constraints on the internal structure of Mercury.

  10. Contactless angle detection using permalloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.; Rijk, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of measurements on angle detectors. The detectors consist of a pair of planar-Hall elements opposite to a rotatable magnet. The measurements are performed on a number of planar-Hall elements of different shape and size, and show good agreement with a previously described theoret

  11. Flight Calibration of the LROC Narrow Angle Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humm, D. C.; Tschimmel, M.; Brylow, S. M.; Mahanti, P.; Tran, T. N.; Braden, S. E.; Wiseman, S.; Danton, J.; Eliason, E. M.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    Characterization and calibration are vital for instrument commanding and image interpretation in remote sensing. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) takes 500 Mpixel greyscale images of lunar scenes at 0.5 meters/pixel. It uses two nominally identical line scan cameras for a larger crosstrack field of view. Stray light, spatial crosstalk, and nonlinearity were characterized using flight images of the Earth and the lunar limb. These are important for imaging shadowed craters, studying ˜1 meter size objects, and photometry respectively. Background, nonlinearity, and flatfield corrections have been implemented in the calibration pipeline. An eight-column pattern in the background is corrected. The detector is linear for DN = 600--2000 but a signal-dependent additive correction is required and applied for DNground-based images taken with the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) at much lower spatial resolution but with the same photometric angles.

  12. Horizontal geometrical reaction time model for two-beam nacelle LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, Thorsten; Fox, Maik; Stork, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    Wind energy is one of the leading sustainable energies. To attract further private and state investment in this technology, a broad scaled drop of the cost of energy has to be enforced. There is a trend towards using Laser Doppler Velocimetry LiDAR systems for enhancing power output and minimizing downtimes, fatigue and extreme forces. Since most used LiDARs are horizontally setup on a nacelle and work with two beams, it is important to understand the geometrical configuration which is crucial to estimate reaction times for the actuators to compensate wind gusts. In the beginning of this article, the basic operating modes of wind turbines are explained and the literature on wind behavior is analyzed to derive specific wind speed and wind angle conditions in relation to the yaw angle of the hub. A short introduction to the requirements for the reconstruction of the wind vector length and wind angle leads to the problem of wind shear detection of angled but horizontal homogeneous wind fronts due to the spatial separation of the measuring points. A distance is defined in which the wind shear of such homogeneous wind fronts is not present which is used as a base to estimate further distance calculations. The reaction time of the controller and the actuators are having a negative effect on the effective overall reaction time for wind regulation as well. In the end, exemplary calculations estimate benefits and disadvantages of system parameters for wind gust regulating LiDARs for a wind turbine of typical size. An outlook shows possible future improvements concerning the vertical wind behavior.

  13. Azimuthal dependence of the Garton-Tomkins orbit in crossed magnetic and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasdale, C.; Lewis, R. A.; Bruno-Alfonso, A.

    2016-08-01

    Work on classical closed orbits in the diamagnetic Kepler problem is predominately focused on the chaos observed in the polar launch angle as opposed to the azimuthal launch angle. This is due to atomic systems, along with widely studied external-field geometries (parallel magnetic and electric fields or pure magnetic field), being uniform in azimuthal angle, rendering the azimuthal angle unimportant. In the case of crossed magnetic and electric fields, this is no longer the case, and closed orbits do present an azimuthal launch angle dependence. In atomic systems, due to their spherical symmetry, the electric-field orientation in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field does not affect the spectrum of orbits. However, in shallow n -type donors in anisotropic semiconductors such as silicon, the orientation of the external fields with respect to conduction-band valleys will be important. In this work we examine the Garton-Tomkins orbit in crossed magnetic and electric fields, and analyze how it and its harmonics' azimuthal dependencies behave through variation of the scaled field or scaled energy. At low scaled fields, harmonics have either twofold or fourfold azimuthal dependencies determined by the rotational symmetry of the individual harmonics. As the scaled field or scaled energy is increased, several harmonics undergo significant bifurcations, resulting in large azimuthal angular regions of essentially closed orbits, which will lead to strong resonances in experimental work.

  14. NUMERICAL DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL SETTLERS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification

  15. A proposal for a new definition of the axial rotation angle of the shoulder joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Tadashi; Ishida, Akimasa; Cao, Lili; Morita, Sadao

    2008-02-01

    The Euler/Cardan angles are commonly used to define the motions of the upper arm with respect to the trunk. This definition, however, has a problem in that the angles of both the horizontal flexion/extension and the axial rotation of the shoulder joint become unstable at the gimbal-lock positions. In this paper, a new definition of the axial rotation angle was proposed. The proposed angle was stable over the entire range of the shoulder motion. With the new definition, the neutral position of the axial rotation agreed with that in the conventional anatomy. The advantage of the new definition was demonstrated by measuring actual complex motions of the shoulder with a three-dimensional motion capture system.

  16. Applying Contact Angle to a 2D Multiphase Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Model

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhpanah, Amirsaman; Mostaghimi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrium contact angle of liquid drops over horizontal surfaces has been modeled using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The model is capable of accurate implementation of contact angles to stationary and moving contact lines. In this scheme, the desired value for stationary or dynamic contact angle is used to correct the profile near the triple point. This is achieved by correcting the surface normals near the contact line and also interpolating the drop profile into the boundaries. Simulations show that a close match to the chosen contact angle values can be achieved for both stationary and moving contact lines. This technique has proven to reduce the amount of nonphysical shear stresses near the triple point and to enhance the convergence characteristics of the solver.

  17. Visual pathway-related horizontal reference plane for three-dimensional craniofacial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Y H; Kim, B C; Park, K R; Yon, J Y; Kim, H J; Tak, H J; Piao, Z; Kim, M K; Lee, S H

    2012-11-01

    To construct three-dimensional (3D) horizontal reference planes based on visual pathway and to determine their stability and reliability by analyzing the structural patterns of normal and dysmorphology for 3D craniofacial analysis. Thirty-six subjects with maxillofacial dysmorphology and malocclusion, and eight normal controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS POPULATION: On the 3D computed tomographic images of the subjects, the visual pathway-based planes, including the orbital axis plane (OAP), visual axis plane (VAP), and the optical axis plane (OpAP), were constructed and evaluated. The OAP, but not the VAP and OpAP, showed the ideal relationship between the midsagittal and posterior maxillary plane, and properly described the different patterns of maxillofacial dysmorphology with craniofacial plane 1 of Delaire's analysis and the occlusal plane. The proposed visual pathway-related horizontal reference planes, and in particular the OAP, seem to correctly express the visual axis and the position of the head in natural head position and can be used as a horizontal reference plane for the 3D analysis of craniofacial dysmorphology and anthropology. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  19. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  20. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  1. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  2. Horizontal gene exchange in environmental microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam I Aminov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal gene transfer (HGT plays an important role in the evolution of life on the Earth. This view is supported by numerous occasions of HGT that are recorded in the genomes of all three domains of living organisms. HGT-mediated rapid evolution is especially noticeable among the Bacteria, which demonstrate formidable adaptability in the face of recent environmental changes imposed by human activities, such as the use of antibiotics, industrial contamination, and intensive agriculture. At the heart of the HGT-driven bacterial evolution and adaptation are highly sophisticated natural genetic engineering tools in the form of a variety of mobile genetic elements (MGEs. The main aim of this review is to give a brief account of the occurrence and diversity of MGEs in natural ecosystems and of the environmental factors that may affect MGE-mediated HGT.

  3. Multimodal Distributions along the Horizontal Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    We report on HST/WFPC2 U,V and far-ultraviolet observations of two Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs), NGC 6205 = M13 and NGC 6093 = M80. Both of these clusters have horizontal-branch (HB) tails that extend to the helium-burning main sequence, with the hottest stars reaching theoretical effective temperatures above 35,000 K. In both clusters, groups of stars are found to be separated by narrow gaps along the blue HB sequence. These gaps appear at similar locations in the color-magnitude diagrams of the two clusters. While stochastic effects may give rise to variations in the color distribution along the HB, the coincidence of gaps in different clusters effectively rules this out as the primary cause. The comparison among the clusters strongly suggests that there are separate physical processes operating during the earlier red-giant phase of evolution to produce mass loss.

  4. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamande, Mathieu André Maurice; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Nielsen, Janne Aalborg

    , while shear stress larger than soil strength may affect intensity soil properties (i.e. air permeability) by soil deformation not necessarily associated with compaction. In previous experiments in field conditions, isotropic compaction was observed below the center of tires, while shearing took place...... below the edge of tires. Stress distribution at the tire/soil contact is not uniform. Dimensions and inflation pressure are key factors for the ability of agricultural tires to distribute the wheel load. Our hypothesis was that the risk of shearing increases with the tire inflation pressure...... and the number of wheels. We measured horizontal stress at two depths (0.3 and 0.5 m) below tires of two slurry spreaders: one self-propelled machine equipped with wide tires (1.050 m) and low inflation pressure (150 kPa) but carrying a high wheel load (120 kN), and one tractor towing a three-axle slurry...

  5. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  6. Numerical Investigation on Submerged Horizontal Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海贵; 王科

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic characters on a horizontal, thin, rigid plate located beneath the free surface are numerically investigated. Assuming a linear, time-harmonic potential flow and utilizing Green identity, the governing Laplace equation can be simplified into Fredholm integral equation ofthe second kind. Supposing linear-order discontinuous elements along intersecting vertical boundaries, and by use of the boundary element method, numerical solution about source strength distribution on the plate can be changed into a series of algebraic equations. The 3D Green function is introduced to set up the integral equations, and the GMRES solver is performed for solving the large dense linear system of equations. The added-mass, damping force and exciting force are evaluated directly from the equations. It is found that the added-mass coefficient becomes negative for a range of frequencies when the plate is sufficiently close to the free surface.

  7. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thane Papke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria.

  8. Horizontal Gene Transfer, Dispersal and Haloarchaeal Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papke, R. Thane; Corral, Paulina; Ram-Mohan, Nikhil; de la Haba, Rafael R.; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Makkay, Andrea; Ventosa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Halobacteria are a well-studied archaeal class and numerous investigations are showing how their diversity is distributed amongst genomes and geographic locations. Evidence indicates that recombination between species continuously facilitates the arrival of new genes, and within species, it is frequent enough to spread acquired genes amongst all individuals in the population. To create permanent independent diversity and generate new species, barriers to recombination are probably required. The data support an interpretation that rates of evolution (e.g., horizontal gene transfer and mutation) are faster at creating geographically localized variation than dispersal and invasion are at homogenizing genetic differences between locations. Therefore, we suggest that recurrent episodes of dispersal followed by variable periods of endemism break the homogenizing forces of intrapopulation recombination and that this process might be the principal stimulus leading to divergence and speciation in Halobacteria. PMID:25997110

  9. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived.......We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  10. Review of orbital imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, P.S. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore)], E-mail: dnrgohps@nus.edu.sg; Gi, M.T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Charlton, A. [Department of Pathology, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore); Tan, C.; Gangadhara Sundar, J.K.; Amrith, S. [Department of Ophthalmology, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119074 (Singapore)

    2008-06-15

    CT and MRI are commonly used in the evaluation of patients with suspected orbital disease. Many different diseases may present within this small anatomical space. The purpose of this article is to present a diagnostic strategy based on a compartment model. Localizing pathology to sinus, bone, extraconal space, muscle cone, intraconal space, optic nerve, globe or lacrimal fossa allows significant reduction in the number of differential diagnoses as these compartments contain different tissues which disease may involve or arise from. Certain diseases may also present in multiple compartments. Common diseases which might present in one or multiple compartments will be discussed.

  11. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  12. novos elementos e horizontes para o cuidado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lúcia Rocha Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La condición crónica ha sido un tema de importancia extrema para la reflexión del proceso de vivir humano. En el artículo se presenta la síntesis de una investigación realizada con la finalidad de comprender cómo los niños con Síndrome Nefrótico son cuidados, buscando identificar nuevos elementos y horizontes para reconstruir el cuidado de enfermería, teniendo como foco la familia. Para la presente investigación, se realizó un estudio cualitativo que utilizó como referente teórico metodológico, la hermenéutica basada en Gadamer y Ricouer. De la investigación realizada en 2004, participaron 42 personas pertenecientes a las familias de niños y adolescentes con Síndrome Nefrótico, usuarias del Servicio de Nefrología Pediátrica del Hospital Universitario Júlio Müller, en Cuiabá, Brasil. En la discusión son presentadas: una síntesis de las familias, sus proyectos, personajes y contexto; la trayectoria de la enfermedad del niño en la familia, y el cuidado del niño nefrótico en la familia. Se muestran también los horizontes de los cuidadores, familiares y profesionales de salud, y el cuidado posible a partir de los arreglos de la familia. Se puede concluir que el diálogo es la primera condición para la comprensión y también para el cuidado.

  13. Modeling Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Optimum Tilt Angles for Solar Collectors in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Kulcu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in optimal tilt angle of a solar collector relative to a horizontal position assists in maximizing its performance for energy collection depending on changes in time and space. In this study, optimal tilt angles were quantified for solar collectors based on the monthly global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface across Turkey. The dataset of monthly average daily global solar radiation was obtained from 158 places, and monthly diffuse radiation data were estimated using an empirical model in the related literature. Our results showed that high tilt angles during the autumn (September to November and winter (December to February and low tilt angles during the summer (March to August enabled the solar collector surface to absorb the maximum amount of solar radiation. Monthly optimum tilt angles were estimated devising a sinusoidal function of latitude and day of the year, and their validation resulted in a high R2 value of 98.8%, with root mean square error (RMSE of 2.06o.

  14. Observed Orbit Effects during Long Range Beam-Beam Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Alemany, R; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Fitterer, M; Giachino, R; Hemelsoet, GH; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Poyer, M; Schaumann, M; Trad, G; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    Possible limitations due to long range beam-beam effects at the LHC have been studied and are presented in this note. With a larger number of bunches and collisions in all interaction points, the crossing angles were reduced to enhance long range beam-beam effects. The analysis of the effects on the dynamic aperture and losses are documented in [1]. This note concentrates on the bunch-by-bunch orbit effects observed during the experiment.

  15. Prestack reverse-time depth migration of arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bing-shou; ZHANG Hui-xing; ZHANG Jing

    2008-01-01

    Based on arbitrarily wide-angle wave equations, a reverse-time propagation scheme is developed by substituting the partial derivatives of depth and time with central differences. The partial derivative of horizontal direction is replaced with high order difference. The imaging condition is computed by solving the eikonal equations. On the basis of above techniques, a prestack reverse-time depth migration algorithm is developed. The processing exam-ples of synthetic data show that the method can remove unwanted internal reflections and decrease the migration noise. The method also has the advantage of fidelity and is appficable of dip angle reflector imaging.

  16. Determination of the Optimal Tilt Angle for Solar Photovoltaic Panel in Ilorin, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    K.R. Ajao; R.M. Ambali; M.O. Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The optimal tilt angle of solar photovoltaic panel in Ilorin, Nigeria was determined. The solar panel was first mounted at 0o to the horizontal and after ten minutes, the voltage and current generated with the corresponding atmospheric temperature were recorded. The same procedure was repeated for 2o to 30o at a succession of 2o at ten minutes time interval over the entire measurement period. The result obtained shows that the average optimal tilt angle at which a solar panel will...

  17. Fourier Series Approximations to J2-Bounded Equatorial Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper offers a comprehensive dynamical analysis and Fourier series approximations of J2-bounded equatorial orbits. The initial conditions of heterogeneous families of J2-perturbed equatorial orbits are determined first. Then the characteristics of two types of J2-bounded orbits, namely, pseudo-elliptic orbit and critical circular orbit, are studied. Due to the ambiguity of the closed-form solutions which comprise the elliptic integrals and Jacobian elliptic functions, showing little physical insight into the problem, a new scheme, termed Fourier series expansion, is adopted for approximation herein. Based on least-squares fitting to the coefficients, the solutions are expressed with arbitrary high-order Fourier series, since the radius and the flight time vary periodically as a function of the polar angle. As a consequence, the solutions can be written in terms of elementary functions such as cosines, rather than complex mathematical functions. Simulations enhance the proposed approximation method, showing bounded and negligible deviations. The approximation results show a promising prospect in preliminary orbits design, determination, and transfers for low-altitude spacecrafts.

  18. Linear and nonlinear stability of periodic orbits in annular billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, Carl P; Fain, Vitaly

    2017-04-01

    An annular billiard is a dynamical system in which a particle moves freely in a disk except for elastic collisions with the boundary and also a circular scatterer in the interior of the disk. We investigate the stability properties of some periodic orbits in annular billiards in which the scatterer is touching or close to the boundary. We analytically show that there exist linearly stable periodic orbits of an arbitrary period for scatterers with decreasing radii that are located near the boundary of the disk. As the position of the scatterer moves away from a symmetry line of a periodic orbit, the stability of periodic orbits changes from elliptic to hyperbolic, corresponding to a saddle-center bifurcation. When the scatterer is tangent to the boundary, the periodic orbit is parabolic. We prove that slightly changing the reflection angle of the orbit in the tangential situation leads to the existence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. Thus, we show that there exists a decreasing to zero sequence of open intervals of scatterer radii, along which the billiard table is not ergodic.

  19. Periodic orbits for three and four co-orbital bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, P. E.; McInnes, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the natural families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibrium configurations of the planar-restricted 1 + n-body problem for the case 2 ≤ n ≤ 4 equal-mass satellites. Such periodic orbits can be used to model both trojan exoplanetary systems and parking orbits for captured asteroids within the Solar system. For n = 2, there are two families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibria of the system: the well-known horseshoe and tadpole orbits. For n = 3, there are three families that emanate from the equilibrium configurations of the satellites, while for n = 4, there are six such families as well as numerous additional connecting families. The families of periodic orbits are all of the horseshoe or tadpole type, and several have regions of neutral linear stability.

  20. Periodic orbits for 3 and 4 co-orbital bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the natural families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibrium configurations of the the planar restricted $1+n$ body problem for the case $2\\leq n \\leq 4$ equal mass satellites. Such periodic orbits can be used to model both trojan exoplanetary systems and parking orbits for captured asteroids within the solar system. For $n=2$ there are two families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibria of the system: the well known horseshoe and tadpole orbits. For $n=3$ there are three families that emanate from the equilibrium configurations of the satellites, while for $n=4$ there are six such families as well as numerous additional connecting families. The families of periodic orbits are all of the horseshoe or tadpole type, and several have regions of neutral linear stability.

  1. Orbital debris issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D. J.

    Orbital debris issues fall into three major topics: Environment Definition, Spacecraft Hazard, and Space Object Management. The major issue under Environment Definition is defining the debris flux for sizes smaller (10 cm in diameter) than those tracked by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Sources for this size debris are fragmentation of larger objects, either by explosion or collision, and solid rocket motor products. Modeling of these sources can predict fluxes in low Earth orbit which are greater than the meteoroid environment. Techniques to measure the environment in the size interval between 1 mm and 10 cm are being developed, including the use of telescopes and radar both on the ground and in space. Some impact sensors designed to detect meteoroids may have detected solid rocket motor products. Once the environment is defined, it can be combined with hypervelocity impact data and damage criteria to evaluate the Spacecraft Hazard. Shielding may be required to obtain an acceptable damage level. Space Object Management includes techniques to control the environment and the desired policy to effectively minimize the hazard to spacecraft. One control technique - reducing the likelihood of future explosions in space - has already been implemented by NASA. The effectiveness of other techniques has yet to be evaluated.

  2. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  3. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  4. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  5. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  6. Measurement of horizontal air showers with the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kambeitz, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), at the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, measures the radio emission of extensive air showers in the 30-80 MHz frequency range. AERA consists of more than 150 antenna stations distributed over 17 km$^2$. Together with the Auger surface detector, the fluorescence detector and the under-ground muon detector (AMIGA), AERA is able to measure cosmic rays with energies above 10$^{17}$ eV in a hybrid detection mode. AERA is optimized for the detection of air showers up to 60$^{\\circ}$ zenith angle, however, using the reconstruction of horizontal air showers with the Auger surface array, very inclined showers can also be measured. In this contribution an analysis of the AERA data in the zenith angle range from 62$^{\\circ}$ to 80$^{\\circ}$ will be presented. CoREAS simulations predict radio emission footprints of several km$^2$ for horizontal air showers, which are now confirmed by AERA measurements. This can lead to radio-based composition measurements and energy determi...

  7. Correlation between subjective visual horizontal test and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuei-You; Young, Yi-Ho

    2011-02-01

    The static subjective visual horizontal (SVH) test correlates with the dynamic ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) test in healthy and pathological ears, and further confirms that both tests may, at least in part, share the same utricular reflex pathway. This study correlated the SVH test results with those of the oVEMP and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests to investigate their relationships. Twenty healthy subjects underwent the SVH test at a view pattern angle of 30° or 70° horizontal tilt under various background distractions to establish the optimal stimulation mode for SVH test. Thereafter, 20 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease underwent the SVH test using the optimal mode. In addition, oVEMP and cVEMP tests were performed in all subjects. The preliminary study in 20 healthy subjects at a view pattern angle of 70° under counterclockwise square background distraction revealed that the mean deviation degree of the SVH test was -0.61 ± 1.17°. Based on the criteria, abnormal percentages of SVH in 20 Meniere's patients were 40%. All healthy subjects had normal oVEMPs and cVEMPs. In contrast, eight patients (40%) showed abnormal oVEMPs and nine (45%) revealed abnormal cVEMPs. The SVH test results correlated significantly with oVEMP results, but not with cVEMP results.

  8. Bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci Ulu Güngör

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Inci Ulu Güngör, Ümit Beden, Baris SönmezOndokuz Mayis University, School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Samsun, TurkeyPurpose: To report a keratoconus case with bilateral horizontal Vogt’s striae.Method: The clinical findings of the patient and the development of the direction of striae are discussed.Results: Vogt’s striae, defined as vertical stress lines, are rarely horizontal. One patient with unilateral horizontal stress lines on his left eye has been reported in the literature. Our patient has horizontal Vogt’s striae in both eyes.Conclusion: Horizontal Vogt’s striae may be seen in keratoconus as a rare slit-lamp biomicroscopic finding.Keywords: keratoconus, Vogt’s striae, horizontal stress lines

  9. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available -ANGLE BOUNDARIES F.R.N. Nabarro Condensed Matter Physics Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, and Division of Materials Science and Technology, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, South... with eq. 11. Acknowledgment F.R.N. Nabarro is grateful to the University of Virginia for hospitality during the course of this work. D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf thanks the National Science Foundation, (Surface Engineering...

  10. Planets in Spin-Orbit Misalignment and the Search for Stellar Companions

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Brett C; Wright, Duncan J; Salter, Graeme; Bayliss, Daniel; Zhou, George

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars was one of the most unexpected results of early exoplanetary science. Astronomers have since found that a significant fraction of these 'Hot Jupiters' move on orbits substantially misaligned with the rotation axis of their host star. We recently reported the measurement of the spin-orbit misalignment for WASP-79b by using data from the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Contemporary models of planetary formation produce planets on nearly coplanar orbits with respect to their host star's equator. We discuss the mechanisms which could drive planets into spin-orbit misalignment. The most commonly proposed being the Kozai mechanism, which requires the presence of a distant, massive companion to the star-planet system. We therefore describe a volume-limited direct-imaging survey of Hot Jupiter systems with measured spin-orbit angles, to search for the presence of stellar companions and test the Kozai hypothesis.

  11. Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaieh Ahmadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.

  12. Tilting of the magnetic field in Majorana nanowires: Critical angle and zero-energy differential conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Stefan; Sudbø, Asle

    2014-09-01

    Semiconductor nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling and proximity-induced s-wave superconductivity in an external magnetic field have been the most promising settings for approaches towards experimental evidence of topological Majorana zero modes. We investigate the effect of tilting the magnetic field relative to the spin-orbit coupling direction in a simple continuum model and provide an analytical derivation of the critical angle, at which the topological states disappear. We also obtain the differential conductance characteristic of a junction with a normal wire for different tilting angles and propose a qualitative change of the dependence of the zero-energy differential conductance on the tunnel barrier strength at the critical angle as a criterion for establishing the topological nature of the observed signal.

  13. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  14. First observation of angle-dependent Stark cyclotron resonance in bulk crystals: High-electric-field interlayer magnetotransport in a layered organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.; Konoike, T.; Uchida, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Osada, T., E-mail: osada@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We report a novel angle-dependent magnetotransport phenomenon in layered conductors under strong interlayer electric fields. Interlayer conduction shows the Stark cyclotron resonance (SCR) when electron orbital motion becomes periodic in k-space. The SCR amplitude oscillates depending on magnetic field orientations. The conventional angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (AMRO) switches to the angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields. We predict angle-dependent SCR due to electron orbital motion in layered conductors with coherent interlayer coupling. In addition, we demonstrate the expected switching from conventional AMRO to angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields using an organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}NH{sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}. This is the first observation of the SCR with orbital origin in bulk crystals.

  15. Asymptotics of a horizontal liquid bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, M.; O'Brien, S. B. G.; Benilov, E. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper uses asymptotic techniques to find the shape of a two dimensional liquid bridge suspended between two vertical walls. We model the equilibrium bridge shape using the Laplace-Young equation. We use the Bond number as a small parameter to deduce an asymptotic solution which is then compared with numerical solutions. The perturbation approach demonstrates that equilibrium is only possible if the contact angle lies within a hysteresis interval and the analysis relates the width of this interval to the Bond number. This result is verified by comparison with a global force balance. In addition, we examine the quasi-static evolution of such a two dimensional bridge.

  16. Hierarchical spin-orbital polarization of a giant Rashba system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, Lewis; Riley, Jonathan M; Kim, Choong H; Sankar, Raman; Monkman, Eric J; Shai, Daniel E; Wei, Haofei I; Lochocki, Edward B; Wells, Justin W; Meevasana, Worawat; Kim, Timur K; Hoesch, Moritz; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Fennie, Craig J; Shen, Kyle M; Chou, Fangcheng; King, Phil D C

    2015-09-01

    The Rashba effect is one of the most striking manifestations of spin-orbit coupling in solids and provides a cornerstone for the burgeoning field of semiconductor spintronics. It is typically assumed to manifest as a momentum-dependent splitting of a single initially spin-degenerate band into two branches with opposite spin polarization. Combining polarization-dependent and resonant angle-resolved photoemission measurements with density functional theory calculations, we show that the two "spin-split" branches of the model giant Rashba system BiTeI additionally develop disparate orbital textures, each of which is coupled to a distinct spin configuration. This necessitates a reinterpretation of spin splitting in Rashba-like systems and opens new possibilities for controlling spin polarization through the orbital sector.

  17. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This high angle overall view shows the top side components of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  18. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  19. Characterizing local variability in long‐period horizontal tilt noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, M.D.; Ringler, Adam; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Holland, Austin; Sandoval, L.D; Storm, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are dominated by atmospherically induced tilt noise at long periods (i.e., 30 s and greater). Tilt noise limits our ability to use horizontal data for sensitive seismological studies such as observing free earth modes. To better understand the local spatial variability of long‐period horizontal noise, we observe horizontal noise during quiet time periods in the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) underground vault using four small‐aperture array configurations. Each array comprises eight Streckeisen STS‐2 broadband seismometers. We analyze the spectral content of the data using power spectral density and magnitude‐squared coherence (γ2‐coherence). Our results show a high degree of spatial variability and frequency dependence in the long‐period horizontal wavefield. The variable nature of long‐period horizontal noise in the ASL vault suggests that it might be highly local in nature and not easily characterized by simple physical models when overall noise levels are low, making it difficult to identify locations in the vault with lower horizontal noise. This variability could be limiting our ability to apply coherence analysis for estimating horizontal sensor self‐noise and could also complicate various indirect methods for removing long‐period horizontal noise (e.g., collocated rotational sensor or microbarograph).

  20. Cuttings Transport Models and Experimental Visualization of Underbalanced Horizontal Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling technology has become the focus of the drilling industry at home and abroad, and one of the engineering core issues is the horizontal borehole cleaning. Therefore, calculating the minimum injection volume of gas and liquid accurately is essential for the construction in aerated underbalanced horizontal drilling. This paper establishes a physical model of carrying cuttings and borehole cleaning in wellbore of horizontal well and a critical transport mathematical model according to gas-liquid-solid flow mechanism and large plane dunes particle transport theory.

  1. Stochastic Orbit Loss of Neutral Beam Ions From NSTX Due to Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode Avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D S; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Gorelenkova, M; Kubota, S; Medley, S S; Podesta, M; Shi, L

    2012-07-11

    Short toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) avalanche bursts in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) cause a drop in the neutron rate and sometimes a loss of neutral beam ions at or near the full injection energy over an extended range of pitch angles. The simultaneous loss of wide ranges of pitch angle suggests stochastic transport of the beam ions occurs. When beam ion orbits are followed with a guiding center code that incorporates plasma's magnetic equilibrium plus the measured modes, the predicted ranges of lost pitch angle are similar to those seen in the experiment, with distinct populations of trapped and passing orbits lost. These correspond to domains where the stochasticity extends in the orbit phase space from the region of beam ion deposition to the loss boundary.

  2. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten

  3. The Orbital Workshop Waste Management Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a wide-angle view of the Orbital Workshop waste management compartment. The waste management facilities presented a unique challenge to spacecraft designers. In addition to collection of liquid and solid human wastes, there was a medical requirement to dry all solid human waste products and to return the residue to Earth for examination. Liquid human waste (urine) was frozen for return to Earth. Total quantities of each astronaut's liquid and solid wastes were precisely measured. Cabin air was drawn into the toilet, shown on the wall at right in this photograph, and over the waste products to generate a flow of the waste in the desired direction. The air was then filtered for odor control and antiseptic purposes prior to being discharged back into the cabin.

  4. Polar Air Quality and Climate from a Molniya Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, N.; McConnell, J. C.; Mullins, M.; Chesser, H.; Solheim, B.; Kaminski, J.; Strong, K.; Jones, D.; Drummond, J.; Martin, R.; McElroy, C. T.; Evans, W. F.; Giroux, J. G.; Soucy, M. A.; Buijs, H. L.; Moreau, L. M.; Buttner, G.; Rahnama, P.; Rowlands, N.; Hackett, J.; Bell, A.

    2008-05-01

    The Arctic is a region of rapid climate change with warming temperatures and depleting summer ice which may be exacerbated by transport of soot and other anthropogenic material from mid-latitudes. It is also the source of winter storms delivering cold air to lower latitudes. Currently data is available for these areas from polar orbiting satellites, but only intermittently at a given location as the satellites pass overhead. Data from geostationary satellites, useful at lower latitudes, is not available for the Arctic because viewing angles to high latitude locations from geostationary orbit are poor. We are proposing the use of a satellite in a Molniya orbit for the acquisition of data for high latitudes which is a quasi-stationary orbit close to apogee. This talk will describe a proposal to the Canadian Space Agency for a mission aimed at the acquisition of air quality and climate data in boreal polar regions and mid-latitudes. Molniya orbits (named after the Russian communications satellite series that first used them) are highly elliptical orbits with an inclination of approximately 63°. At this inclination, the Earth oblateness perturbation does not cause any change to the orbit's argument of perigee. Further, if the orbit semi-major axis is chosen appropriately, the orbit can be timed to have a period of half a day (typical Molniya orbits have an apogee altitude of about 39750 km and a perigee altitude of about 600 km). The result of these two constraints is that the satellite is at apogee over the same high latitude location on the Earth every two orbits. At the alternate apogees, it is over a location at the same latitude but 180° away in longitude. Either location provides viewing coverage of the entire Earth above 60°N, and reasonable viewing down to 50°N. Further, because the satellite is travelling slowly at apogee, the viewing geometry is maintained for approximately 2/3 of the orbit (8 hr out of every 12). The suite of instruments we are

  5. 3D Orbit Visualization for Earth-Observing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Plesea, Lucian; Chafin, Brian G.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2011-01-01

    This software visualizes orbit paths for the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), but was designed to be general and applicable to any Earth-observing mission. The software uses the Google Earth user interface to provide a visual mechanism to explore spacecraft orbit paths, ground footprint locations, and local cloud cover conditions. In addition, a drill-down capability allows for users to point and click on a particular observation frame to pop up ancillary information such as data product filenames and directory paths, latitude, longitude, time stamp, column-average dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide, and solar zenith angle. This software can be integrated with the ground data system for any Earth-observing mission to automatically generate daily orbit path data products in Google Earth KML format. These KML data products can be directly loaded into the Google Earth application for interactive 3D visualization of the orbit paths for each mission day. Each time the application runs, the daily orbit paths are encapsulated in a KML file for each mission day since the last time the application ran. Alternatively, the daily KML for a specified mission day may be generated. The application automatically extracts the spacecraft position and ground footprint geometry as a function of time from a daily Level 1B data product created and archived by the mission s ground data system software. In addition, ancillary data, such as the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of carbon dioxide and solar zenith angle, are automatically extracted from a Level 2 mission data product. Zoom, pan, and rotate capability are provided through the standard Google Earth interface. Cloud cover is indicated with an image layer from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aboard the Aqua satellite, which is automatically retrieved from JPL s OnEarth Web service.

  6. Full particle orbit effects in regular and stochastic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Cambon, Benjamin; Leoncini, Xavier; Vittot, Michel; del Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    We present a numerical study of charged particle motion in a time-independent magnetic field in cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field model consists of an unperturbed reversed-shear (non-monotonic q-profile) helical part and a perturbation consisting of a superposition of modes. Contrary to most of the previous studies, the particle trajectories are computed by directly solving the full Lorentz force equations of motion in a six-dimensional phase space using a sixth-order, implicit, symplectic Gauss-Legendre method. The level of stochasticity in the particle orbits is diagnosed using averaged, effective Poincare sections. It is shown that when only one mode is present, the particle orbits can be stochastic even though the magnetic field line orbits are not stochastic (i.e., fully integrable). The lack of integrability of the particle orbits in this case is related to separatrix crossing and the breakdown of the global conservation of the magnetic moment. Some perturbation consisting of two modes creates resonance overlapping, leading to Hamiltonian chaos in magnetic field lines. Then, the particle orbits exhibit a nontrivial dynamics depending on their energy and pitch angle. It is shown that the regions where the particle motion is stochastic decrease as the energy increases. The non-monotonicity of the q-profile implies the existence of magnetic ITBs (internal transport barriers) which correspond to shearless flux surfaces located in the vicinity of the q-profile minimum. It is shown that depending on the energy, these magnetic ITBs might or might not confine particles. That is, magnetic ITBs act as an energy-dependent particle confinement filter. Magnetic field lines in reversed-shear configurations exhibit topological bifurcations (from homoclinic to heteroclinic) due to separatrix reconnection. We show that a similar but more complex scenario appears in the case of particle orbits that depend in a non-trivial way on the energy and pitch angle of the

  7. Full particle orbit effects in regular and stochastic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Shun, E-mail: shun.ogawa@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix Marseille Univ., Univ. Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Cambon, Benjamin; Leoncini, Xavier; Vittot, Michel [Aix Marseille Univ., Univ. Toulon, CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Castillo-Negrete, Diego del [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States); Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Garbet, Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-07-15

    We present a numerical study of charged particle motion in a time-independent magnetic field in cylindrical geometry. The magnetic field model consists of an unperturbed reversed-shear (non-monotonic q-profile) helical part and a perturbation consisting of a superposition of modes. Contrary to most of the previous studies, the particle trajectories are computed by directly solving the full Lorentz force equations of motion in a six-dimensional phase space using a sixth-order, implicit, symplectic Gauss-Legendre method. The level of stochasticity in the particle orbits is diagnosed using averaged, effective Poincare sections. It is shown that when only one mode is present, the particle orbits can be stochastic even though the magnetic field line orbits are not stochastic (i.e., fully integrable). The lack of integrability of the particle orbits in this case is related to separatrix crossing and the breakdown of the global conservation of the magnetic moment. Some perturbation consisting of two modes creates resonance overlapping, leading to Hamiltonian chaos in magnetic field lines. Then, the particle orbits exhibit a nontrivial dynamics depending on their energy and pitch angle. It is shown that the regions where the particle motion is stochastic decrease as the energy increases. The non-monotonicity of the q-profile implies the existence of magnetic ITBs (internal transport barriers) which correspond to shearless flux surfaces located in the vicinity of the q-profile minimum. It is shown that depending on the energy, these magnetic ITBs might or might not confine particles. That is, magnetic ITBs act as an energy-dependent particle confinement filter. Magnetic field lines in reversed-shear configurations exhibit topological bifurcations (from homoclinic to heteroclinic) due to separatrix reconnection. We show that a similar but more complex scenario appears in the case of particle orbits that depend in a non-trivial way on the energy and pitch angle of the

  8. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  9. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF DRIVE POWER HORIZONTAL-INCLINED BELT CONVEYOR ON ITS INITIAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.One of the main elements of band conveyors is a drive. To analyze the effect of design parameters on the drive power it is necessary to carry out the calculations according to standard procedures outlined in the current technical literature. The main design parameters of the band conveyor are: the type of cargo, project performance, the geometric dimensions of sections and track configuration as a whole. The feature of band conveyor calculation as compared to the elevators is the dependence of the band width on its performance, the inclination angle and the type of cargo. In the article for the account of this fact during calculations it is necessary to construct the dependence of the band width on the generalized parameter, which takes into account change in the design parameters. To determine the general pattern of changing the value of band conveyor drive power when varying its design parameters in the article it is necessary to construct the corresponding graphic dependences taking into account the standard sizes and bands parameters. Methodology. We consider the band conveyor with two sections: the inclined and horizontal one. It is conducted a detailed analysis of dependence of the conveyor band width and its drive power on the type of cargo, project performance, geometric dimensions and configuration of the conveyor track, using the appropriate parameter dependences constructed by the authors in previous papers. Findings. For band conveyors of this type there were constructed the graphics dependences of the band width on the parameter characterizing the project performance and the inclination angle of the track section, and on the performance at a fixed angle of inclination. Taking into account the changes in the band width with an increase in the value of project performance the graph dependences of drive power on the productivity and the inclination angle of the inclined section were built. Originality. For the first time there

  10. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  11. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  12. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  13. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  14. Geology orbiter comparison study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  15. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  16. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  17. Homogeneous orbit closures and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenstrauss, Elon

    2011-01-01

    We give new classes of examples of orbits of the diagonal group in the space of unit volume lattices in R^d for d > 2 with nice (homogeneous) orbit closures, as well as examples of orbits with explicitly computable but irregular orbit closures. We give Diophantine applications to the former, for instance we show that if x is the cubic root of 2 then for any y,z in R liminf |n|=0 (as |n| goes to infinity), where denotes the distance of a real number c to the integers.

  18. Spin–Orbit Alignment of Exoplanet Systems: Ensemble Analysis Using Asteroseismology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campante, T. L.; Lund, M. N.; Kuszlewicz, James S.

    2016-01-01

    of a measurement of the projected spin–orbit angle λ for two of the systems allows us to estimate ψ . We find that the orbit of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-7b is likely to be retrograde ( ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0004-637X/819/1/85/apj522683ieqn1.gif] $psi =116rc. 4_-14.7^+30.2$ ), whereas that of Kepler-25c......The angle ψ between a planet’s orbital axis and the spin axis of its parent star is an important diagnostic of planet formation, migration, and tidal evolution. We seek empirical constraints on ψ by measuring the stellar inclination i s via asteroseismology for an ensemble of 25 solar-type hosts...... and planetary orbital axes are correlated, as conveyed by a tendency of the host stars to display large values of inclination....

  19. Trajectory Design and Orbital Dynamics of Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y. H.

    2013-05-01

    design of the lunar sample return spacecraft. Meanwhile, China's independent Mars exploration is in progress. In this context, this paper also carries out comprehensive related researches, such as the orbit design and computation of the Earth-Mars transfer orbit, the selection of its launch window, and mid-course trajectory correction maneuver (TCM), etc. It conducts calculations and dynamic analysis for Hohmann transfer orbit in accurate dynamic model, providing basis for the selection and design of the transfer orbit in China's Mars exploration. On the basis of orbit dynamics theory of the small bodies including detectors in the solar system, all the works concerned about trajectory design in this paper are worked out in a complete and reasonable dynamic model, that is why the results have some referential value for the trajectory design in the deep space exploration. The major innovations in this paper are as follows: (1) This paper studies different types of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit on the basis of orbit dynamics theory of small bodies in the solar system, and provides the theoretical basis of the orbit type selection in practical missions; (2) This paper works on the orbit dynamics of the free return orbit, which intends to guarantee the safety of the astronauts in the human landing moon exploration, and carries out the free return orbit calculated in the real dynamic model; (3) This paper shows the characteristics of the reentry angle of the Moon-Earth transfer orbit. With the conditions of the landing range of our country taken into account, our works carry out the constraints of the reentry angle and the latitude of the explorer at reentry time, and provide the basis of orbit type choice for practical applications; (4) Based on the error transition matrix of the small bodies' motion, this paper analyzes the attributes of the error propagation of the Earth-Moon transfer orbit, on the basis of which it proposes the timing methods as well as the equation for

  20. Review of Research On Angle-of-Attack Indicator Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vie, Lisa R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a literature review to determine the potential benefits of a display of angle-of-attack (AoA) on the flight deck of commercial transport that may aid a pilot in energy state awareness, upset recovery, and/or diagnosis of air data system failure. This literature review encompassed an exhaustive list of references available and includes studies on the benefits of displaying AoA information during all phases of flight. It also contains information and descriptions about various AoA indicators such as dial, vertical and horizontal types as well as AoA displays on the primary flight display and the head up display. Any training given on the use of an AoA indicator during the research studies or experiments is also included for review

  1. Magneto-convective instabilities in horizontal cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistrangelo, Chiara; Bühler, Leo

    2016-02-01

    A linear stability analysis is performed to investigate the onset of convective motions in a flat cavity filled with liquid metal. A volumetric heat source is uniformly distributed in the fluid and a horizontal magnetic field is imposed. Walls perpendicular to the magnetic field are thermally insulating, and the top wall is isothermal and the bottom adiabatic. When a magnetic field is applied, electromagnetic forces tend to transform 3D convective flow structures into quasi-2D rolls aligned to the magnetic field. By integrating 3D equations along magnetic field lines, a quasi-2D mathematical model has been derived. A dissipation term in the 2D equations accounts for 3D viscous effects in boundary layers at Hartmann walls perpendicular to the magnetic field. The influence of various parameters on flow stability is investigated. The flow is stabilized by increasing the magnetic field intensity or the electric conductance of Hartmann walls and by reducing the aspect ratio of the cavity. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the analytical results and to describe the main convective flow patterns in the non-linear regime.

  2. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Scheider

    2001-04-26

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The information provided by the sketches (Attachment I) is that of the potential design of the type of WP considered in this calculation, and all obtained results are valid for that design only. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  3. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  4. Horizontal plane head stabilization during locomotor tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R L; Newton, R A; Carlton, L G

    2001-03-01

    Frequency characteristics of head stabilization were examined during locomotor tasks in healthy young adults(N = 8) who performed normal walking and 3 walking tasks designed to produce perturbations primarily in the horizontal plane. In the 3 walking tasks, the arms moved in phase with leg movement, with abnormally large amplitude, and at twice the frequency of leg movement. Head-in-space angular velocity was examined at the predominant frequencies of trunk motion. Head movements in space occurred at low frequencies ( 4.0 Hz) when the arms moved at twice the frequency of the legs. Head stabilization strategies were determined from head-on-trunk with respect to trunk frequency profiles derived from angular velocity data. During natural walking at low frequencies (head-on-trunk movement was less than trunk movement. At frequencies 3.0 Hz or greater, equal and opposite compensatory movement ensured head stability. When arm swing was altered, compensatory movement guaranteed head stability at all frequencies. Head stabilization was successful for frequencies up to 10.0 Hz during locomotor tasks. Maintaining head stability at high frequencies during voluntary tasks suggests that participants used feedforward mechanisms to coordinate head and trunk movements. Maintenance of head stability during dynamic tasks allows optimal conditions for vestibulo-ocular reflex function.

  5. Horizontal visibility graphs from integer sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-09-01

    The horizontal visibility graph (HVG) is a graph-theoretical representation of a time series and builds a bridge between dynamical systems and graph theory. In recent years this representation has been used to describe and theoretically compare different types of dynamics and has been applied to characterize empirical signals, by extracting topological features from the associated HVGs which have shown to be informative on the class of dynamics. Among some other measures, it has been shown that the degree distribution of these graphs is a very informative feature that encapsulates nontrivial information of the series's generative dynamics. In particular, the HVG associated to a bi-infinite real-valued series of independent and identically distributed random variables is a universal exponential law P(k)=(1/3){(2/3)}k-2, independent of the series marginal distribution. Most of the current applications have however only addressed real-valued time series, as no exact results are known for the topological properties of HVGs associated to integer-valued series. In this paper we explore this latter situation and address univariate time series where each variable can only take a finite number n of consecutive integer values. We are able to construct an explicit formula for the parametric degree distribution {P}n(k), which we prove to converge to the continuous case for large n and deviates otherwise. A few applications are then considered.

  6. The peculiar Horizontal Branch of NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Ferraro, F R; Cassisi, S; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Sabbi, E

    2010-01-01

    We present an accurate analysis of the peculiar Horizontal Branch (HB) of the massive Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808, based on high-resolution far-UV and optical images of the central region of the cluster obtained with HST. We confirm the multimodal distribution of stars along the HB: 4 sub-populations separated by gaps are distinguishable. The detailed comparison with suitable theoretical models showed that (i) it is not possible to reproduce the luminosity of the entire HB with a single helium abundance, while an appropriate modeling is possible for three HB groups by assuming different helium abundances in the range 0.24 < Y < 0.4 that are consistent with the multiple populations observed in the Main Sequence; (ii) canonical HB models are not able to properly match the observational properties of the stars populating the hottest end of the observed HB distribution, the so called "blue-hook region". These objects are probably "hot-flashers" , stars that peel off the red giant branch before reachi...

  7. Shallow water model for horizontal centrifugal casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boháček, J.; Kharicha, A.; Ludwig, A.; Wu, M.

    2012-07-01

    A numerical model was proposed to simulate the solidification process of an outer shell of work roll made by the horizontal centrifugal casting technique. Shallow water model was adopted to solve the 2D average flow dynamics of melt spreading and the average temperature distribution inside the centrifugal casting mould by considering the centrifugal force, Coriolis force, viscous force due to zero velocity on the mould wall, gravity, and energy transport by the flow. Additionally, a 1D sub-model was implemented to consider the heat transfer in the radial direction from the solidifying shell to the mould. The solidification front was tracked by fulfilling the Stefan condition. Radiative and convective heat losses were included from both, the free liquid surface and the outer wall of the mould. Several cases were simulated with the following assumed initial conditions: constant height of the liquid metal (10, 20, and 30 mm), uniform temperature of the free liquid surface (1755 K). The simulation results have shown that while the solidification front remained rather flat, the free surface was disturbed by waves. The amplitude of waves increased with the liquid height. Free surface waves diminished as the solidification proceeded.

  8. Speech disorders in students in Belo Horizonte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos; Alves, Claudia Regina Lindgren; Goulart, Lúcia Maria H Figueiredo; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Campos, Fernanda Rodrigues; Friche, Clarice Passos

    2011-12-01

    To describe speech disorders in students from 1st to 4th grades, and to investigate possible associations between these disorders and stomatognathic system and auditory processing disorders. Cross-sectional study with stratified random sample composed of 288 students, calculated based on an universe of 1,189 children enrolled in public schools from the area covered by a health center in Belo Horizonte. The median age was 8.9 years, and 49.7% were male. Assessment used a stomatognathic system protocol adapted from the Myofunctional Evaluation Guidelines, the Phonology task of the ABFW - Child Language Test, and a simplified auditory processing evaluation. Data were statistically analyzed. From the subjects studied, 31.9% had speech disorder. From these, 18% presented phonetic deviation, 9.7% phonological deviation, and 4.2% phonetic and phonological deviation. Linguistic variation was observed in 38.5% of the children. There was a higher proportion of children with phonetic deviation in 1st grade, and a higher proportion of children younger than 8 years old with both phonetic and phonological deviations. Phonetic deviation was associated to stomatognathic system disorder, and phonological deviation was associated to auditory processing disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders in 1st to 4th grade students is considered high. Moreover, these disorders are associated to other Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology alterations, which suggest that one disorder may be a consequence of the other, indicating the need for early diagnosis and intervention.

  9. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes.

  10. Sunlight effects on the 3D polar current system determined from low Earth orbit measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laundal, Karl M.; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    analyzed together. In this paper, we present estimates of the average global Birkeland currents and horizontal ionospheric currents from the same set of magnetic field measurements. The magnetic field measurements, from the low Earth orbiting Swarm and CHAMP satellites, are used to co-estimate poloidal...... show that the Birkeland currents vary with the conductivity, which depends most strongly on solar EUV emissions on the dayside and on particle precipitation at pre-midnight magnetic local times. In sunlight, the horizontal equivalent current flows in two cells, resembling an opposite ionospheric...

  11. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  12. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  13. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  14. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  15. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  16. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Jantzen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  17. Gyroscope precession along bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2016-09-01

    The precession of a test gyroscope along stable bound equatorial plane orbits around a Kerr black hole is analyzed, and the precession angular velocity of the gyro's parallel transported spin vector and the increment in the precession angle after one orbital period is evaluated. The parallel transported Marck frame which enters this discussion is shown to have an elegant geometrical explanation in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Killing-Yano 2-form and a Wigner rotation effect.

  18. Small angle scatter imaging from wide beam diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Steven J [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, Wiltshire SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Hall, Chris J [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Round, Adam R [EMBL c/o DESY, Building 25a, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-05-07

    In this paper we report on the extension of the technique of mapping small angle x-ray scatter (SAXS) across a soft material specimen several millimetres square. In the conventional SAXS mapping technique a pencil beam of x-rays is raster scanned over the specimen with the scatter pattern recorded from each point in the raster. In our technique a wide, parallel beam is used, speeding up the data collection time considerably. An image processing algorithm is used to separate the scatter pattern features from individual points along the line of the beam. To test the efficacy of the technique a phantom was constructed using gelatin and rat tail tendon collagen. Collagen fibres in the phantom were arranged in quarters horizontally, diagonally and vertically leaving one quarter with just gelatin. The phantom was used to collect both raster scanned sets of SAXS patterns spaced at 0.25 mm horizontally and vertically and also a wide beam data set. The width of the beam in this case was approximately 7 mm. Using the third-order diffraction of rat tail tendon intensity data were gathered from each SAXS pattern and used to construct a map. Data from the raster scan image and that from the wide beam are compared. Finally using a phantom made from dehydrated rat tail tendon and paraffin wax a tomographic slice constructed using data from SAXS patterns is shown.

  19. Kinematic orbits and the structure of the internal space for systems of five or more bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    The internal space for a molecule, atom, or other n-body system can be conveniently parameterized by 3n - 9 kinematic angles and three hematic invariants. For a fixed set of kinematic invariants, the kinematic angles parameterize a subspace, called a kinematic orbit, of the n-body internal space. Building on an earlier analysis of the three- and four-body problems, we derive the form of these kinematic orbits (that is, their topology) for the general n-body problem. The case n = 5 is studied in detail, along with the previously studied cases n = 3,4.

  20. Orbital Parameters for Two Young Spectroscopic Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Nicole

    I report orbital parameters for two low-mass, pre-main sequence spectroscopic binaries VSB 111 and VSB 126. These systems were originally identified as single-lined on the basis of visible-light spectral observations. High-resolution, infrared spectra were obtained to detect absorption lines of the secondary stars and measure radial velocities of both components in the systems. The combination of the visible and infrared observations of VSB 111 leads to a period of 902.1+/-0.9 days, an eccentricity of 0.788+/-0.008, and a mass ratio of 0.52+/-0.05. VSB 126 has a period of 12.9244+/-0.0002 days, an eccentricity of 0.18+/-0.02, and a mass ratio of 0.29+/-0.02. Visible-light photometry using the 0.8-m telescope at Lowell Observatory provided rotation periods for the primary stars in both systems, 3.74+/-0.02 days for VSB 111 and 5.71+/-0.07 days for VSB 126. Based on the vsini values, the primary rotation periods, and estimates for the primary radii, I find inclinations for the primary-star rotation axes, 42+47 -16° for VSB 111 and 54+36-29° for VSB 126, and compare these to the inclination angle of the binary orbits, iorb = 36+/-4° for VSB 111 and i orb = 45+/-4° for VSB 126, estimated from the orbital solutions. Both binaries are located in the young, star- forming cluster NGC 2264 with a complex and clumpy gas and dust structure at a distance of ~800 pc. The center-of-mass velocities of the two systems are consistent with distinct CO clouds within NGC 2264.